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THE STUDY OF MEANING EXTENSION OF COMPOUND BOY

  Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters

  By

NINA MEGAWATI

  Student Number: 06 4214 087

ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA

THE STUDY OF MEANING EXTENSION OF COMPOUND BOY

  Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters

  By

NINA MEGAWATI

  Student Number: 06 4214 087

ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY

  MOTTO YOUR WORKS SPEAK FOR YOU LABOR OMNIA VINCIT

  , WORK CONQUERS ALL

  

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  The writer believes that she would not be able to finish this undergraduate thesis if there were no supports from others. She is very glad to express her gratitude to those who have been so kind to her during her study in the college. She would like to dedicate her gratitude to particular names below.

  First of all, she thanks God for all blessings and balance goodness and badness to learn the writer about life and how to appreciate them all.

  She thanks her advisor Dra. B. Ria Lestari, M.S, for all kindness and patience in guiding her in the process of finishing this thesis, for the advice to develop her analysis, and for the information on the reference books. She would also express gratitude to her co-advisor Linda Valentina Budiman, S.S., M.Hum for her willingness to read and review this thesis. She thanks also to Drs. Hirmawan Wijanarka M.Hum, Ni Luh Putu Rosiandani S.S, M.Hum, RM. Hary Susanto S.J and all of her lecturers and also USD staffs who always support and guide her during her study in Sanata Dharma University.

  She expresses her unlimited gratitude to her beloved parents. Bpk. Sudargo and mama Suharti, her brother Panji and also her sister Tenty, Mbah Ibu, all uncles and aunts. Thanks for all prayers, loves, cares, and support to motivate the writer to finish this thesis.

  She would like to thanks all friends; Sukma, Gali, Yesti, Paul, Lisa, Jonathan Brown, Christine Brown, Mando, Anton, Leni, Wayne, Ank, Andien, Anggie, KKR Family and Bintang Family, for all loves, supports and kindness in many ways.

  Finally, she would like to express her gratitude to all co workers, bosses, companies that have been giving her lots of opportunities to work and at the same time motivate her to finish the duty that she has started, her study.

  Nina Megawati

  TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE i APPROVAL PAGE ii ACCEPTANCE PAGE iii MOTTO PAGE iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS viii

  TABLE OF TABLES x ABSTRACT xii ABSTRAK xiii

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION

  1 A. Background of the Study

  1 B. Problem Formulation

  4 C. Objectives of the Study

  4 D. Definition of Terms 4 CHAPTER

II: THEORETICAL REVIEW

  6 A. Review of Related Studies

6 B. Review of Related Theories 8

C. Theoretical Framework

  15

  CHAPTER

  III: METHODOLOGY

  17 A. Object of the Study 17

  B. Approach of the Study

  19 C. Method of the Study 21 CHAPTER

  IV: ANALYSIS

  24 A. Semantic Features of Lexicon Boy

  24 B. The Additional Semantic Features of Lexicon Boy in the Field of Profession

  31 C. Meaning Extension Development of Lexicon Boy 56

  CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION

  66 BIBLIOGRAPHY

  69 APPENDICES

  72 Appendix 1 The Definitions of Each Compound Words Boy Appendix 2 New York Times

  LIST OF TABLES TABLE 4.1.Semantic Features of Lexicon Boy

  25 TABLE 4.2.Conceptual Meaning of Boy

  28 TABLE

  4.3. Barrow boy

  29 TABLE

  4.4.Bus boy

  31 TABLE

  4.5.Cabin boy 32 TABLE

  4.6.Office Boy 34 TABLE

  4.7.Paperboy

  35 TABLE

  4.8.Bell boy

  37 TABLE

  4.9.Delivery boy

  39 TABLE

  4.10.Cowboy

  42 TABLE

  4.11.Plough Boy

  43 TABLE

  4.12.Ball boy

  45 TABLE

  4.13.Waterboy 47 TABLE

  4.14.House boy

  49 TABLE

  4.15.Errand boy

  51 TABLE

  4.16.Pin boy

  53 TABLE

  4.17.Grocery boy

  54 TABLE 4.18.Classification of Job & Profession (Occupation)

  62 TABLE 4.19.Componential Analysis on Compound Words Boy

  64

  ABSTRACT

  NINA MEGAWATI. The Study of Meaning Extension of Compound Boy Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2011

  This thesis presents a componential analysis of the semantic features and shifting meanings of the lexicon boy. Boy is defined as a very young man. The shifting meaning of boy can be seen after it is compounded and formed into new compound words. These compound words include: barrow boy, bus boy, cabin

  

boy, office boy, paperboy, delivery boy, house boy, bell boy, cowboy, plough boy,

water boy, grocery boy, pin boy

  . This research has three objectives. Firstly, to show the semantic features of lexicon boy. Secondly, this research attempts to show semantic features that result from compounding boy in various fields of profession, as well as the shifted features of age from [-adult] into [±adult] that extend its meaning. Thirdly, this research compares compounding words containing boy and man based on findings about the etymology of boy and the development of its meaning from past to present.

  The writer applies Linguistic theories that cover the theory of word meaning, the theory of synonym and componential analysis theory to support the data analysis. The writer uses Mentalistic Aprroach by Ogden and Richard in the form of a table with semantic component compositions; reference as the common concept assumed by people, referent is the description of symbol (word) that is shown in a form of picture and componential analysis to support the analysis and its findings.

  Based on the analysis of semantic features, three points are found to answer the problems formulated. Firstly, based on the componential analysis it is found that lexical boy contains [-adult] extended after compounded become [±adult]. Secondly, based on the analysis it is concluded that the some profession compounded with lexical boy depicted from the reference table are seem to have lower prestige. Thirdly, meaning extension of boy is influenced by the meaning development based on the etymology.

  

ABSTRAK

  NINA MEGAWATI. The Study on Meaning Extension of Compounds Boy Yogyakarta: Jurusan Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Sanata Dharma University, 2011

  Skripsi ini membahas tentang analisis komponen fitur semantis dan pergeseran makna kata boy dimana secara independen kata boy berarti anak laki- laki dan man laki-laki dewasa. Pergeseran makna kata boy dapat dilihat pada saat kata boy disandangkan dengan beberapa kata lain sehingga terbentuk kata majemuk baru. Kata-kata majemuk tersebut adalah back room boy, barrow boy,

  

bus boy, cabin boy, office boy, paperboy, delivery boy, house boy, bell boy,

cowboy, plough boy, water boy, grocery boy and pin boy

  Penelitian ini memiliki tiga tujuan. Pertama adalah untuk menunjukkan temuan perbedaan fitur semantis kata dasar boy sehingga dapat terlihat perbedaan mendasarnya. Kedua, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menunjukkan temuan hasil analisis fitur semantis kata boy setelah disandangkan dengan kata-kata baru dan membentuk kata majemuk dibidang profesi serta perubahan fitur semantis usia yang menimbulkan pergeseran makna kata boy dari [-adult] menjadi [+adult].Yang ketiga adalah menunjukan perbandingan kata-kata majemuk profesi yang disandangkan dengan kata boy berdasarkan temuan definisi dasar makna kata boy dan sejarah perkembangannya dari masa lalu dan perkembangannya hingga masa kini.

  Penulis menggunakan teori Linguistik yang mencakup arti kata, teori sinonim, teori analisa komponen untuk mendukung analisa. Penulis menggunakan pendekatan Mentalistic Ogden dan Richard dalam bentuk table dengan komposisi komponen semantic; reference sebagai konsep yang diasumsikan oleh masyarakat, referent adalah deskripsi simbol (kata) yang diwujudkan dalam bentuk objek gambar dan analisa komponen untuk menguatkan analisis dan temuannya. Berdasarkan analisis fitur semantis, ditemukan tiga poin utama untuk menjawab rumusan masalah. Pertama, berdasarkan analisis komponen ditemukan kata boy mengandung komponen [-adult] namun terjadi perubahan setelah kata

  

boy disandangkan dengan kata lain membentuk kata majemuk dibidang profesi

  menggeser komponen fitur semantis menjadi [±adult]. Kedua, berdasarkan analisis pemikiran umum profesi-profesi yang di sandangkan dengan boy terlihat kurang prestisius. Ketiga pergeseran makna boy dipengaruhi oleh perkembangan makna etimologis.

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of Study Interaction and socialization has been preserved as one of basic needs of

  human beings. They need to communicate with others to deliver their ideas and understand each other. Language is one of the media to deliver the ideas. Human being needs to know and understand what language is and how it works. Aitchison defines language as the specialized sound signaling system which seems to be genetically programmed to develop in humans to communicate (Aitchison, 2003:13). This definition is also supported by Ronald Wardhaugh as he defines as a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication (Wardhaugh, 1977:3).

  Language and meaning are inseparable and connected to each other. The basic similar understanding of meaning is required to achieve a good way of communication. Therefore, people have to learn about meaning and it can be developed. Kreidler stated that Language is creative, the communication is not restricted to a fixed set of topic; human being constantly produce and understand new messages in response to new situations and new experiences (Kreidler, 1998:7). It means that language has always undergone the improvement in line with experiences of human being and it can be learned.  

  People learn that there are three parts of language to be learned through; phonology, syntax, and semantics. Phonology is the study of sound pattern.

  Syntax is the study of the arrangement and the forms of words. Semantics is the study of meaning. (Aitchison, 1982:17) The writer studies semantics because the writer is interested to examine the meaning as the basic knowledge and to observe the meaning development from past to present. In this research, the writer analyzed the list of words that compounded with the lexicon boy. It is interesting because the meaning was shifted from time to time and it influences the sense of the word boy till nowadays. Lexically, the word boy means a young man. In semantic features it will be determined as [-adult]. However, after the word boy was compounded, such as

  

paperboy for example, the meaning is shifted become [+adult]. The word boy

  undergoes the significant derogatory changes. This thought arouse based on the finding of the fact about some elder people who were working as paperboy discussed in an article in New York Times which is titled Men and Women

  

Replacing the Paperboy Tradition on March 1, 1992. The writer found an

  interesting part about a 40-year-old-man working as a paperboy. Though adults work as paperboy, the term does not change into paper-man or paper-seller for example. Based on this finding the writer starts to question and find the reason how does the meaning shift and how does it develop. This fact has guided the writer to find the reason why it happens. Hopefully this study will be useful for other students to improve any information relate to this topic.

  The writer used semantic features to identify the features and compare the differences of both lexicon boy. Componential analysis is also applied to compare the lexicon as the root and after the lexical boy is compounded. To analyze the components relations of lexicon boy, the writer used the study of synonyms.

  Synonyms are words that have one or more meaning in common and are interchangeable within certain context (Dees, 2003: 3). The synonymous words share the common meaning.

  The writer decided to limit the problems to avoid broadened problems. The writer selected the basic definitions of lexicon boy in the Oxford Advanced

  

Learner’s Dictionary . It states that the meaning of the word boy is a young male

  person (Hornby, 1995:131) and the word man is an adult male human being (Hornby, 1995:711). The writer decided to analyze fifteen selected words compounded with lexicon boy that form several list of profession terms to see the meaning senses extend. They are: barrow boy, bus boy, cabin boy, office boy,

  

paperboy, delivery boy, house boy, bell boy, cowboy, plough boy, ball boy, water

boy, grocery boy, errand boy, pin boy.

  B. Problem Formulation

  As guidance, the writer has formulated three problems in order to reach deeper understanding about the compounding words boy and the meaning extension.

  1. What are the semantic features of the lexicon boy?

  2. What are the additional semantic features of lexicon boy in the field of profession?

  3. How does the meaning of the lexicon boy extend?

  C. Objectives of the Study

  The objectives of study of the semantic analysis are to answer the problems formulated. First, is to show the semantic feature of the lexicon boy before compounded and second is to show the additional semantic features of the lexicon boy in the field of profession and third to see how the meaning is shifted from past to present.

D. Definition of Terms

  This research uses several terms to examine the problems and support the findings. Some terms are defined below.

  1) Compound Word In Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics, Richard, Platt and Weiber defined it as a combination of two or more words which functions as a single word. For example self-made (a compound adjective) as in He was a self-

  made man and flower shop. Compound words are written either as a single word

  (eg headache) as hyphenated words (eg self-government), or as two words (eg police station) (1985: 54).

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW This chapter contains the review of related studies and the review of

  related theories. The reviews of related studies present the studies that had been done by the previous writers and it is related to the study of semantics. The review of related theories presents the list of theories that applied to support the writer’s analysis.

A. Review of Related Studies 1. An undergraduate thesis written by Sigid Bintoro entitled The Semantic Features of English Words Meaning “Good Looking”.

  Bintoro did the study of semantic features of English words meaning “Good Looking”. The objectives of his study were to find the definitions of the English adjective meaning and the semantic features of the words. He found fifteen words that have the meaning “good looking”. They are; beautiful, handsome, fine,

  charming, graceful, attractive, pretty, elegant, lovely, sexy, cute, gorgeous, exquisite, fair, and breathtaking. He used four dictionaries, such as: Oxford advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Webster’s Encyclopedia Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, and

  Bintoro’s study emphasizes his analysis on the synonym of ‘good looking’. His study contributed the writer to analyze other different words with more various data. It is about the semantic features. In this thesis, the writer attempts to examine the compounding boy. He used componential analysis approach to guide the analysis. The writer of this thesis also uses componential analysis for the approach to examine the semantic features and the meaning extension.

  There are some differences between Bintoro’s study and this thesis. First, the writer of this thesis attempts to analyze the words by comparing both lexicon boy meanings before and after compounded then examine the meaning extension based on the semantic features shift, while Bintoro’s study only analyze ‘good looking’ synonymous term without examining the meaning extension.

2. An undergraduate thesis written by Dwi Ratri Indriyana entitled The

  Semantics and Syntactic Features of the Intransitive Verb Related to Visual Sense.

  Indriyana in this thesis focuses her analysis on the semantic features of the intransitive verb related “to visual senses”. Her objectives were to find out the words denoting visual sense, to find the semantic properties of these words and to know the syntactic properties of the verbs. In her thesis, she finds sixty three verbs denoting visual activities that twenty four of them are in the intransitive verb category. They are: crane, discern, gape, gawk, gaze, glance, glare, glint, gloat,

  squint, stare, and watch. She used four dictionaries to define these verbs; Meriam Webster’s College Dictionary Unabridged, Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture, Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary. She also used these

  dictionaries to find the semantic features of each verb. Besides, she also used the syntactic features to show the similarities and the differences that were owned by the verbs.

  In her thesis, Indriyana focuses on the intransitive verbs related “to visual senses” to be analyzed and finds the denotative visual sense. This analysis contributes the writer of this thesis to analyze the compounding boy using the semantic features and componential analysis.

  There are several differences between Indriyana’s study and this thesis study. First, this thesis analyzes the lexicon boy before and after it is compounded and the meaning extension, while Indriyana emphases her analysis on the synonymous words.

B. Review of Related Theories

  The writer applied several theories that relate to the thesis topics and to support the analysis on this thesis. The theories applied can be explained in the following part.

1. Theory on Linguistic Meaning.

  Semantics is the study of meanings. Fromkin, Blair, and Collins states that semantics concerns with the meaning of words, and the meaning relationships among words, phrasal, or sentential meaning. (2000:151).

a. Theory on Word Meaning

  Richard, Platt, and Weiber define word as the smallest linguistic units which can occur on its own in speech or writing (1985:311). This statement is also supported by Nida as she states that a single word may have a number of quiet different meanings. However, in most instances, a word has central meaning from which a number of other meanings are derived. There will be a connection between each of these meanings and the apparent central meaning (1975:11).

  The same word may have different meanings, and different words may have closely related meanings. For instances, the adjectives beautiful, pretty, and graceful have the same meaning as good looking (Bintoro, 2007:31). There are four types of relations between related meanings of different terms according to Nida. They are: inclusion, overlapping, complementation, and contiguity (1975:15). Inclusion is the meaning of one word that is included into meaning of another word. For example, the meaning of poodle is included into the meaning of

  dog ; the meaning of dog is included into meaning of animal. Overlapping is the

  meaning of one word that can be substituted with other words in certain context without significant change in the conceptual content of an utterance, for example, opposite meaning with another word meaning, such as good/bad, beautiful/ugly,

  much/little , and many/few. Contiguity is the components/features of meaning that

  represent the relations between closely related meanings. It means that although a word has similar meaning with others, there is a distinct feature to differentiate with others. For example, walk, run, hop and skip (1975:18). These verbs share the features of movement by an animate being by using the parts of body but they are different in the number of part of body that is used and the order of movement.

  i.

   Theory on Synonym

  Words that have the same meaning in a given context are called synonym. In another word, the words are called synonym when they have the same value for all of their semantic features, for example man and boy, big and large.

  There are three kinds of synonym in language system; near synonymy, partial synonymy, and absolute synonymy. Near synonymy are the expressions that are more or less similar but not identical in meaning (Lyons, 1995:60). In other words, near synonym is the words that have the same concepts but it cannot substitute each other for examples, mist and fog, stream and brook, dive and

  plunge, man and boy. Man and boy both refer to male human. The meaning of boy

  includes the additional semantic properties ‘youth’ and the meaning of ‘man’ includes the semantic properties ‘adult’. Partial synonymy is the expressions that have a part of meaning because there is a shifting of meaning. It means two words that have similar meaning. Sometimes both can be used in certain context such as the informal exclamation boy to address some adults. Absolute synonymy is the expression identical in all their condition, semantically equivalent on all dimensions of meaning, descriptive and non descriptive, and synonymous in all contexts (Lyons, 1995:61). For example, the word sofa and couch both refer to the same object and both have the same semantic properties.

  ii.

   Theory on Componential Analysis

  Kempson mentions that “componential analysis is used to give an explicit representation of the systematic relation between words, not as unitary concepts but as complexes made up of components meaning” (1989:18). For example,

  spinster has the components [+FEMALE], [+NEVER MARRIED], [+ADULT],

  [+HUMAN]. This kind of analysis is used to account for the kinship terminology in various cultures. However, componential analysis is not limited to kinship terms; it can be applied in many areas of the vocabulary. It is used to contrast the component. For example, the differences of the word murder and kill (1989:18).

  Murder has the component of [+intention], [+causation], and [+death]. Kill has the

  component of [+causation] and [+death]. Besides, there is another component that can be shared. The word murder has another component of [+human].

  To establish a word meaning, some ways can be conducted, including by looking at its semantic features. Semantic features itself, according to Radford, Atkinson, Britain, Clahsen, and Spencer, in Linguistics: An Introduction, should be decomposable (1999:200). It means that the meaning of a word should be separated or broken up into constituent parts, especially as parts that build up the words. For examples, ram, ewe, lamb (1999:201). They mean sheep. The fundamental distinction lies on the gender, whether it is male or female, and the maturity, whether it is adult or non-adult. Thus the semantic features of these words are ram –[male,adult…], ewe –[female,adult…], lamb –[none, adult….]. These features express the semantic relation between different lexical items that have different main meaning.

  To understand the degree of similarity between words, it can be easily measured by the number of features they have in common. According to Parker in Linguistics for Non-Linguists, Lexical decomposition is a method that is used to characterize the sense/meaning of words (1986:30). There are several advantages of using lexical decomposition. It is easy to characterize the meaning of additional words by adding features and it can explain the intuitions as English speaker such as man and boy (1986: 30). Both are more closely related than the meaning of man and girl, man and boy have the same value [+male]. Meanwhile, man and girl do not have the same value. Although the linguists have used lexical decomposition, they cannot account exactly how many and which features constitute the universal set of semantic features.

  Nida states that componential analysis does not attempt to describe in detail all the various features or characteristics of each type of related event, but only to point out the distinctive contrast which serve to separate one meaning or set of meanings from the others (1975:60-61). For example, the English words whisper,

  (1975:61). The verb whisper has semantic features [+verb,-musical pitch,

  murmur

  • voices] and the verb murmur has semantic features [+verb,-musical
because both words still produce the voice. Thus, the right component is [±loudness].

iii. Theory on Meaning Extension

  Adrian Akmajian, Richard A. Demers, Robert M. Harnish in Morphology state that speakers often take an existing one and extend

  and Semantic Theories,

  its meaning in a recognizable way when a language does not seem to have just the right expression for certain purposes. The language does not add a new word as such, but since a word is being used in a new way, the language has been improved, as if a new word has been added.

  According to Akmajian, meaning extension can be classified into three parts; Metaphorical Extension, Broadening, and Narrowing. Metaphorical Extension dealing with some certain objects, ideas, or events from one situation but it is described with words from a different situation of objects ideas and events. For example, such as: Let me chew on these ideas for a while. The word chew is not literally defined as we are eating and chew foods with our teeth. However, the word chew is indeed taken from the literal meaning of chewing activity. The other samples are: They just wouldn’t swallow that idea. 3) She’ll give us time to digest that idea (86:1984).

  Metaphorical extension is not the only instrument that can be put to new uses to the existing words. Sometimes the use of existing words can become broader. jazz musicians and referred to a specific artistic style of jazz. As the time changes, the word can be applied to another thing, not just music; and it is not only refers to a certain music genre or style, but it is a general term that indicate the approval of the thing being questioned. (87:1984)

  Conversely, the use of a word can narrow as well. A typical example is the word meat. At one time in English it meant any solid consumable food (a meaning that persists in the word nutmeat), but now it is used to refer only to the edible solid flesh of animals. (87:1984)

b. Theory of Phrasal Meaning i.

   Theory of Compounding

  Adrian Akmajian, Richard A. Demers, Robert M Harnish in Morphology

  and Semantic Theories states that “new words can be formed from already

  existing words by a process known as compounding, in which individual words can be “joined together” to form a compound word” (71: 1984). For example, the noun ape can be joined with the noun man to form the compound noun ape-man; the adjective sick can be joined with the noun room to form the compound noun

  sick-room; the adjective red can be joined with the adjective hot to form the compound adjective red-hot.

  Generally speaking, Akmajian states that the part of speech of the whole compound, which is also called as the head of the compound (Selkirk, 1982). For example if (the “head”) of the compound high chair is a noun (the noun chair) then the whole compound high chair is also a noun. If the member of the compound overdo is a verb (the verb do); therefore the whole compound is also a verb”. (71: 1984)

  Heinz J. Giegerich in Lexical strata in English: morphological causes, argues that the difference between compounding and noun

  phonological effects

  phrase can be seen on the stress. Fore-stressed is indicated as compounding related to the semantic attribution and end-stressed is indicated as noun phrase that related to the syntactic attribution. Giegerich stated that NN compounds are said to have fore-stress, NN phrases end-stress. His statement was also supported by Bloomfield (1933: 228). For example: paper boy (‘p

  еΙpə(r)bοΙ) and bellboy (‘belbo Ι). Both are considered as compound because they are fore-stressed.

  Giegerich stated that NN compounds are said to have fore-stress, NN phrases end-stress. His statement was also supported by Bloomfield (1933: 228)

C. Theoretical Framework

  The objectives of this thesis are to show the meaning of the lexicon boy before and after compounded and to analyze the meaning of the compounded word boy and man and see how the meanings are extent.

  Three questions presented in problem formulation are the main guideline for further analysis. The first question concerns about the meaning of the lexicon boy before compounded which can be seen through the semantic features analysis. The second question is to examine the additional semantic features of the word boy in the field of profession after compounded and the third is to explain the development of the shifted meaning of the words boy. The writer attempted to apply theories on linguistic meaning that consist of word meaning, componential analysis and theory on meaning extension to answer the questions in problem formulation.

  The writer applies the theory on word meaning, componential analysis to examine the first and second problem formulations and also theory on compounding to determine the meaning of the lexicon boy before and after it compounded. To explain the third question, the writer applies the theory meaning extension, the theory of semantic change and theory of word formation to see how the meaning of lexicon boy is extent.

  The review of related studies is functioned as the ground for further analysis to describe the semantic features of English lexicon containing meaning boy. The review of related studies has also functioned as the guideline to direct the writer to avoid plagiarism in the analysis.

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY This chapter consists of three parts including the object of the study, the

  approach of the study, and method of the study. The object of the study discusses the object being analyzed, which are the lexicon boy. The approach of the study contains the approach that is used to analyze the object and the method of study presents data collection and data analysis.

A. Object of The Study

  The data in this study are the lexicon boy and the compounds. They are 15 compounds; barrow boy, bus boy, cabin boy, office boy, paperboy, delivery boy,

  

bell boy, cowboy, plough boy, errand boy, groceries boy, ball boy, water boy,

house boy, pin boy.

  . Therefore, only these lexicons are analyzed. Oxford Advanced Learner’s

  

Dictionary states the meaning of boy as “a young male person” (Hornby AS,

  1995:131) and man as “an adult male human being (Hornby AS, 1995:711). This definition is also supported by other definitions. Collins COBUILD English

  

Dictionary for Advanced Learners third edition states a boy is a child who will

grow up to be a man (2001:174) and a man is an adult human being (2001:940).

  

The new International Webster’s Comprehensive Dictionary of the English a male servant, especially a personal servant; often used of Orientals or Africans. (1996:160) and Man as: 1) a member of the genus, Homo (family hominidae class mammalia), the most highly developed of the primates, 2) the human race, 3) an adult male of the human kind (1996:772). This definition is also closely related to the definition of the word boy found in Webster’s Third New International

  

Dictionary which defined boy as; a) a male servant, b) one who does light work

  especially in the service fields, c) a male member of a race felt to be inferior (1976: 264). In Random House Webster’s College Dictionary also stated that boy as: 1) a male child, from birth to full growth. 2) a young man who lacks   maturity, judgment (2001:160) and man as: 1) an adult male person, as distinguished from a boy or a woman (2001: 805). To examine the sense changes from past to present, the writer also consider the definition based on the terminology. In The Oxford

  

Dictionary of English Etymology the word boy is defined as male servant; youth or

  man of low estate; ‘fellow’, ‘knave’ XIII; young male child XIV; native servant, negro slave XVII. (1966:112). The definitions are limited to lexicon boy and some other words compounded with it.  

  The change in meaning sense instantly influences the meaning shift resulting from the changes of semantic features. The complete definitions show the distinctive elements more clearly, since both words share the similar semantic features and they are relatively closed, such as [+HUMAN], [+ANIMATE], [+MALE]. There is only one component significantly different which is the component of age or the determination of adult category that signified boy as [- when they are applied in some various contexts. It can be seen from the compound boy.

  The writer used The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary Compass to collect the data in a form of CD software and compiled them in a list. The writer also uses the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Collins COBUILD English Dictionary

  for Advanced Learners third edition, the new International Webster’s Comprehensive Dictionary of the English Language, Random House Webster’s

  because they are effectively used for learners and easier to

  College Dictionary understand.

  B.

   The Approach of the Study This thesis focuses its subject on semantics which is the study of meaning.

  Therefore, the writer applies semantics as the approach, specifically Mentalistic approach. Wagiman Adisutrisno in Semantics and Introduction to the Basic explains that the Mentalistic approach to meaning in language views

  Concepts

  meaning as concepts, ideas, images, and associations which are stored in the long- term memory of the human brain; meaning is inside the brain. According to Carroll (1986:257), concept, ideas, images, and associations are derived from mentalese-the mental representation of world reality. (2008: 8)

  The mentalistic approach to the study of meaning in language centers on the bundles of semantic components which lie in the long-term memory of the human brain. Ogden and Richards (in Parmer, 1986; in Kreidler, 1998) describe their mentalistic approach to meaning in the following diagram.

  Reference Symbol Referent Between the symbols and its referent in the world there is mediation of concept in the human mind which is called reference. According to the Mentalistic approach to meaning in language, meaning involves the relationship among the words in the language, their referents in the real world, and their references in the long-term memory of the human brain. (2008: 10-11)

  This approach is suitable to analyze the data since it is related to meaning that closely related to the symbol and the referent such as providing pictures as the symbol of each compounding words and determine the semantic features to show the reference (concept) and the referent (word).

  The data, in this case the compounding words, are analyzed further after finding the components: reference (concept), referent and the symbol (word) then compare it with the definition. From this examination, the writer finds the meaning of each word and the finding guides the writer to analyze how are the meanings shifted.

  C.

   Method of the Study 1. Data Collection

  In writing this thesis, the writer conducts some relevant procedures or steps. The first step defines the lexicon boy based on dictionaries. The second step selects the compound boy from The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary Compass. The writer only selects some of relevant compounding as the data. Only those which are related to the analysis are chosen. The writer conducts double checking to make sure that the lexical definitions are correct and compare them with peoples’ ideas to define those words, because most of language case shows that what preserve on peoples’ mind sometimes can be different. Therefore, the writer consider this case as one of the first assumption as the bridge to guide into problem formulations. To select the lexicon, the writer defined each of lexical by finding at Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary Compass. Based on that selection, the writer can decide which word could be considered. The third step, the writer uses five dictionaries to define the nouns and compares them. They are;

  Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Collins COBUILD English Dictionary for Advanced Learners third edition, the new International Webster’s Comprehensive Dictionary of the English Language, Random House Webster’s College Dictionary . The writer decides to use those five dictionaries because they are

  commonly used by the learners, the words are easier to find and to understand, and also the definitions complete each other. Based on the definitions, the writer is able to conclude the features, the writer also examines carefully the sentences used from dictionaries and articles in website. The destination websites that are used were www.nytimes.com and www.yahoonews.com . They include the articles as the examples and evidence.

2. Data Analysis

  In analyzing the data and answering those three problem formulations, the writer conducts the following steps. First problem formulation contains the description of semantic features of the lexicon boy. To answer that first question, the writer applies the componential analysis to show the semantic features of lexicon boy. The second problem formulation contains the description of additional semantic features of lexicon boy in the field of profession. To answer the second problem formulation, the writer examines the list of compounding boy, by applying the componential analysis to re-identify the semantic features. All of the compounds form some lexicon in the field of profession such as paperboy,

  

office boy, bellboy , etc. By applying componential analysis for both problem

formulations, the writer can show the semantic features changes of lexical boy.

  The changes explain how the meaning can be extent. Therefore it answers the third problem formulation which is how the meaning of the word boy is extent.

  In relation to the method described above, it can be concluded four things: First, the objects of this study are some lexicons compounded with the word boy.

  There are fifteen lexicons that are selected and analyzed which compounded with

  Third, the collection of data was taken from the Oxford Advanced Learner’s

  

Dictionary Compass. The writer selects the lexicon boy and attempt to examine

  the meaning shift through the data gathered based on the dictionaries. Next, the writer attempts to find the definitions of selected lexicons based on five dictionaries followed with finding out the semantic features and finally describing the meaning shift through the examination of the New York Times article.

CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS This chapter is divided into three sub parts. First, it contains the semantic

  features of English lexicon boy. Second, it consists of the examination of some lexicon compounded with boy. It shows some significant changes mainly on the semantic features. The findings on semantic features guide the writer into deeper analysis related to the development of the meaning from past to present and how it influences the meaning of compound boy. The details are analyzed more on the third sub chapter. On the third sub chapter, the writer describes more about the meaning shift of lexical boy based on the etymology and how it is used recently.

A. Semantic Features of Lexicon Boy

  Through decades, people distinguish the idea of Boy based on the aspect of age. People will spontaneously restore their ideas with the picture or representation of a young man who are believed less than 20 years old, immature, and still living with parents when someone mentions the lexical boy. Most of the representations are to indicate the physical or biological distinction. However, in some linguistic cases it does not always work that way, for example when the word boy compounded with other words and form new words. It also shifts the meaning such as a paper boy.

  To give more explicit representation of lexicon boy, we can use componential analysis to examine the semantic features of lexicon boy.

  Componential analysis is used to give an explicit representation of the systematic relation between lexicons, not as unitary concepts but as complexes made up of components meaning. (Kempson, 1989:18) This kind of analysis is used to account for the kinship terminology in various cultures as presented in the form of table below.

  Semantic No Lexicals Features

  [+human] [+male] [-adult]

  1 Boy [-mature]

Table 4.1. Semantic Features of the Lexicon Boy

  Based on the table 4.1 above, it is shown that the lexical boy share components such as [HUMAN], [MALE], but they do not share the [ADULT] and [MATURE] components. Those components are general ideas that represent the lexical boy on peoples’ minds. However, some other aspects such as social constructions or history may influence the meaning of the lexicon. People believe that boy is a human being, the biological or physical sex is identified as male, it is believed that most boys age are less than 20 years old. That is the reason why they are not called as adult, which implies that they have lack of maturity. There is no specific numeral limit to determine on what certain age a boy is supposed to be called as a man or begin to be called as an adult.

  In Merriam-Webster’s Medical Dictionary, adult is defined as 1) one that has arrived at full development or maturity especially in size, strength, or intellectual capacity, 2) a human male or female after a specific age (as 18 or 21)

  th

  and in Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 10 Edition is defined as 1) a person who has attained maturity; a grown up, 2) a mature fully grown animal or plant, 3) law compare infant a person who has attained the age of legal majority (18 years for most purposes).

  Based on those definitions, being ‘adult’ is legally started from the age 18 or 21. It means that a [human], [male] under that age is identified as boy.

  Nevertheless, in the development of the meaning of boy, social construction may influence the meaning shift through some processes. The additional meanings of

  boy can be seen based on the definitions gathered from dictionaries.

  Lexically, the word boy means a young man. In semantic features it is determined as [-adult]. In the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, it is stated that the meaning of the word boy is a young male person (Hornby, 1995:131) and the word man is an adult male human being (Hornby, 1995:711). This definition is also supported by other definitions. Collins COBUILD English Dictionary for

  

Advanced Learners third edition states a boy is a child who will grow up to be a

  man (2001:174) and A man is an adult human being (2001:940). The new

  

International Webster’s Comprehensive Dictionary of the English Language

  defines boy as: 1) a male child; lad; youth; son 2)comrades; fellows 3) A male servant, especially a personal servant; often used of Orientals or Africans. mammalia), the most highly developed of the primates, 2) the human race, 3) An adult male of the human kind (1996:772). This definition is also closely related to the definition of the word boy found in Webster’s Third New International

  

Dictionary which defined boy as; a) a male servant, b) one who does light work

  especially in the service fields, c) a male member of a race felt to be inferior (1976: 264). In Random House Webster’s College Dictionary also states that boy as: 1) A male child, from birth to full growth. 2) a young man who lacks maturity, judgment (2001:160) and man as: 1) an adult male person, as distinguished from a boy or a woman (2001: 805). To examine the sense changes from past to present, the writer also consider the definition based on the terminology and etymology. In

  

The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology the word boy is defined as male

  servant; youth or man of low estate; ‘fellow’, ‘knave’ XIII; young male child XIV; native servant, negro slave XVII. (1966:112).

  Those definitions mentioned above develop the meaning of boy and man. In the real world they form a universal concept of referent that a boy is an animate,

  

human being, immature, very young, dependent, unemployed, less than 18 years

old and a man is an animate, human being, mature, adult, independent, employed,

more than 25 years old. Those referents are universally accepted and mostly the

  same all over the world as represented more detail in the Conceptual Meaning table below.

Table 4.2 Conceptual Meaning of Boy

  Based on table 4.2 above, we can also see the differences from the description of referent and the reference of boy. From the referent or picture provided above we can identify the physical appearance differences between boy such as height, weight, length, etc.

  The examination on table 4.2 above represents the literal meaning of lexicon boy. The real meaning is known as denotative meaning. If denotative meaning of Boy presented the universal concept as mentioned on table 4.2 above, connotative meaning of both lexicon Boy may change from one time to another and it may also differ from one society to another. This meaning shift also happened to the lexicon boy when it is compounded with other lexicon and forms some new compound words such as paper boy, office boy, bell boy, etc. Most of the compound forms the compounding words in the field of profession. The meaning shift of compounding words causes significant influence of the changing on semantic features mainly the component of age.

  NO Reference (Concept)

Referent

(Picture)

  Symbol (Word) Definition Semantic Features

  1 animate, human being, immature, very young, dependent, unemployed, less than 18 years old

  Boy 1) a male child; lad; youth; son 2)comrades; fellows 3) A male servant, especially a personal servant; often used of Orientals or Africans.

  [+human] [+male] [-adult] [-mature]

  B.

  

The Additional Semantic Features of the Lexicon Boy in the Field of

Profession.

  As mentioned on the previous sub chapter, the meaning of the lexical boy can change after it is compounded and it may also influence the changing of semantic features of boy itself. There are 15 compounds of boy that are selected to be analyzed using componential analysis. They are barrow boy, bus boy, cabin

  boy, office boy, paperboy, delivery boy, house boy, bell boy, cowboy, plough boy, water boy, ball boy, errand boy, grocery boy and pin boy.

  In this analysis, componential analysis analyzes four categories. They are

  definitions, referent, reference, and semantic features that are presented in form of tables.

  1. Barrow Boy The compounding word Barrow boy in Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary is defined as a man or boy who sells things from a barrow in the street.

  Therefore the semantic features are Referent Reference Semantic Features

  Human being, [+human] male, both [+male] young and adult, [±adult] working on the [+working on the street] roadside or [+seller] street, selling things from barrow

Table 4.3 Barrow boyTable 4.3 above shows a sample picture or referent of compounding word

  . The compounding word barrow boy shares several referents such as;

  Barrow boy

  Barrow boy shares the components [+human], [+male], [±adult]. Barrow

boy shows similar change on a component of the lexicon boy after it is

  compounded, from [-adult] shifted into [±adult] which means there is a significant development of the adults that obtain this job. The shifted feature of the compounding word barrow boy also influences the broadened sense of lexicon

  

boy . The changes can be shown on the references that headline the general idea of

  some profession compounded with lexical boy in this part is barrow boy. The general ideas of some profession compounded with lexicon boy depicted from the reference (table 4.3) are; male, both young and adult, working on the roadside, it is assumed as not prestigious job, conducting simple task job, it is not academic qualifications job therefore mostly lower educated, lower waged, lack of official status, outdoor job. The distinctive feature of compounding word barrow boy compare to the other compounds is base on the field of profession such as working at the barrow on the roadside which also represent the category of outdoor job.

  Based on the explanations above it is concluded that Barrow boy is included as less prestigious job because the job require less qualification such as an academic certificate or specific expertise to obtain the job and producing low salary.

  2. Busboy The compounding word Busboy is defined as; 1. a waiter's helper in a restaurant or other public dining room. It is believed the origin of word is about

  1910–1915. In American society the word bus short for omnibus waiter's helper. Based on the Random House Dictionary 2010, compounding word busboy is defined as a waiter’s assistant. This term is also used in Canada. Therefore, the semantic features are Referent Reference Semantic Features

  Human being, [+human] male, both [+male] young and adult, [±adult] working at the [+working at restaurant] restaurant or [+waitress assistant] café, waitress assistant.

Table 4.4 Bus boyTable 4.4 above shows a sample picture or referent of compounding word

  

Bus boy . The compound word bus boy shares several referents such as; human

  being, male, both young and adult, working at the restaurant or café, waitress assistant.

  Bus boy shares the components [+human], [+male], [±adult], [+working at

  restaurant], [+waitress assistant]. Similar with compounding words barrow boy, it is shown that there is a semantic feature change on a component of the lexicon boy after it is compounded, from [-adult] shifted into [±adult] which means there is a significant development of the adults that obtain this job.

  The shifted feature of the compounding word bus boy also influences the sense of lexical boy that broadened the sense. It can be shown on the references that headline the general idea of some profession compounded with lexicon boy in this case bus boy. The general ideas of some profession compounded with lexicon

  

boy depicted from the reference table (4.4) are; male, both young and adult, compounding word bus boy compare to the other compounds is base on the field of profession such as working in a restaurant or a café which means it is classified as an indoor job. Based on the overall explanations it is concluded that Bus boy is included as less prestigious typical indoor job one. It is concluded as less prestigious job because the job requires less skill to do the job. It does not need an academic certificate or specific expertise to obtain the job and offer low salary.

  3. Cabin boy The compounding word cabin boy in Oxford Advanced Learners’

Dictionary is defined as a boy or young man who works as a servant on a ship.

  Therefore, the semantic features are Referent Reference Semantic Features

  Human being, [+human] male, both [+male] young and adult, [±adult] working in a [+working in a ship] ship as a servant [+servant]

Table 4.5 Cabin boyTable 4.5 above shows a sample picture or referent of compounding word

  . The compounding word cabin boy shares several referents such as;

  cabin boy Animate, human being, male, both young and adult, working in a ship as a servant.

  Cabin boy shares the components [+human], [+male], [±adult]. Based on

  the data analysis on the table above, it is shown that there is a semantic feature change on a component of the lexicon boy after it is compounded, from [-adult] shifted into [±adult] which means there is a significant development of the adults that obtain this job.

  The shifted feature of the compounding word cabin boy also influences the sense. The shifted feature broadens the sense of lexicon boy. It can be shown on the references that headline the general idea of some professions compounded with lexicon boy in this case cabin boy.

  The general ideas of some professions compounded with lexicon boy depicted from the reference table are; male, both young and adult, working in a ship as a servant. The distinctive feature of compounding word cabin boy compare to the other compounds is base on the field of profession such as working on the ship and conducted outdoor on the sea as a servant. Based on the overall explanations it is concluded that cabin boy is included as less prestigious job.

  Based on the analysis above it is concluded that cabin boy is included as less prestigious job because the job require less skill to do the simple task. It does not need an academic certificate or specific expertise to obtain the job and it offers lower salary.

  4. Office boy The compounding word Office boy in Oxford Advance Dictionary

Learners is defined as a young person employed to do simple tasks in an office.

  Therefore, the semantic features for Office boy are

  Referent Reference Semantic Features human being, [+human] male, both [+male] young and adult, [±adult] working at [+simple task job] office , [+working at office] conducting simple task job, indoor job

Table 4.6 Office boyTable 4.6 above shows a sample picture or referent of compounding word

  

Office boy . The compounding word Office boy shares several referents such as;

male, both young and adult, working at office, conducting simple task job.

  Office boy shares the components [+human], [+male], [±adult], [+simple

  task job], [+working at office]. Office boy shows similar change on a component of the lexical boy after it is compounded, from [-adult] shifted into [±adult] which means there is a significant development of the adults that obtain this job. Based on the analysis on the table above, it is shown that there is a semantic feature change on a component of lexicon boy after it is compounded, from [-adult] (table 4.2) shifted into [+adult] (table 4.6) of compounding word Office boy.

  The shifted feature of the compounding word Office boy also influences the senses. The result of the shifted feature shows significant changes that broadened the senses. It can be shown on the references that headline the general idea of some profession compounded with lexicon boy in this case Office boy. The general ideas of some profession compounded with lexicon boy depicted from the reference table are; male, both young and adult, working at office, conducting

  The distinctive feature of compounding word office boy compare to the other compounds is base on the field of profession. In this case is less prestigious profession, such as working at the office as cleaning service. Though this job is conducted in office, the office boy has simple task or job description such as cleaning the room, coffee making, and turn on the lights, some works that does not require any expertise or high intellectual capacity.

  Based on the overall explanations it is concluded that Office boy is included as less prestigious job because the job require less qualification, such as an academic certificate or specific expertise to obtain the job.

  5. Paperboy The compounding word paperboy in Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary is defined as a boy who delivers newspapers to people’s houses. Therefore the semantic features of the compounding are

  Referent Reference Semantic Features human being, [+human] male, both [+male] young and adult, [±adult] working in a [+delivering newspaper] daily newspaper, delivering newspaper

Table 4.7 PaperboyTable 4.7 above shows a sample picture or referent of compounding word

  

Paper boy . The compounding word Paper boy shares several referents such as;

  Paper boy shares the components [+human], [+male], [±adult],

  [+delivering newspaper]. Paper boy shows similar change on a component of the lexicon boy after it is compounded, from [-adult] shifted into [±adult] which means there is a significant development of the adults that obtain this job. Based on the analysis on the table above, it is shown that there is a semantic feature change on a component of the lexicon boy after it is compounded, from [-adult] (table 4.7) shifted into [+adult] (table 4.3) of compounding word paper boy.

  The shifted feature of the compounding word paper boy also influences the senses of lexicon boy. The result of the shifted feature shows significant changes that the sense is broadened. It can be shown on the references that headline the general idea of some profession compounded with lexicon boy in this case paper

  

boy. The general ideas of some profession compounded with lexicon boy depicted

  from the reference table are; male, both young and adult, working in daily newspaper, delivering newspaper to houses.

  The distinctive feature of compounding word paper boy compare to the other compounds is base on the field of profession, in this case less prestigious profession, such as delivering newspaper to houses which also categorized as outdoor job. The component of outdoor job and doing simple task indicates the category of less prestigious job. Most of the outdoor job does not require physical performance such as neatness, clean, dandy, or fashionable outfits such as business suits.

  Based on the overall explanations it is concluded that paper boy is included as less prestigious job because the job require less qualification, such as an academic certificate or specific expertise to obtain the job.

  6. Bellboy The compounding word bellboy is defined as a bellhop, which it is originally used since 1830–1840 till now on. Based on the Random House Dictionary 2010, Bellboy is also called bellhop, a man or boy employed in a hotel, club, etc, to carry luggage and answer calls for service page; porter. Based on Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition 2009, the compounding word

  bellboy consist of bell + boy which is originally known in 1851 as a ship's bell-

  ringer and later on 1861 it develop into a hotel page based on the Online Etymology Dictionary. Therefore the semantic features are

  Referent Reference Semantic Features Animate, human [+human] being, male, [+male] both young and [±adult] adult, working [+working in a hotel] in a hotel or [+carrying luggage] club, carrying [+answer calls] luggage and answer calls for service page.

Table 4.8 Bell boyTable 4.8 above shows a sample picture or referent of compounding word

  Bell boy . The compounding word bell boy shares several referents such as; male, both young and adult, working in a hotel or club, carrying luggage and answer calls for service page.

  Bell boy shares the components [+human], [+male], [±adult],[+working in

  a hotel], [+carrying luggage], [+answer calls]. Bell boy shows similar change on a component of the lexicon boy after it is compounded, from [-adult] shifted into [±adult] which means there is a significant development of the adults that obtain this job. Based on the analysis on the table above, it is shown that there is a semantic feature change on a component of the lexicon boy after it is compounded, from [-adult] (table 4.8) shifted into [+adult] (table 4.3) of compounding word bell boy.

  The shifted feature of the compounding word bell boy also influences lexicon boy senses. The result of the shifted feature shows significant changes that broadened the senses. It can be shown on the references that headline the general idea of some profession compounded with lexicon boy in this case bell boy. The general ideas of some profession compounded with lexicon boy depicted from the reference table are; male, both young and adult, working at hotel, not prestigious job, simple task job, not an academic qualifications job, lower educated, lower waged, lack of official status, indoor job.

  The distinctive feature of compounding word bell boy compare to the other compounds is base on the field of profession, in this case less prestigious profession, such as working on the hotel and conduct simple task such as carrying guests’ suitcases and parking the guests’ cars. The components provide above indicates the category of less prestigious job. Bell boy is included as less prestigious job because the job requires less qualification, such as an academic certificate or specific expertise to obtain the job.

  7. Delivery boy The compounding words Delivery boy is defined as a boy or youth who delivers merchandise for a store, as to the homes or offices of customers. Based on the Random House Dictionary, Delivery boy is defined as someone employed to make deliveries.

  Referent Reference Semantic Features human being, [+human] male, both [+male] young and adult, [±adult] working in a [+working in a restaurant] restaurant, [+delivering meals] delivering meals

Table 4.9 Delivery boyTable 4.9 above shows a sample picture or referent of compounding word

  

Delivery boy . The compounding word Delivery boy shares several referents such

as; male, both young and adult, working in a restaurant, delivering ordered meals.

  Delivery boy shares the components [+human], [+male], [±adult],

  [+working in a restaurant], [+delivering meals]. Delivery boy shows similar change on a component of the lexicon boy after it is compounded, from [-adult] shifted into [±adult] which means there is a significant development of the adults that obtain this job. Based on the analysis on the table above, it is shown that there is a semantic feature change on a component of the lexicon boy after it is compounded, from [-adult] (table 4.9) shifted into [+adult] (table 4.3) of compounding word Delivery boy.

  The shifted feature of the compounding word delivery boy also influences senses. The result of the shifted feature shows significant changes that broadened the senses. It can be shown on the references that headline the general idea of some profession compounded with lexicon boy in this case delivery boy. The general ideas of some profession compounded with lexicon boy depicted from the reference table are; male, both young and adult, working in a restaurant, delivering ordered meals.

  The distinctive feature of compounding word delivery boy compare to the other compounds is base on the field of profession, in this case less prestigious profession, such as delivering pizza or other meals to customers’ houses which also categorized as outdoor job. The component of outdoor job indicates the category of less prestigious job and also conducting simple task.

  Most of the outdoor jobs do not require physical performance such as neatness, clean, dandy, or fashionable outfits such as business suits.

  Based on the overall explanations it is concluded that delivery boy is included as less prestigious job because the job require less qualification, such as an academic certificate or specific expertise to obtain the job.

  8. Cowboy Compounding words Cowboy is defined as 1) a man who herds and tends about most of his work on horseback, 2) a man who exhibits the skills attributed to such cowboys, especially in rodeos, 3) Chiefly Northeastern United States a reckless or speedy automobile driver. 4) Informally used to address a reckless or irresponsible person, especially a show-off or one who undertakes a dangerous or sensitive task heedlessly for example; they put foreign policy in the hands of cowboys. 5) During the American Revolution, the compounding words cowboy is also used to address a member of a pro-British guerrilla band that operated between the American and British lines near New York City. Based on the Random House Dictionary 2010, compounding words cowboy is known in 1725, which is defined as "boy who tends to cows," from cow + boy. Sense in Western U.S. is from 1849; fig. use by 1942 for "brash and reckless young man" as an adjective meaning "reckless," from 1920s. In Online Etymology Dictionary, Cowhand is first attested 1852 in American English. Cow poke in 1881. It was originally restricted to the cowboys who prodded cattle onto railroad cars with long poles. In Dictionary of American Slang and Colloquial Expressions by Richard A. Spears Fourth Edition, the compounding word cowboy is defined as a reckless and independent man, a reckless driver. Also a term of addressing, for example: “Come on, cowboy, finish your coffee and get moving”. Therefore the semantic features of compounding cowboy are

  Referent Reference Semantic Features Animate, human [+human] being, male, [+male] both young and [±adult] adult, working [+working at the ranch] at the ranch or [+prodded cattle] farm, prodded cattle.

Table 4.10 Cow boyTable 4.10 above shows a sample picture or referent of compounding word

  

cowboy . The compounding word cowboy shares several referents such as; male,

both young and adult, working on the ranch or farm, prodded cattle.

  Cowboy shares the components [+human], [+male], [±adult], [+working at

  the ranch], [+prodded cattle]. Cowboy shows similar change on a component of the lexical boy after it is compounded, from [-adult] shifted into [±adult] which means there is a significant development of the adults that obtain this job. Based on the analysis on the table above, it is shown that there is a semantic feature change on a component of the lexical boy after it is compounded, from [-adult] (table 4.10) shifted into [+adult] (table 4.3) of compounding word cowboy.

  The shifted feature of the compounding word cowboy also influences senses. The result of the shifted feature shows significant changes that broadened the senses. It is shown on the references that headline the general idea of some profession compounded with lexicon boy in this case cowboy. The general ideas of some profession compounded with lexicon boy depicted from the reference table are; male, both young and adult, working in a ranch and prod the cattle.

  The distinctive feature of compounding word cowboy compare to the other profession, such as working at the ranch and tend cattle which also categorized as outdoor job. The component of outdoor job indicates the category of less prestigious job. Most of the outdoor jobs do not require physical performance such as neatness, clean, dandy, or fashionable outfits such as business suits.

  Based on the overall explanations it is concluded that cowboy is included as less prestigious job because the job require less qualification, such as an academic certificate or specific expertise to obtain the job.

  9. Plough boy The compounding word plough boy in Collins English Dictionary - Complete &

  

Unabridged 10th Edition is defined as 1. a boy who guides the animals drawing a

  plough. In WordNet by Princeton University it is defined as a boy who leads the animals that draw a plow. It is also synonymous with plowboy. Therefore the semantic features of compounding word Plough boy are

  Referent Reference Semantic Features Animate, human [+human] being, male, [+male] both young and [±adult] adult, working [+working in a farm] in farm , [+drawing a plough] drawing a plough

Table 4.11 Plough boyTable 4.11 above shows a sample picture or referent of compounding word

  

plough boy . The compounding word plough boy shares several referents such as;

  Ploughboy shares the components [+human], [+male], [±adult], [+working

  in a farm], [+drawing a plough]. Plough boy shows similar change on a component of the lexical boy after it is compounded, from [-adult] shifted into [±adult] which means there is a significant development of the adults that obtain this job. Based on the analysis on the table above, it is shown that there is a semantic feature change on a component of the lexicon boy after it is compounded, from [-adult] (table 4.11) shifted into [+adult] (table 4.3) of compounding word plough boy.

  The shifted feature of the compounding word plough boy also influences senses. The result of the shifted feature shows significant changes that broadened the senses. It can be shown on the references that headline the general idea of some profession compounded with lexicon boy in this case ploughboy. The general ideas of some profession compounded with lexical boy depicted from the reference table are; male, both young and adult, working on the farm field and drawing plough. The distinctive feature of compounding word plough boy compare to the other compounds is base on the field of profession, in this case less prestigious profession, such as working on farming fields, planting crops and digging the soil which also categorized as outdoor job. The component of outdoor job indicates the category of less prestigious job. Most of the outdoor jobs do not require physical performance such as neatness, cleanness, dandy, or fashionable outfits such as business suits.

  Based on the overall explanations it is concluded that plough boy is included as less prestigious job because the job require less qualification, such as an academic certificate or specific expertise to obtain the job.

  10. Ball boy The compounding word ball boy is defined as 1) in Tennis field it is defined as an attendant, usually a boy or young man, employed to retrieve balls and supply players with them, 2) in Baseball, it is defined as an attendant, usually a boy or young man, who retrieves foul balls and brings the umpire new balls during the game. Based on the Random House Dictionary, in sport, especially in tennis, ball boy is defined as a person who retrieves balls that go out of play.

  Therefore the semantic features are Referent Reference Semantic Features

  Animate, human [+human] being, male, [+male] both young and [±adult] adult, working [+working at the tennis at the tennis yard] yard, attendant, [+attendant] retrieve balls on [+retrieve balls on the the yard. yard]

Table 4.12 Ball boyTable 4.12 above shows a sample picture or referent of compounding word

  

Ball boy . The compounding word ball boy shares several referents such as; male,

  both young and adult, working on the tennis yard, attendant, retrieve balls on the yard.

  Ball boy shares the components [+human], [+male], [±adult], [+working at

  the tennis yard], [+attendant], [+retrieve balls on the yard]. Ball boy shows similar change on a component of the lexical boy after it is compounded, from [-adult] shifted into [±adult] which means there is a significant development of the adults that obtain this job. Based on the analysis on the table above, it is shown that there is a semantic feature change on a component of the lexical boy after it is compounded, from [-adult] (table 4.12) shifted into [+adult] (table 4.3) of compounding word ball boy.

  The shifted feature of the compounding word ball boy also influences senses. The result of the shifted feature shows significant changes that broadened the senses. It can be shown on the references that headline the general idea of some profession compounded with lexicon boy in this case is ball boy. The general ideas of some profession compounded with lexicon boy depicted from the reference table are; male, both young and adult, working at tennis court, not prestigious job, simple task job, not an academic qualifications job, lower educated, lower waged, lack of official status, indoor job.

  The distinctive feature of compounding word ball boy compare to the other compounds is base on the field of profession, in this case less prestigious profession, such as working in tennis field which also categorized as outdoor job. The component of outdoor job indicates the category of less prestigious job. Most of the outdoor jobs do not require physical performance such as neatness, cleanness, dandy, or fashionable outfits such as business suits. Less prestigious job only require to conduct simple task such as retrieving balls and preparing balls for the player in tennis court so there is no special skill to do that.

  Based on the overall explanations above it is concluded that ball boy is included as less prestigious job because the job require less qualification, such as an academic certificate or specific expertise to obtain the job.

  11. Water boy The compounding word Water boy is defined as 1) a person who carries a canteen or bucket of drinking water to those too occupied to fetch it, as to soldiers, laborers, or football players, 2) a person who sees that livestock is supplied with water, as by filling water troughs. Based on the Random House Dictionary, the compounding word water boy is defined as an assistant who supplies drinking water. Therefore the semantic features are

  Referent Reference Semantic Features Animate, human [+human] being, male, [+male] both young and [±adult] adult, working [+working on the baseball on the baseball yard] yard , assistant, [+assistant] supplies [+supplies drinking water] drinking water

Table 4.13 Water boyTable 4.13 above shows a sample picture or referent of compounding word

  

water boy . The compounding word water boy shares several referents such as;

  male, both young and adult, working on the baseball yard, assistant, and supplies

  Water boy shares the components [+human], [+male], [±adult], [+working

  on the baseball yard], [+assistant], [+supplies drinking water]. Water boy shows similar change on a component of the lexicon boy after it is compounded, from [- adult] shifted into [±adult] which means there is a significant development of the adults that obtain this job. Based on the analysis on the table above, it is shown that there is a semantic feature change on a component of the lexicon boy after it is compounded, from [-adult] (table 4.13) shifted into [+adult] (table 4.3) of compounding word water boy.

  The shifted feature of the compounding word water boy also influences senses. The result of the shifted feature shows significant changes that broadened the senses. It can be shown on the references that headline the general idea of some profession compounded with lexical boy in this case water boy. The general ideas of some profession compounded with lexicon boy depicted from the reference table are; male, both young and adult, working at the baseball yard, assistant, supplying drinking water.

  The distinctive feature of compounding word water boy compare to the other compounds is base on the field of profession, in this case less prestigious profession, such as working on the football field and doing simple task such as carrying bucket and supply water for football players. The component of outdoor job indicates the category of less prestigious job. Most of the outdoor jobs do not require physical performance such as neatness, cleanness, dandy, or fashionable outfits such as business suits.

  Based on the overall explanations it is concluded that water boy is also included as less prestigious job because the job require less qualification, such as an academic certificate or specific expertise to obtain the job.

  12. House boy The compounding word House boy in Collins English Dictionary - is defined as a male domestic servant.

  Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition

  Therefore the semantic features are Referent Reference Semantic Features

  Animate, human [+human] being, male, [+male] both young and [±adult] adult, working [+working in a house] in a house, [+domestic servant] domestic servant.

Table 4.14 house boyTable 4.14 above shows a sample picture or referent of compounding word

  

house boy . The compounding word house boy shares several referents such as;

male, both young and adult, working in a house, domestic servant.

  House boy shares the components [+human], [+male], [±adult], [+working

  in a house], [+domestic servant]. House boy shows similar change on a component of the lexical boy after it is compounded, from [-adult] shifted into [±adult] which means there is a significant development of the adults that obtain this job. Based on the analysis on the table above, it is shown that there is a semantic feature change on a component of the lexicon boy after it is compounded, from [-adult] (table 4.14) shifted into [+adult] (table 4.3) of compounding word house boy.

  The shifted feature of the compounding word house boy also influences senses. The result of the shifted feature shows significant changes that broadened the senses. It can be shown on the references that headline the general idea of some profession compounded with lexicon boy in this case house boy. The general ideas of some profession compounded with lexicon boy depicted from the reference table are; male, both young and adult, working in a house, domestic servant.

  The distinctive feature of compounding word house boy compare to the other compounds is base on the field of profession, in this case less prestigious profession, such as working in a house as a domestic servant which is also categorized as less prestigious job.

  Based on the analysis above it is concluded that house boy is included as less prestigious job because the job require less qualification, such as an academic certificate or specific expertise to obtain the job.

  13. Errand boy The compounding word Errand boy in Collins English Dictionary -

  

Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition is defined as 1. (In Britain, especially

  formerly was used to address a boy employed by a shopkeeper to deliver goods and run other errands. Errand boy is defined as a boy who earns money by running errands. It is synonymous with messenger boy. Therefore the semantic features are Referent Reference Semantic Features human being, [+human] male, both [+male] young and adult, [±adult] working in a [+working in a shop] shop, deliver [+deliver goods] goods, run other [+run other errand] errand.

Table 4.15 Errand boyTable 4.15 above shows a sample picture or referent of compounding word

  

errand boy . The compounding word errand boy shares several referents such as;

  male, both young and adult, working in the shop, deliver goods, and run other errand.

  Errand boy shares the components [+human], [+male], [±adult],

  [+working in a shop], [+deliver goods], [+run other errand]. Errand boy shows similar change on a component of the lexicon boy after it is compounded, from [- adult] shifted into [±adult] which means there is a significant development of the adults that obtain this job. Based on the analysis on the table above, it is shown that there is a semantic feature change on a component of the lexicon boy after it is compounded, from [-adult] (table 4.15) shifted into [+adult] (table 4.3) of compounding word errand boy.

  The shifted feature of the compounding word errand boy also influences lexicon boy senses. The result of the shifted feature shows significant changes that broadened the senses. It can be shown on the references that headline the general idea of some profession compounded with lexicon boy in this case errand boy. The general ideas of some profession compounded with lexicon boy depicted from the reference table are; male, both young and adult, working in a shop, deliver errands, run other errands.

  The distinctive feature of compounding word errand boy compare to the other compounds is base on the field of profession, in this case less prestigious profession, such as some works that requiring the employee to conduct simple tasks such as shop keeping, delivering shop products, like errand boy job. This kind of job does not need any specialty or high capability.

  Based on the overall explanations it is concluded that errand boy is included as less prestigious job because the job require less qualification, such as an academic certificate or specific expertise to obtain the job.

14. Pin boy

  The compounding word Pin boy based on the Random House Dictionary is defined as (formerly) a person stationed in the sunken area of a bowling alley behind the pins that places the pins in the proper positions, removes pins that have been knocked down, and returns balls to the bowlers.

  Referent Reference Semantic Features human being, [+human] male, both [+male] young and adult, [±adult] working in a [+working in a bowling bowling alley, alley] rearranging [+rearranging bowling bowling pins. pins]

Table 4.16 Pin boyTable 4.16 above shows a sample picture or referent of compounding word

  pin boy . The compounding word pin boy shares several referents such as; male, both young and adult, working in a bowling alley and rearranging bowling pins.

  Pin boy shares the components [+human], [+male], [±adult], [+working in

  a bowling alley], {+rearranging bowling pins]. Pin boy shows similar change on a component of lexicon boy after it is compounded, from [-adult] shifted into [±adult] which means there is a significant development of the adults that obtain this job. Based on the analysis on the table above, it is shown that there is a semantic feature change on a component of lexicon boy after it is compounded, from [-adult] (table 4.16) shifted into [+adult] (table 4.3) of compounding word

  pin boy .

  The shifted feature of the compounding word pin boy also influences the senses of lexicon boy. The result of the shifted feature shows significant changes that broadened the senses. It can be shown on the references that headline the general idea of some profession compounded with lexicon boy in this case pin

  boy. The general ideas of some profession compounded with lexicon boy depicted

  from the reference table are; male, both young and adult, working in a bowling

  The distinctive feature of compounding word pin boy compare to the other compounds is base on the field of profession, in this case less prestigious profession, such as working on the stationed in the sunken area of a bowling alley and conducting simple job such as places the pins in the proper positions, removes pins that have been knocked down, and returns balls to the bowlers. Those simple tasks do not require high capability or high level of intellectual capability.

  Therefore pin boy is included as less prestigious job.

  Based on the overall explanations it is concluded that pin boy is included as less prestigious job because the job require less qualification, such as an academic certificate or specific expertise to obtain the job.

  15. Grocery boy The compounding word Grocery boy is defined as a delivery boy for groceries.

  Therefore, the semantic features are Referent Reference Semantic Features

  Human being, [+human] male, both [+male] young and adult, [±adult] working in [+working in groceries] groceries, [+deliver groceries] deliver groceries

Table 4.17 Grocery boyTable 4.17 above shows a sample picture or referent of compounding word

  

grocery boy . The compounding word grocery boy shares several referents such as; male, both young and adult, working in a grocery store, working in groceries, deliver groceries.

  Grocery boy shares the components [+human], [+male], [±adult],

  [+working in groceries], [+deliver groceries]. Groceries boy shows similar change on a component of the lexicon boy after it is compounded, from [-adult] shifted into [±adult] which means there is a significant development of the adults that obtain this job. Based on the analysis on the table above, it is shown that there is a semantic feature change on a component of the lexicon boy after it is compounded, from [-adult] (table 4.18) shifted into [+adult] (table 4.3) of compounding word grocery boy.

  The shifted feature of the compounding word grocery boy also influences senses. The result of the shifted feature shows significant changes that broadened the senses. It can be shown on the references that headline the general idea of some profession compounded with lexicon boy in this case grocery boy. The general ideas of some profession compounded with lexicon boy depicted from the reference table are; male, both young and adult, working in a grocery store, deliver groceries.

  The distinctive feature of compounding word grocery boy compare to the other compounds is base on the field of profession, in this case less prestigious professions, such as working on the groceries and serving buyers which categorized as simple tasks job therefore it is categorized as less prestigious job.

  Based on the overall explanations above it is concluded that grocery boy is included as less prestigious job because the job require less qualification, such as an academic certificate or specific expertise to obtain the job.

C. The Meaning Extension Development of Lexicon Boy

1. The Influence of Etymology toward Lexicon Boy Meaning Extension

  As it is examined on the previous sub chapter, we can see how one of the components of lexicon boy is shifted from [–adult] as the stem into [+adult] after it is compounded, for example boy; [+human, +male, +animate, -adult], while in other hand the compounding word bell boy; [+human, +male, +animate, ±adult].

  This shifting features has influenced the sense or the meaning of the word when it is found that the profession of bell boy is occupied by an adult which is about 30 years old or more.

  Therefore, based on the analysis on some words compounded with lexicon

  

boy it is found that there are some significant changes on the sense of the word

  which reveals function of lexical boy when it is compounded to address some professions relate to classification of job. In this case is the compounding has formed lower sense or derogatory sense. This kind of shifting is known as broadening sense. The lexicon boy has been experiencing some shifting process that broadens the sense. Based on the analysis on the previous chapter it forms derogatory sense. This theory can be supported through the description based on the etymology of the lexicon boy.

  Based on the An Analytic Dictionary of English Etymology lexicon boy in 1260 the original meanings of boi were ‘churl, servant’ and ‘devil’. This is why boi was often used as a derogatory word. The meaning ‘male child’ does not occur before 1400.

  Based on the finding on terminology of lexicon boy in An Analytic

  

Dictionary of English Etymology lexical boy it is found that; 1) In 1260 the

  original meanings of boy were ‘churl, servant’ and ‘devil’. This is why boy was often used as a derogatory word, 2) Boy (German: Bub) is the extant as a gross insult in some German dialects, and just as boy ‘servant, hired man’ has survived in non-British usage, 3) In the compounds bellboy, cowboy, and potboy, the low status of Bube is obvious in the card name Bube ‘jack, knave’ and in the compounds Lausbube, Spitzbube ‘villain, rogue,’ and Bubenstück, Bubenstreich (=

  

Büberei ) ‘knavish, villainous act.’ With the extinction of chivalry, knights’

  servants degenerated into urban riffraff (gamblers, beggars, thieves, pimps) or day laborers, and 4) The lexicon boy undergone several changes such as from ‘little brother’ get to ‘a person of low status,’ ‘servant,’ and ‘knave’ (in varlet from valet there are part of the same semantic development), but hardly to ‘criminal’ and especially to ‘devil.’

  Based on the finding on the etymology of lexicon boy, we can see how the origin of the lexical is developed by the time. We may conclude that lexicon boy undergoes several changes and it is influenced by the French and Germanic language that also influence the various senses of lexicon boy itself.

  Related to this analysis, the finding on the derogatory sense based on the etymology does not only influence the meaning shift of lexicon boy as the stem, but it also influences the meaning shift after the lexicon boy is compounded, such as; bellboy, cowboy, and potboy that recognized to have lower status as stated on point 3 above.

  This evidence may support the previous analysis relate to the finding on the categorization or derogatory of the official status of particular professions compounded with lexicon boy such as the categorization of the job prestige to find the semantic changes generalized type.

2. The Influences of Demographic Shift towards Lexicon Boy Meaning Extension

  There is an interesting fact on the New York Times article written by a journalist Lisa W. Foderaro about Men and Woman Replacing the Paperboy of

  

Tradition published on Sunday, March 1, 1992. She stated that the paperboy, a

  centuries-old symbol of youthful enterprise is growing up. She collects several data in United States about paperboy that being obtained by elder because of demographic shifts and the recession around 1992 in United States that pushed more adults into the business of delivering daily newspaper. A job once dominated by 12-years-olds.

  “The adults are people like Stanley Newman, a 68-year-old chemist from Fishkill, N.Y, who started delivering the Poughkeepsie Journal in the early 1980’s after retiring from a 30-year career at Texaco as a research scientist. “It’s become a pretty good source of income, “he said” and you can’t put a price on the exercise benefits.” Based on the statement above we can see the change of age that dominates the job from 12 years old into 68 years old retired man. It means there are significant changes that the elder occupy the job but the lexicon remain the same to address the job as paperboy not a paper man. The other significant point is the man is a retiree, the period when he finished professional duty.

  The other significant point is he mentions that this job becomes a pretty good source of income but he does not state that it is good enough money. This point implies that it is good to have a source of income. This statement is also supported with the next finding on the article.

  Beverly Toews, a 41-year-old textile mill worker who is divorced, was inspired by her teen-age-son, Don, to get her own paper route. He gave his up in August—citing the early hours—but Mrs. Toews still delivers The Hartford Courant each morning in Bristol, Conn., where she lives, before leaving for work at 6.30. “It’s a little extra money that comes in handy, “she said. The Dawn Patrol. Based above statement we can see that this delivering newspaper work is occupied by a 41-year-old adult lady before leaving for work at 6.30. It means she has another job and do this delivering job as the side job not a fulltime job. She also stated that it only produce a little extra money in handy that implies that she conducts simple job and get the money easily.

  Another demographic shift is the fact that even full-time job does not produce enough income to support peoples’ daily needs. Therefore, they need an extra job for an extra cash for make a living and pay their kids to school. This explanation can be seen on below statement from the article.

  Often newspapers must arrive on front porches in the slate grey light before dawn. But many youngsters don’t want to wake up that early, and parents worry about their children being out in the dark. Quickly filling the void are retirees, homemakers and people with full-time jobs interested in adding to their income. Joseph B. Forsee, executive director of the International Circulation

  Managers Association said that the trend to older carriers is sad because managing a newspaper route is a good basis for business training, and youngsters are going to be missing that and the adults are still outnumbered.

  The circulation managers association estimates that in 1990 there were 362, 470 teenagers delivering papers, compared with 188,886 adults. But from 1980 to 1990 the number of youth carriers dropped 60 percent, while the number of adult carriers rose 112 percent. Based on this data, we can see the increasing numbers of adult carriers. Though numbers of adults is increased, but people still call them as paper boy.

  Terry A. Whitney, the circulation director of The Asbury Park Press, with a daily circulation of 164,000 on this article stated “We took two and a half years to convert from a predominantly youth carrier system to one that is 100 percent adults,” Based on his statement, we can see that in his circulation delivering paper job 100 percent dominates by the adults.

  Based on the explanation above, it is concluded that in the last few years, the recession has motivated adults to take second jobs and homemakers to take part time work. This demographic shift may also influence the sense of the nature of lexical paperboy since the adults start dominates this job. We can also see how the meaning of paperboy is extent since the nature of paperboy that previously known as the job for 12 years old boy now transform into the adults dominations.

  Based on the explanation it is also found that there are some classification of job that may categorize paperboy as a second job that give the sense of low prestige job. This hypothesis arouse, based on the indication that the term

  

paperboy is not changed though some adults has occupied the job. Therefore the

examination is conducted on the next part of analysis.

  

3. The Meaning Extension of Lexicon Boy in the Field of Profession and

the Influence toward Less Prestigious Job Categorization

  We can see how the meaning of lexical boy is shifted after it is compounded through the examinations of the compounding words boy using componential analysis that covers four categories; definitions, referent, reference, and semantic features that are presented in form of tables. The findings on componential analysis are also supported by the etymology explanation. The etymology explains the development of lexical usage in semantics perspectives.

  These conclusion can expand into deepen analysis relate to the compounding boy which conclude the fact that some of the compounding form less prestigious jobs and lower status as has been analyzed on the previous sub chapter. To find more evidence to support the findings, this analysis part provides more examination on the compounding boy (table 4.3 - 4.17).

  There are several criteria to determine both category of prestigious and less prestigious job and it is addressed with different terms. The compounding form a certain field of work which is generally called an Occupation. In Longman can be determined into six term which closely synonymous, such as; job,

  

profession, position, work, occupation and career. Each term has certain

distinctive component to differ each other as presented on the table below.

  No Lexical Definitions Referents Semantic Features

  1 Job Job is the work that you do regularly in order to earn money, especially when you work for a company or public organization• My last job was with a computer firm.• He finally got a job in a supermarket. work, regular salary, official, not require special training

  [+job], [+regular] [salary], [+official], [-long term], [- consistent field], [- training], [-high education], [- specialty] 2 profession

  A profession is a kind of work for which you need special training and a good education, for example teaching, law, or medicine• the legal profession. work, regular salary, official, require special training, good education, legal profession

  [+job], [+regular] [salary], [+official],[-long term], [+consistent field], [+training], [+high education], [+specialty] 3 position

  Post and position are more formal words for a job in a company or organization. They are used especially in job advertisements and when you are talking about someone moving to a different job• This post would suit a recent graduate.• He left last summer for a teaching position in Singapore job, require specific education, earn regular salary [+job], [+regular]

  [salary], [+official],[-long term], [-consistent field], [+training], [+high education], [+specialty]

  4 work Work is used in a more general way to talk about activities that you do to earn money, either working for a company or for yourself• Will you go back to work when you've had the baby?• I started work when I was 18.!! Do not say 'what is your job?' or 'what is your work?'. Say what do you do?or what do you do for a living? unofficial term, earn money, not regular activity, no official status [+job], [+regular]

  [salary], [+official],[-long term], [-consistent field], [-training], [-high education], [-specialty]

  5 occupation Occupation is used mainly on official forms• State your name, age, and occupation in the box below.!! Do not use occupation to talk about your own job• I am an accountant.

  (NOT My occupation is an accountant). official term, general term of job, formal, earn money regularly

  [+job], [+regular] [salary], [+official], [-long term], [- consistent field], [- training], [-high education], [- specialty]

  6 Career Career is the type of work that you do or hope to do for most of your life• I'm interested in a career in television. His career is more important to him type of work, long term, field of work [+job], [+regular]

  [salary], [+official] [+long term], [+consistent field], [+training], [+high education], [+specialty]

Table 4.20 above provides the classification of job to distinguish the level of prestige of compounding boy. As stated above, job is defined as the work that

  conducted regularly in order to earn money, especially when the work is conducted for a company or public organization. So, job is generally term for paid work and it is bounded by a certain legal statement, contract or at least MoU (Memorandum of Understanding) for both person who is hired and the company.

  Unlike job, work is general term of activity that can be conducted without being paid, such as home work for student. Profession has similar definition with job, but profession has higher degree of prestige because profession is a kind of work for which need special training and a good education, for example teaching, law, or medicine. It is the legal profession and required higher qualification. Position is a certain level of status in a company. Mostly it is a prestigious one or certain phase that a person wants to achieve. While career is also similar with the definition of profession but it is long term or most people want to do it permanently.

  Based on the analysis above, we can conclude that profession, position and

  

career fulfill the category of prestigious sense since it require higher

qualifications, higher status and higher salary compare to the term job and work.

  Therefore, job and work have more neutral sense that fits to represent the general term to address compounding boy.

  From the explanation above we can conclude that the compounding words

  

boy equal to fulfill the term job and work since both term are more neutral to be used to address the compounding rather than profession that require high qualification and special training to obtain the position. For more detail analysis we can see the examination of all compounding and see which components that fulfill the criteria of prestigious profession and less prestigious profession.

Table 4.19 Componential analysis on compounding words boy

  Based on the data on the table 4.21 above we can see that all compounds share similar semantic features; [+animate, human being, adult]. It means that professions compounded with lexicon boy are occupied by adult persons. Based No

    Compounding   anim a te   human  being

    adu lt     go o d educati o n   good  salary   ri ch   of fi ci a st atus   special   trai n ing   int e ll ectua ca p a ci ty   presti gious   fu ll  time   jo b   work   positi o n   Car eer   profession  

  1   barrow  boy   

  • +    +   +   ‐   ‐  ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐  ‐   ‐    +    ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐     2  Busboy

     

  • +    +   +   ‐   ‐  ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐  ‐   ‐    +    ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐ 
  • 3   cabin  boy   
    • +    +   +   ‐   ‐  ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐  ‐   +    +    ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐ 
    • 4   office  boy   
      • +    +   +   ‐   ‐  ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐  ‐   +    +    ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐ 
      • 5   paper  boy   
        • +    +   +   ‐   ‐  ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐  ‐   ‐    +    ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐ 
        • 6   bell  boy   
          • +    +   +   ‐   ‐  ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐  ‐   +    +    ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐ 
          • 7   delivery  boy   
            • +    +   +   ‐   ‐  ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐  ‐   ‐    +    ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐ 
            • 8   Cowboy    
              • +    +   +   ‐   ‐  ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐  ‐   +    +    ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐ 
              • 9   plough  boy   
                • +    +   +   ‐   ‐  ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐  ‐   +    +    ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐ 
                • 10   ball  boy   
                  • +    +   +   ‐   ‐  ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐  ‐   ‐    +    ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐ 
                  • 11   water  boy   
                    • +    +   +   ‐   ‐  ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐  ‐   ‐    +    ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐ 
                    • 12   house  boy   
                      • +    +   +   ‐   ‐  ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐  ‐   ‐    +    ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐ 
                      • 13   errand  boy   
                        • +    +   +   ‐   ‐  ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐  ‐   ‐    +    ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐ 
                        • 14   pin  boy   
                          • +    +   +   ‐   ‐  ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐  ‐   ‐    +    ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐ 
                          • 15   grocery  boy   
                            • +    +   +   ‐   ‐  ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐  ‐   ‐    +    ‐   ‐   ‐   ‐ 
                            • on this conclusion we can see that one of the component of lexicon boy, [- adult] is shifted become [+adult]. The component of job is matched with all compounds because the sense is more neutral so it can be used to address professions compounded by boy.

                                Compound words boy has derogatory sense, since it represents contradictive criteria. Most people recognize it as less prestigious job. This semantic change is included as generalized. People generalize these jobs as less prestigious, therefore not many people want to work as barrow boy, bus boy,

                                

                              cabin boy, office boy, paperboy, delivery boy, house boy, bell boy, cowboy, plough

                              boy, water boy, grocery boy and pin boy because they are assumed as less

                                prestigious jobs and offers lower salary.

                                Based on the analysis, we can see that most of the jobs compounded with lexicon boy are merely conducted by a little boy. However the assumption has been changed since we found that more adults occupy the job. After examining the semantic development of lexicon boy, supported with the finding on lexicon boy etymology, we can see how the meaning of boy is shifted. The lexicon boy contains derogatory sense in the past and it influences the development of sense of

                                

                              boy at present that are applied in the jobs that compounded with lexicon boy such

                                as barrow boy, bus boy, cabin boy, office boy, paperboy, delivery boy, house boy, bell boy, cowboy, plough boy, water boy, grocery boy and pin boy.

                              CHAPTER V CONCLUSION As stated on the previous chapter that the objectives of study of the

                                semantic analysis are to answer the problems formulated. First, is to show the semantic feature of the lexicon boy before compounded and second, is to show the additional semantic features of the word boy in the field of profession and third to see how the meaning is shifted from past to present.

                                The writer attempted to apply theories on linguistic meaning that consist of word meaning, componential analysis, theory on meaning extension, theory of compounding, theory of semantic change and theory of word formation to answer the questions in problem formulation.

                                The writer applies the theory on word meaning, componential analysis to examine the first and second problem formulations and also theory on compounding to determine the meaning of the lexicon boy before and after it compounded. To explain the third question, the writer applies the theory meaning extension, the theory of semantic change and theory of word formation to see how the meaning of lexicon boy was shifted.

                                Three questions presented in problem formulation are the main guideline for further analysis. The first question is concerning the meaning of lexicon boy before compounded which can be seen through the semantic features analysis. Based on the componential analysis it is found that lexicon boy share [-adult] components before it is compounded.

                                Based on the dictionary, it is concluded that being adult means someone that has arrived at full development or maturity especially in size, strength, or intellectual capacity, legal majority after a specific age (as 18 or 21) and boy are defined as a young man under the legal majority age below 18 or 21.

                                The second question is to examine the additional semantic features of the word boy in the field of profession after compounded. Based on the analysis it is concluded that there are 16 compounds of boy that are selected to be analyzed using componential analysis. They form the additional meaning of boy in the field of professions. They are barrow boy, bus boy, cabin boy, office boy, paperboy,

                                

                              delivery boy, house boy, bell boy, pizza boy, cowboy, plough boy, pool boy, water

                              boy, grocery boy and pin boy. By applying componential analysis it is found that

                                the ideas of some profession compounded by lexicon boy depicted from the reference table are; simple tasks jobs that offer lower salary. The distinctive features to distinguish each job compounded by lexicon boy are based on the field of job and where the jobs are conducted.

                                The third is to explain the development of the meaning extension of lexicon boy. The extension can be influenced both based on the etymology and demographic shifts as it is found some facts related to the phenomena of paperboy on the New York Times article.

                                Based on this conclusion we can see that one of the component of lexicon are matched with all words compounded by lexicon boy. Most people who occupy these professions satisfy with their position and most of them to keep their career on those fields for long term or permanently and not many people want to work as

                                

                              back room boy, barrow boy, bus boy, cabin boy, office boy, paperboy, delivery

                              boy, house boy, bell boy, cowboy, plough boy, water boy, grocery boy and pin boy

                                because they are not categorized as prestigious jobs and offer lower salary.

                                

                              BIBLIOGRAPHY

                              Adisutrisno, Wagiman, M.A. Semantics: An Introduction to The Basic Concepts.

                                Yogyakarta: Andi Yogyakarta, 2008 Aitchison, Jean. Linguistics. New York: Teach Yourself Books, 1982. Linguistics. Chicago: Contemporary, 2003. Akmajian, Adrian, Richard A Demers, Robert M Harnish. Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication.

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                                Linguistic: An Introduction.

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                                Collins COBUILD English Dictionary for Advanced Learners third edition.

                                The University of Birmingham. Harper Collin Publishers. 2001 Cruse, D.A. Lexical Semantic. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

                                Dees, Robert. Distinguishing Words. New York: Longman, 2003. Frawley, William. Linguistic Semantics. Hillsdale, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, 1992.

                                Fromkin, Victoria, David Blair, Peter Collins. An Introduction to Semantics (fourth edition).

                                London: Longman group Limited, 1993. Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman, and Nina Hyams. An Introduction to Language (seventh edition) . Boston: Heinle, 2003.

                                Giegerich, H. J. Lexical strata in English: morphological causes, phonological effects .

                                Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1999. Hofmann, Th.R. Realms of Meaning; An Introduction to Semantics. London: Hornby, AS. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English (Third

                                Edition) . New York: Oxford University Press, 1974.

                                . Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (Fifth Edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995. Indriyana, Dwi Ratri. The Semantics and Syntactic Features of The Intransitive

                                Verb Related to Visual Sense. Yogyakarta: Universitas Sanata Dharma,

                                2003 Kempson, Ruth W. Semantic Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

                                Kreidler, Charles W. Introducing English Semantic. London: Routledge, 1998. Leech, Geoffrey. Semantics: The study of Meaning. (Second Edition – revised and updated). Haermesid worth: Penguin Books, 1981.

                                Lieberman, Anatoly. An Analytic Dictionary of English Etymology: An

                                Introduction . London: University of Minnesota Press, 2008.

                                Lisa W. Foderaro. Men and Women Replacing the Paperboy Tradition. March 1, 1992. http://www.nytimes.com/1992/03/01/nyregion/men-and-women-

                                

                              replacing-the-paperboy-of-tradition.html (23 September 2009)

                              Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Harlow: Pearson Education,

                              Limited, 2001.

                                Lyons, John. Linguistic Semantics: An Introduction. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Nida, Eugene A. Componential Analysis of Meaning; an introduction to semantic structures. Paris: Mouton The Hague, 1975. O’Grady, William, John Archibald, Mark Aronoff, Jennie Rees-Miller.

                                Contemporary Linguistic (fifth edition).

                                New York: Bedford/St.Martin’s, 2005. Onions, C.T. Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966.

                                Oxford Dictionary and Thesaurus. New York: Oxford University Press, 1966.

                                Parker, Frank. Linguistic for Non-Linguistic. Boston, Massachusetts: A College –

                                Radford, Andrew, Martin Atkinson, David Britain, Harald Clahsen, and Andrew Spencer. Linguistics: An Introduction. Cambridge: The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, 1999.

                                

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                                Read Walker, Allen. The new international Webster’s Comprehensive Dictionary

                                

                              of the English Language. Trident press International. 1996

                                Richards, Jack, John Platt, Heidi Weber. Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics.

                                Harlow: Longman Group Limited, 1985. Simon and Schuster. Webster’s New Twentieth Century Dictionary Unabridged

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                                1981. (No City of Publisher, No Publisher). Wardhaugh, Ronald. Introductionto Linguistics. Los Angeles: Mc Graw Hill Book Co, 1977.

                                

                              Webster Third New International Dictionary. Massachusetts: G&C Merriam

                              Company Publisher. 1976.

                                     

                                APPENDICES

                                APPENDICES Appendix 1 Table of the definition of each compound boy

                                No Lexicals Definitions a man or boy who sells things from a barrow in the street (1995:84) Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English

                                1 Barrow boy (Third Edition) 1. a waiter's helper in a restaurant or other public dining room. Also, bus boy. Origin: 1910–15, Americanism ; bus short for omnibus waiter's helper (see omnibus) + boy (2001:152) Random House Dictionary 2. ( US ), ( Canadian ) a waiter's assistant Collins COBUILD English Dictionary for Advanced Learners Third Edition 3. 1913, from bus (v.) in the restaurant sense + boy. (1966: 1233) Oxford Dictionary of English

                                2 Bus boy Etymology a boy or young man who works as a servant on a ship (1995:156) Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English

                                

                              3 Cabin boy (Fifth Edition)

                                Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English (Third Edition) a boy who delivers newspapers to people’s houses Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition A boy or girl who delivers news papers to people’s houses(1995:839) Oxford Advanced Learner’s

                                5 Paper boy Dictionary of Current English 1. a bellhop Origin: 1830–40, Americanism ; bell1 + boy (2001: 127) Random House Dictionary

                                2. Also called (US and Canadian): bellhop a man or boy employed in a hotel, club, etc, to carry luggage and answer calls for service; page; porter Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition 3. from bell + boy; originally (1851) a ship's bell-ringer, later (1861) a hotel page. (1966:98) Oxford Dictionary of English

                              6 Bell boy Etymology

                                1. a boy or youth who delivers merchandise for a store, as to the homes or offices of customers (2001:386)

                                , Random House Dictionary 2. someone employed to make deliveries [syn: deliveryman] (1995:308) Oxford Advanced Learner’s delivery

                                Dictionary of Current English 7 boy

                                (Fifth Edition) 1. a man who herds and tends cattle on a ranch, esp. in the western U.S., and who traditionally goes about most of his work on horseback. 2. a man who exhibits the skills attributed to such cowboys, esp. in rodeos. (269:1995) Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English (Fifth Edition) 3. 1725, "boy who tends to cows," from cow + boy. Sense in Western U.S. is from 1849; fig. use by 1942 for "brash and reckless young man" (as an adj. meaning "reckless," from 1920s). Cow hand is first attested 1852 in Amer. Eng. Cow poke (1881) was originally restricted to the cowboys who prodded cattle onto railroad cars with long poles. (1966:188) Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology

                                3. Chiefly Northeastern U.S. a driver.

                                4. Informal. a reckless or irresponsible person, esp. a show-off or one who undertakes a dangerous or sensitive task heedlessly: They put foreign policy in the hands of cowboys. 5. (during the American Revolution) a member of a pro- British guerrilla band that operated between the American and British lines near New York City (2001:267) Random House Dictionary .

                                7. a reckless and independent man; a reckless driver. (Also a term of address.) : Come on, cowboy, finish your coffee and get moving.

                                Dictionary of American Slang and Colloquial Expressions by Richard A. Spears.Fourth Edition. Copyright 2007. Published by McGraw Hill.

                                1. a boy who guides the animals drawing a plough 2. any country boy Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition 3. a boy who leads the animals that draw a plow [syn: plowboy] (1995:887) Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English

                              9 Plough boy .

                                (Fifth Edition)

                                1. Tennis. an attendant, usually a boy or young man, employed to retrieve balls and supply players with them. (1995:78)

                                2. Baseball. an attendant, usually a boy or young man, who retrieves foul balls and brings the umpire new balls during the game (2001:154) Random House Dictionary 1. someone whose job is to give the members of a sports team water to drink 2informal someone who has a very unimportant job Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English 3. (in sport, esp tennis) a person who retrieves balls that go out of play Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th

                                10 Ball boy Edition 1. a person who carries a canteen or bucket of drinking water to those too occupied to fetch it, as to soldiers, laborers, or football players.

                                2. a person who sees that livestock is supplied with water, as by filling water troughs. 3. an assistant who supplies drinking water (1995:1344) Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English (Fifth Edition)

                                11 Water boy

                                  a male domestic servant (1995:579)   Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English

                                  (Third Edition)

                                  Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition

                                12 House boy 1.(in Britain, esp formerly) a boy employed by a shopkeeper to deliver goods and run other errands Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition 2. a boy who earns money by running errands [syn: messenger boy (1995:390) Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English (Fifth Edition)

                                13 Errand boy (formerly) a person stationed in the sunken area of a bowling alley behind the pins who places the pins in the proper positions, removes pins that have been knocked down, and returns balls to the bowlers. (2001:875)

                              14 Pin boy

                                Random House Dictionary a delivery boy for groceries (1995:524) Oxford Advanced Learner’s

                                Grocery Dictionary of Current English

                                

                              15 boy (Fifth Edition) Appendix 2

                                

                              Men and Women Replacing the Paperboy of

                              Published: March 1, 1992 By LISA W. FODERARO Tradition The paperboy, a centuries-old symbol of youthful enterprise, is growing up.

                                Changes in the newspaper industry over the last decade, as well as demographic shifts and the recession, have pushed more adults into the business of delivering daily newspapers, a job once dominated by 12-year-olds. The adults are people like Stanley Newman, a 68-year-old chemist from Fishkill, N.Y., who started delivering the Poughkeepsie Journal in the early 1980's after retiring from a 30-year career at Texaco as a research scientist. "It's become a pretty good source of income," he said, "and you can't put a price on the exercise benefits." Beverly Toews, a 41-year-old textile mill worker who is divorced, was inspired by her teen-age son, Don, to get her own paper route. He gave his up in August -- citing the early hours -- but Mrs. Toews still delivers The Hartford Courant each morning in Bristol, Conn., where she lives, before leaving for work at 6:30. "It's a little extra money that comes in handy," she said. The Dawn Patrol The switch from youth to adult carriers -- as they're known in the business -- is most pronounced in metropolitan areas, where many newspapers have moved to morning publication. Often newspapers must arrive on front porches in the slate-gray light before dawn. But many youngsters don't want to wake up that early, and parents worry about their children being out in the dark. Quickly filling the void are retirees, homemakers and people with full-time jobs interested in adding to their income. With the aging of the paperboy, the sun is setting on an American tradition. The first paperboy in the United States is believed to have been Benjamin Franklin who in 1718, at the age of 12, toted copies of The Boston Gazette for his brother, James, a Boston printer. Before that, newspapers were mailed.

                                Since then, generations of boys, and more recently girls, have found their first brush with capitalism and the work ethic through paper routes. The trend to older carriers is sad, said Joseph B. Forsee, executive director of the International Circulation Managers Association, "because managing a newspaper route is a good basis for business training, and youngsters are going to be missing that." Adults Still Outnumbered Youth carriers still outnumber adult carriers nationwide, but the adults are gaining. The circulation managers association estimates that in 1990 there were 362,470 teen-agers delivering papers, compared with 188,886 adults. But from 1980 to 1990, the number of youth carriers dropped 60 percent, while the number of adult carriers rose 112 percent. In New Jersey, The Asbury Park Press, with a daily circulation of 164,000, recently underwent a complete changeover in its delivery force. The paper, the third largest in the state, is still considered an afternoon daily, but the circulation department has worked to have it delivered earlier. "We took two and a half years to convert from a predominantly youth carrier system to one that is 100 percent adults," said Terry A. Whitney, the circulation director. Not everyone was happy about the transformation there. "We did lose a number of customers who said they will subscribe again when we go back to youth carriers," Mr. Whitney said. "We had preached for years that this was the first business experience that a 12-year-old or 13-year-old would get in life. We sold newspaper routes to parents and to young people that way for years, and all of a sudden we're saying that doesn't hold water anymore." The 1,000 carriers can now get the paper delivered by 11:30 A.M. whereas in the past the deadline was 6 P.M. "The customers wanted the paper earlier, and we've picked up thousands of new subscribers as a result," he said. More Money in Fast Food More common is the slow but steady increase in adult deliverers. At the Poughkeepsie Journal, for instance, adults handled only 10 percent of the routes before the paper went to morning publication 12 years ago. Today, adults have 40 percent of the routes. Beyond the shift to morning publication, newspaper executives cite several factors for the decline in paperboys. In the wake of the baby-boom years of the 1960's, the pool of teen-agers has steadily shrunk, and many young people found they could make more money and work better hours at fast-food restaurants. Most newspapers make parents sign a statement saying they bear ultimate responsibility for their children's routes. In the robust 1980's, many parents

                                And Sunday editions grew so thick with advertising that it became imperative for parents to load their trunks. In the last few years, the recession has motivated adults to take second jobs and homemakers to take part-time work. Joyce Brooks of Peekskill, N.Y., brings her newborn along as she makes her daily rounds in nearby Ossining delivering The Citizen Register. She netted $13,000 last year, she said, delivering 450 papers a day in two hours. "For that amount of time and money, you couldn't work anywhere else," she said. Income Up to $20,000 The income for adult carriers varies, depending on the size of their routes. Someone with a few dozen papers might make only a couple of thousand dollars a year, while a carrier with several hundred papers could make $20,000 or more. When he retired, Dr. Newman took over the routes of three teen-agers and is now up at 5, delivering 125 papers with the help of his wife, Madelyn. While he's pleased with his annual profit of $4,000, he says the health benefits count more. "I have observed people who retired at the same time I did and at the same age, and I've aged very little by comparison," Dr. Newman said. "I firmly believe this is one of the best things you can do when you retire." Photo: "It's a little extra money that comes in handy," said Beverly Toews, a 41- year-old textile mill worker who delivers The Hartford Courant in Bristol, Conn. (Steve Miller for The New York Times)

                                 

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