A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education

Gratis

0
0
143
6 months ago
Preview
Full text

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  THE STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION ON READING HABIT FORMATION A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education By Yasinta Retnaningrum

  Student Number: 091214093

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  THE STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION ON READING HABIT FORMATION A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education By Yasinta Retnaningrum

  Student Number: 091214093

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY

I honestly declare that this thesis, which I have written, does not contain the work

or parts of the work of other people, except those cited in the quotations and the

references, as a scientific paper should.

  

Yogyakarta, 11 December 2013

The Writer

Yasinta Retnaningrum

091214093

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN

PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS

Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma:

Nama : Yasinta Retnaningrum

  Nomor Mahasiswa : 091214093

Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan

Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul: The Students’ Perception on Reading Habit Formation

Beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan

kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan,

mengalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan

data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di Internet atau

media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin dari saya

maupun memberikan royalti kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya

sebagai penulis. Demikian pernyataan ini yang saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Dibuat di Yogyakarta Pada tanggal: 20 November 2013 Yang menyatakan Yasinta Retnaningrum

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

ABSTRACT

Retnaningrum, Yasinta. (2013). The

  Students’ Perception on Reading Habit

Formation. Yogyakarta: English Language Education Study Program, Sanata

Dharma University.

  Reading interest keeps decreasing nowadays (Malau, 2013), especially

for students, therefore, the English Language Education Study Program Sanata

Dharma University designed Book Report Course. The aims of the course are to

introduce the students to English novels, improve reading interest and ability in

reading English novels in the first semester. The main activity in Book Report

Course is reading, thus it is possible for the students to face reading problems.

The lack of background experience in reading and knowledge of English also

cause reading problems.

  The present study investigates the students’ perception on reading habit

formation in Book Report Course of the English Language Education Study

Program Sanata Dharma University. There are two questions addressed in the

study. The first question describes reading probems faced by Book Report Course

students. The second question investigates the students’ perception on Book Report Course.

  This study employed survey method. There were two instruments to

obtain the data, namely questionnaire and interview. There are two results of the

study. First, based on the analysis from the results of the data, there are four

reading problems faced by the students. Those problems are lack of English

vocabulary, low reading interest of English novels, lack of knowledge of English

grammar, and personal problems.

  Second, the reseacher finds out that most of the students have positive

perception on Book Report Course. The students get some benefits in teaching

learning process of Book Report Course. The course creates reading habit

formation for the students.

  It also can improve students’ English vocabulary

mastery and speaking skill. However, some suggestions are given to lecturers of

, students of Book Report Course, and future researchers to

  Book Report Course improve Book Report Course.

  Keywords: perception, reading, habit formation

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

ABSTRAK

Retnaningrum, Yasinta. (2013). The

  Students’ Perception on Reading Habit

Formation. Yogyakarta: English Language Education Study Program, Sanata

Dharma University.

  Minat untuk membaca semakin menurun saat ini (Malau, 2013),

khususnya bagi para siswa. Maka, Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris Universitas Sanata

Dharma merancang sebuah matakuliah bernama Book Report Course yang

mengaplikasikan tipe membaca ektensif. Tujuan matakuliah ini antara lain untuk

memperkenalkan mahasiswa pada novel Bahasa Inggris, meningkatkan minat

membaca, dan meningkatkan kemampuan dalam membaca. Aktivitas utama

dalam Book Report Course adalah membaca, maka kemungkinan besar

mahasiswa menghadapi beberapa kesulitan dalam membaca. Kurangnya

pengalaman dalam membaca dan kemampuan membaca dapat juga memengaruhi

mahasiswa dalam membaca.

  Penelitian ini menginvestigasi persepsi mahasiswa terhadap

pembentukan kebiasaan membaca dalam matakuliah Book Report Course di

Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris Universitas Sanata Dharma. Ada dua rumusan

masalah yang dikaji dalam penelitian ini. Rumusan masalah pertama

mendeskripsikan kesulitan yang dihadapi mahasiswa saat membaca novel.

Rumusan masalah yang kedua memaparkan persepsi mahasiswa terhadap Book

Report Course.

  Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian survey. Ada dua alat yang

digunakan untuk mengumpulkan data yaitu kuesioner dan wawancara. Ada dua

hasil yang diperoleh dalam penelitian ini. Pertama, mahasiswamengalamai empat

kesulitan dalam membaca novel. Kesulitan-kesulitan tersebut antara lain

kosakata Bahasa Inggris, rendahnya minat untuk membaca, kurangnyaa

pemahaman tentang tatabahasa dalam Bahasa Inggris, dan permasalahan

pribadi.

  Kedua, berdasarkan data yang diperoleh, peneliti menyimpulkan bahwa

sebagian besar mahasiswa memiliki persepsi yang positif terhadap matakuliah

Book Report Course. Persepsi yang positif ini ditunjukkan dengan adanya

manfaat yang diperoleh mahasiswa. Matakuliah ini dapat membentuk kebiasaan

membaca mahasiswa. Selain itu, matakuliah ini dapat meningkatkan

perbendaharaan kosatakata Bahasa Inggris dan meningkatkan kemampuan

berbicara mahasiswa. Untuk meningkatkan Book Report Course menjadi kebih

baik, peneliti memberikan saran kepada dosen, mahasiswa Book Report Course,

dan peneliti yang akan datang.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

Live my life with dreams, believe,

and give the best in every step.

  “Therefore I say to you, do not worry about your life…” Matthew 6: 25

  For He Himself has said, “I will never leave you nor forsake you.” Hebrews 13: 5

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all I would like to express my greatest gratitude to Jesus Christ,

who art in heaven for His blessing, grace, love, and guidance throughout the

accomplishment of this thesis. I would like to thank Mother Mary, who bless my

struggle everyday.

  Sincere thanks are addressed to all my lecturers in the English Language

Education Study Program Sanata Dharma University Yogyakarta, especially my

advisor Caecilia Tutyandari, S.Pd., M.Pd. for her guidance, patience and

support in writing my thesis. I also give so much thanks to Yuseva Ariyani

Iswandari, S.Pd., M.Ed. for her time and support given to me in obtaining the

data needed in this thesis. I also thank to Berta Lestari Senduk, S.Pd, who gives

me permission to attach her thesis as the review of related study in this thesis. I

am so thankful also for my proofreaders Adria Cemara, S.Pd. and Felicita Devi

Adyaningtyas, S.Pd., who have spent their time reading and giving corrections to

my thesis.

  My deepest greatefulness goes to my parents, Bapak Bernadinus

Suwasono who is in heaven and Ibu Chatarina Suwartinah for the love, care,

trust, and the prayer every single day. I also thank to my beloved sisters, Lusia

Suwantari Nugraheni, S.Pd and Anastasia Novi Arsanti for the advice and

support. Sincere thanks and lots of love go to Ignatius Arry Baskoro, S.E. for his

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  My special thanks go to my Senior High School teacher, Bu Cecil, who

always supports me to finish my thesis. My endless thanks also goes to my friends

Devi, Sisca, Hana, Awang, Rosi, Hehen Onnie, Mbak Itin, Ajeng, Danik, Mbak

Ndah, Mbak Yie, Chapid, Mbak

  Ce’, Bundo Maris, Kakak Keket, Deni, Ega, Evri,

Hans, Yogis, Mbak Vita, Kakak Sandy and all of my friends. I am happy and

lucky for every moment we have shared as we grow and learn together. My

thankfulness goes to my friends B-ers for the friendship, support, care, and love

we have.

  I would like to thank all my friends who have the same advisor, Bunda,

for the support and help given to me. My thankfulness also goes to my family in

Play Performance group, ELEGY. I thank them for the time, laugh, effort, and

story we made. I thank my friends in SALT English Course for the togetherness

and experience we share. My thankfulness goes to all of my friends PBI 2009 for

the time we have spent to study and learn together.

  From the bottom of my heart, I would like to thank all of the people who

have given me a hand, whose names I cannot mention here one by one. I pray that

God will always bless them all.

  Yasinta Retnaningrum

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page TITLE PAG i E………………………………………………………………….

APPROVAL PAGES

  ii ………………………………………………………… iv STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY……………………………….

  

PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI v

…………………………………….

  ABSTRACT vi …………………………………………………………………..

  ABSTRAK vii

……………………………………………………………………………....

  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS viii ………………………………………………….

  TABLE OF CONTENTS xi ……………………………………………………...

  LIST OF TABLES xiv …………………………………………………………….

  LIST OF FIGURE xv ……………………………………………………………..

LIST OF APPENDICES

  xvi ………………………………………………………

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION

  1 A.

  1 Research Background…………………………………………… B.

  4 Research Problems……………………………………………… C.

  4 Problem Limitation……………………………………………… D.

  5 Research Objectives……………………………………………… E.

  5 Research Benefits…………………………………………………

  PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  8 A.

  8 Theoretical Description…………………………………………… 1.

  8 Reading……………………………………………………......

  a.

  9 Extensive Reading………………………………………… b.

  11 Reading Reporting………………………………………..

  c.

  12 Learning Reading………………………………………… d.

  12 Reading Skills…………………………………………...

  e.

  15 Reading Problems………………………………………..

  f.

  18 Reading Interest…………………………………………...

  g.

  19 Reading Habit……………………………………………..

  2.

  21 Beginner College Students 3.

  21 Perception………………………………………………...........

  a.

  22 Perceptual Process………………………………………… b.

  22 Factor Influencing Perception……………………………..

  B.

  24 Review of Related Study………………………………………......

  C.

  25 Theoretical Framework……………………………………………

  CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY

  28 A.

  28 Research Method………………………………………………… B.

  29 Research Setting………………………………………………… C.

  29 Research Participants…………………………………………… D.

  31

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  2.

  36 Data Gathering Technique…………………………………… E.

  37 Data Analysis Technique………………………………………… F.

  38 Research Procedure………………………………………………

CHAPTER IV. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

  41 A.

  41 Teaching Processes Implemented in Book Report Course……… B.

  43 Reading Problems Faced by the Students in Book Report Course C.

  50 Students’ Perception on Book Report Course……………………

CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

  72 A.

  72 Conclusions……………………………………………………… B.

  74 Suggestions……………………………………………………… 1.

  74 For Lecturers of Book Report Course in English Language Education Study P rogram…………………………………… 2.

  74 For Students of Book Report Course………………………… 3.

  75 For Future Researchers……………………………………… REFERENCES

  76 ……………………………………………………………… APPENDICES

  79 ……………………………………………………………….

  

LIST OF TABLES

Table

  Page

Table 3.1 Questionnaire Blueprint ………………………………………

  32 Table 3.2

Students’ Interview Blueprint………………………………..

  35 Table 3.3

Lecturer’s Interview Blueprint……………………………….

  36 Table 3.4 Data Analysis Technique …………………………………….

  37 Table 4.1

Students’ Previous Experience in Reading…………………..

  51 Table 4.2 Students’ Experience in Reading Novels in Book Report Course …………………………………………………………..

  53 Table 4.3 Students’ Experience in Making Written Reports and Doing Oral Examinations in Book Report Course …………………….

  57 Table 4.4 Students’ Perception on Reading Novels in Book Report Course …………………………………………………………..

  60 Table 4.5 Students’ Perception on Benefits of Book Report Course ………..............................................................................

  64 Table 4.6 Benefits of Taking Book Report Course Related to Reading Habit ……………………………………………………………

  67 PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

LIST OF FIGURE

Figure

  Page Figure 2.1

  22 Perceptual Process……………………………………………

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

LIST OF APPENDICES

  Appendices Page Appendix A Questionnaire

  …………………………………………………..

  80 Appendix B Students’ Interview Questions………………………………...

  84 Appendix C Lecturer’s Interview Questions………………………………..

  86 Appendix D Lesson Unit Plan of Book Report Course ……………………..

  88 Appendix E Results of Closed-Questions in Q uestionnaire………………..

  91 Appendix F Results of Open- Questions in Questionnaire………………….

  95 Appendix G The Calculation Results of Reading Problems……………….. 106 Appendix H

  Interview Transcript of the Students…………………………..

  108 Appendix I Interview Transcript of the Lecturer ………………………… 121

  Appendix J Letter of Permission…………………………………………...

  124

  

C H A P T E R

  I I N T R O D U C T

  I O N

  T h e s t u d y i n v e s it g a t e s s t u d e n t s ’ p e r c e p it o n o n r e a d i n g h a b ti f o r m a it o n i n t h e E n g il s h L a n g u a g e E d u c a it o n S t u d y P r o g r a m S a n a t a D h a r m a U n i v e r s ti y . T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s r e s e a r c h b a c k g r o u n d , r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m s , p r o b l e m il m ti a it o n , r e s e a r c h o b j e c it v e ,s r e s e a r c h b e n e f ti s , a n d d e if n i it o n o f t e r m s r e l a t e d t o t h e s t u d y .

  R e s e a r c h b a c k g r o u n d d e a l s w ti h t h e r e a s o n f o r c h o o s i n g t h e t o p i c . R e s e a r c h p r o b l e m f o c u s e s o n t h e p r o b l e m s i n v e s it g a t e d i n t h e s t u d y . P r o b l e m il m ti a it o n d e s c ir b e s t h e p a r it c u l a r p r o b l e m s o f t h e s t u d y . R e s e a r c h o b j e c it v e s d e s c ir b e t h e a i m s o f t h e s t u d y . R e s e a r c h b e n e f ti s e x p l a i n t h e b e n e f ti s o f c o n d u c it n g t h e s t u d y i n l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g . F i n a ll y , t h e d e if n i it o n o f t e r m s e x p l a i n s s e v e r a l t e r m s r e l a t e d t o t h e s t u d y .

  . R e s e a r c h B a c k g r o u n d A T h e r e i s a n o l d s a y i n g “ b o o k s a r e w i n d o w s o f t h e w o lr d ” .

  I t m e a n s t h a t b y r e a d i n g a l o t o f b o o k s , r e a d e r s w li l o b t a i n i n f o r m a it o n o r k n o w l e d g e .

  A c c o r d i n g t o M ti c h e ll (

  1

  9

  8 2 : 1 p . ) , “ R e a d i n g c a n b e d e if n e d l o o s e l y a s t h e a b li ti y t o m a k e s e n s e o f w r ti t e n o r p ir n t e d s y m b o l .s ” W ir tt e n o r p ir n t e d s y m b o l s a r e t h e t s e x t m a d e b y t h e w r ti e r .s I n o t h e r w o r d s , r e a d i n g i s a n a c it v ti y o f a n i n t e r a c it o n b e t w e e n t h e r e a d e r s a n d t h e t e x t s i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n k n o w l e d g e o r i n f o r m a it o n .

  t h ,

  O n M a y

  1 7 ,

  2

  1

  3 T r i b u n , o n e o f t h e n a it o n a l n e w s p a p e r s i n I n d o n e s i a , r e p o tr e d t h a t b a s e d o n a s u r v e y o f U N E S C O , I n d o n e s i a n p e o p l e h a v e l o w r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t . I n d o n e s i a h a s . 1 % r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t c o m p a r e d t o o t h e r c o u n t ir e s i n A S E A N . I t m e a n s t h a t o n l y o n e o f t e n t h o u s a n d p e o p l e i n I n d o n e s i a i s i n t e r e s t e d

  t h

  i n r e a d i n g . B e s i d e s , a n a r it c l e f r o m w w w . d p .r g o i. d n o A p ir l

  2 4 ,

  2

  1 2 , a m e m b e r o f C o m m ti t e e - X o f T h e H o u s e o f R e p r e s e n t a it v e i n I n d o n e s i a a l s o s a i d t h a t p e o p l e i n Y o g y a k a tr a h a v e l o w r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t . rI o n i c a ll y , Y o g y a k a tr a i s c a ll e d a

  “ s t u d e n t s ’ c ti y ” . tI i s t h e r e f o r e i m p o tr a n t t o i m p r o v e r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t , e s p e c i a ll y f o r s t u d e n t .s I n o r d e r t o i m p r o v e e t h s t u d e n t s ’ i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g , t h e E n g il s h

  L a n g u a g e E d u c a it o n S t u d y P r o g r a m ( E L E S P ) S a n a t a D h a r m a U n i v e r s ti y

  B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e

  Y o g y a k a tr a d e s i g n s a c o u r s e n a m e d . tI a i m s t o i n rt o d u c e s t u d e n t s t o E n g il s h n o v e l s , i n c r e a s e s t u d e n t s ’ i n t e r e s t a n d i m p r o v e s t u d e n t s ’ a b li ti y i n r e a d i n g E n g il s h n o v e l s ( L e s s o n U n i t P l a n f o B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e ,

  2

  1 1 ) . I n t h i s c o u r s e , t h e s t u d e n t s a r e r e q u ri e d t o r e a d E n g il s h n o v e l s , m a k e a w ir tt e n r e p o tr f o r e a c h n o v e l , a n d d n o a o r a l e x a m i n a it o n a tf e r if n i s h i n g r e a d i n g a n o v e l .

  B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e i s c o m p u l s o r y f o r t h e s t u d e n t s o f t h e E L E S P S a n a t a D h a r m a U n i v e r s ti y .

  I t i s o f f e r e d i n t h e f ri s t s e m e s t e r w ti h o u t a n y p r e r e q u i s ti e c o u r s e . T h e s t u d e n t s w h o a r e t a k i n g B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e a r e r e q u ri e d t o d r e a f o u r d i f f e r e n t E n g il s h n o v e l s , c o m p ir s i n g t h r e e s i m p il if e d / a b ir d g e d n o v e l s a n d o n e o ir g i n a /l u n a b ir d g e d n o v e l . T h e s t u d e n t s h a v e t o r e a d e a c h n o v e l a n d m a k e e t h w ir tt e n r e p o tr s w h i c h r e q u ri e t h e s t u d e n t s t o w r ti e i n f o r m a it o n b a s e d o n t h e n o v e l s, i n c l u d i n g s e t it n g , c h a r a c t e r s , c o n f il c ,t t h e m e , s u m m a r y , m o r a l v a l u e a n d t h e ri c o n n e c it o n w ti h p e r s o n a l l fi e . A tf e r m a k i n g t h e w ir tt e n r e p o r ts , t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e t o d o o r a l e x a m i n a it o n s. I n t h e o r a l e x a m i n a it o n ,s t h e l e c t u r e r o f B o o k

  

R e p o r t C o u r s e a s s k s o m e q u e s it o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e i n f o r m a it o n o f t h e n o v e l t h a t t h e

  s t u d e n t s h a v e r e a d . T h o s e q u e s it o n s a i m t o m e a s u r e s t u d e n t s ’ u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s t o r y i n e a c h n o v e .l T h e a c it v ti y i n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e i s m o s lt y r e a d i n g , h e n c e ti i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s f a c e r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s i n t a k i n g t h e c o u r s e . B a s e d o n t h e i n t e r v i e w w ti h t h e l e c t u r e r , t h e s t u d e n t s f a c e s o m e p r o b l e m s i n B o o k R e p o r t

  

C o u r s e . T h e p r o b l e m s a r e b a s i c a ll y r e l a t e d t o r e a d i n g a c it v ti y . R e a d i n g E n g il s h

  n o v e l s f o r t h e f ri s t s e m e s t e r s t u d e n t s m a y b e h a r d b e c a u s e t h e s t u d e n t s a r e n o t a c c u s t o m e d t o r e a d i n g E n g il s h l ti e r a r y w o r k s y e .t S o m e s t u d e n t s m a y h a v e r e a d s o m e E n g il s h t e x t s , b u t o t h e r s h a v e n o t e x p e ir e n c e d i t y e .t

  R e a d i n g i s a b ir d g e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e b o o k s f o r t h e s t u d e n t s . A s t h e y l a c k k n o w l e d g e f o E n g il s h , t h e s t u d e n t s o tf e n e n c o u n t e r d fi if c u l it e s w h e n t h e y a r e r e a d i n g t e x t s i n E n g il s h ( K u s t a r y o ,

  1

  9

  8 8 ) . R e a d i n g i n s t u d e n t s ’ n a it v e l a n g u a g e a n d r e a d i n g i n E n g il s h a s t h e i r f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e e a r q u ti e d fi f e r e n t . R e a d i n g t e x t s i n E n g il s h a s t h e f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e i s d fi if c u l t b e c a u s e t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e t o m a s t e r t h e c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e l a n g u a g e i n c l u d i n g v o c a b u l a r y d a t n s u r c t u r e . K u s t a r y o (

  1

  9

  8 8 ) s a y s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s w h o h a v e m a s t e r e d t h e c o m p o n e n t s o f E n g il s h w li l n o t f a c e s i g n i if c a n t d fi if c u l it e s w h e n t h e y a r e r e a d i n g m a t e ir a l s b e g i n n i n g f r o m t h e l o w l e e l up v t o t h e h i g h e r o n e . O t h e r w i s e , t h e s t u d e n t s w i ll f a i .l

  F r o m t h e p r e v i o u s e l a b o r a it o n , ti i s a s s u m e d t h a t I n d o n e s i a n p e o p l e h a v e l o w r e a d i n g i n t e r e s ,t t h e r e f o r e B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e i s d e s i g n e d t o i m p r o v e r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t . H o w e v e r , i n t h e t e a c h i n g l e a r n i n g a c it v ti y , t h e s t u d e n t s e n c o u n t e r r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s . K n o w i n g t h e f a c t s a b o u t r e a d i n g , t h e r e s e a r c h e r i s e n c o u r a g e d t o i n v e s it g a t e e t h s t u d e n t s ’ p e r c e p it o n o n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . I t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h r o u g h r e a d i n g a c t i v ti y i n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e , i t c a n i m p r o v e s t u d e n t s ’ r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t a n d r e a d i n g a b li ti y .

  . R e s e a r c h P r o b l e m s B

  T h i s s t u d y i s e x p e c t e d t o a n s w e r p r o b l e m s d e a il n g w ti h t h e r e s e a r c h t o p i c . T h e r e a r e t w o r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m s a d d r e s s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . T h e r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m s a r e f o r m u l a t e d a s f o ll o w s :

  B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e

  1 . W h a t a r e r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s f a c e d b y t h e s t u d e n t s i n ? 2 . W h a t i s t h e s t u d e n t s ’ p e r c e p it o n o n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e ?

  . P r o b l e m L i m ti a it o n C

  I n o r d e r t o il m ti t h e s c o p e o f c o n d u c it n g t h e s t u d y , t h e r e s e a r c h e r d e c i d e s t o i n v e s it g a t e t h e s t u d e n t s ’ p e r c e p it o n o n r e a d i n g h a b ti f o r m a it o n i n B o o k R e p o r t

  

C o u r s e . tI s i o f f e r e d i n t h e E n g il s h L a n g u a g e E d u c a it o n S t u d y P r o g r a m S a n a t a

  D h a r m a U n i v e r s ti y Y o g y a k a tr a . T h e r e s e a r c h e r f o c u s e s o n t h e f ri s t s e m e s t e r s t u d e n t s i n

  2

  1 2 /

  2

  1 3 a c a d e m i c y e a r b e c a u s e B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e i s o f f e r e d i n t h e f ri s t s e m e s t e r . T h e r e s e a r c h e r c h o o s e s C a n d D c l a s s e s o f t h e c o u r s e a s t h e p a r it c i p a n t s o f t h e s t u d y .

  . R e s e a r c h O b j e c it v e s D

  I n r e l a it o n t o t h e q u e s it o n s i n r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m ,s t h e r e a r e t w o o b j e c it v e s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e s t u d y . T h e f ri s t o b j e c it v e i s t o d e s c ir b e t h e r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s f a c e d b y B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e s t u d e n t s i n t h e E n g il s h L a n g u a g e E d u c a it o n S t u d y P r o g r a m S a n a t a D h a r m a U n i v e r s ti y . T h e s e c o n d o b j e c it v e i s t o i n v e s it g a t e s t u d e n t s ’ p e r c e p it o n o n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e .

  . R e s e a r c h B e n e f ti s E

  T h e r e a r e s o m e b e n e f ti s w h i c h c a n b e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h i s s t u d y . T h e b e n e f ti s a r e p r e s e n t e d a s f o ll o w s : 1 . F o r l e c t u r e r s i n t h e E n g il s h L a n g u a g e E d u c a it o n S t u d y P r o g r a m

  K n o w i n g t h e r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s f a c e d b y B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e s t u d e n t s , t h e l e c t u r e r s c a n u n d e r s t a n d , g i v e s o l u it o n s , o r s o l v e t h e s t u d e n t s ’ r e a d i n g p r o b l e m .s B e s i d e ,s t h e l e c t u r e r s w li l a l s o k n o w s t u d e n t s ’ p e r c e p it o n s o t h a t B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e c a n b e i m p r o v e d .

  2 . F s o r t u d e n t s w h o a r e t a k i n g B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e T h e s t u d y w li l b e u s e f u l f o r t h e s t u d e n t s e s p e c i a ll y i e n t h E L E S P S a n a t a

  D h a r m a U n i v e r s ti y . B y k n o w i n g t h e r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s f a c e d i n B o o k R e p o r t

  

C o u r s e , t h e s t u d e n t s c a n a n it c i p a t e t h e p r o b l e m s n o t o n l y i n r e a d i n g n o v e l s b u t

  a l s o i n o t h e r E n g il s h t e x t .s

  3 . F o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s F u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s a r e p e o p l e w h o w li l c o n d u c t t h e s i m li a r s t u d y . T h e r e s e a r c h e r h o p e s t h a t t h e s t u d y c a n i n s p ri e f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s t o c o n d u c t t h e s t u d y .

  T h e s t u d y c a n b e r e l a t e d t o t e a c h i n g l e a r n i n g a c it v i it e s i n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e .

  . D e if n i it o n s o f T e r m s F

  I n o r d e r t o a v o i d m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o r m i s c o n c e p it o n s t o t h e r e a d e r ,s t h e r e s e a r c h e r d e if n e s t h e t e r m s o f t h i s s t u d y a s f o ll o w s :

  . P e r c e p it o n

  1 A c c o r d i n g t o G e o r g e a n d J o n e s (

  2 5 : p .

  1 5 ) , “ P e r c e p it o n i s t h e p r o c e s s b y w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s s e l e c t , o r g a n i z e , a n d i n t e r p r e t t h e i n p u t f r o m t h e i r s e n s e s ( v i s i o n , h e a ir n g , t o u c h , s m e ll , a n d t a s t e ) t o g i v e m e a n i n g a n d o r d e r t o t h e w o lr d a r o u n d t h e m ” . I n t h i s s t u d y , i n p u t f r o m s e n s e s m e a n s w h a t t h e s t u d e n t s f e e l a n d s e e f r o m t h e i r e x p e ir e n c e i n t a k i n g B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . tI i s t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e d t h a t r e l a t e d t o t h i s s t u d y , p e r c e p it o n i s s t u d e n t s ’ o p i n i o n a b o u t t h e i r e x p e ir e n c e i n t a k i n g B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e .

  . R e a d i n g

  2 A c c o r d i n g t o G r a b e a n d S t o ll e r (

  2 2 : p . 9 ) , “ r e a d i n g i s t h e a b li ti y t o d r a w m e a n i n g f r o m t h e p ir n t e d p a g e a n d i n t e r p r e t t h e i n f o r m a it o n a p p r o p ir a t e l y . ” M o r e o v e ,r r e a d i n g c a n b e s e e n a s a n “ i n t e r a c it v e ” p r o c e s s b e t w e e n a r e a d e r a n d a t e x t w h i c h l e a d s t o a u t o m a it c ti y o r r e a d i n g lf u e n c y ( A l y o u s e f ,

  2 5 ) . I n t h i s p r o c e s ,s t h e i n d i v i d u a l e il c ti s t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e i n f o r m a it o n i n t h e t e x t s . R e l a t e d t o t h i s s t u d y , r e a d i n g i s a c q u i ir n g m e a n i n g f r o m t h e p ir n t e d p a g e s w h i c h l e a d s t o h a b ti f o r m a it o n .

  . R e a d i n g H a b i t F o r m a it o n

3 A c c o r d i n g t o

  V e r p l a n k e n (

  2

  1 2 ) h a b i t i s a t h i n g t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s d o r e g u l a lr y a s a p r a c it c e a n d a c u s t o m . R e l a t e d t o t h i s s t u d y , r e a d i n g h a b ti f o r m a it o n i s a r e a d i n g a c it v ti y t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s d o r e g u l a lr y a s a c u s t o m . T h e r e a r e t h r e e p i ll a r s o f r e a d i n g h a b i t f o r m a it o n a c c o r d i n g t o

  V e r p l a n k e n (

  2

  1 2 ) . T h e p i ll a r s c o n s i s t o f r e p e it it o n , a u t o m a it c ti y , a n d c o - n t e x t c u e .s R e p e it it o n i s t h e f r e q u e n c y o f a b e h a v i o r . A u t o m a it c ti y i s t h e lf u e n c y o f h a b ti u a l b e h a v i o r . M e a n w h li e , c o n t - e x t c u e s m e a n s r e a d i n g h a b i t a r e t ir g g e r e d b y c u e s i n s t a b l e c o n t e x t s s u c h a s it m e , l o c a it o n , m o o d , s ti u a it o n , a n d s o c i a l a n d c u tl u r a l p r a c it c e .s

  

C H A P T E R

  I I R E

  V I E W O F R E L A T E D L

  I T E R A T U R E

  R e v i e w o f r e l a t e d l ti e r a t u r e a i m s t o d i s c u s s t h e t h e o ir e s u n d e lr y i n g t h e s t u d y . T h i s c h a p t e r e n c o m p a s s e s t h e o r e it c a l d e s c ir p it o n , r e v i e w o f r e l a t e d s t u d y , a n d t h e o r e it c a l f r a m e w o r k . T h e o r e it c a l d e s c ir p it o n p r e s e n t s r e l e v a n t r e f e r e n c e s a n d c ti a it o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e s t u d y . R e v i e w o f r e l a t e d s t u d y d e s c ir b e s a t h e s i s w h i c h h a a s s i m li a r o b j e c t w ti h t h i s s t u d y i n o r d e r t o a v o i d p l a g i a ir s m . B e s i d e s , t h e t h e o r e it c a l f r a m e w o r k s y n t h e s i z e s a ll r e l e v a n t t h e o ir e .s

  . T h e o r e it c a l D e s c r i p it o n A

  T h e o r e it c a l d e s c ir p it o n d e a l s w ti h t h e e x p l a n a it o n o f r e a d i n g , p e r c e p it o n , a n d c o ll e g e s t u d e n t s . T h e t h e o ir e s o f r e a d i n g c o n s i s t o f e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g , r e a d i n g r e p o r it n g , r e a d i n g s k i ll s , l e a r n i n g r e a d i n g , r e a d i n g p r o b l e m ,s r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t , a n d r e a d i n g h a b ti . M e a n w h li e , t h e t h e o ir e s o f p e r c e p it o n c o n s i s t o f p e r c e p t u a l p r o c e s s a n d f a c t o r s i n lf u e n c i n g p e r c e p it o n .

  . R e a d i n g

1 G r a b e a n d S t o ll e r (

  2 2 ) s t a t e t h a t “ r e a d i n g i s t h e a b li ti y t o d r a w m e a n i n g f r o m t h e p ir n t e d p a g e s a n d i n t e r p r e t t h e i n f o r m a it o n a p p r o p ir a t e l y ” ( p .

  9 ) . M o r e o v e ,r r e a d i n g c a n b e s e e n a s a n “ i n t e r a c it v e ” p r o c e s s b e t w e e n a r e a d e r a n d a t e x t w h i c h l e a d s t o a u t o m a it c ti y o r r e a d i n g lf u e n c y ( A l y o u s e f , 2 5 .) I n t h i s p r o c e s ,s t h e i n d i v i d u a l e il c ti s t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e i n f o r m a it o n i n t h e t e x t s . I n o t h e r w o r d s , r e a d i n g i s a n a c it v ti y o f a c q u i ir n g t h e m e a n i n g f r o m t h e t e x t .s T h e m o r e t h e s t u d e n t s r e a d , t h e n e w e r a n d p a r it a ll y k n o w n w o r d s t h e y e n c o u n t e r , a n d t h e m o r e w o r d t h e y a c q u ri e ( C u n n i n g h a m & S t a n o v i c h ,

  1

  9

  9 8 , a s c ti e d i n A r m b r u s t e r & O s b o r n ,

  2 2 .) H o w e v e ,r t h e s t u d e n t s n e e d t o h a v e t h e b a c k g r o u n d e x p e ir e n c e i n r e a d i n g E n g il s h t e x t s s o t h a t t h e y c a n e a s li y u n d e r s t a n d t h e i d e a s o f t h e t e x t s .

  W li s o n (

  1

  9

  6 3 , a s c ti e d i n T a s c h o w ,

  1

  9

  8 5 ) s t a t e s t h a t b a c k g r o u n d e x p e ir e n c e i s e s s e n it a l i n o r d e r f o r s t u d e n t s t o c o n n e c t i n f o r m a it o n f r o m t h e t e x t s t h a t a rl e a d y s t o r e d i n t h e i r h e a d .s

  . E x t e n s i v e R e a d i n g a

  E x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g i s a t y p e o f r e a d i n g w h i c h r e q u ri e s t h e s t u d e n t s t o r e a d a l o t o f m a t e ir a l s i a n n e w l a n g u a g e . T h e s t u d e n t s c h o o s e t h e i r o w n r e a d i n g m a t e ir a l s n a d r e a d t h e m i n d e p e n d e n lt y o f t h e t e a c h e r ( B a m f o r d & D a y ,

  2 4 ) . T h e s t u d e n t s r e a d f o r e t h o v e r a l l m e a n i n g , i n f o r m a it o n , a n d e n j o y m e n t . I t a i m s t o b e a p l e a s u r a b l e a c it v ti y . A c c o r d i n g t o U r q u h a tr a n d W e i r (

  1

  9

  9 8 : . p

  2

  1 6 ) , e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g r e f e r s t o e ti h e r s li e n t r e a d i n g o r r e a d i n g w h i c h s i d o n e i n t h e il b r a r y o r a t h o m e .

  T h e r e a r e s o m e c h a r a c t e ir s it c s o f e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o H e d g e ( 2 ) , c h a r a c t e ir s it c s o f e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g a r e r e a d i n g l a r g e q u a n it it e s o f m a t e ir a l s s u c h a s n o v e l s , r e a d i n g c o n s i s t e n lt y o v e r it m e o n f r e q u e n t , r e a d i n g l o n g e r t e x t s d u ir n g c l a s s it m e a n d a n i n d e p e n d e n t r e a d i n g a t h o m e , a n d a l s o a s - e fl s e l e c t e d m a t e ir a l o f r e a d i n g . A s fl e - s e l e c t e d m a t e ir a l o f r e a d i n g s i t h e b a s i s o f e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g . I t p u t s t h e s t u d e n t s i n a d fi f e r e n t r o l e f r o m rt a d i it o n a l c l a s s r o o m w h e r e t h e t e a c h e r c h o o s e s t h e r e a d i n g m a t e ir a l s .

  A c c o r d i n g t o K r a s h e n (

  1

  9

  8 5 a s c ti e d i n M i k u l e c k y ,

  1

  9 9 ) t h e r e a r e a n u m b e r o f r e a s o n s w h y t h e s t u d e n t s s h o u l d r e a d t h e s - e fl s e l e c t e d m a t e ir a l s . F ri s t , s t u d e n t s ’ l a n g u a g e w e a k n e s s e s c a n b e b a l a n c e d b y t h e b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e o f t h e t o p i c s i n t h e b o o k s . A s t h e s t u d e n t s r e a d , t h e y c a n b e a w a r e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y c a n g u e s s t h e w o r d m e a n i n g b e c a u s e o f t h e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s u b j e c t . T h e s t u d e n t s a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o i g n o r e o r g u e s s a t t h e f e w u n k n o w n l a n g u a g e ti e m s t h a t t h e y m a y m e e t ( B a m f o r d & D a y ,

  2 4 : p .) .

  2 T h e s e c o n d r e a s o n i s t h a t s t u d e n t s ’ m o it v a it o n f o r r e a d i n g w li l i n c r e a s e w h e n t h e s t u d e n t s r e a d w h a t t h e y a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n .

  E x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g i s a c h i e v e d b y l e tt i n g t h e s t u d e n t s r e a d t h e b o o k s o u t s i d e t h e c l a s s a n d h a v i n g t h e m t o t h e o r a l r e p o tr s o r o r a l e x a m i n a it o n s i n c l a s s .

  A c c o r d i n g t o B a m f o r d a n d D a y (

  2 4 ) , t h e r e a r e a v a ir e t y o f r e a s o n s f o r o r a l r e p o tr s o r o r a l e x a m i n a it o n s : t o d i s c o v e r w h a t t h e s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t a n d a n d e x p e ir e n c e f r o m r e a d i n g , t o k e e p rt a c k o f w h a t t h e s t u d e n t s r e a d , a n d t o c h e c k s t u d e n t s ’ a tt ti u d e t o w a r d r e a d i n g . T h i s o r a l r e p o tr s o r o r a l e x a m i n a it o n s c a n b e c o m b i n e d w ti h w ir it n g p r a c it c e b y a s s i g n i n g a b o o k r e v i e w b a s e d o n t h e r e a d i n g ( L a d o ,

  1

  9

  6 4 .) W ti h l a r g e c l a s s e s , t h e r e p o tr s c a n b e il m ti e d a n d t h e o r a l p r e s e n t a it o n r e s t ir c t e d t o a c o u p l e o f m i n u t e s . B a m f o r d a n d D a y ( 2 4 ) s t a t e t h e a i m s o f w ir tt e n r e a d i n g r e p o tr s :

  T o g i v e t h e s t u d e n t s c h a n c e t o r e lf e c t o n t h e b o o k t h e y r e a d a n d t o r e l a t e t h e c o n t e n t t o t h e i r o w n k n o w l e e d a g n d e x p e ir e n c e ; t o a ll o w t h e l e a r n e r s t o r e v i e w a n d u s e s o m e o f t h e l a n g u a g e u s e i n t h e b o o k i n t h e i r o w n o u t p u ;t t o i m p r o v e w ir it n g s k i ll s ; t o h e l p t h e t e a c h e r c h e c k t o s e e w h e t h e r t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e a c t u a l l y d o n e t h e r e a d i n g t h e y r e p o tr ( p .

  1

  3 7 .) T h e w ir tt e n r e p o tr s a n d o r a l e x a m i n a it o n s e a r b e n e if c i a l f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o r e lf e c t t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e a d i n g m a t e ir a l s . T h e y a l s o c a n i m p r o v e s t u d e n t s ’ w ir it n g a n d s p e a k i n g s k i ll s . L a d o (

  1

  9

  6 4 ) s a y s t h a t r e a d i n g ti w h o r a l a n d w ir tt e n r e p o tr s c a n m a i n t a i n a n d e x p a n d l a n g u a g e s k i ll .s M o r e o v e r , ti i s t h e m o s t e f f e c it v e w a y o f i m p r o v i n g v o c a b u l a r y a n d r e a d i n g s k i ll s i n g e n e r a l ( N u tt a ll ,

  1

  9

  8

  2 a s c ti e d i n U r q u h a r t a n d W e ri ,

  1

  9

  9 8 ) . I t i s t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e d t h a t e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g w h i c h r e q u ri e s t h e s t u d e n t s t o h a v e w ir tt e n r e p o tr s a n d o r a l e x a m i n a it o n s i s b e n e if c i a l f o r t h e m t o i n c r e a s e r e a d i n g , w ir it n g , a n d s p e a k i n g s k i ll .s

  . R e a d i n g R e p o r it n g b

  A c c o r d i n g t o T e ti e l b a u m (

  1

  9

  9 5 ) b o o k r e p o r t i s a t o t a ll y s t a t e m e n t o f f a c t s : it lt e , a u t h o r , p ir c e , t y p e s i z e , p u b il c a it o n f a c t s o r a n a n s w e ir n g a n u m b e r o f t e a c - h e r a s s i g n e d q u e s it o n s . T h e s t u d e n t s h a v e t o r e p o tr t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e b o o k s a tf e r t h e y if n i s h r e a d i n g . T h e r e a r e s o m e i n t ir n s i c f a c t o r s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s c o n c e r n a s t h e y r e a d t h e n o v e l s o r b o o k s . T e ti e l b a u m (

  1

  9

  9 5 ) s t a t e s t h a t i n t ir n s i c f a c t o r s i n c l u d e p o i n t o f v i e w , it lt e a n d p r e f a c e , o r g a n i z a it o n , s t y l e o f w ir it n g , t h e m e , a n d t h e e n d i n g . I n if c it o n , t h e o r g a n i z a it o n o f t h e s t o r y i s t o l d c h r o n o l o g i c a ll y . P o i n t o f v i e w i s p r e s e n it n g t h e f ri s t p e r s o n o r t h e t h ri d p e r s o n t o t e l l t h e s t o r y . T h e e n d i n g o f a n y w o r k s h o u l d b e a l o g i c a l o u t g r o w t h o f w h a t h a s b e e n p r e s e n t e d t o t h e s t o r y . B e s i d e s , t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e t o c o n c e r n w ti h t h e i n t ir n s i c f a c t o r ,s t h e y a l s o h a v e t o c o n c e r n w ti h t h e e x t ir n s i c f a c t o r s s u c h a s b i o g r a p h y o f t h e a u t h o ,r l ti e r a r y p e ir o d , a n d a u t h o r ’ s i n t e n it o n s o f t h e w o r k .s A tf e r r e a d i n g t h e b o o k s o r n o v e l ,s t h e s t u d e n t s c a n m a k e t h e r e p o tr s . T h e s t u d e n t s c a n w r ti e t h e f ri s t d r a f t o f t h e r e p o tr s w h i c h w li l b e c o r r e c t e d , r e v i s e d , a n d m o d i if e d . I n t h e r e p o tr s t h e s t u d e n t s w r ti e t h e i n t ir n s i c f a c t o r s o f t h e b o o k s o r n o v e l s w h i c h a r e t h e o b j e c it v e s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e w o r k s . T e ti e l b a u m (

  1

  9

  9 5 ) a l s o s t a t e s t h a t i n w ir it n g t h e r e p o tr s t h e s t u d e n t s s h o u l d p a y a tt e n it o n t o t h e p a r a g r a p h i n g , v o c a b u l a r y , s e n t e n c e s rt u c t u r e , t e n s e , s p e l il n g , p u n c t u a it o n , a n d w o r d i n e s s .

  . L e a r n i n g R e a d i n g c

  L e a r n i n g t o r e a d i s a n a c q u i s i it o n o f i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r o f w o r d s a n d a tl e r a it o n o f i n d i v i d u a l r e p r e s e n t a it o n s a l o n g q u a l ti y ( P e r f e tt i & M a r r o n ,

  1

  9

  9 8 ) . T h e r e a r e t h r e e m a j o r o f l e a r n i n g a c h i e v e m e n t a c c o r d i n g t o A h m a d i a n d S u p ir y o n o (

  1

  9

  9 1 ) . T h e f ri s t f a c t o r i s l e a r n i n g s it m u il f a c t o r w h i c h w h i c h i s r e l a t e d t o l e a r n i n g f a c t o r s o u t s i d e t h e l e a r n e r s . T h e l e a r n i n g s it m u l u s i n c l u d e s m a t e ir a l s , t a s k s , a n d l e a r n i n g a t m o s p h e r e . T h e s e c o n d f a c t o r o f l e a r n i n g r e a d i n g i s t h e m e t h o d u s e d b y t e a c h e r s i n c l a s s r o o m s . I t i n lf u e n c e s t h e s t u d e n t s ’ l e a r n i n g i m p r o v e m e n t . T h e t h ri d f a c t o r o f l e a r n i n g r e a d i n g i s i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r .s

  I n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s i n c l u d e t h e r e a d i n e s s , m o it v a it o n , a n d l e a r n i n g e x p e ir e n c e .

  . R e a d i n g S k i ll s d

  T h e r e a r e m a n y s k i ll s t h a t c a n b e o b t a i n e d f r o m r e a d i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o E r f o r t (

  2

  1 3 ) , r e a d i n g s k i ll s w i ll e n a b l e t h e s t u d e n t s t o m a k e m e a n i n g o u t o f t h e w ir tt e n l a n g u a g e , i n t e r a c t a n d e n g a g e w ti h t h e l a n g u a g e , c o m p r e h e n d a n d a n a l y s e t h e l a n g u a g e . R e l a t e d t o t h i s s t u d y t h e r e s e a r c h e r f o c u s e s o n s o m e r e a d i n g s k i ll s . T h o s e r e a d i n g s k i ll s a r e p r e v i e w i n g , g u e s s i n g t h e m e a n i n g o f u n k n o w n w o r d s f r o m t h e c o n t e x t , s c a n n i n g , s k i m m i n g , d r a w i n g i n f e r e n c e s , a n d s u m m a ir z i n g . T h e r e a d i n g s k i ll s a r e d e s c ir b e d a s f o ll o w .s

  ) P r e v i e w i n g

1 I n d a li y l fi e , p e o p l e p r e v i e w a u t o m a it c a ll y b e c a u s e t h e y w a n t t o k n o w

  w h a t t o e x p e c .t tI i s t h e s a m e a s t h e s t u d e n t s w h o r e a d b o o k s f o r t h e i r s t u d y . T h e s t u d e n t s a l s o d o p r e v i e w i n g . M i k u l e c k y ( 2 ) t s t a e s t h a :t

  P r e v i e w i n g i s a h i g h s p e e d r e a d i n g s k i ll . tI i s a p o w e r u l s - f k li l b e c a u s e b y p r e v i e w i n g , t h e r e a d e r g a i n s e n o u g h i n f o r m a it o n f r o m t h e t e x t t o b e g i n h y p o t h e s i z i n g a b o u t i t a n d t o b e g i n t h e c o g n i it v e p r o c e s s o f m a t c h i n g n e w i n f o r m a t i o n w ti h w h a t i s a rl e a d y k n o w n ( p .

  3 3 .) P r e v i e w i n g i s d o n e b e f o r e d e c i d i n g t o r e a d t e x t s o r b o o k s . T h e s t u d e n t s p r e v i e w e t h b o o k s b y r e a d i n g t h e f r o n t a n d b a c k c o v e r , t a b l e o f c o n t e n t , t h e a u t h o r ’ s n a m e , a n d o t h e r f e a t u r e s . T h e r e i s a n u m b e r o f b e n e f ti s o f p r e v i e w i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o M i k u l e c k y (

  1

  9 9 ) , t h e f ri s t b e n e if t o f p r e v i e w i n g i s t h a t i t a ll o w s t h e s t u d e n t s t o e s t a b il s h t h e g e n r e , c o n t e x ,t t o p i c , l e v e l o f d fi if c u tl y , a n d o r g a n i z a it o n o f t h e t e x t s . S e c o n d , b y p r e v i e w i n g , t h e s t u d e n t s ’ a c it v a t e d b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e a l l o w s t h e m t o r e a d f o r m e a n i n g o r u n d e r s t a n d t h e m e a n i n g , e v e n i f m a n y w o r d s i n t h e t e x t s a r e u n f a m i il a r f o r t h e s t u d e n t s . B a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e o r p ir o r k n o w l e d g e i s t h e e x i s it n g s t o r e o f k n o w l e d g e t h a t t h e r e a d e r s p o s s e s s ( A r m b r u s t e r & Osb o r n ,

  2 2 ) . N e x t i s t h e t h ri d b e n e if t o f p r e v i e w i n g . T h e s t u d e n t s c a n r e a il z e t h a t i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o r e a d e v e r y w o r d i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d a n d g a i n i n f o r m a it o n o f t h e t e x t s .

  ) G u e s s i n g t h e M e a n i n g o f U n k n o w n W o r d s f r o m t h e C o n t e x t

  2 C o n s u l it n g t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e u n k n o w n w o r d s t o t h e d i c it o n a r y

  s o m e it m e s t a k e s it m e i n r e a d i n g E n g il s h n o v e l s , t h e s t u d e n t s c a n g u e s s t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e u n k n o w n w o r d s f r o m t h e c o n t e x t w ti h o u t o p e n i n g t h e d i c it o n a r y .

  T h e s t u d e n t s c a n o tf e n d e t e r m i n e t h e m e a n i n g b y c o n s i d e ir n g t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h a w o r d a p p e a r s . T h e s u r r o u n d i n g w o r d s a n d s e n t e n c e s f r e q u e n lt y p r o v i d e e t h c l u e s t o t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e w o r d s ( L a n g a n ,

  1

  9

  8 6 ) . I n s t e a d o f s t o p p i n g t o l o o k a t t h e u n k n o w n w o r d s , t h e s t u d e n t s c a n u s e p ir o r k n o w l e d g e a n d t h e i d e a s o f t h e t e x t s a s c l u e s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e u n k n o w n w o r d .s

  ) S c a n n i n g

  3 M i k u l e c k y (

  1

  9 9 : p .

  4 9 ) s a y s t h a t s c a n n i n g - i s a h i g h s p e e d r e a d i n g s k li l u s e d f o r l o c a it n g s p e c i if c i n f o r m a it o n . T h e s t u d e n t s a tt e m p t t o p a r it c u l a r n u m b e r s , w o r d s , o r p h r a s e s . T h e m i n d i s f o c u s e d o n w h a t i s b e i n g s o u g h t . T h e s t u d e n t s s h o u l d a l s o a tt e m p t t o if n d o n l y o n e p i e c e o f i n f o r m a it o n a n d n o t rt y t o m e m o ir z e l a r g e s e g m e n t s o f i n f o r m a it o n . T h e s t u d e n t s l o o k t h r o u g h t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e n o v e l s t o g e t s p e c i if c a n d d e t a li e d i n f o r m a it o n .

  ) S k i m m i n g

  4 S k i m m i n g i s d fi f e r e n t f r - o m s c a n n i n g . S k i m m i n g i s v e r y p a c e s r e a d i n g .

  A c c o r d i n g t o M i k u l e c k y (

  1

  9 9 :) T h e r e a d e r s s k i m t o o b t a i n a n o v e r v i e w o f t h e f o r m a n d t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e t e x ,t i n c l u d i n g s u c h i n f o r m a it o n a s w r ti e r ’ s m a i n p o i n ,t s t y l e , f o c u s , p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e o v e r a l l o r g a n i z a it o n o f t h e m a t e ir a l , a n d h o w t h e t e x t r e l a t e d t o t h e n e e d s , b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e , a n d i n t e r e s t o f t h e r e a d e r ( p .

  1

  3 8 .) S k i m m i n g o v e r t h e t e x t s q u i c k l y a i m s t o g e t m a i n i d e a a n d b u li d u p t h e g e n e r a l b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e t o p i c . I t a l s o c a n s a it s f y t h e c u ir o s ti y a b o u t t h e t o p i c w ti h o u t s p e n d i n g a l o t o f it m e o n ti . T h e s t u d e n t s b e g i n t o s k i p o v e r t h e p a tr s t h a t a r e n o t i n t e r e s it n g a n d u s e f u l i n d o i n g s k i m m i n g .

  ) D r a w i n g I n f e r e n c e s

  5 D r a w i n g i n f e r e n c e s i s c o n n e c it n g t h e n o v e l s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e r e a d

  a n d t h e b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e t h e y h a v e . D r a w i n g i n f e r e n c e s i s d o n e a tf e r t h e s t u d e n t s if n i s h r e a d i n g t h e w h o l e s t o r y o f t h e n o v e l s . T h e s t u d e n t s s o m e it m e s d o n o t r e a il z e t h a t t h e y a r e d r a w i n g i n f e r e n c e s . A c c o r d i n g t o M i k u l e c k y (

  1

  9 9 : p .

  2 6 ) , d r a w i n g i n f e r e n c e s i s r e a d i n g b e t w e e n t h e il n e s , u s i n g t h e e v i d e n c e i n t h e t s e x t t o k n o w t h i n g s t h a t a r e u n s t a t e d . I t r e q u ri e s t h e s t u d e n t s t o t h i n k t h e w h o l e s t o r y a n d r e l a t e d ti t o t h e b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e d e e p l y .

  ) S u m m a r i z i n g

  6 A c c o r d i n g t o M i k u l e c k y (

  1

  9 9 : p .

  1

  4 5 ) , s u m m a ir z i n g i s s h o tr e n i n g m a t e ir a l s b y r e t a i n i n g a - n d r e s t a it n g m a i n i d e a s a n d l e a v i n g o u t d e t a li s . W h e n t h e s t u d e n t s s u m m a ir z e , t h e y d e m o n s rt a t e t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e t e x t s b e c a u s e t h e s t u d e n t s c o n c l u d e t h e i m p o tr a n t p o i n t s o f t h e n o v e l s .S u m m a ir z i n g i s u s u a ll y d o n e a tf e r if n i s h i n g r e a di n g t h e n o v e .l S u m m a ir z i n g n c o a a l s m a k e s u r e w h e t h e r t h e s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t a n d t h e s t o r y o r n o .t “

  I t m a k e s t h e r e a d e r s a w a r e o f t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t e x t ” ( M i k u l e c k y ,

  1

  9 9 ) . B y s u m m a ir z i n g , t h e s t u d e n t s c a n d e m o n s rt a t e t h e i r c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e t e x t s .

  . R e a d i n g P r o b l e m s e T h e r e a r e s o m e p r o b l e m s f a c e d b y t h e s t u d e n t s d u ir n g r e a d i n g .

  A c c o r d i n g t o P r e s s l e y a n d A f lf e r b a c h (

  1

  9

  9 5 : p .

  6 6 ) , s t u d e n t s c a n l o s e c o n c e n rt a it o n , r e a d t o o s l o w l y o r t o o q u i c k l y , n o t u n d e r s t a n d w h a t h a s b e e n r e a d o r a c h i e v e r e a d i n g g o a l , a n d l a c k o f b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e t h a t a f f e c t s c o m p r e h e n s i o n n e g a it v e l y . H e n c e , t h e s t u d e n t s if n d u n f a m i il a r t e r m s i n t h e t e x t s a n d u n c l e a r m e a n i n g o f a w o r d o r p h r a s e . T h e r e c a n o a l s b e d fi if c u l it e s d u e t o a

  • r e a d e r t e x t i n t e r a c it o n , f o r e x a m p l e , w h e n a r e a d e r ’ s b e il e f c l a s h e s w ti h a n o p i n i o n e x p r e s s e d i n t h e t e x t s . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e a r e a n u m b e r o f w a y s t h a t t h e t s e x t c a n b e p o o lr y w ir tt e n , f r o m p r o b l e m a t t h e w o r d l e v e l t o t h e o v e r a l l m e a n i n g o f t h e p a s s a g e .

  T h e p r o b l e m a t t h e w o r d l e v e l o r t h e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e w o r d s a f f e c t s s t u d e n t s ’ u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t e x t s . T h e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e w o r d s s i o n e o f t h e m o s t i m p o tr a n t s k i ll s i n r e a d i n g . T h e n u m b e r o f w o r d s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s k n o w d e t e r m i n e s t h e d fi if c u tl y a n d c o m p l e x ti y o f t h e t e x t s b e i n g r e a d a n d u n d e r s t o o d .

  F a li u r e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e t e x t s w li l d e if n ti e l y h o l d t h e s t u d e n t s b a c k i n t h e e f f o tr s t o i m p r o v e c o m p r e h e n s i o n ( R a y g o r & R a y g o r ,

  1

  9

  8 5 .) K u s t a r y o (

  1

  9

  8 8 ) s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e f o u r s t u d e n t s ’ p r o b l e m s i n r e a d i n g E n g il s h a s a t a r g e t l a n g u a g e . T h o s e p r o b l e m s a r e w o r d r e c o g n i it o n , n e w w o r d r e c o g n i it o n , l a n g u a g e s y s t e m , a n d t h e s t u d e n t s . T h e s t u d e n t s f a c e p r o b l e m s i n r e c o g n i z i n g w o r d s o f t h e t a r g e t l a n g u a g e . T h e p r o b l e m s a ir s e e b ca u s e E n g il s h a n d I n d o n e s i a n a r e n o t t h e b r a n c h e s o f t h e s a m e l a n g u a g e . S o m e o f t h e m h a v e d fi f e r e n - t w o r d o r d e ir n g t o e x p r e s s e q u i v a l e n t i d e a .s T h e w o r d r e c o g n i it o n i s a n i m p o tr a n t c o m p o n e n t t o u n d e r s ta d n a t a r g e t l a n g u a g e a n d n a it v e l a n g u a g e . e T h s t u d e n t s s o m e it m e s e n c o u n t e r f a m i il a r w o r d s o f n e w p a s s a g e s a n d d i s c o v e r t h e m e a n i n g o f u n f a m i il a r w o r d s . T h e s t u d e n t s d i s it n g u i s h t h e w o r d r e c o g n i it o n s k li l f r o m t h e i r n a it v e a n d t a r g e t l a n g u a g e . “I t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r I n d o n e s i a n s t u d e n t s t o b e c o m e m o r e a d a p t a t w o r d r e c o g n i it o n i n t h e t a r g e t l a n g u a g e t h a n t h e y a r e i n n a it v e l a n g u a g e ” ( K u s t a r y o ,

  1

  9

  8 8 : p .

  1 6 .) E n g il s h w o r d s a r e c o m p l e x a n d t h e c o m p l e x ti y b ir n g s d fi if c u tl y t o t h e s t u d e n t s . I n r e a d i n g E n g il s h , t h e s t u d e n t s a r e r e q u ri e d t o u s e n o t o n l y t h e ri t h o u g h t s b u t t h e f e e il n g s a s w e l .l T h e s e c o n d r e a d i n g p r o b l e m i s a n e w w o r d r e c o g n i it o n . T h e w o r d s w h i c h h a v e b e e n l e a r n e d a n d n e w w o r d s a r e t w o a s p e c t s w h i c h c a u s e d fi if c u tl y .

  L e a r n i n g n e w w o r d s i s g r e a lt y i n lf u e n c e d b y s t u d e n t s ’ p ir o r k n o w l e d g e o f w o r d .s T h e t h ri d r e a d i n g p r o b l e m i s t h e l a n g u a g e s y s t e m . I n r e a d i n g E n g il s h t e x t s , t h e p r o b l e m s i n c l u d e v o c a b u l a r y a n d s rt u c t u r e . T h e y a r e f ri m l y it e d a n d c a n n o t b e s e p a r a t e d . K u s t a r y o (

  1

  9

  8 8 ) s t a t e s t h a t ti i s e s s e n it a l f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o k n o w t h e d fi f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e f o r m s a n d e l e m e n t s i n E n g il s h s e n t e n c e .s T h e l a s t p r o b l e m i n r e a d i n g i s t h e s t u d e n t s ’ a tt ti u d e . T h e s t u d e n t s ’ a tt ti u d e i n r e a d i n g E n g il s h s h o u l d b e p o s i it v e . T h i s m e a n s t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e t o c o n c e n rt a t e t o t h e r e a d i n g m a t e ir a l s s o t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s c a n q u i c kl y u n d e r s t a n d t h e t e x t s . I n o t h e r w o r d ,s t h e s t u d e n t s s h o u l d h a v e a g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g .

  M o it v a it o n i s a l s o i m p o tr a n t t . I g o e s h a n d i n h a n d w ti h e t h a tt ti u d e t o r e a d a n d u n d e r s t a n d t h e m a t e ir a l s i n E n g il s h a s t h e t a r g e t l a n g u a g e . T h e s e t w o a s p e c t s , a tt ti u d e a n d m o it v a it o n i n lf u e n c e t h e s u c c s e s a n d f a li u r e o f t h e s t u d e n t s ’ s t u d y ( K u s t a r y o ,

  1

  9

  8 8 : p .

  2 1 .) W e a k l y m o it v a t e d s t u d e n t s w li l h a v e d fi if c u tl y i n r e c o g n i z i n g v o c a b u l a r y i n t h e r e a d i n g m a t e ir a l .s

  R e a d i n g I n t e r e s t .f

  A c c o r d i n g t o T a s c h o w (

  1

  9

  8 5 ) , i n t e r e s t i s w ti h i n a r e a d e r o r a p e r s o n . I n t e r e s t i s a s t a t e o f m i n d . B e i n g i n t e r e s t e d o r n o t b e i n g i n t e r e s t e d i s n o t a q u a l ti y t h a t r e s t s w ti h a b o o k o r a n o b j e c .t A b o o k o r a n o b j e c t i s a s i n t e r e s it n g a s a r e a d e r o r v i e w e r m a k e s i .t I n t e r e s t i s o n e o f t h e a f f e c it v e f a c t o r s t h a t d e v e l o p a n d m a i n t a i n a d e s ri e f o r r e a d i n g . S i n c e i n t e r e s t i s p r e s e n t w h e n t h e r e a d e r g e t s e n g r o s s e d i n w h a t h e r e a d s a n d t h e n d e v e l o p s e v e n k e e n e r i n t e r e s t t o p u r s u e s p e c i a l s u b j e c t m a tt e r a r e a s , i t r e s u tl s i n e x p a n d i n g t h e k n o w l e d g e . I n t e r e s t i s a p o w e r f u l m o it v a t o r a n d i s u s e d a s a k e y c o m p o n e n t n o t o n l y f o r t h e c h li d r e n b u t a l s o f o r b e g i n n i n g a d u l t r e a d e r s ( H e a tt h i n g t o n & K o s k i n e n ,

  1

  9

  8 2 a s c ti e d i n T a s c h o w ,

  1

  9

  8 5 .) E a c h i n d i v i d u a l h a s d fi f e r e n t t y p i c a l i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g . H a r ir s (

  1

  9

  5 4 ) s t a t e s t h a t “ t h e r e i s rt e m e n d o u s r a n g e o f i n d i v i d u a l d fi f e r e n c e s b o t h i n a m o u n t o f v o l u n t a r y r e a d i n g a n d i n s p e c i if c i n t e r e s t t h a t a r e e x p e c t e d ” ( p .

  4 9 ) . I t m e a n s e a c h i n d i v i d u a l h a s h i s / h e r o w n c a p a b li ti y t o r e a d t h e b o o k s ( h o w m a n y p a g e s a n d t h e l e v e l o f d fi if c u tl y ) . T h e r e a r e s o m e f a c t o r s i n lf u e n c i n g r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t o f a p e r s o n . T h e f a c t o r s a r e a c c e s s i b li ti y a n d a v a li a b li ti y , t e a c h e r , f ir e n d , m e d i a , a n d t h e d fi if c u tl y o f t h e b o o k s . A c c e s s i b li ti y a n d a v a li a b li ti y h a v e a m a r k e d i n lf u e n c e o n t h e i n t e r e s t ( H a r ir s ,

  1

  9

  5 4 : p .

  4 1 ) . A c c e s s i b li ti y m e a n s t h e b o o k s a r e a rl e a d y p r o v i d e d s o t h a t e a c h i n d i v i d u a l c a n r e a d t h e b o o k s . A v a li a b li ti y m e a n s t h e r e a r e b o o k s i n s u r r o u n d i n g s s u c h a s i n t h e il b r a r y , s c h o o l s , o r h o m e s t h a t e a c h i n d i v i d u a l c a n c h o o s e . O t h e r f a c t o r s i n lf u e n c i n g r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t o f i n d i v i d u a l a r e t h e t e a c h e r , p a r e n t s ’ a tt ti u d e , a n d f ir e n d s ’ o p i n i o n . T h e m e d i a s u c h a s m o v i e o r r a d i o c a n a l s o i n lf u e n c e t h e r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t o f i n d i v i d u a l ( H a r ir s ,

  1

  9

  5 4 : p .

  4

  1 1 .) T h e d fi if c u tl y o f t h e b o o k s a l s o i n f l u e n c e s t h e r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t .

  A c c o r d i n g t o H a r ir s (

  1

  9

  5 4 : p .

  4

  1 2 ,) i n d i v i d u a l s h o u l d b e g i v e n r e a d i n g m a t e ir a l , w h i c h i s n o t m o r e d fi if c u l t t h a n t h e g r a d e l e v e l s o t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a n r e a d s u c c e s s f u ll y . T h e l e v e l o f d fi if c u tl y s h o u l d b e a p p r o p ir a t e w ti h t h e s t u d e n t s ’ m a s t e r y o f v o c a b u l a r y . A s H a r ir s (

  1

  9

  5 4 : p .

  4

  1 2 ) s t a t e s t h a t “ t h e d fi if c u tl y o f a b o o k d e p e n d s l a r g e l y o n t h e v o c a b u l a r y t h a t i t c o n t a i n .s ” B e s i d e ,s t h e s - e n t e n c e s rt u c t u r e a n d t h e f a m i il a r ti y o r s rt a n g e n e s s o f t h e c o n t e n t e a r a l s o s i g n i if c a n t f a c t o r i n d fi if c u tl y .

  . R e a d i n g H a b ti g

  V e r p l a n k e n (

  2

  1 2 ) s t a t e s t h a t h a b i t i s a t h i n g t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s d o r e g u l a lr y a s a p r a c it c e a n d a c u s t o m . R e l a t e d t o t h i s s t u d y , r e a d i n g h a b ti f o r m a it o n i s r e a d i n g a c it v ti y t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s d o r e g u l a lr y a s a c u s t o m . T h e r e a r e t h r e e p i ll a r s o f r e a d i n g h a b i t f o r m a it o n a c c o r d i n g t o

  V e r p l a n k e n (

  2

  1 2 ) , n a m e l y , r e p e it it o n , a u t o m a it c ti y - , a n d c o n t e x t c u e s . R e p e it it o n i s t h e f r e q u e n c y o f a b e h a v i o r . A u t o m a it c ti y i s t h e lf u e n c y o f - h a b ti u a l b e h a v i o r . M e a n w h li e , c o n t e x t c u e s m e a n s r e a d i n g h a b i t a r e t ir g g e r e d b y c u e s i n s t a b l e c o n t e x t s s u c h a s it m e , l o c a it o n , m o o d , s ti u a it o n , a n d s o c i a l a n d c u tl u r a l p r a c it c e .s

  A c c o r d i n g t o G a o n a a n d G o n z a l e z (

  2

  1 1 ) , i n d i c a t o r s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p r e s e n c e o f r e a d i n g h a b i t a r e : a tt ti u d e t o w a r d r e a d i n g , r e a d i n g f r e q u e n c y , b o o k s r e a d , it m e s p e n t o n a c a d e m i c r e a d i n g , it m e s p e - n t o n n o n a c a d e m i c r e a d i n g , a n d m o it v a it o n . A tt ti u d e t o w a r d r e a d i n g m e a n s t h e r e a s o n s f o r r e a d i n g ti s e fl . R e a d i n g f r e q u e n c y i s t h e f r e q u e n c y a t w h i c h a p e r s o n r e a d s b o o k s i n s p a r e it m e . D e l u c c h o , R o h w e r , a n d T h o m a s (

  1

  9

  8 7 , a s c ti e d i n A m b r u s t e r & O s b o r n ,

  2 2 ) s t a t e t h a t a c a d e m i c s u c c e s s o f t h e s t u d e n t s d e p e n d n o t o n t o t a l it m e s p e n t t o s t u d y , b u t h o w t h e s t u d e n t s u s e t h e it m e e f f e c it v e l y .

  T h e b o o k s r e a d i n d i c a t e h o w m a n y b o o k s t h a t t h e p e r s o n h a s r e a d i n t h e l a s t t h r e e m o n t h .s T h e it m e o n a c a d e m i c r e a d i n g i s t h e it m e t h a t t h e p e r s o n d e v o t e s t o r e a d b o o k s o n h e r o r h i s s t u d y s u b j e c t . M o r e o v e ,r it - m e s p e n t o n n o n a c a d e m i c r e a d i n g i s t h e it m e t h a t t h e p e r s o n d e v o t e s t o r e a d b o o k n o t d ri e c lt y r e l a t e d t o h i s o r h e r s t u d y s u b j e c t . M o t i v a it o n m e a n s t h e m o it v a it o n f o r r e a d i n g a c a d e m i c o - r n o n a c a d e m i c b o o k .s

  A c c o r d i n g t o T a s c h o w (

  1

  9

  8 5 : p .

  2 7 ,) t h e r e a r e t h r e e k i n d s o f m o it v a it o n i n r e a d i n g . T h e y a r e e x t ir n s i c , i n - t ir n s i c , a n d - s u b j e c t m a tt e r d ri e c t e d m o it v a it o n .

  E x t ir n s i c m o it v a it o n c o m e s n o t f r o m w ti h i n b u t f r o m w ti h o u .t I t c o m e s b e c a u s e o f i n t e n s ti y o f p r e s s u r e , f o r c e , o r r e w a r d s . A l o n g a s m o it v a it o n t o r e a d i s i m p o s e d e x t e r n a ll y , i t w li l b e il m ti e d o f d u r a it o n . tI i s d fi f e r e n t f r o m i n t ir n s i c m o it v a it o n . K e m p f a n d L e h r k e (

  1

  9

  7 5 a s c ti e d i n T a s c h o w ,

  1

  9

  8 5 : p .

  2 8 ) p o i n t o u t t h a t “ i n t ir n s i c m o it v a t i o n r e s u tl s f r o m t h e a c it v ti y ti s e fl , w h i c h i s e x p e ir e n c e d a s p l e a s a n t a n d i n w h i c h t h e l e a r n e r i s a t l e a s t m o d e r a t e l y s u c c e s s f u .l ” T h e s t u d e n t s w h o h a v e n o p u r p o s e s o f r e a d i n g w li l h a v e l a c k f o c o n c e n rt a it o n a n d e x p e ir e n c e d fi if c u l it e s i n m a i n t a i n i n g ti . T h e l a s t t y p e o f m o it v a it o n i s a s - - u b j e c t m a tt e r d ri e c t e d m o it v a it o n . A c c o r d i n g t o K e m p f a n d L e h r k e (

  1

  9

  7 5 a s c ti e d i n T a s c h o w ,

  1

  9

  8 5 : p .

  2 8 - ) , a - s u b j e c t m a tt e r d ri e c t e d m o it v a it o n i s i n i it a t e d b y a r e a d i n g t a s k t o b e d o n e . T h i s s u b j e c t m a tt e r s p a r k s t h e r e a d e r ’ s a tt e n it o n a n d c u ir o s ti y , w h i c h t h e n p u s h e s t h e r e a d e r t o if n d n e w i n f o r m a it o n . tI g r a b s t h e r e a d e r ’ s c o n c e n rt a it o n a n d d e s ri e t o d e l v e d e e p e r i n t o s u b j e c t m a tt e r u n it l t h e r e a d e r ’ s n e e d s a r e s a it s if e d .

  . B e g i n n e r C o ll e g e S t u d e n t s

  2 S i m o n (

  2 9 ) s t a t e s t h a t a n a d u l t e d u c a it o n o c c u r s i n c o ll e g e s o r u n i v e r s i it e s , t h e r e f o r e b e g i n n e r c o ll e g e s t u d e n t s a r e i n c l u d i n g i n t o a d u tl l e a r n e r s .

  S i m o n (

  2 9 ) s a y s t h a t t h e r e a r e s o m e c h a r a c t e ir s it c s o f a d u l t l e a r n e r .s A d u tl l e a r n e r s t e - n d t o b e m o r e s e fl d ri e c t e d a s t h e y m a t u r e . A d u l t l e a r n e r s u s e t h e i r e x p e ir e n c e s t o b u il d o n . T h e y t e n d t o d i s c u s s a n d p r o b l e m s o l v i n g l e a r n i n g . A d u l t l e a r n e r s a r e a w a r e o f s p e c i if c l e a r n i n g n e e d s t h a t a r e g e n e r t e d b y r e - a a l l fi e e v e n t .s A d u tl l e a r n e r s a r e c o m p e t e - n c y b a s e d l e a r n e r s w a n it n g t o a p p l y t h e i r n e w s k li l o r k n o w l e d g e .

  . P e r c e p it o n

  3 A c c o r d i n g t o G e o r g e a n d J o n e s (

  2 5 : p .

  1 5 ) , “ p e r c e p it o n i s t h e p r o c e s s b y w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s s e l e c t , o r g a n i z e , a n d i n t e r p r e t t h e i n p u t f r o m t h e i r s e n s e s ( v i s i o n , h e a ir n g , t o u c h , s m e ll , a n d t a s t e ) t o g i v e m e a n i n g a n d o r d e r t o t h e w o lr d a r o u n d t h e m ” . T h r o u g h t h i s d e if n i it o n , a p e r s o n o b t a i n s t h e d a t a f r o m t h e e n v ri o n m e n t t h r o u g h t h e s it m u l i a n d t h e n t h i n k s a b o u t ti , a n d if n a ll y i n t e r p r e t s t h e d a t a m e a n i n g f u ll y . I t i s a w a y t h a t t h e p e r s o n v i e w s t h e e n v ri o n m e n t . I n o t h e r w o r d s , p e r c e p it o n i s v i e w e d a s t h e r e s p o n s e t o t h e s it m u l i o r s u r r o u n d i n g . T h e r e s p o n s e o c c u r s i n t h e p e r s o n ’ s a w a r e n e s s t o t h e i n c o m i n g d a t a f r o m t h e s it m u l i t h r o u g h s e n s o r y r e c e p t o r s . T h e n t h e r e s p o n s e w li l b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s m e a n i n g f u l i n f o r m a it o n a b o u t t h e s it m u l i c a ll e d p e r c e p it o n .

  . P e r c e p t u a l P r o c e s s a

  A c c o r d i n g t o A tl m a n , V a e n z i , a n d H o d g e tt s , p e r c e p it o n b e g i n s f r o m t h e s e l e c it o n o f t h e d a t a f r o m t h e s it m u l u s t h r o u g h e t h s e n s o r (

  1

  9

  8 5 : p .

  8 6 ) . tI s p r o c e s s a ll o w s t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o i n t e r p r e t t h e d a t a . E a c h i n d i v i d u a l h a s d fi f e r e n t w a y i n i n t e r p r e it n g t h e d a t a . I t d e p e n d s o n t h e c l a r ti y a n d f a m i il a r ti y o f t h e s it m u il , p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e ir s it c s , n e e d s a n d v a l u e s , k n o w l e d g e , f e e il n g s , a n d p a s t e x p e ir e n c e s . A tl m a n e t a l . (

  1

  9

  8 5 ) , s u m m a ir z e s t h e p e r c e p t u a l p r o c e s s i n F i g u r e 2 . 1 .

  F i g u r e 2 .

  1 P e r c e p t u a l P r o c e s s ( A tl m a n e t a l . ,

  1

  9

  8 5 : . p

  8 6 ) . F a c t o r s I n lf u e n c i n g P e r c e p it o n b

  T h e r e a r e f o u r i m p o tr a n t f a c t o r s i n lf u e n c i n g a p e r s o n ’ s p e r c e p it o n a c c o r d i n g t o A tl m a n e t a l . (

  1

  9

  8 5 : pp . 6 8 -

  9 1 ) . T h e i m p o tr a n t f a c t o r s a r e s e l e c it o n o f s it m u il , o r g a n i z a it o n o f s it m u il , t h e s ti u a it o n , a n d t h e p e r s o n s e fl ’ s c o n c e p t .

  T h o s e f a c t o r s a r e e x p l a i n e d a s f o ll o w s . 1 ) S e l e c it o n o f S it m u il A p e r s o n f o c u s e s o n l y o n a s m a l l n u m b e r o f a ll t h e s it m u l i s u r r o u n d e d . I t m e a n s s e l e c it o n . E a c h p e r s o n h a s d fi f e r e n t s e l e c it o n o f s it m u l i a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s m a l l n u m b e r . T h i s p r o c e s s i s c a ll e d s e l e c it o n a n d i s o n e r e a s o n w h y p e o p l e p e r c e i v e t h i n g s d fi f – e r e n lt y e a c h p e r s o n s e l e c t s s p e c i if c c u e s a n d if tl e r s , o r s c r e e n s , o u t o f o t h e r s . 2 ) O r g a n i z a it o n o f S it m u il

  T h e s e c o n d f a c t o r i n lf u e n c i n g t h e p e r c e p it o n i s o r g a n i z a it o n . A tf e r t h e d a t a i s s e l e c t e d , ti i s a r r a n g e d t o b e m e a n i n g f u l i n f o r m a it o n . A c c o r d i n g t o A tl m a n e . t a l (

  1

  9

  8 5 ) , t h e b r a i n b ir n g s o r d e r t h e d a t a “ b y s e l e c it n g c e tr a i n ti e m s a n d p u t it n g t h e m t o g e t h e r i n a m e a n i n g f u l w a y b a s e d o n t h e e x p e ir e n c e s ” ( p . p 7 8 - ) 8 .

  8 3 ) T h e S ti u a it o n T h e t h i r d f a c t o r i n lf u e n c i n g t h e p e r c e p t i o n i s s ti u a it o n . A p e r s o n ’ s f a m i il a r ti y , o r e x p e c t a it o n s , a s ti u a it o n , p a s t e x p e ir e n c e a f f e c t w h a t t h e p e r s o n p e r c e i v e s . P e r c e i v i n g a s ti u a it o n a c c u r a t e l y i s r e l a t e d t o h o w a p e r s o n a d j u s t s s h i o r h e r b e h a v i o r t o t h e s ti u a it o n .

  4 ) T h e P e - r s o n ’ s S e fl C o n c e p t T h e l a s t f a c t o r i n lf u e n c i n g a n i n d i v i d u a l ’ p e r c e p it o i - n s s e fl c o n c e p t .

  A tl m a n e t a l . (

  1

  9

  8 5 : p . 9 ) s t a t e s t h a t t h e w a y i n d i v i d u a l f e e l s a n d p e r c e i v e s s i k n o w n a s s - e fl c o n c e p t . T h e w a y t h e p e r s o n s e e h i m s e l f o r h e r s e l f a f f e c t s t h e p e r c e p it o n o f t h e w o lr d a r o u n d h i m o r h e r . T h - e s e fl c o n c e p t i s i m p o tr a n t b e c a u s e t h e m e n t a l p i c t u r e o f n a i n d i v i d u a l d e t e r m i n e s m u c h o f w h a t h e o r s h e p e r c e i v e s a n d d o e .s

  . R e v i e w o f R e l a t e d S t u d y B

  T h e r e w a s a p r e v i o u s s t u d y r e l a t e d t o B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . T h e s t u d y e n it lt e d “ S t u d e n t s ’ P e r c e p it o n o n t h e T e a c h i n g L e a r n i n g A c it v i it e s i n B o o k R e p o r t

  C o u r s e ” w a s w ir tt e n b y B e tr h a L e s t a r i S e n d u k i n

  2

  1 1 . S h e d i s c u s s e d t h e p e r c e p it o n o f t h e s t u d e n t s o n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e i n t h e E n g il s h L a n g u a g e E d u c a it o n S t u d y P r o g a m n S a a t a D h a r m a U n i v e r s ti y . T h e r e w e r e t h r e e r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m s f o r m u l a t e d i n t h e s t u d y . F ri s t r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m w a s if n d i n g h o w t e a c h i n g a n d l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s e s . T h e s e c o n d r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m w a s i n v e s it g a it n g h o w t h e a s s e s s m e n t s a r e c o n d u c t e d i n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . T h e t h ri d r e s e a r c h

  B o o k

  p r o b l e m c o n d u c t e d i n t h e s t u d y w a s i n v e s it g a it n g s t u d e n t s ’ p e r c e p it o n o n

  R e p o r t C o u r s e .

  T h e s t u d y b e l o n g e d t o d e s c ir p it v e r e s e a r c h . T h e m e t h o d u s e d i n t h e s t u d y w a a s s u r v e y r e s e a r c h . T h e i n s rt u m e n t s e m p l o y e d i n t h e s t u d y w e r e q u e s it o n n a ri e s a n d i n t e r v i e w s . T h e p a r it c i p a n t s w e r e t h ri d s e m e s t e r s t u d e n t s i n

  2 9 a c a d e m i c y e a r o f S a n a t a D h a r m a U n i v e r s ti y w h o h a d t a k e n t h e c o u r s e . T h e r e w e r e

  8

  7 p a r it c i p a n t s i n t h e s t u d y .

  T h e t h e o ir e s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y w e r e p e r c e p it o n , l e a r n i n g f a c t o r ,s r e a d i n g , e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g , l a n g u a g e a s s e s s m e n t , a n d B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . T h e t h e o r y o f p e r c e p it o n w a s t a k e n f r o m G e o r g e a n d J o n e s (

  2 5 ) a n d R o b b i n s (

  2 1 ) . S h e a l s o e x p l a i n e d t h e p e r c e i v e ,r t a r g e t , a n d s ti u a it o n w h i c h a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e p e r c e p it o n t h e o r y . T h e t h e o r y o f l e a r n i n g f a c t o r s w a s t a k e n f r o m A h m a d i a n d S u p ir y o n o (

  1

  9

  9 1 ) , R o b b i n s (

  2 1 ) , G a r r y (

  1

  9

  6 5 ) , G e o r g e a n d J o n e s (

  2 5 ) . S h e e x p l a i n e d a b o u t l e a r n i n g s it m u l i f a c t o r , l e a r n i n g m e t h o d f a c t o r , a n d i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r . S h e a l s o d e s c ir b e d r e a d i n g t a s k f r o m N u n a n ’ s t h e o r y (

  1

  9

  9 9 ) . T h e e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g t h e o r y w a s t a k e n B r o w n ( 2 4 ) , D a y (

  1

  9

  9 3 ) , B e ll (

  1

  9

  9 8 ) . W h li e f o r t h e l a n g u a g e a s s e s s m e n t , s h e u s e d t h e o r y f r o m G r o l u n d (

  1

  9

  9 8 ) a n d L a d o (

  1

  9

  6 1 ) . T h e l a s t t h e o r y u s e d i n a t h e s i s e n it lt e d “ S t u d e n t s ’ P e r c e p it o n o n t h e T e a c h i n g L e a r n i n g A c it v i it e s i n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e ” w a s B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . I t w a s t a k e n f r o m L a k e w o o d P u b il c L i b r a r y .

  T h e a n a l y s i s a n d if n d i n g s w e r e e x p l a i n e d i n t h e s t u d y . B e tr h a L e s t a r i S e n d u k (

  2

  1 1 ) a s t h e r e s e a r c h e r f o u n d o u t t h a t t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e c l a s s m a d e t h e r e a d i n g p r o c e s s h a r d t o b e m o n ti o r e d . e T h a s s e s s m s e n t w e r e g o o d b e c a u s e t h e y a s s e s s e d s t u d e n t s ’ c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d a s k e d p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s e s t o c r e a t e i n t e r a c it o n w ti h t h e s t o r y . T h e r e s u l t o f t h e s t u d y a l s o s h o w e d t h a t i t h a d g o o d p e r c e p it o n o n t h e c o u r s e , a s s e s s m e n t s , a n d t h e t e a c h i n g l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s e .s T h e r e w a s a p r o b l e m w h i c h w a s n o t c o v e r e d i n B e tr a L e s t a r i S e n d u k ’ s t h e s i s , t h e p r o b l e m i s r e a d i n g p r o b l e m .s I t i s t h e r e f o r e t h i s s t u d y i n v e s it g a t e s t h e r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s o f B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e s t u d e n t s . T h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a l s o d e s c ir b e s t h e s t u d e n t s ’ p e r c e p it o n o n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e .

  . T h e o r e it c a l F r a m e w o r k C

B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e

T h e s t u d y d i s c u s s e s .

  I t i s d e s i g n e d t o i n rt o d u c e s t u d e n t s t o E n g il s h n o v e l s , i n c r e a s e s t u d e n t s ’ i n t e r e s t a n d i m p r o v e s t u d e n t s ’ a b li ti y i n r e a d i n g l ti e r a r y w o r k s ( L e s s o n U n i t P l a n f o B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e ,

  2

  1 1 ) . S i n c e i t i s t o i n rt o d u c e s t u d e n t s t o E n g il s h n o v e l s , t h e c l a s s a c it v ti y i s m o s lt y r e a d i n g . H o w e v e r , r e a d i n g a c it v ti y i n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e i s n o t d o n e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . T h e s t u d e n t s r e a d n o v e l s o u t s i d e c l a s s r o o m s u c h a s a t h o m e o r i n t h e il b r a r y . A s U r q u h a r t a n d W e ri (

  1

  9

  9 8 : p .

  2

  1 6 ) s t a t e t h a t e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g i s d o n e i n t h e il b r a r y o r a t h o m e , t h e a i m b e i n g p l e a s u r e o r p r a c it c e . B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e i s i n c l u d e d i n t o e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g .

  T h e s t u d e n t s e n c o u n t e r r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s d u ir n g r e a d i n g a c it v ti y . T h e s e p r o b l e m s a r e c o v e r e d i n t h e f ri s t r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m . I t if n d s o u t s t u d e n t s ’ r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s i n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . A c c o r d i n g t o P r e s s l e y a n d A f lf e r b a c h (

  1

  9

  9 5 : p . 6 , 6 ) p r o b l e m s d u ir n g r e a d i n g c a n b e d u e t o u n f a m i il a r t e r m s i n t h e t e x t a n d u n c l e a r m e a n i n g o f a w o r d o r p h r a s e , l a c k o f b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e , l o s i n g c o n s e n t r a it o n o r r e a d s l o w l y o r t o o q u i c k l y . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e a r e a n u m b e r o f w a y s t h a t t e x t c a n b e p o o lr y w ir tt e n . T h e r e c a n a l s o b e d fi if c u l it e s d u e t o a

  • r e a d e r t e x t i n t e r a c it o n , f o r e x a m p l e , w h e n t h e r e a d e r ’ s b e il e f c l a s h w ti h t h e o p i n i o n e x p r e s s e d i n t h e t e x t .

  T o if n d o u t t h e r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s f a c e d b y t h e s t u d e n t s i n B o o k R e p o r t

  

C o u r s e , s o m e t h e o ir e s a r e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . T h e r e s e a r c h e r u s e d t h e o ir e s o f t h e

  r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s w h i c h a r e s u g g e s t e d b y P r e s s l e y a n d A f lf e r b a c h (

  1

  9

  9 5 ) , R a y g o r a n d R a y g o r (

  1

  9

  8 5 ) , a n d K u s t a r y o (

  1

  9

  8 8 ) a s t h e m a i n t h e o ir e s u s e d . T o if n d o u t t h e s t u d e n t s ’ r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r u s e d t h e q u e s it o n n a ri e s a n d t h e i n t e r v i e w s s a t h e i n s rt u m e n t s . B e s i d e s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r a l s o i n v e s it g a t e s s t u d e n t s ’ p e r c e p it o n . T h e t h e o r y o f p e r c e p it o n i s t a k e n f r o m G e o r g e a n d J o n e s (

  2 5 ) a n d a l s o A tl m a n e t a l (

  1

  9

  8 5 ) . T o i n v e s it g a t e s t u d e n t s ’ p e r c e p it o n o n t h e i r e x p e ir e n c e d u ir n g B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e , t h e r e s e a r c h e r u s e d t h e o ir e s o f r e a d i n g s k i ll ,s r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t , a n d r e a d i n g h a b ti . T h e r e a d i n g s k i ll s t h e o r y i s s u g g e s t e d b y M i k u l e c k y ( 2 ) . T h e r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t t h e o r y i s t a k e n f r o m T a s c h o w (

  1

  9

  8 5 ) a n d H a r ir s (

  1

  9

  5 4 ) . T h e o r y o f r e a d i n g h a b ti i s a d o p t e d f r o m G a o n a a n d G o n z a l e s (

  2

  1 1 ) . T h o s e t h e o ir e s o f r e a d i n g a r e u s e d i n t h e q u e s it o n n a ri e a n d t h e i n t e r v i e w .

  R e a d i n g E n g il s h n o v e l s f o r t h e f ri s t it m e c a u s e s r e a d i n g p r o b l e m .s H o w e v e r , B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e i s d e s i g n e d t o i n rt o d u c e s t u d e n t s t o r e a d i n g E n g il s h n o v e l s , i m p r o v e t h e i r i n t e r e s t a n d a b li ti y i n r e a d i n g . T h e s t u d e n t s a r e a c c u s t o m e d t o r e a d i n g E n g il s h t e x t s s o t h a t i t m a k e s t h e s t u d e n t s t o h a v e r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t a n d r e a d i n g h a b ti . M o r e o v e r , t h e s t u d e n t s c a n a l s o g e t r e a d i n g s k i ll s d u ir n g t h e p r o c e s s o f c o m p l e it n g t h e a s s i g n m e n t s u c h a s p r e v i e w i n g , s k i m m i n g ,

  B o o k R e p o r t

  s c a n n i n g , g u e s s i n g t h e m e a n i n g , a n d s u m m a ir z i n g . A s a r e s u tl ,

  C o u r s e c a n b u li d s t u d e n t s ’ r e a d i n g h a b ti f o r m a it o n .

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY This chapter deals with the methodology that the researcher employed in

  

the study. It is divided into six sections. Those sections are research method,

research setting, research participants, instruments and data gathering technique,

data analysis technique, and research procedure.

A. Research Method

  This study investigated the perception of the English Language

Education Study Program students on reading habit formation in Book Report

Course . It belongs to mixed method research. Ary et al. (2006) state that mixed

method research combines qualitative and quantitative approaches in a single

study. The mixing process may occur in the data collection, methodology, the

specified method, the logistic of the design, and the analysis. Related to this study,

the mixing process occurs in the data collections which are the questionnaires and

the interviews. The purpose of mixed method research is to expand the breadth or

depth of the study. In order to answer the research problems, the researcher

employed survey method. It permits the researcher to measure the characteristics

of the groups’ attitude and opinions toward some issues (Ary et al., 2006: p. 28).

  

Employing the survey method, the researcher could measure the characteristics of

the students ’ opinions in Book Report Course.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  29 The data were gathered by asking questions to Book Report Course students. The data were about students’ perception on Book Report Course related

to learning activities and the reading problems faced by the students in taking the

course. The data of the study were gathered through the questionnaires and the

interviews as the instruments. As Ary et al. (2006: p. 28) state that

  “survey

research uses intruments such as questionnaires and interviews to gather

information from groups of individuals.

  

B.

   Research Setting The study took place at Sanata Dharma University Yogyakarta, to be

exact at the English Language Education Study Program. The study was

conducted in class C and D of Book Report Course. The researcher distributed the

questionnaires in Book Report Course classes during the even semester of

rd th

2012/2013 academic year. It was on December 3 and 6 , 2012. The participants

needed around fifteen minutes to answer the questions in the questionnaires

distributed. The researcher also interviewed the students and a lecturer at the

English Language Education Study Program Sanata Dharma University.

C. Research Participants

  The research participants were chosen from the target population of the

first semester students of Book Report Course in the English Language Education

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  30

generalization is made.” The reason of choosing the target population was

accessibility, since it is located at the same faculty as the researcher’s.

  In order to simplify the population, the researcher chose the sample of the study. The sample refers to “the small group that is observed” (Ary et al.,

2006: p. 148). Considering the time limitation of the researcher, the researcher

applied cluster sampling. The unit chosen of cluster sampling is not an individual

but, rather, a group of individuals who are naturally together (Ary et al., 2006: p.

  

154). The researcher chose a group of individuals in the classrooms. There were

two classes chosen; class C and D of Book Report Course. Class C consisted of 28

students and class D consisted of 29 students. To sum up, the participants

consisted of 57 students in total.

  The participants of the study were the students of the English Education

Study Program who were taking Book Report Course in academic year

2012/2013. The researcher chose the students who were taking Book Report

Course rather than those who had taken the course to avoid bias. The study

conducted at the last meeting of Book Report Course in classes because the

researcher considered that the students were having experiences in the process of

teaching learning in the course.

  The participants were involved in filling in the questionnaires. After

filling in the questionnaires, the participants were interviewed. Two students of

each class were chosen as representatives to be interviewed to complete the data

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  31

also a lecturer. Interviewing the lecturer was aimed to obtain the information of

Book Report Course and its class activities.

D. Instruments and Data Gathering Technique

  This section describes the research instruments employed in carrying out

the study. The instruments were the questionnaires and the interviews. This

section also describes the techniques of collecting the data in the study.

1. Instruments

  There were two instruments being employed in this study. Those

instruments were the questionnaires and the interviews. The instruments aim to

gather the data of the reading problems faced by the students and the perception

on Book Report Course.

a. Questionnaire

  In order to find out the reading problems faced by the students and their

perception on Book Report Course, the researcher administered the questionnaires

to the research participants. Ary et al. (2002: p. 421) define a questionnaire as an

instrument to gather information by having the participants

  ’ responses to a list of

questions. The questionnaires implemented in this study were directly

administered questionnaires. Ary et al. (2006: p. 387) state that they are given to a

group of people assembled at a certain place for a specific purpose. The advantage

of this type of questionnaires is the high response rate of the participants since the

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  32 The researcher implemented closed and open-ended questions in the

questionnaires. Closed and open-ended questions were used to ask the participants

about reading problems and students’ perception on Book Report Course. Closed

questions prescribe the range of responses from which the participants may

choose (Cohen, Manion, & Morrison, 2000: p. 248). It includes Likert Scales

since it is quick to complete and straighforward to code. Likert Scales presents a

set of statements about the topic and asks the participants whether they strongly

agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree towards the statements given in the

questionnaires.

  The researcher also implemented the open-ended questions in the questionnaires.

  “Open-ended questions are used when there are a great number of

possible answers or when the researcher cannot predict all the possible answer”

(Ary et al., 2006: p. 391). In the open-ended questions, the researcher asked about

the problems faced by the students in the course and suggestion for Book Report

Course . To help the researcher to conduct study, a questionnaire blueprint was

made. Table 3.1 summarizes the questionnaire blueprint.

Table 3.1 Questionnaire Blueprint Types of

  Item Part Features Theory Question Numbers

  Background experience (Wilson, 1963, as cited in Taschow, 1985)

  Reading before taking Book Scaled- I. Report Course .

  1

  • – 3

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  33 Types of Item Part Features Theory Question

  Numbers

  Motivation to read (Kempf and Lehrke, 1975, as

  I cited Taschow, 1985) Extensive reading

  Scaled- Reading in Book

  II. (Tricia, 2000), (Urquhart & Weir, 1 – 4 responses Report Course 1998)

  Reading Skills (Erfort, 2013)

  Previewing Reading in Book II.

  1

  • – 4 (Mikulecky, 1990)

  Report Course

  Guessing meaning from context (Langan, 1986)

  Reading with oral and written Writing Reports report (Lado, 1964)

  III. and Oral 1 – 5 Summarizing and drawing

  Examination inferences (Mikulecky, 1990) Perception

  (George and Jones, 2005) and (Altman et al, 1985)

  Self-selected books Scaled-

  (Krashen, 1985, as cited in responses Mikulecky, 1990) Extensive reading

  (Nuttall, 1982, as cited in Urquhart & Weir, 1998)

  Students’ Drawing inferences perception on

  IV.

  1 –14 (Mikulecky, 1990)

  Book Report Course

  Reading habit (Gaona and Gonzalez, 2011)

  Subject-matter-directed motivation (Kempf & Lehrke, 1975, as cited Taschow, 1985) Academic reading (Gaona and

  Gonzalez, 2011) Reading

  (Cunningham & Stanovich,

  The reading

  1998, as cited in Armbruster &

  Open- problems faced

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  34 Types of Item Part Features Theory Question

  Numbers

  Reading Problems (Raygor & Raygor, 1985),

  Kustaryo (1988), (Erfort, 2013) Reading interest

  (Taschow, 1985) Time in reading (Deluccho et al,

  1987, as cited in Ambruster & Osborn, 2002)

  Open- 1 – 4

  Extensive Reading

  ended

  (Krashen, 1985; Bamford &

  Suggestion

  Day, 2004; Urquhart & Weir, 1998; Hedge, 2000; and Lado, 1964).

b. Interview

  The second instrument employed in the study was interviews. The

researcher used a survey interview. According to Gall, Gall, and Borg, a survey

interview is to supplement data that have been collected from the questionnaires

where in depth-interviewing cannot be carried out for all participants (2007: p.

  

244). Because of this, the researcher took some students to be interviewed. The

interviews were used to deeply obtain the answers from the questionnaire of the

students.

  The interviews were in the form of open-ended questions and the individual/personal interviews.

  “Open-ended questions are used when there are a

great number of possible answers or when the researcher cannot predict all the

possible answer ” (Ary et al., 2006: p. 391). In other words, it allowed the students

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  35

in a face-to-face setting, and recorded the answers (Ary et al., 2006: p. 380). To

help the researcher to conduct the interview, the students’ interview blueprint was made as shown in Table 3.2.

Table 3.2 Students’ Interview Blueprint Item Type of Questions Features Theory Numbers

  Teaching learning Reading (Grabe & activities in Book Report

  1

  • – 6 Stoller, 2002)

  Open-ended Course Questions and

  Reading (Brown, 2004) Reading experience

  Personal Interview before and after taking

  7

  • – 8 Reading interest

  Book Report Course

  (Taschow, 1985) Reading Habit (Gaona &

  Reading habit

  9 Gonzalez, 2011)

  Extensive Reading (Krashen, 1985;

  Benefit of Book Report Bamford & Day, 2004;

  10 Course

  Urquhart & Weir, 1998; Hedge, 2000; and Lado, 1964)

  Open-ended Reading Problems

  Questions and Difficulties in reading Pressley and Afflerbach

  Personal Interview 11 novels (1995)

  Kustaryo (1988)

  Extensive Reading (Krashen, 1985;

  Suggestion for Book Bamford & Day, 2004;

  12 Report Course

  Urquhart & Weir, 1998; Hedge, 2000; and Lado, 1964) Besides interviewing Book Report Course students, the researcher also

interviewed Book Report Course lecturer. It aimed to obtain the information of

Book Report Course and its class activities. The interview was in the form of

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  36

responses. It was also a recorded interview. To help the researcher conducting the

interview, a lecture r’s interview blueprint was made as shown in Table 3.3.

Table 3.3 Lectu rer’s Interview Blueprint Item Type of Questions Features Theory Numbers

  Classes of Book Report

  Extensive Reading Course in academic year

  1

  (Krashen, 1985;

  2012/2013 Reasons of designing Book Bamford & Day,

  Report Course for the first

  2

  2004; Urquhart &

  Open-ended semester students

  Weir, 1998; Hedge,

  Questions and Teaching learning

  2000; and Lado,

  Personal Interview activities in Book Report

  3 1964).

  Course

  Reading Problems Problems faced by the (Raygor & Raygor,

  4 students 1985; Kustaryo, 1988; Erfort, 2013) 2.

   Data Gathering Technique There were two ways of gathering the data of the study. The first

technique in gathering the data of the study was distributing the questionnaires.

  

The researcher distributed the questionnaires directly to the students of Book

. The data gained from the questionnaires aimed to find out the Report Course reading problems faced by the students in the course and the students’ perception

on Book Report Course. The participants filled in the questionnaires in the classes.

  Obtaining the data from the questionnaires, the researcher conducted the

interview with the students in order to deeply obtain the perception of the students

on reading habit formation in Book Report Course. Related to the study, the

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  37

information of the problems. In conducting the interviews, the researcher recorded

the respondent s’ answers. The researcher also interviewed a lecturer of Book

Report Course . The aim of interviewing the lecturer was to obtain information of

Book Report Course and its class activities.

E. Data Analysis Technique

  The data gained from techniques previously discussed were expected to

answer the questions of research problems. The data from the questionnaires were

put in a table which consists of columns for statements and columns for the

students’ answers of degree of agreements (strongly agree, agree, disagree, and

strongly disagree). Since the study employed a qualitative research, thus some

numeric data may be collected (Ary et al. (2006: p. 425). The researcher made a

table of data analysis technique that results numeric data from the questionnaires.

Table 3.4 Data Analysis Technique

  Degree of Agreement No. Statement SA (%) A (%) D (%) SD (%) 1.

  2. Etc.

  Total

The numeric data of the students’ answers in the questionnaire were formulated

into percentage. The formula was as follows: x 100% Notes:

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  38 = the number of all students After compiling the data from the students, the researcher analysed each

statement of the questionnaires. It was intended to gain students perception on

each item in the questionnaires. The results were converted in the percentage

form. Then, the data from the interview with the students were transcribed in a

written form. They were interpreted to complete the data from the questionnaires.

Then, the data from lecturer ’s interview was also interpreted in a written form.

F. Research Procedure

  This section summarizes the steps in conducting the study. There were

six steps according to Ary et al. (2006: p. 378). Those steps were planning,

defining population, sampling, constructing instruments, conducting survey, and

processing the data.

  1. Planning In this first step, the researcher formulated the research problems. There

were two research problems in the study. The first was investigating problems

faced by the students. The second was finding students’ perception on Book

Report Course . The researcher also decided the review of related literature to the

problems.

  2. Defining Population This step was to define the population of the study. The population was

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  39 3.

   Sampling Sampling is the third step of selecting the participants in the study. Due

to the time limitation of the researcher, the researcher employed cluster sampling.

  

The sample of the study was students in class C and D of Book Report Course in

the English Language Education Study Program Sanata Dharma University

Yogyakarta. The participants consisted of 57 students.

  4. Constructing Instruments The fourth step of conducting the study was constructing instruments.

  

There were two instruments in the study, namely, the interviews and the

questionnaires.

  5. Conducting the Survey After the instruments were prepared, they must be tested to determine

whether those instruments would provide the desired data so that the researcher

did a pilot test of the instruments. Then, the researcher asked for permission to

Book Report Course lecturer to conduct the study in her classes by giving a letter

of permission which had been signed by the researcher’s advisor. There were

three ways in conducting the survey including distributing the questionnaires,

interviewing the students, and interviewing the lecturer.

a. Distributing Questionnaire

  The first procedure of conducting the survey was distributing the

questionnaire. The questionnaires were distributed to Book Report Course

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  40 obtain the data of problems faced by the students and students’ perception on Book Report Course .

  b. Interviewing Book Report Course Students Having distributed the questionnaires to Book Report Course students,

the researcher interviewed the students. The interview was conducted to provide

deeper information of the problems faced by the student s and students’ perception on Book Report Course.

  c. Interviewing Book Report Course Lecturer In order to get the information and class activities of Book Report

  

Course , the researcher interviewed a lecturer of Book Report Course. It aimed to

complete the data of the study.

6. Processing the Data

  The last step was processing the obtained data. The data were obtained from the previous steps

  • – distributing the questionnaires, interviewing Book

  Report Course students, and interviewing a Book Report Course lecturer

  • – were

    analyzed and interpreted in the discussion. After having processed the data, the

    reseacher reported the results into the conclusion of the study. The researcher also

    added some suggestions to improve Book Report Course.

  C H A P T E R

  I V R E S E A R C H F

  I N D

  I N G S A N D D

  I S C U S S

  I O N T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s a n d d i s c u s s e s t h e if n d i n g s o f t h e r e s e a r c h .

  I t i s di v i d e d i n t o t h r e e m a i n s e c it o n s . T h e f ri s t s e c it o n d i s c u s s e s t h e t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s e s i m p l e m e n t e d i n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . T h e s e c o n d s e c it o n d i s c u s s e s t h e r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s f a c e d b y B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e s t u d e n t .s

  I n t h i s s e c it o n t h e r e s u tl s f o t h e q u e s it o n n a ri e s a n d t h e i n t e r v i e w s w e r e a n a l y z e d t o d e s c ir b e s t u d e n t s ’ p r o b l e m s i n

  

B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . T h e l a s t s e c it o n d i s c u s s e s t h e s t u d e n t s ’ p e r c e pt i o n o n B o o k

R e p o r t C o u r s e .

  I n t h i s s e c it o n , t h e r e s u tl s o f t h e q u e s it o n n a ri e s a n d t h e i n t e r v i e w s w e r e a n a l y z e d t o if n d o u t t h e s t u d e n t s ’ p e r c e p it o n o n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e .

  . T h e T e a c h i n g P r o c e s s e s I m p l e m e n t e d i n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e A

  B o o k

  T h e r e s e a r c h e r g a i n e d t h e d a t a o f t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s e s i m p l e m e n t e d i n

  

R e p o r t C o u r s e f r o m a n i n t e r v i e w w ti h a l e c t u r e r . T h e d a t a w e r e g a i n e d i n o r d e r t o

  d e s c ir b e t h e t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s e s i n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . B a s e d o n t h e i n t e r v i e w w a ti h l e c t u r e r o f B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e , t h e t e a c h i n g l e a r n i n g a c it v i it e s a r e b a s i c a ll y d i v i d e d i n t o t w o m a j o r a c it v i it e s . T h e f ri s t o n e i s r e a d i n g . I n o n e s e m e s t e r t h e s t u d e n t s a r e s u p p o s e d t o r e a d f o u r d fi f e r e n t E n g il s h n o v e l s ; t h r e e s i m p il if e d / a b ir d g e d n o v e l s a n d o n e o ir g i n a /l u n a b ir d g e d n o v e l a n d t h e n m a k i n g w ir tt e n r e p o tr o f e a c h n o v e l . T h e f o r m o f t h e w ir tt e n r e p o tr s h a s b e e n g i v e n b y t h e l e c t u r e r . A w ir tt e n r e p o r t c o n s i s t s o f t h e i n f o r m a it o n o f t h e n o v e l ( it lt e , a u t h o r , p u b il s h e r , y e a r o f p u b il c a it o n ) , s u m m a r y , m a j o r c o n f il c t , e n d o f t h e s t o r y , t h e m e , m o r a l v a l u e , a n d c o n n e c it o n w ti h t h e s t u d e n t s ’ p e r s o n a l il v e s . U s i n g t h e f o r m o f a w ir tt e n r e p o tr , t h e s t u d e n t s a r e r e q u ri e d t o m a k e a n d s u b m i t a w ir tt e n r e p o r t o f e a c h n o v e l .

  T h e s e c o n d a c it v ti y i s p r e s e n it n g w h a t t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e r e a d a n d w h a t t h e s e t u d n t s h a v e l e a r n t f r o m t h e n o v e l s i n t h e o r a l e x a m i n a it o n s. T h e o r a l e x a m i n a it o n s a r e d o n e i n d i v i d u a ll y . I t t o o k t h r e e m e e it n g s t o if n i s h t h e o r a l e x a m i n a it o n s o f e a c h n o v e .l E a c h m e e it n g s p e n d s

  1 m i n u t e s ( 2 x 5 m i n u t e s ) . T h e r e a r e a r o u n d e l e v e n s t u d e n t s i n a n o r a l e x a m i n a it o n e a c h w e e k . tI i s t h e r e f o r e e a c h s t u d e n t h a s if v e t o t e n m i n u t e s i n a n o r a l e x a m i n a it o n . I n t h e o r a l e x a m i n a it o n s t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e t o r e t e ll t h e s t o r y o f t h e n o v e l t h e y h a v e r e a d a n d t h e y o a l s h a v e t o a n s w e r s o m e q u e s it o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e s t o r y f r o m t h e l e c t u r e .r

  A s e x p l a i n e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e t o s u b m ti t h e w ir tt e n r e p o tr s o f t h e n o v e l s b e f o r e d o i n g o r a l e x a m i n a it o n s . S i n c e t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e t o r e a d f o u r E n g il s h n o v e l s , i t m e a n s t h a t t h e y a l s o h a v e f o u r m e e it n g s f o r s u b m i tt i n g t h e w ir tt e n r e p o tr s . A c t u a ll y , t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e if v e m e e it n g s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m ; f o u r w e e k s f o r s u b m ti it n g t h e w ir tt e n r e p o tr s a n d o n e w e e k f o r i n rt o d u c i n g t h e c o u r s e ti s e fl . T h e i n rt o d u c it o n o f t h e c o u r s e i s d o n e i n t h e f ri s t m e e it n g i n o r d e r t o e x p l a i n t h e s y ll a b u s a n d t h e c o u r s e o u t il n e , w h a t t o w r ti e i n t h e r e p o tr f o r m , a n d p l a g i a ir s m . T h e o t h e r w e e k s o f t h e m e e it n g s t h e s t u d e n t s r e a d t h e n o v e l s a n d w r ti e t h e w ir tt e n r e p o tr s a t h o m e o r i n t h e il b r a r y . tI i s rt u e t h a t B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e i s a p a r t o f e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g w h i c h i s d o n e o u t s i d e t h e c l a s s r o o m . A c c o r d i n g t o U r q u h a tr a n d W e ri (

  1

  9

  9 8 : p .

  2

  1 6 ) , e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g r e f e r s t o e ti h e r s li e n t r e a d i n g o r r e a d i n g w h i c h i s d o n e i n t h e il b r a r y o r a t h o m e . B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e a s a p a r t o f e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g i s d e s i g n e d t o i n rt o d u c e s t u d e n t s t o E n g il s h n o v e l ,s i n c r e a s e i n t e r e s t , a n d i m p r o v e s t u d e n t s ’ a b li ti y i n r e a d i n g E n g il s h n o v e l s .

  . T h e R e a d i n g P r o b l e m s F a c e d b y t h e S t u d e n t s i n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e B

  E n c o u n t e ir n g p r o b l e m s i n r e a d i n g E n g il s h n o v e l s i s c o m m o n f o r t h e s t u d e n t s . T h e s r e i a r e a s o n t h a t m a d e t h e s t u d e n t s e n c o u n t e r p r o b l e m s i n r e a d i n g t h e n o v e l s . B a s e d o n t h e q u e s it o n n a ri e s d i s t ir b u t e d t o t h e s t u d e n t s o f B o o k R e p o r t

  

C o u r s e , s o m e o f t h e s t u d e n t s s a y t h a t r e a d i n g E n g il s h n o v e l s i s a n e w e x p e ir e n c e

f o r t h e m A . s t u d e n t g i v e s n a a n s w e r i n a q u e s it o n n a ri e .

  “ B e c a u s e B o o k R e p o tr i s a n e w t h i n g f o r m e , s o I if n d m a n y d fi if c u l it e s t o u n d e r s t a n d a n d d o ti . ” ( P a r it c i p a n t # )

  4

  1 I t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s s t u d e n t n e v e r r e a d a n y E n g il s h n o v e l s b e f o r e t a k i n g B o o k

  

R e p o r t C o u r . R s e e a d i n g E n g il s h t e x t s s u c h a s n o v e l s i s a n e w e x p e ir e n c e f o r t h e

f ri s t s e m e s t e r s t u d e n t s .

  I t i s t h e r e f o r e B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e i n rt o d u c e s E n g il s h n o v e l s t o t h e s t u d e n t s .

  T h i s s t u d y e x p l o r e s s o m e k i n d s o f r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s t h a t a r e f a c e d b y

  

B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e s t u d e n t s i n t h e f ri s t s e m e s t e r . F o r a n s w e ir n g t h e f ri s t r e s e a r c h

  p r o b l e m , t h e r e s e a r c h e r u s e d e t h q u e s it o n n a ri e a n d e t h i n t e r v i e w t o o b t a i n t h e d a t a . T h e r e s u tl s s h o w t h a t 5 3 . % o u t o f a l l p a r it c i p a n t s o d n o t e n c o u n t e r r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s . I t m e a n s t h a t 9 7 3 . % o u t o f a l l p a r it c i p a n t s e n c o u n t e r r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s .

  B o o k

  T h e r e a r e f o u r p r o b l e m s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s f a c e d i n r e a d i n g n o v e l s i n t a k i n g

  

R e p o r t C o u r s e i n t h e f ri s t s e m e s t e r . T h e r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s a r e l o w p ir o r

  k n o w l e d g e o f E n g il s h v o c a b u l a r y , w l o r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t , l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f

  E n g il s h g r a m m a ,r a n d p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s . T h e d e s c ir p it o n s o f t h e r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s a r e e x p l a i n e d a s f o ll o w .s

  . L o w P r i o r K n o w l e d g e o f V o c a b u l a r y i n S i m p il if e d / A b r i d g e d a n d

1 O r i g i n a /l U n a b r i d g e d N o v e l s

  O n e o f t h e a i m s o f r e a d i n g E n g il s h n o v e l s i n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e i s t o i m p r o v e s t u d e n t s ’ E n g il s h v o c a b u l a r y . T h e m o r e t h e s t u d e n t s r e a d , t h e n e w e r a n d p a r it a ll y k n o w n w o r d s t h e y w li l e n c o u n t e r , a n d t h e m o r e w o r d k n o w l e d g e t h e y w li l a c q u ri e ( C u n n i n g h a m & S t a n o v i c h ,

  1

  9

  9 8 , a s c ti e d i n A r m b r u s t e r & O s b o r n ,

  2 2 ) . T h e s t u d e n t s n e e d t o r e a d m a n y b o o k s s o t h a t t h e y c a n e x p a n d t h e i r k n o w l e d g e o f E n g il s h v o c a b u l a r y . H o w e v e r , a s t h e s t u d e n t s r e a d , t h e y w li l if n d s o m e u n k n o w n E n g il s h w o r d s a n d o t h e r r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s . A c c o r d i n g t o P r e s s l e y a n d A f lf e r b a c h , t h e r e a r e a n u m b e r o f w a y s t h a t t e x t c a n b e p o o lr y w ir tt e n , f r o m t h e p r o b l e m a t t h e w o r d l e v e l t o t h e o v e r a l l m e a n i n g o f p a s s a g e (

  1

  9

  9 5 : p .

  6 6 ) . T h e s t u d e n t s w h o d o n o t k n o w t h e m e a n i n g o f E n g il s h a t a w o r d l e v e l s u c h a s a w o r d , p h r a s e , o r c l a u s e w li l a f f e c t t h e ri u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e w h o l e s t o r y o f t h e n o v e l s . I n t e r v i e w # 4 e x p l a i n s t h e d fi if c u tl y o f v o c a b u l a r y i n h i s / h e r a n s w e .r

  “F ri s lt y , t h e v o c a b u l a r y i s v e r y d fi if c u tl . E v e n , I r e a d a p a g e t w i c e . W h e n I if n d d fi if c u l t v o c a b u l a r y a n d I c o m b i n e t h e m e a n i n g o f e a c h w o r d , i t s p e n d s a l o t o f it m e s.”(

  I n t e r v i e w e e #4) F r o m t h e a n s w e r o f i n t e r v i e w e e # 4 , i t s h o w s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t d o e s n o t k n o w s o m e v o c a b u l a r y i n E n g il s h . T h e s t u d e n t t ir e s t o c o n s u tl t h e m e a n i n g f o u n k n o w n w o r d s i n t h e d i c it o n a r y a n d t h e n c o m b i n e e a c h m e a n i n g b u t h e / s h e s t li l e n c o u n t e r s d fi if c u tl y i n c o n c l u d i n g t h e m e a n i n g i n s e n t e n c e s . B a s e d o n t h e r e s u tl s f r o m t h e q u e s it o n n a ri e s , t h e r e a r e a n u m b e r o f r e a s o n s w h y t h e s t u d e n t e n c o u n t e r s d fi if c u tl y i n if n d i n g t h e m e a n i n g o f E n g il s h v o c a b u l a r y i n t h e n o v e l s . T h e r e a s o n s a d r e u e t o s t u d e n t s ’ p ir o r k n o w l e d g e a n d t h e u s e o f l a n g u a g e i n s t o ir e s .

  A s t u d e n t w r ti e s a b o u t h i s / h e r d fi if c u tl y i n E n g il s h v o c a b u l a r y i n a q u e s it o n n a ri e .

  “ B e c a u s e I d o n ’ t h a v e a l o t o f v o c a b u l a ir e s s o I h a v e d fi if c u tl y i n if n d i n g t h e m e a n i n g . I rt y t o a d d m y v o c a b u l a ir e s b y r e a d i n g s o m e g o o d b o o k .s ” ( P a r it c i p a n t #

  3 3 .) B a s e d o n t h e s t a t e m e n t o f p a r it c i p a n t #

  3 3 , i t c a n b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t r e a il z e s h e / s h e d o e s n o t h a v e e n o u g h p ir o r k n o w l e d g e o f E n g l i s h v o c a b u l a r y . I t a f f e c t s s h i / h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s t o r y . T h e p ir o r k n o w l e d g e o r b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e i s t h e e x i s it n g s t o r e o f k n o w l e d g e t h a t t h e r e a d e r s p o s s e s s ( A r m b r u s t e r & O s b o r n ,

  2 2 ) . R e a il z i n g n o t h a v e e n o u g h p ir o r k n o w l e d g e o f E n g il s h v o c a b u l a r y m a k e s t h e s t u d e n t o p e n a d i c it o n a r y a n d r e a d o t h e r b o o k s . R a y g o r & R a y g o r (

  1

  9

  8 5 ) s a y t h a t t h e n u m b e r o f w o r d s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s k n o w d e t e r m i n e s t h e d fi if c u tl y a n d c o m p l e x ti y o f t h e t e x t b e i n g r e a d a n d u n d e r s t o o d . tI i s a m u s t f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o h a v e a p ir o r k n o w l e d g e o f E n g il s h v o c a b u l a r y s o t h a t t h e y c a n u n d e r s t a n d t h e s t o ir e s i n t h e n o v e l s c o r r e c lt y .

  T h e s e c o n d r e a s o n w h y t h e s t u d e n t s if n d a p r o b l e m i n v o c a b u l a r y i s b e c a u s e o f t h e u s e o f E n g il s h l a n g u a g e i n t h e n o v e l s . A s t u d e n t a l s o g i v e s an a n s w e r i a n q u e s it o n n a ri e.

  “ M y d fi if c u l it e s a r e t h e it m e w h e n I if n d n e w v o c a b u l a ir e s t h u s I n e e d t o o p e n m y h o l y b i b l e . T h e it m e w h e n i if n d s o m e i d i o m .s ” ( P a r it c i p a n t # )

  1

  2 A n o t h e r s t u d e n t a l s o a n s w e r s i a n q u e s it o n n a ri e t h a t h e / s h e f i s n d i t d fi if c u l t t o i d e n t fi y t h e i d i o m s i n t h e n o v e l s . T h e s t u d e n t o p e n s a d i c it o n a r y t o if n d o u t t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e i d i o m s . tI i s s t li l r e l a t e d t o v o c a b u l a r y . I d i o m s c o n s i s t o f w o r d s w h i c h a r e c o m b i n e d s o t h a t t h o s e h a v e d fi f e r e n t m e a n i n g . T h e s t u d e n t s h a v e t o d fi f e r e n it a t e b e t w e e n i d i o m s a n d a n o t h e r w o r d . T h e y a l s o n e e d t o c o n s u l t t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e i d i o m .s

  T h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e u s e o f t h e l a n g u a g e a r e n o t o n l y b e c a u s e o f i d i o m s b u t a l s o b e c a u s e o f t h e t y p e o f w o r d s u s e d i n t h e n o v e l s . A s t u d e n t g i es v a s t a t e m e n t i n a q u e s it o n n a i e r .

  “ A l o t o f n e w w o r d s a n d o l d f a s h i o n e d w o r d s . T h o s e - w o r d s m a k e m e t h i n k h a r d e r e s p e c i a ll y t o if n d t h e s u ti a b l e m e a n i n g . ” ( P a r it c i p a n t # 3 2 ) A n o t h e r s t u d e n t a l s o s a y s :

  “ T h e u s e d l a n g u a g e e s p e c i a ll y f o r o ir g i n a l n o v e l s . T h e l a n g u a g e w a s v e r y c l a s s i c a n d o l d a n d s o m e it m e s ti w a s d fi if c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d . ” ( P a r it c i p a n t # )

  4 T h e r e a d i n - g p r o b l e m i s t h e o l d f a s h i o n E n g il s h w o r d s u s e d i n e t h n o v e l s . tI o c c u r s b e c a u s e s i m p il if e d / a b ir d g e d a n d o ir g i n a /l u n a b ir d g e d n o v e l s s a r e c o m m e n d e d i n

  B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e e a r c l a s s i c o r o l d v e r s i o n n o v e l s .

  I t i s t h e r e f o r e t h e w o r d s u s e d i n t h e s t o r y a r e a l s o o l d E n g il s h w h i c h i s d fi f e r e n t f r o m t h e w o r d s t h a t a r e r e c e n lt y u s e d .

  . L o w R e a d i n g I n t e r e s t

2 B a s e d o n t h e L e s s o n U n i t P l a n f o B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e (

  2

  1 1 ) , B o o k

  R e p o r t C o u r s e

  i s d e s i g n e d t o i n c r e a s e s t u d e n t s ’ i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g l ti e r a r y w o r k s , i n p a r it c u l a r n o v e l s . T h e s t u d e n t s h a v e t o c h o o s e e t h r e c o m m e n d e d n o v e l s , i n c l u d i n g s i m p il if e d / a b ir d g e d a n d o ir g i n a /l u n a b ir d g e d n o v e l s . B y r e a d i n g t h e n o v e l ,s t h e s t u d e n t s c a n i n rt o d u c e E n g il s h n o v e l s a n d a l s o i m p r o v e t h e i r a b li ti y i n r e a d i n g .

  A c c o r d i n g t o T a s c h o w (

  1

  9

  8 5 ) , i n t e r e s t i s o n e o f a f f e c it v e f a c t o r s t h a t d e v e l o p s a n d m a i n t a i n s a d e s ri e f o r r e a d i n g . I n t e r e s t o f r e a d i n g c o m e s f r o m w ti h i n o f t h e s t u d e n t s . T o i m p r o v e s t u d e n t s ’ i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g , t h e r e f o r e i t i s c o m p u l s o r y f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o r e a d n o v e l s i n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . H o w e v e ,r i t w a s e x a c lt y t h e o p p o s ti e o f t h e s t u d e n t s ’ a n s w e r s i n a q u e s it o n n a ri e . A s t u d e n t g i v e s a s t a t e m e n t a b o u t i .t

  “ I a m n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g n o v e l .” ( P a r it c i p a n t # 0 4 ) A s s t a t e d b y t h e p a r it c i p a n t # 0 4 , i t c l e a lr y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e a d i n g p r o b l e m o f t h e s t u d e n t w a s t h a t h e / s h e w a s n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g n o v e l .s s tI i t h e p r o o f t h a t s o m e B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e s t u d e n t s d o n o t h a v e i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g E n g il s h n o v e l .s A n o t h e r s t u d e n t a l s o s t a t e s h i s / h e r c o m m e n t .s

  “ I ’ m n o t r e a ll y il k e r e a d i n g a l o t o f t e x t .s ” ( P a r it c i p a n t #

  3 1 ) P a r it c i p a n t #

  3 1 d o e s n o t il k e t o r e a d a l o t o f t e x t s w h e r e a s n o v e l s c o n s i s t o f l o n g E n g il s h t e x t s . F r o m t h e t w o s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e s t u d e n t s f r o m t h e q u e s t i o n n a ri e s , t h o s e s t a t e m e n t s a r e t h e r e p r e s e n t a it v e s f o t h e s t u d e n t s w h o a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g . T h e y a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g n o v e l s w h i c h h a v e l o n g t e x t .s

  . L a c k o f U n d e r s t a n d i n g f o E n g il s h G r a m m a r

3 B e s i d e s v o c a b u l a r y a n d l o w r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t s a t h e r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s i n

  

B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e , t h e r e i s a n o t h e r p r o b l e m i n r e a d i n g E n g il s h n o v e l s . tI i s d u e t o E n g il s h g r a m m a r . T h e p r o b l e m w h i c h i s c a u s e d b y g r a m m a r i s c a ll e d l a n g u a g e s y s t e m . A c c o r d i n g t o K u s t a r y o (

  1

  9

  8 8 ) , t h e p r o b l e m s n i r e a d i n g E n g il s h t s e x t i n c l u d e v o c a b u l a r y a n d s rt u c t u r e . T h e y a r e f ri m l y it e d a n d c a n n o t b e s e p a r a t e d . A s t u d e n ’t s a n s w e r i n a q u e s it o n n a ri e s h o w s t h e g r a m m a r p r o b l e m i n r e a d i n g n o v e l .s

  “ B e c a u s e m y g r a m m a r i s r a t h e r b a d … ” ( P a r it c i p a n t # 1 ) A s s t a t e d b y t h e p a r it c i p a n t # 1 , ti i s c l e a lr y e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s ’ u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e g r a m m a r i s n o t r e a ll y g o o d . K u s t a r y o (

  1

  9

  8 8 ) s t a t e s t h a t ti i s e s s e n it a l f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o k n o w t h e d fi f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e f o r m s a n d e l e m e n t s i n E n g il s h s e n t e n c e .s T h e f o r m o f E n g il s h s e n t e n c e s i s g r a m m a r . tI i s i m p o tr a n t t o m a s t e r E n g il s h g r a m m a r s o t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s c a n a l s o i d e n t fi y a n d u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e s t o r y w h li e t h e y w e r e r e a d i n g t h e n o v e l .s

  . P e r s o n a l P r o b l e m s

4 B e s i d e s e n c o u n t e ir n g p r o b l e m s i n v o c a b u l a r y , r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t , a n d

  E n g il s h g r a m m a r i n r e a d i n g E n g il s h n o v e l s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r if n d s o u t t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m i n t a k i n g B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . O n e o f t h e p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s i s m a n a g i n g t h e it m e t o r e a d t h e n o v e l s . A s t u d e n t c o m m e n t s o n h i s / h e r p r o b l e m .

  “ … if n d i n g t h e it m e t o r e a d t h e n o v e l .s ” ( P a r it c i p a n t # 2 ) F r o m t h e s t a t e m e n t o f p a r it c i p a n t # 2 , i t i s c l e a lr y e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t e n c o u n t e r a p r o b l e m i n m a n a g i n g t h e it m e t o r e a d t h e n o v e l s . B e s i d e s if n i s h i n g r e a d i n g f o u r n o v e l s i n o n e s e m e s t e ,r t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e o t h e r a s s i g n m e n t s . D e l u c c h o e t a l . (

  1

  9

  8 7 , a s c ti e d i n A m b r u s t e r & O s b o r n ,

  2 2 ) s t a t e t h a t a c a d e m i c s u c c e s s o f t h e s t u d e n t s d e p e n d n o t o n t o t a l it m e s p e n t t o s t u d y , b u t h o w t h e s t u d e n t s u s e t h e it m e e f f e c it v e l y . T h e s t u d e n t s h a v e t o m a n a g e t h e i r o w n it m e a t h o m e a n d l e a r n h o w t o a ll o c a t e e n o u g h it m e t o g e t t h e i r w o r k s d o n e . tI i s t h e r e f o r e i m p o tr a n t f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o u s e t h e i r il m ti e d it m e e f f e c it v e l y r e a d i n g t h e n o v e l s s o t h a t t h e y c a n if n i s h t h e a s s i g n m e n t .s

  T h e r e s e a r c h e r a l s o if n d s o u t t h a t s e o m o f t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e a n o t h e r p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m . tI s i s t a t e d i n i n t e r v i e w e e # 2 8 ’ s a n s w e r a s f o ll o w .s

  “ I d o n ’ t w a n n a l o o k i n g f o r t h e m e a n i n g o f e a c h h a r d / u n k n o w n w o r d .s ” ( I n t e r v i e w e e #

  2 8 ) T h e s t u d e n t r e a il z e s t h a t h e / s h e d o e s n o t k n o w t h e m e a n i n g o f s o m e

  E n g il s h v o c a b u l a r y i n t h e n o v e l s . H o w e v e r , h e / s h e d o e s n o t w a n t t o o p e n t h e d i c it o n a r y . K u s t a r y o (

  1

  9

  8 8 ) s t a t e s t h a t w e a k l y m o it v a t e d s t u d e n t s w li l h a v e d fi if c u tl y i n r e c o g n i z i n g v o c a b u l a r y i n r e a d i n g m a t e ir a l .s I n o t h e r w o r d ,s t h e s t u d e n t w h o d o e s n o t w a n t t o t a k e s o m e e f f o tr f o r if n d i n g t h e m e a n i n g w li l a f f e c t t ri h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s t o r y . I t n e e d s m o it v a it o n t o m a s t e r E n g il s h v o c a b u l a r y s o t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s c a n u n d e r s t a n d t h e s t o r y o f t h e n o v e l .s

  F r o m t h e p r e v i o u s e l a b o r a it o n o f r e a d i n g p r o b l e m ,s t h e r e s e a r c h e r if n d s o u t f o u r r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s f a c e d b y B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e s t u d e n t .s T h e r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s a r e l a c k o f p ir o r k n o w l e d g e o f E n g il s h v o c a b u l a r y , l o w r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t , l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f E n g il s h g r a m m a r , a n d p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s . T h e r e a r e t w o p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s . F ri s t , t h e s t u d e n t s if n d i t d fi if c u l t t o m a n a g e t h e it m e i n r e a d i n g t h e n o v e l s . S e c o n d , s o m e s t u d e n t s h a v e l o w m o it v a it o n t o c o n s u l t t h e m e a n i n g o f E n g il s h v o c a b u l a r y i n t h e d i c it o n a r y a tl h o u g h t h e y r e a il z e t h a t t h e y l a c k o f E n g il s h v o c a b u l a r y .

  . S t u d e n t s ’ P e r c e p it o n o n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e C

  I n o r d e r t o a n s w e r t h e s e c o n d r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m , t h e r e s e a r c h e r u s e s t h e q u e s it o n n a ri e s a n d t h e i n t e r v i e w s t o g a i n t h e d a t a o f t h e s t u d e n t s ’ p e r c e p it o n o n

  

B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . T h i s s e c it o n e m p l o y s s o m e t h e o r i e s . T h e t h e o ir e s a r e r e l a t e d

  t o b a c k g r o u n d e x p e ir e n c e , r e a d i n g r e p o r it n g , b e g i n n e r c o ll e g e s t u d e n t ,s l e a r n i n g r e a d i n g , r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t , e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g , r e a d i n g s k i ll s , a n d r e a d i n g h a b ti .

  B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e T h o s e t h e o ir e s a r e u s e d t o d e s c ir b e s t u d e n t s ’ p e r c e p it o n o n .

  T h i s s e c it o n i s d i v i d e d i n t o s o m e p a tr s i n c l u d i n g s t u d e n t s ’ p r e v i o u s e x p e ir e n c e n i r e a d i n g ; s t u d e n t s ’ e x p e ir e n c e i n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e ; s t u d e n t s ’ p e r c e p it o n o n m a k i n g w ir tt e n r e p o tr s a n d d o i n g o r a l e x a m i n a it o n s ; a n d s t u d e n t s ’ p e r c e p it o n o n c l a s s a c it v i it e s i n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e .

  . S t u d e n t s ’ P r e v i o u s E x p e r i e n c e n i R e a d i n g

1 T h i s s u b s e c it o n d i s c u s s e s s t u d e n t s ’ p r e v i o u s e x p e ir e n c e i n r e a d i n g .

  S t u d e n t s ’ p r e v i o u s e x p e ir e n c e i n r e a d i n g m e a n s s t u d e n t s ’ b a c k g r o u n d e x p e ir e n c e . tI a f f e c t s s t u d e n t s ’ r e a d i n g e x p e ir e n c e i n t h e p r e s e n t . A s W li s o n (

  1

  9

  6 3 , a s c ti e d i n T a s c h o w ,

  1

  9

  8 5 ) e x p l a i n s t h a t b a c k g r o u n d e x p e ir en c e i s e s s e n it a l i n o r d e r f o r s t u d e n t s t o c o n n ec t i n f o r m a it o n f r o m t h e t e x t s t h a t a rl e a d y s t o r e d i n t h e s t u d e n t s ’ h e a d s. H a v i n g e x p e ir e n c e i n r e a d i n g E n g il s h t e x t s m e a n s e t h s t u d e n t s h a v e a p ir o r k n o w l e d g e o f r e a d i n g E n g il s h t e x t s . W h a t t h e s t u d e n t s k n o w t h r o u g h e x p e ir e n c e , e ti h e r f a v o r a b l e o r u n f a v o r a b l e , w li l i n lf u e n c e m o it v a it o n a n d il k e o r d i s il k e o f r e a d i n g . T a b l e 4 . 1 s u m m a ir z e s s t u d e n t s ’ p r e v i o u s e x p e ir e n c e i n r e a d i n g .

  T a b l e 4 .

1 S t u d e n t s ’ P r e v i o u s E x p e r i e n c e i n R e a d i n g D e g r e e o f A g r e e m e n t N o . S t a t e m e n t S A ( % ) A ( % ) D ( % ) S D ( % )

  T h e p a r it c i p a n t s il k e t o r e a d i n t h e i r s p a r e 1 .

  2 4 .

  6 5 - 9 .

  6

  1 5 .

  8 it m e . B e f o r e t h e p a r it c i p a n t s t a k e B o o k R e p o tr

  2. C o u r s e , t h e p a r it c i p a n t s r e a d E n g il s h

  1 4 5 9 7 .

  24.6 3 .

  5 t e x t s f o r e n t e tr a i n m e n t . B e f o r e t h e p a r it c i p a n t s t a k e B o o k R e p o r t

  3. C o u r s e , t h e p a r it c i p a n t s r e a d E n g il s

  3 1 - h .

  6

  5 7 .

  9 1 .

  5 t e x t s f o r a c a d e m i c p u r p o s e s .

  ( S e e a p p e n d i x E ) T h e s t a t e m e n t s i T n a b l e 4 . 1 a s k s t h e r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t b e f o r e t h e s t u d e n t s t a k e B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . A c c o r d i n g t o T a s c h o w (

  1

  9

  8 5 ,) r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t i s o n e o f t h e a f f e c it v e f a c t o r s t h a t d e v e l o p a n d m a i n t a i n a d e s ri e f o r r e a d i n g . T h e r e s u l t s h o w s t h a t

  2 4 . 6 % o u t o f a l l s t u d e n t s s rt o n g l y a g r e e t o r e a d i n t h e i r s p a r e it m e . M o r e o v e r , t h e r e a r e

  5 9 . 6 % o u t o f a ll s t u d e n t s w h o a g r e e w ti h s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r 1 . M e a n w h li e , t h e r e a r e

  1 5 . 8 % o u t o f t h e e n t ri e s t u d e n t s o w h d o n o t il k e r e a d i n t h e i r s p a r e it m e . M o r e t h a n a h a l f o f a ll t h e s t u d e n t s a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g a n d t h e y s p e n d t h e i r it m e r e a d i n g t e x t s . I t m e a n s t h a t s t u d e n t s h a v e e t h b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e a n d a n i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g w h i c h m a i n t a i n s t h e d e s ri e f o r r e a d i n g t e x t s b e f o r e t h e y t a k e B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e .

  T h e s t u d e n t s r e a d m a n y k i n d s o f t e x t s s u c h a s f o r e n t e tr a i n m e n t o r t e x t s w h i c h a r e n o t r e l a t e d t o t h e s t u d y a n d f o r a c a d e m i c p u r p o s e s o r t e x t s w h i c h a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e s t u d y .S t a t e m e n t n u m b e r 2 w ir tt e n i n T a b l e 4 . 1 a s k s t h e s t u d e n t s w h e t h e r t h e y r e a d e t t h t s e x f o r e n t e tr a i n m e n t o r t e x t s w h i c h a t r e n o r e l a t e d t o t h e ri s u b j e c t . T h e r e s u tl s h o w s t h a t 1 4 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s s rt o n g l y a g r e e w ti h s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r

  2 . M o r e o v e ,r t h e r e a r e

  5 7 . 9 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s w h o a g r e e w ti h s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r 2 . H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e

  2 8 . 1 % o u t o f t h e e n t ri e s t u d e n t s w h o d o n o t r e a d t h e t e x t s w h i c h a r e n o t r e l a t e d t o t h e s t u d y . I t c a n b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e r e a d E n g il s h t e x t s f o r t h e i r p l e a s u r e b e f o r e t a k i n g B o o k R e p o r t

  C o u r s e .

  B e s i d e s r e a d i n g t e x t s w h i c h a r e n o t r e l a t e d t o t h e s t u d y , t h e s t u d e n t s a l s o r e a d t e x t s w h i c h a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e i r s t u d y o r f o r t h e i r a c a d e m i c p u r p o s e s . I t i s s h o w n i n t h e r e s u tl s o f t h e q u e s it o n n a ri e s t h a t 3 1 . 6 % o u t o f a l l s t u d e n t s w h o c h o o s e s rt o n g l y a g r e e w ti h s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r

  3 . T h e n , t h e r e a r e

  5 7 . 9 % o u t o f a ll s t u d e n t s o w h a l s o a g r e e t h a t t h e y r e a d t h e t e x t s f o r a c a d e m i c p u r p o s e s . T h e r e a r e o n l y 1 . 5 % o u t o f a l l s t u d e n t s w h o s t a t e t h a t t h e y d o n o t r e a d f o r t h e i r a c a d e m i c p u r p o s e .s

  I t s h o w s t h a t m o s t o f t h e s t u d e n t s p r e f e r r e a d i n g f o r t h e i r s t u d y o r t h e i r a c a d e m i c p u r p o s e s .

  B a s e d o n t h e r e s u tl s o f t h e q u e s it o n n a ri e s i n T a b l e 4 . 1 a b o u t s t u d e n t s ’

  B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e

  e x p e ir e n c e i n r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t b e f o r e t a k i n g , i t s h o w s t h a t m o s t o f t h e s t u d e n t s h a v a e g o o d p r e v i o u s e x p e ir e n c e i n r e a d i n g . T h e s t u d e n t s h a v e r e a d E n g il s h t e x t s b e f o r e t a k i n g B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . T h e s t u d e n t s r e a d b o t h f o r p l e a s u r e a n d f o r t h e i r a c a d e m i c p u r p o s e s . T h e t e x t s a r e i m p o tr a n t f o r t h e s t u d e n t s s i n c e t h e y s t u d y E n g il s h . H o w e v e r , m o s t o f B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e s t u d e n t s o tf e n r e a d f o r a c a d e m i c p u r p o s e s s u c h a s j o u r n a l a n d t e x t b o o k s . T h e r e s u tl s s h o w

  • l a ir e t a m d e t c e l e s s . g n i d a e r f o e h T f o s t n e d u t s e s r u o C t r o p e R k o o B

  8

  3 3 .

  3

  3 6 .

  4

  2

  7 .

  3 T s t n a p i c it r a p e h o t g n i d a e r t n e li s r e f e r p a r o . g n i d a e r l

  2 9 .

  2 T s t n a p i c it r a p e h n w o n k n u e h t p i k s s d r o w . g n i n a e m e h t s s e u g d n a

  7

  5 5 .

  1 8 .

  1 .

  4 T s t n a p i c it r a p e h t n e t n o c e h t f o l l a d a e r . y r a m m u s e h t t o n s l e v o n e h t f o 6 .

  5

  4 8 .

  3

  5

  1 .

  a v e r p f o n o it p e c r e p e v it i s o p s u o i e c n e ir e p x e ll i w h c i h w e c n e u lf n i n o it p e c r e p e h t e p x e t n e s e r p e h t f o E s t x e t h s il g n g n i d a e r n i e c n e ir n i e h t .s l e v o n .

   ’ s t n e d u t S 2 . T 4 e l b a n i e c n e i r e p x E n i s l e v o N g n i d a e R e s r u o C t r o p e R k o o B

  2 ’ s t n e d u t S e c n e i r e p x E i n i s l e v o N g n i d a e R n e s r u o C t r o p e R k o o B

  Th n o it c e s b u s s i e h t s e s s u c s i d n i e c n e ir e p x e s l e v o n g n i d a e r n i

  B k o o C e s r u o t r o p e R

  . tI E e v i s n e t x . s e it i v it c a s s a l c n i g n i d a e r e v i s n e t x e s t n e m e l p m i n r a e l o t s t n e d u t s s e g n a g n e t

  I . e m o h t a r o y r a r b il e h t n i e n o d s i g n i d a e r A o t g n i d r o c c . y lt n e d n e p e d n i e g d e H , ) 2 ( e h t e t c a r a h c e v i s n e t x e f o s c it s ir l a ir e t a m f o s e it it n a u q e g r a l g n i d a e r e r a g n i d a e r s g n i d a e r , s l e v o n s a h c u s

  ,t d n a e m it s s a l c g n ir u d s t x e t r e g n o l g n i d a e r n e u q e r f a n o e m it r e v o y lt n e t s i s n o c n a

  , fl e s o s l a d n a e m o h t a g n i d a e r t n e d n e p e d n i

  , r e h ti e s l e v o n d e d n e m m o c e r r u o f d a e r o t e v a h / e g d ir b a d e if il p m i s d a n i g ir o r o l g d ir b a n u / ed m o o r s s a l c e d i s t u o s l e v o n s .

  ( E x i d n e p p a e e S ) ’ g n ir u d e c n e ir e p x e g n i d a e r s t n e d u t s s e z ir a m m u s 3 . T 4 e l b a

  5 8 .

  R t r o p e k o o B C e s r u o

  . tI . s ll i k s g n i d a e r o t d e t a l e r s i T e d u t s e h s t n g n i k r o w e r a s ll i k s g n i d a e r n o

  . o N s t n e m e t a t S A t n e m e e r g ) % ( A S A ) % ( ) % ( D ) % ( D S .

  1 T s t n a p i c it r a p e h d a e r f o e l b a t , e lt it . c t e , e m e h t , t n e t n o c s l e v o n e h t f o . d a e r e r o f e b 4 .

  7

  4 8 .

  3

  4 3 .

  4 7 - w h e n t h e y a r e t a k i n g B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . A c c o r d i n g t o E r f o r t (

  2

  1 3 ) , r e a d i n g s k i ll s w li l e n a b l e t h e s t u d e n t s t o m a k e m e a n i n g o u t o f a w ir tt e n l a n g u a g e , i n t e r a c t a n d e n g a n g e w ti h t h e l a n g u a g e , c o m p r e h e n d a n d a n a l y s e t h e l a n g u a g e . O n e o f r e a d i n g s k i ll s i s s h o w e d i n s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r

  1 . tI i s p r e v i e w i n g . tI i s d o n e b e f o r e d e c i d i n g t o r e a d t h e n o v e l s o r n o t . I t a ll o w s t h e s t u d e n t s t o e s t a b il s h g e n r e , c o n t e x ,t t o p i c , l e v e l o f d fi if c u tl y , a n d o r g a n i z a it o n o f t h e t e x t s i n E n g il s h n o v e l s t h e y w o u l d r e a d ( M i k u l e c k y ,

  1

  9 9 ) . B y p r e v i e w i n g , t h e s t u d e n t s a c it v a t e t h e i r b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e a n d m a t c h i t w ti h n e w i n f o r m a it o n . B a s e d o n s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r 1 , m o s t o f t h e s t u d e n t s a g r e e t o r e a d it lt e , t a b l e o f c o n t e n t , a n d t h e t h e m e o f t h e n o v e l s b e f o r e t h e y r e a d . T h e r e a r e

  4 7 . 4 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s o w h s rt o n g l y a g r e e a n d 4 3 . 8 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s w h o a l s o a g r e e w ti h s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r 1 . H o w e v e ,r t h e r e a r e 7 , 1 % ( 5 . 3 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s w h o d i s a g r e e a n d 1 . 8 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s w h o s rt o n g l y d i s a g r e e ) o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s w h o do n o t p r e v i e w t h e n o v e l s b e f o r e t h e y r e a d . T h e y d ri e c lt y c h o o s e a n d r e a d t h e n o v e l s w ti h o u t p r e v i e w i n g . B a s e d o n t h e r e s u tl s o f t h e q u e s it o n n a ri e s , m o s t o f t h e s t u d e n t s d o p r e v i e w i n g b e f o r e r e a d i n g t h e n o v e l s . T h e y p r e v i e w t h e n o v e l s i n o r d e r t o e s t a b il s h t h e t o p i c , l e v e l o f d fi if c u tl y , g e n r e b y s e e i n g t h e t a b l e o f c o n t e n t , it lt e , s u m m a r y , o r t h e m e s o t h a t t h e y w i ll r e a ll y u n d e r s t a n d t h e n o v e l s w h e n t h e y a r e r e a d i n g .

  T h e s e c o n d r e a d i n g s k i ll i s s h o w e d i n s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r 2 . T h e s t u d e n t s s k i p t h e u n k n o w n w o r d s a n d g u e s s t h e m e a n i n g f r o m t h e c o n t e x t . T h e s t u d e n t s o tf e n d e t e r m i n e t h e m e a n i n g b y c o n s i d e ir n g t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h a w o r d a p p e a r s . T h e s u r r o u n d i n g w o r d s a n d s e n t e n c e s f r e q u e n lt y p r o v i d e c l u e s t o t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e w o r d ( L a n g a n ,

  1

  9

  8 6 ) . T h e s t u d e n t s u s e t h e i r p ir o r k n o w l d g e o f E n g il s h t o g u e s s t h e m e a n i n g o f u n k n o w n w o r d s . T h e r e s u tl s h o w s t h a t t h e m a j o r ti y o f t h e s t u d e n t s (

  3 5 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s s rt o n g l y a g r e e a n d

  3 3 . 3 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s a g r e e ) s k i p t h e u n k n o w n w o r d s a n d g u e s s t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e c o n t e x t . I n o t h e r w o r d s , a f e w n u m b e r o f t h e s t u d e n t s ( 2 4 . 6 % t o f u o t h e s t u d e n t s d i s a g r e e n a d 7 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s s rt o n g l y d i s a g r e e ) do n o t s k i p t h e u n k n o w n w o r d s a n d g u e s s t h e m e a n i n g b a s e d o n t h e c o n t e x t .

  S i n c e B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e i m p l e m e n t s e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g , t h e s t u d e n t s d o s li e n t r e a d i n g i n c o m p l e it n g t h e a s s e s s m e n t s. A c c o r d i n g t o U r q u h a r t a n d W e i r (

  1

  9

  9 8 : p .

  2

  1 6 ) , e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g r e f e r s t o e ti h e r s li e n t r e a d i n g o r r e a d i n g w h i c h i s d o n e i n t h e il b r a r y o r a t h o m e . T h e r e s u l t s h o w s t h a t t h e m a j o r ti y o f t h e s t u d e n t s do s li e n t r e a d i n g i n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . T h e r e a r e

  2 8 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s w h o s rt o n g l y a g r e e a n d 5 7 . 9 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s w h o a g r e e w ti h s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r 3 . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , a f e w n u m b e r o f s t u d e n t s p r e f e r o r a l r e a d i n g t o s li e n t r e a d i n g . T h e r e a r e 1 . 5 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s w h o d i s a g r e e a n d 1 . 8 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s w h o s rt o n g l y d i s a g r e e h w ti s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r

  3 . I t m e a n s t h a t m o s t o f t h e s t u d e n t s do s li e n t r e a d i n g s i n c e B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e i m p l e m e n t s e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g w h i c h m u s t b e s li e n t r e a d i n g a p p il e d i n t h e r e a d i n g a c it v ti y .

  T h e m a j o r a c it v ti y i n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e i s r e a d i n g . T h e s t u d e n t s m u s t r e a d a l l o f t h e c o n t e n t i n e a c h n o v e l s o t h a t t h e y u n d e r s t a n d t h e s t o r y . T e ti e l b a u m s t a t e s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s m u s t r e a d w ti h o p e n m i n d w ti h o u t r e a d i n g s u m m a r y o f b o o k s o r o t h e r s ’ o p i n i o n o f b o o k s b e c a u s e t h a t i s t h e o n l y w a y t h e s t u d e n t s f a ri t o S t a t e m e n t n u m b e r 4 s t a t e s t h a t t h e p a r it c i p a n t s r e a d a ll t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e s t o ir e s a n d n o t t h e s u m m a r y . I n f a c t , n o t a l l s t u d e n t s r e a d t h e w h o l e s t o r y o f e a c h n o v e l .

  T h e r e s u l t o f s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r 4 s h o w s t 5 h a t 4 . 6 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s s rt o n g l y a g r e e a n d 4 3 . 8 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s a g r e e t h a t t h e y r e a d t h e w h o l e s t o r y o f t h e n o v e l s . H o w e v e ,r t h e r e a r e o n l y

  7 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s w h o r e a d t h e s u m m a r y . M o s t o f t h e s t u d e n t s r e a d t h e w h o l e s t o r y o f t h e n o v e l s s o t h a t t h e y a v o i d p l a g i a ir s m a n d d o t h e p r o c e s s o f c o m p l e it n g t h e a s s i g n m e n t .s

  B a s e d o n t h e r e s u tl s i n T a b l e 4 . 2 o f s t u d e n t s ’ e x p e ir e n c e i n r e a d i n g n o v e l s i n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e , t h e m a j o r ti y o f t h e s t u d e n t s g e t r e a d i n g s k i ll s i n

  B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e

  . T h e r e a d i n g s k i ll s a r e p r e v i e w i n g a n d g u e s s i n g t h e u n k n o w n w o r d s b a s e d o n t h e c o n t e x t . T h e s t u d e n t s r e a d t h e n o v e l s s li e n lt y s i n c e i t i s e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g . T h e s t u d e n t s a l s o r e a d a l l t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e n o v e l s a tl h o u g h s o m e o f t h e m r e a d t h e s u m m a r y . T h e r e s u tl s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e a p o s i it v e e x p e ir e n c e i n r e a d i n g t h e n o v e l s a n d h a v e a p o s i it v e p e r c e p it o n o n r e a d i n g n o v e l s i n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e .

  . S t u d e n t s ’ E x p e r i e n c e i n M a k i n g W r i tt e n R e p o r t s a n d D o i n g O r a l

3 E x a m i n a it o n i n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e

  T h i s s u b s e c it o n d i s c u s s e s t h e e x p e ir e n c e i n m a k i n g t h e w ir tt e n r e p o tr s a n d d o i n g o r a l e x a m i n a it o n s f o B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e s t u d e n t s . M a k i n g t h e w ir tt e n r e p o tr s a n d d o i n g o r a l e x a m i n a it o n s a r e a c it v i it e s w h i c h c a n m e a s u r e s t u d e n t s ’ u n d e r s t a n d i n g a tf e r t h e y r e a d t h e n o v e l s. L a d o (

  1

  9

  6 4 ) s a y s t h a t r e a d i n g w ti h o r a l a n d w ir tt e n r e p o tr s c a n m a i n t a i n a n d e x p a n d l a n g u a g e s k i ll .s T h e l a n g u a g e s k i ll s f o s tl u s e r e h t s w o h s 3 . T 4 e l b a . s ll i k s g n it ir w d n a , g n i d a e r , g n i k a e p s e d u l c n i

  .s n o it a n i m a x e l a r o g n i o d d n a s tr o p e r n e tt ir w e h t g n i k a m n i e c n e ir e p x e ’ s t n e d u t s

  1 -

  5 5 .

  1 8 .

  1 .

  5 T f o y r o t s e h t ll e t e r n a c s t n a p i c it r a p e h o n i l e v o n h c a e n o it a n i m a x e l a r . y ll a c i g o l o n o r h c 3 .

  9

  1 2 .

  7 5 .

  ( E x i d n e p p a e e S ) S n i 1 r e b m u n t n e m e t a t 3 .

  2 9 .

  T 4 e l b a s e b ir c s e d t a h t s t n e d u t s e h t f o t s o m e k a m e h t tr o p e r n e tt ir w s t a h t s n a e m t I . y l e t e l p m o c

  C e s r u o t r o p e R k o o B e v a h s t n e d u t s

  e h t g n it e l p m o c n i y ti li b i s n o p s e r s a s t n e m n g i s . e ri a n n o it s e u q e h t f o s tl u s e r e h T s s t n e d u t s e h t f o t s o m t a h t t u o t n i o p e k a m . tr o p e r n e tt ir w h c a e e r a e r e h T % 8 .

  6 3 t u o s t n e d u t s e h t f o o h w % 6 .

  2 5 d n a e e r g a y l g n o rt s t u o s t n e d u t s e h t f o o h w g a e e r t a h t y e h t f o s tr a p l l a e ti r w e w o H . s tr o p e r n e tt ir w e h t % 5 .

  ,r 1 e r a e r e h t e v t u o e h t ll a f o o h w s t n e d u t s e k a m e t e l p m o c n i . s tr o p e r n e tt ir w , e h t f o y ti r o j a m e h t n o i s u l c n o c n

  I s y a w l a s t n e d u t s e k a m . y l e t e l p m o c l e v o n h c a e f o s tr o p e r n e tt ir w e h t

  T t r o p e r n e tt ir w e h m r o f h r e r u t c e l e h t y b n e v i g n e e b s a s t u b , t n e d u t s e h t s e k a m o t e v a h t i n o d e s a b n i t n e t n o c e h t e h t l e v o n s e h t f o n o it a m r o f n i s n i a t n o c t I .

  7

  9

   ’ s t n e d u t S 3 . T 4 e l b a n i e c n e i r e p x E n e t ti r W g n i k a M d n a s t r o p e R g n i o D l a r O E n o it a n i m a x s n i e s r u o C t r o p e R k o o B . o N s t n e m e t a t S

  2 T e h e h t s p l e h t r o p e r n e tt ir w f o y r o t s e h t d n a t s r e d n u o t s t n a p i c it r a p .l e v o n e h t .

  A t n e m e e r g ) % ( A S ) % ( A ) % ( D ) % ( D S .

  1 T s t n a p i c it r a p e h s y a w l a e k a m e h t . y l e t e l p m o c t r o p e r n e tt ir w 8 .

  6

  3 6 .

  2

  5 5 .

  1 - .

  8 3 6 6 .

  4 T l a r o e h t g n i o d y o j n e s t n a p i c it r a p e h . n o it a n i m a x e 8 .

  2

  5 8 .

  8 - .

  3 T y r a m m u s e h t e ti r w n a c s t n a p i c it r a p e h h ti w ri e h t l e v o n h c a e f o s d r o w n w o . y ll a c i g o l o n o r h c 6 .

  8

  3 4 .

  4

  5 7 - .

  , t c il f n o c , s n o it p ir c s e d d n a s e m a n ’ s r e t c a r a h c , e c a l p d n a e m it g n it t e s , s l e v o n , e h t d n a d e n r a e l e u l a v l a r o m d n a y r a m m u s , e m e h t h ti w n o it c e n n o c e h t l a n o s r e p l fi e . e T h w ir tt e n r e p o tr s h e l p t h e s t u d e n t s t o c o n c l u d e t h e i d e a s o f t h e s t o ir e s i n t h e n o v e l s . B a s e d o n t h e r e s u tl s o f t h e q u e s it o n n a ri e s , t h e s t u d e n t s a s s u m e t h a t t h e w ir tt e n r e p o tr s r e a ll y h e l p t h e m t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s t o ir e s . T h e r e s u l t s h o w s t h a t

  3 8 . 6 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s s rt o n g l y a g r e e a n d

  5 2 . 6 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s a g r e e w ti h s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r 2 . I t m e a n s t h a t t h e r e a r e o n l y 8 . 8 % o u t o f a ll t h e s t u d e n t s w h o a s s u m e t h a t e t h w ir tt e n r e p o tr s d o n o t h e l p t h e m t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s t o ir e s o f t h e n o v e l .s n I t h e i n t e r v i e w , o n e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s e g s i v h i s / h e r c o m m e n t s .

  “ W e d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d a b o u t t h e q u e s it o n s i n w ir tt e n r e p o tr s , f o r e x a m p l e t h e t h e m e . F o r t h e f ri s t it m e , w e w r o t e a w r o n g t h e m e t h e n t h e l e c t u r e r c o r r e c t e d i t a tf e r s u b m ti it n g t h e f ri s t w ir tt e n r e p o r .t ” ( I n t e r v i e w # ) e e

  1 I n t e r v i e w e e # 1 e n c o u n t e r s d fi if c u tl y i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e t h e m e i n t h e w ir tt e n r e p o tr s . T h e m e i s o n e o f t h e p a tr s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e t o w r ti e i n t h e w ir tt e n r e p o tr .s A c t u a ll y , t h e l e c t u r e r s h a v e e x p l a i n e d w h a t t h e y h a v e t o w r ti e i n t h e f o r m s o f t h e w ir tt e n r e p o tr s , b u t t h e s t u d e n t s n e e d m o r e e x p l a n a it o n s o t h a t t h e y c a n m a k e t h e w ir tt e n r e p o tr s c o r r e c lt y .

  A s s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y t h a t i n c o m p l e it n g t h e w ir tt e n r e p o tr ,s t h e s t u d e n t s n e e d t o m a k e a s u m m a r y o f t h e s t o r y i n e a c h n o v e l t h e y h a v e r e a d . A c c o r d i n g t o M i k u l e c k y (

  1

  9 9 : p .

  1

  4 5 ,) s u m m a ir z i n g i s s h o tr e n i n g m a t e ir a l b y r e t a i n i - n g a n d r e s t a it n g m a i n i d e a s a n d l e a v i n g o u t d e t a li s . I t m a k e s t h e r e a d e r s a w a r e o f t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t e x t s . y B s u m m a ir z i n g t h e s t o ir e s o f t h e n o v e l ,s t h e s t u d e n t s d e m o n s rt a t e t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e t e x t s b e c a u s e t h e s t u d e n t s a r e c o n c l u d i n g t h e i m p o tr a n t p o i n t s o f t h e n o v e l . T h e r e s u l t o f s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r 3 p r o v e s t h a t

  3 8 . 6 % t o u o f t h e s t u d e n t s s rt o n g l y a g r e e a n d 5 4 . 4 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s a g r e e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s c a n w r ti e t h e s u m m a r y w ti h t h e i r o w n w o r d s i n e a c h n o v e l c h r o n o l o g i c a ll y . e T h s t u d e n t s d o n o t p l a g i a ir z e o t h e r ’ s w o r k s o r c o p y t h e s u m m a r y f r o m o t h e r s o u r c e s s u c h a s I n t e r n e t b e c a u s e t h e y w r ti e t h e s u m m a r y w ti h t h e i r o w n w o r d s . W ir it n g t h e s u m m a r y w ti h o w n w o r d s s h o w s s t u d e n t s ’ u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s t o ir e s i n t h e n o v e l .s

  A tf e r m a k i n g e t h w ir tt e n r e p o tr s o f t h e n o v e l s , t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e t o d o o r a l e x a m i n a it o n s . I t m e a s u r e s s t u d e n t s ’ m a s t e r y f o t h e n o v e l s . H o w e v e r , d o i n g t h e o r a l e x a m i n a it o n s m a y b e t h e f ri s t e x p e ir e n c e f o r t h e f ri s t s e m e s t e r s t u d e n t s b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e t o d e il v e r t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n E n g il s h . T h e r e s u tl f o s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r

  4 s h o w s t h a t

  2 9 . 8 % o u t o f a ll t h e s t u d e n t s s rt o n g l y a g r e e t h a t t h e y e n j o y d o i n g t h e o r a l e x a m i n a it o n s . M o r e o v e r , t h e r e a r e 5 7 . 9 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s w h o a g r e e w ti h t h e s t a t e m e n t . I f t h e s t u d e n t s e n j o y d o i n g t h e o r a l e x a m i n a it o n s , t h e y c a n a n s w e r e a c h q u e s it o n g i v e n w e ll . T h e r e s u tl s o f t h e q u e s it o n n a ri e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s e n j o y d o i n g t h e o r a l e x a m i n a it o n s .

  B e s i d e s a n s w e ir n g t h e l e c t u r e r ’ s q u e s it o n s o f t h e n o v e l s i n t h e o r a l e x a m i n a it o n s , t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e t o r e t e l l t h e s t o ir e s o f t h e n o v e l s b ir e lf y . T h e s t u d e n t s a l s o h a v e t o r e t e l l e a c h p a r t o f t h e s t o r y w ti h t h e i r o w n w o r d s c h r o n o l o g i c a ll y . B a s e d o n t h e r e s u l t o f s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r

  5 , t h e r e a r e

  1 9 . 3 % t o f u o a ll t h e s t u d e n t s w h o s rt o n g l y a g r e e t h a t t h e y c a n r e t e ll t h e s t o r y o f e a c h n o v e l i n t h e o r a l e x a m i n a it o n s c h r o n o l o g i c a ll y . M o r e o v e r , t h e r e a r e 7 . 2 % o u t o f a ll s t u d e n t s w h o a g r e e w ti h s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r

  5 . R e t e l il n g t h e s t o ir e s c h r o n o l o g i c a ll y i n d i c a t e s t h e i r c o m p r e h e n s i o n . M e a n w h li e , t h e r e a r e 1 . 5 % o u t o f a ll t h e s t u d e n t s o h w t t a h t r e w s n a i y r o t s e h t l l e t e r t o n o d y e h n e h t l a r o s n o it a n i m a x e

  . y ll a c i g o l o n o r h c B f o s tl u s e r e h t n i s t n e m e t a t s e v if f o s i s y l a n a e h t n o d e s a e h t e ri a n n o it s e u q s , e h t h s i n if s t n e d u t s e h t f o t s o m t a h t d e d u l c n o c e b n a c t i s t n e m n g i s s a s y a w l a y e h T . y l e t e l p m o c e k a m s tr o p e r n e tt ir w e h t y r a m m u s e h t h ti w l e v o n h c a e f o

4 P n o it p e c r e ’ s t n e d u t S s e it i v it c A s s a l C n o n i e s r u o C t r o p e R k o o B

  5 5 .

  2 7 .

  6

  6 8 .

  8 8 .

  1 .

  4 R s i s l e v o n e h t g n i d a e t o n g n it s a w . e m it 8 .

  2

  2 9 .

  7

  1 8 .

  7

  8 .

  1 .

  5 R r e t s e m e s e n o n i s l e v o n r u o f g n i d a e s i t o n . y n a m o o t

  1

  2 9 .

  3

  4 3 .

  6

  2

  7

  2

  7 1 - .

  .s e ir o t s e h t d n a t s r e d n u o t m e h t p l e h s tr o p e r n e tt ir w e h t e s u a c e b T e h n a c o s l a s t n e d u t s n i y r o t s e h t l l e t e r e h t l a r o s n o it a n i m a x e . y ll a c i g o l o n o r h c

  n i P S E L E e h t a t a n a S . y ti s r e v i n U a m r a h D T g n i k a e s r u o C t r o p e R k o o B i s t n e d u t s e h t , r e t s e m e s e n o n h a v e t o r e a d f o u r E n g il s h n o v e l s . E v e r y s t u d e n t h a s d fi f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e i n r e a d i n g E n g il s h n o v e l s s o t h a t ti i s n e e d e d t o o b t a i n t h e i r p e r c e p it o n o n r e a d i n g .

  ,r g n i o d y o j n e n a c y e h t e v o e r o M e h t l a r o s n o it a n i m a x e .

  .

  ’ n o it p e c r e p s t n e d u t s e h t s e s s u c s i d n o it c e s b u s s i h T n o t r o p e R k o o B

  C e s r u o e h T . s a w n o it p e c r e p ’ s t n e d u t s

  E h s il g n r u o f g n i d a e r n i e c n e ir e p x e t u o b a n i s l e v o n e s r u o C t r o p e R k o o B .

  P o n o it p e c r e ’ s t n e d u t S 4 . T 4 e l b a N n i s l e v o g n i d a e R n t r o p e R k o o B e s r u o C

  (

  E x i d n e p p a e e S

  ) R e h t s i g n i d a e n i a m n i y ti v it c a

  C e s r u o t r o p e R k o o B

  . o N s t n e m e t a t S A t n e m e e r g ) % ( A S ) % ( A ) % ( D ) % ( D S .

  6 5 .

  1 il p m i s d a e r o t y r a s s e c e n s i t I d e if .s l e v o n

  5

  3 6 .

  9

  5 3 .

  5 - .

  2 l a n i g ir o d a e r o t y r a s s e c e n s i t I .s l e v o n

  5 .

  7

  1 9 .

  4

3 T s t n a p i c it r a p e h e h t g n i d a e r y o j n e s l e v o n .

  A c c o r d i n g t o G e o r g e a n d J o n e s (

  2 5 : p .

  1 5 ) , “ p e r c e p it o n i s t h e p r o c e s s b y w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s s e l e c t , o r g a n i z e , a n d i n t e r p r e t t h e i n p u t f r o m t h e i r s e n s e s ( v i s i o n , h e a ir n g , t o u c h , s m e ll , a n d t a s t e ) t o g i v e m e a n i n g a n d o r d e r t o t h e w o lr d a r o u n d t h e m ” . I n t h i s s u b s e c it o n , t h e p e r c e p it o n i s t a k e n f r o m t h e s t u d e n t s w h o h a v e p r o c e s s e d o f r e a d i n g E n g il s h n o v e l s . T h e i r p e r c e p it o n i s a l s o i n lf u e n c e d b y t h e i r s - n e fl c o c e p t . A tl m a n e t a l . (

  1

  9

  8 5 : p . 9 ) s t a t e t h a t a s - e fl c o n c e p t i s t h e w a y i n d i v i d u a l f e e l s a n d p e r c e i v e s s e fl . T h e s t u d e n t s s - ’ e fl c o n c e p t a f f e c t s w h a t t h e y p e r c e i v e a n d d o i n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e .

  I n t h i s c o u r s e , t h e l e c t u r e r s h a v e r e c o m m e n d e d s o m e it lt e s o f t h e n o v e l s o t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s s e l e c t t h e i r o w n n o v - e l s t o b e r e a d . “ S t u d e n t s s h o u l d r e a d s e fl s e l e c t e d b o o k s ” ( K r a s h e n ,

  1

  9

  8 5 a s c ti e d i n M i k u l e c k y ,

  1

  9 9 ) . T h e r e a r e s o m e r e a s o n s w h y t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e t o s e l e c t t h e i r o w n n o v e l s . F ri s t , s t u d e n t s ’ l a n g u a g e w e a k n e s s e s c a n b e b a l a n c e d b y b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e o f t h e t o p i c s o f t h e b o o k s s t u d e n t s s e l e c t . S e c o n d , s t u d e n t s ’ m o it v a it o n f o r r e a d i n g i n c r e a s e s w h e n t h e s t u d e n t s r e a d w h a t t h e y a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n .

  T h e s t u d e n t s h a v e t o c h o o s e t h r e e s i m p il if e d / a b ir d g e d n o v e l s a n d o n e o ir g i n a /l u n a b ir d g e d n o v e l i n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . T h e r e s u tl s h o w s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s a g r e e t o r e a d b o t h s i m p il if e d / a b ir d g e d a n d o ir g i n a /l u n a b ir d g e d n o v e l s i n

  B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . T h e r e s u l t o f s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r

  1 p r o v e s t h a t

  3 5 % o u t o f a l l s t u d e n t s s t r o n g l y a g r e e a n d 5 9 . 6 % o u t o f a l l s t u d e n t s a g r e e t o r e a d s i m p il if e d / a b ir d g e d n o v e l s . O t h e r w i s e , t h e r e a r e o n l y 5 . 3 % o u t o f a l l s t u d e n t s w h o d i s a g r e e t o r e a d s i m p il if e d / a b ir d g e d n o v e l s i n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e .

  B e s i d e s r e a d i n g s i m p il if e d / a b ir d g e d n o v e l s , t h e s t u d e n t s r e a d a n o ir g i n a /l u n a b ir d g e d n o v e l . T h e r e a r e 1 7 . 5 % o u t o f a l l s t u d e n t s w h o s rt o n g l y a g r e e a n d

  6 4 . 9 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s w h o a g r e e t o r e a d o ir g i n a /l u n a b ir d g e d n o v e l s . H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e

  1 7 . 5 % o f t h e s t u d e n t s w h o a s s u m e t h a t r e a d i n g o ir g i n a /l u n a b ir d g e d n o v e l s i s n o t n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e E n g il s h v o c a b u l a r y i n o ir g i n a /l a b ir d g e d n o v e l i s h a r d e r t h a n t h e v o c a b u l a r y i n s i m p il if e d / u n a b ir d g e d n o v e l s . F r o m s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r

  1 a n d 2 , i t c a n b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s a g r e e t o r e a d b o t h s i m p il if e d / a b ir d g e d a n d o ir g i n a /l u n a b r i d g e d n o v e l s b e c a u s e t h e y n e e d t o r e a d t h o s e t w o k i n d s o f n o v e l s t o i m p r o v e t h e i r E n g il s h v o c a b u l a r y .

  T h e s t u d e n t s o f B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e a l s o e n j o y r e a d i n g s i m p il if e d / a b ir d g e d a n d o ir g i n a /l u n a b ir d g e d n o v e l s . T h e r e s u f tl o s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r 3 s w h s o t h a t

  2 2 . 8 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s s rt o n g l y a g r e e a n d

  6 6 . 7 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s a g r e e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s e n j o y r e a d i n g t h e n o v e l s . I t m e a n s t h a t o n l y 1 . 6 % o u t o f a ll t h e s t u d e n t s w h o d o n o t e n j o y r e a d i n g t h e n o v e l .s tI i s c o n c l u d e d

  B o o k R e p o r t

  t h a t r e a d i n g s i m p il if e d / a b ir d g e d a n d o ir g i n a /l u n a b ir d g e d n o v e l s f o r C o u r s e i s p l e a s a n t f o r t h e s t u d e n t s .

  B e s i d e s e n j o y i n g r e a d i n g n o v e l ,s t h e s t u d e n t s a l s o s t a t e t h a t r e a d i n g i s n o t w a s it n g t h e i r it m e . T h e r e s u l t o f s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r 3 p r o v e s t h a t

  2 2 . 8 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s s rt o n g l y a g r e e a n d 5 7 . 9 % o u t o f a l l t h e s t u d e n t s w h o a g r e e t h a t r e a d i n g n o v e l s i s n o t w a s it n g t h e i r it m e . H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e

  1 9 . 3 % o u t o f a l l t h e s t u d e n t s w h o s t a t e t h a t r e a d i n g n o v e l s i s w a s it n g t h e i r it m e . N u tt a ll (

  1

  9

  8 2 : p .

  6 2 , a s c ti e d i n U r q u h a r t & W e ri ,

  1

  9

  9 8 : p .

  2

  1 9 ) s t a t e s t h a t “ a n e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g p r o g r a m i s t h e s i n g l e m o s t e f f e c it v e w a y o f i m p r o v i n g v o c a b u l a r y a n d r e a d i n g s k i ll s i n g e n e r a l ” .

  I n o t h e r w o r d s , r e a d i n g i s n o t w a s it n g it m e b u t i t c a n i m p r o v e r e a d i n g s k i ll s s a s t a t e d i n t h e g s f o a l o B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . F r o m t h e r e s u tl s o f t h e q u e s it o n n a ri e s , i t c a n b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t r e a d i n g n o v e l s i s n o t w a s it n g s t u d e n t s ’ it m e b u t i t i s b e n e if c i a l f o r t h e s t u d e n t s . T h i s a c it v ti y c a n e x p a n d s t u d e n t s ’ k n o w l e d g e a n d i m p r o v e t h e i r a b li ti y i n r e a d i n g E n g il s h t e x t .s

  I n c o m p l e t i n g t h e c o u r s e , t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e t o r e a d f o u r n o v e l s i n c l u d i n g s i m p il if e d / a b ir d g e d a n d o ir g i n a /l u n a b ir d g e d n o v e l s . B a s e d o n t h e r e s u tl s o f t h e q u e s it o n n a ri e s , m o r e t h a n a h a l f o f B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e s t u d e n t s s t a t e t h a t r e a d i n g f o u r n o v e l s i n o n e s e m e s t e r i s n o t t o o m a n y . T h e r e a r e

  2 1 % o u t o f l a l s t u d e n t s w h o s rt o n g l y a g r e e a n d 5 7 . 9 % o u t o f a ll s t u d e n t s w h o a g r e e t h a t r e a d i n g f o u r n o v e l s i s n o t t o o m a n y . T h e a m o u n t o f t h e n o v e l s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e t o r e a d i s e n o u g h f o r t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e f ri s t s e m e s t e r .

  F r o m if v e s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e p e r c e p it o n o n r e a d i n g n o v e l s , i t c a n b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e a p o s i it v e p e r c e p it o n o n r e a d i n g t h e n o v e l s . T h e s t u d e n t s e n j o y r e a d i n g s i m p il if e d / a b ir d g e d a n d o ir g i n a /l u n a b ir d g e d n o v e l s i n

  

B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . T h e s t u d e n t s a g r e e t h a t r e a d i n g n o v e l s i s n o t w a s it n g t h e i r

  it m e b u t i t i s u s e f u l f o r t h e m . T h e y a l s o a g r e e t h a t r e a d i n g f o u r n o v e l s i n o n e s e m e s t e r i s n o t t o o m a n y .

  B e s i d e s if n d i n g t h e s t u d e n t s ’ p e r c e p it o n o n r e a d i n g t h e n o v e l s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r a l s o o b t a i n s t h e s t u d e n t s ’ p e r c e p it o n o n t h e b e n e f ti s o f B o o k R e p o r t

  

C o u r s e . T h e r e a r e if v e s t a t e m e n t s d e s c ir b i n g t h e s t u d e n t s ’ p e r c e p it o n o n t h e

  b e n e f ti s t h a t t h e y g e t a tf e r t a k i n g B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . T h o s e s t a t e m e n t s a r e r e l a t e d t o v o c a b u l a r y , r e a d i n g s k i ll s n , a d s p e a k i n g s k i ll . T h e r e s u tl s a r e s h o w n i n T a b l e 4 . 5 .

  B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e T a b l e 4 .

5 S t u d e n t s ’ P e r c e p it o n o n B e n e f ti s o f A g r e e m e n t N o . S t a t e m e n t s S A ( % ) A ( % ) D ( % ) S D ( % )

  H a v i n g t a k e n B o o k R e p o tr , t h e 6 . p a r it c i p a n t s u n d e r s t a n d t h e s t o r y o f 2 4 .

  6

  6 3 .

  2 8 .

  8 1 .

  8 e a c h n o v e l w e l .l H a v i n g t a k e n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e , t h e 7 . p a r it c i p a n

  2 2 .

  8

  3 3 .

  3

  4 2 .

  1 - t s u n d e r s t a n d E n g il s h t e x t s e a s li y . H a v i n g t a k e n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e , t h e 8 . p a r it c i p a n t s g e t n e w E n g il s h

  5 6 .

  1

  3 8 .

  6 3 .

  5 1 .

  8 v o c a b u l a r y . B y r e a d i n g t h e n o v e l ,s t h e p a r it c i p a n t s

  4 5 .

  6

  5 4 . 4 - w ti h t h e ri p e r s o n a l l fi e . H a v i n g t a k e n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e , t h e

  • 9 . c a n if n d m o r a l v a l u e s a n d c o n n e c t i t

  1 2 .

  3

  7 1 .

  9

  1

  4 p a r it c i p a n t s c a n s p e a k E n g il s h lf u e n lt y .

  • 1 .

  ( S e e a p p e n d i x E ) H a v i n g t a k e n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e , t h e s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t a n d t h e s t o r y o f e a c h n o v e l . T h e r e s u l t o f s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r

  6 s h o w s t h a t

  2 4 . 6 % t o u o f t h e s t u d e n t s s rt o n g l y a g r e e a n d 6 3 . 2 % t o u o f t h e s t u d e n t s a g r e e t h a t t h e y u n d e r s t a n d t h e s t o ir e s o f t h e n o v e l s . T h e r e a r e o n l y

  1 . 6 % o u t o f a ll t h e s t u d e n t s w h o d o n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h e s t o r y o f e a c h n o v e l . I t i s b e c a u s e t h e s t u d e n t s f a c e s o m e d fi if c u l it e s o r p r o b l e m s i n r e a d i n g w h i c h h a s b e e n e x p l a i n e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s p a r .t T h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n o v e l s i s d e if n ti e l y r e l a t e d t o E n g il s h t e x t s w ir tt e n i n t h e n o v e l s . B a s e d o n t h e r e s u l t o f s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r 7 , a tf e r h a v i n g t a k e n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e

  4 2 . 1 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s a r e s t li l h a r d l y t o u n d e r s t a n d E n g il s h t e x t s . M e a n w h li e , t h e r e a r e

  2 2 . 8 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s w h o s rt o n g l y a g r e e a n d 3 3 . 3 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n o t s w h a g r e e w ti h s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r 7 . T h e s t a t e m e n t d e s c ir b e s t h a t i t i s e a s y t o u n d e r s t a n d E n g il s h t e x t s a tf e r t a k i n g B o o k R e p o r t

  

C o u r s e . T h e r e s u l t s h o w s t h a t B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e m a k e s t h e s t u d e n t s

  a c c u s t o m e d t o r e a d i n g E n g il s h t e x t s s o t h a t t h e y c a n u n d e r s t a n d o t h e r E n g il s h t e x t s e a s li y .

  B e s i d e s e a s li y u n d e r s t a n d i n g E n g il s h t e x t s , B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e s t u d e n t s h a v e a n o t h e r b e n e if t o f r e a d i n g n o v e l s . T h e b e n e if t i s r e l a t e d t o t h e i r E n g il s h v o c a b u l a r y . M o s t o f t h e s t u d e n t s g e t n e w E n g il s h v o c a b u l a r y a tf e r t h e y h a v e r e a d f o u r E n g il s h n o v e l s i n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . T h e r e s u l t s h o w s t h a t

  5 6 . 1 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s s rt o n g l y a g r e e a n d 3 8 . 6 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s a g r e e w ti h s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r

  8 . T h e r e a r e o n l y 5 . 3 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s w h o d o n o t g e t n e w v o c a b u l a r y a tf e r t a k i n g B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . S i n c e B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e i s a p a r t o f e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g , ti i m p r o v e s s t u d e n t s ’ E n g il s h v o c a b u l a r y . N u tt a ll (

  1

  9

  8 2 : p .

  6 2 , a s c ti e d i n U r q u h a r t & W e ri ,

  1

  9

  9 8 : p .

  2

  1 9 ) s t a t e s t h a t “ a n e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g p r o g r a m i s t h e s i n g l e m o s t e f f e c it v e w a y o f i m p r o v i n g v o c a b u l a r y a n d r e a d i n g s k i ll s i n g e n e r a l ” .

  I t c a n b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e c a n i m p r o v e s t u d e n t s ’ k n o w l e d g e o f E n g il s h v o c a b u l a r y .

  T h e o t h e r b e n e if t o f t a k i n g B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e i s g e t it n g m o r a l v a l u e s U n i t P l a n f o B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e (

  2

  1 1 ) . T o if n d t h e m o r a l v a l u e ,s t h e s t u d e n t s n e e d t o c o n n e c t t h e w h o l e s t o ir e s a n d t h e i r b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e . I t i s c a ll e d d r a w i n g i n f e r e n c e s . A c c o r d i n g t o M i k u l e c k y (

  1

  9 9 : p .

  2 6 ) , d r a w i n g i n f e r e n c e s i s r e a d i n g b e t w e e n t h e il n e s , u s i n g t h e e v i d e n c e i n t h e t e x t s t o k n o w t h i n g s t h a t a r e u n s t a t e d . I t r e q u ri e s t h e s t u d e n t s t o t h i n k t h e w h o l e s t o r y a n d r e l a t e d t o t h e b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e d e e p l y . T h e r e s u l t o f s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r

  9 s h o w s t h a t a l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s if n d m o r a l v a l u e s o f e a c h n o v e l a n d c o n n e c t t h e m t o t h e i r p e r s o n a l il v e s . I t c o n s i s t s o f

  4 5 . 6 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s w h o s rt o n g l y a g r e e a n d

  5 4 . 4 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s w h o a g r e e w ti h s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r 9 . I t m e a n s t h a t r e a d i n g n o v e l s i s b e n e if c i a l w h i c h i s n o t o n l y i m p r o v i n g t h e ri r e a d i n g a b li ti y b u t a l s o i m p r o v i n g t h e s t u d e n t s ’ p e r s o n a l ti y .

  I n c o m p l e it n g B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e , t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e t o d o t h e o r a l e x a m i n a it o n s . I n t h e o r a l e x a m i n a it o n s , t h e s t u d e n t s c a n l e a r n t o s p e a k i n E n g il s h .

  I t h a s a g o o d e f f e c t o n t h e s t u d e n t s a tf e r t h e y h a v e if n i s h e d t h e c o u r s e . T h e r e s u l t o f s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r 1 s h o w s t h a t

  1 2 . 4 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s s rt o n g l y a g r e e a n d

  7 1 . 9 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s a g r e e t h a t a tf e r t a k i n g B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e , t h e s t u d e n t s c a n s p e a k i n E n g il s h lf u e n lt y . tI s i o n l y 1 4 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s w h o d o n o t a g r e e w ti h s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r

  1 . H o w e v e r , b y d o i n g t h e o r a l e x a m i n a it o n s , i t c a n e n c o u r a g e t h e s t u d e n t s t o s p e a k i n E n g il s h .

  A s s e e n i n if v e s t a t e m e n t s i n T a b l e 4 . 5 , i t c a n b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e c o u r s e i s u s e f u l f o r t h e s t u d e n t s . T h e s t u d e n t s c a n u n d e r s t a n d t h e s t o r y . T h e s t u d e n t s a r e a c c u s t o m e d t o r e a d i n g E n g il s h t e x t s . T h e s t u d e n t s a l s o g a i n m o r a l

  , r e v o e r o M . y r a l u b a c o v h s il g n E

  2

  1 2 - .

  2

  1 A r e tf h n e k a t g n i v a e s r u o C t r o p e R k o o B , s t n a p i c it r a p e h t i h t e m o s d a e r s i t a h t g n o t d e t a l e r ri e h t . y d u t s 5 .

  7

  1 2 .

  7 5 .

  1 - .

  3

  1 A r e tf h n e k a t g n i v a e s r u o C t r o p e R k o o B , s t n a p i c it r a p e h t s i t a h t g n i h t e m o s d a e r o t d e t a l e r t o n r i e h t . y d u t s

  7 6 .

  5 3 .

  1

  3

  3 3 .

  5 .

  4

  1 A a h r e tf n e k a t g n i v e s r u o C t r o p e R k o o B , s t n a p i c it r a p e h t m it e r o m d n e p s o t e . d a e r 5 .

  7

  1 1 .

  9

  4 8 .

  9

  2 8 .

  6

  1 4 .

  C e s r u o t r o p e R k o o B s e g a r u o c n e u t s e h t t n e d o t

  T 4 e l b a s k s a r e h c r a e s e r e h t , e h t e h t t u o b a s t n e d u t s f o s ti f e n e b e s r u o c e h t g n i k a t e r a t a h t . ti b a h g n i d a e r ri e h t o t d e t a l e r

  E h g u o r h t y lt n e u lf h s il g n n i k a e p s e h t t a h t s n a e m t I . s n o it a n i m a x e l a r o k o o B

  C e s r u o t r o p e R

  s t n e d u t s e h t r o f s ti f e n e b s e v i g , g n i k a e p s s ll i k s g n i d a e r e v o r p m i o t

  , d n a ll i k s n o t o n g n i v o r p m i o s l a t u b s ll i k s g n i d a e r g n i v o r p m i n o y l e h t y r a l u b a c o v

  .l li k s g n i k a e p s d n a G z n o d n a a n o a G )

  1

  1 2 ( z e l a t a h t e t a t s e h t e n i m r e t e d o t s r o t a c i d n i , s k o o b y c n e u q e r f g n i d a e r , g n i d a e r d r a w o t e d u ti tt a : e r a t i b a h g n i d a e r f o e c n e s e r p

  , e d a c a n o t n e p s e m it d a e r , n o n n o t n e p s e m it g n i d a e r c i m - d n a , g n i d a e r c i m e d a c a

  . n o it a v it o m n

  I 6 .

  T g n i k a f o s ti f e n e B 6 . T 4 e l b a C e s r u o t r o p e R k o o B

  5

  R a e o t d e t a l e R ti b a H g n i d

  ( E x i d n e p p a e e S ) O f o s l a o g e h t f o e n e s r u o C t r o p e R k o o B d e t s e r e t n i s t n e d u t s e h t e k a m o t s i

  A s . s l e v o n h s il g n E g n i d a e r n i d e b ir c s e d n i n a l P t i n U n o s s e L f o t r o p e R k o o B

  C e s r u o (

  )

  1

  1 2 , ti g n E o t s t n e d u t s e c u d o rt n i o t d e n g i s e d s i , e s a e r c n i s l e v o n h s il

  .s k r o w y r a r e ti l g n i d a e r n i y ti li b a ’ s t n e d u t s e v o r p m i d n a t s e r e t n i ’ s t n e d u t s T e h

  . o N s t n e m e t a t S A t n e m e e r g ) % ( A S ) % ( A ) % ( D ) % ( D S .

  1

  1 A h r e tf a n e k a t g n i v e s r u o C t r o p e R k o o B , s t n a p i c it r a p e h t e r a n i d e t s e r e t n i d a e r g n i .s l e v o n h s il g n E 8 .

  1 r e s u tl o f s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r

  1 1 s h o w s t h a t

  2 1 % o u t o f a l l t h e s t u d e n t s a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g E n g il s h n o v e l s . A s t u d e n t s a y s h i s / h e r r e a s o n i n t h e i n t e r v i e w a b o u t d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g .

  I n t r o d u c it o n t o

  “ I r e a d b e c a u s e I n e e d t h e m a t e ir a l s . F o r e x a m p l e , I t a k e

  L ti e r a t u r e a n d t h e t e s t i s d r a m a . T h e s c ir p t o f t h e d r a m a i s t a k e n f r o m t h e

  n o v e l i n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e , s o t h a t I r e a d t h e n o v e l . I r e a d b e c a u s e

  I n e e d i .t I f I d o n o t n e e d t o r e a d , I w li l n o t d o i .t ” ( I n t e r v i e w e e # 2 )

  I n t e r v i e w e e # 2 ’ s a n s w e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t h e / s h e d o e s n o t il k e r e a d i n g , t h e s t u d e n t o n l y r e a d s t h e t e x t t o f u fl li l h i s / h e r n e e d s f o r e x a m p l e t h e t a s k i n t h e s u b j e c t s . T h i s i s c a ll e d s u - b j e c t m a tt e r d ri e c t e d m o it v a it o n o f r e a d i n g . A c c o r d i n g - t o K e m p f a n d L e h r k e (

  1

  9

  7 5 , a s c ti e d i n T a s c h o w , 1 c t - m a tt e r d ri e c t e d

  9

  8 5 ) , s u b j e - m o it v a it o n i s i n i it a d t e b y r e a d i n g t a s k t o b e d o n e . I t p u s h e s t h e s t u d e n t s t o if n d n e w i n f o r m a it o n a n d g r a b s t h e s t u d e n t s ’ c o n c e n rt a it o n a n d d e s ri e t o d e l v e d e e p e r i n t o t h e s u b j e c t m a tt e r u n t li t h e s t u d e n t s ’ n e e d s a r e s a it s if e d .

  O n t h e c o n rt a r y , m o s t o f t h e s t u d e n t s b e c o m e i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g a tf e r

  B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e

  t a k i n g . B a s e d o n t h e r e s u tl o f s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r

  1 1 ,

  1 5 . 8 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s s rt o n g l y a g r e e a n d 6 1 . 4 % o u t o f a ll t h e s t u d e n t s a g r e e t h a t t h e y b e c o m e i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g E n g il s h n o v e l .s A s t u d e n t g i v e s a s t a t e m e n t a b o u t h i s / h e r i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g .

  “ B e f o r e t a k i n g B o o k R e p o r t C o u s e I w a s n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g c l a s s i c n o v e l s , b u t a tf e r I h a v e if n i s h e d t a k i n g B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e ,

  I a m c u ir o u s t o r e a d t h a t k i n d o f n o v e l s . A tl h o u g h t h e y a r e c l a s s i c n o v e l s a n d s m e ll b a d , b u t t h e s t o ir e s a r e g o o d . ” ( I n t e r v i e w e e # )

  4 I n t e r v i e w e 4 e # h a s i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g c l a s s i c n o v e l s a tf e r h e / s h e h a s t a k e n

  B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e

  b e c a u s e h e / s h e il k e s t h e s t o ir e s o f t h e n o v e l .s B e s i d e s i m p r o v i n g s t u d e n t s ’ i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g n o v e l ,s B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e a l s o i m p r o v e s s t u d e n t s ’ r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e t e x t s t h a t a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e s t u d y . T h e r e s u tl f o s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r

  1 2 s h o w s a t t h

  1 7 . 5 % o u t o f a ll s t u d e n t s s rt o n g l y a g r e e t o r e a d t e x t r e l a t e d t o t h e s t u d y . M o r e o v e r , t h e r e a r e 7 . 2 % o u t o f a ll t h e s t u d e n t s w h o a g r e e w ti h s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r

  1 2 . I t m e a n s t h a t m o s t o f t h e s t u d e n t s r e a d a c a d e m i c t e x t s a tf e r t h e y h a v e p a s s e d B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . O n t h e c o n rt a r y , t h e r e a r e o n l y 1 . 5 % o u t o f a ll s t u d e n t s w h o d i s a g r e e t h a t t h e y r e a d a c a d e m i c t e x t s a tf e r t a k i n g B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e .

  B e s i d e s i n t e r e s t e d i n a c a d e m i c E n g il s h t e x t s , t h e s t u d e n t s a r e a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d - i n g n o n a c a d e m i c E n g il s h t e x t s . T h e r e s u l t o f s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r 1 3 s h o w s t h a t 7 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s s rt o n g l y a g r e e a n d

  5 2 . 6 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s a g r e e t h a t t h e y a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g n n - o a c a d e m i c E n g il s h t e x t s a tf e r t h e y h a v e p a s s e d t h e c o u r s e .

  “ B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e i n lf u e n c e s m y r e a d i n g h a b ti , e s p e c i a ll y i n r e a d i n g a n n o u n c e m e n t o n b o a r d a r o u n d P B I . B e f o r e I t a k e t h e c o u r s e , I a m l a z y t o r e a d s u c h a n n o u n c e m e n t b e c a u s e i t e x a m i n e s o u r c o m p r e h e n s i o n i n g e t it n g t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e t e x t s . I a l s o r e a d P B I m a g a z i n e a tf e r I t a k e

  B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e .” (

  I n t e r v i e w e e # )

  3 T h e s t u d e n t i s i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g a n a n n o u n c e m e n t a n d a m a g a z i n e

  B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e

  a tf e r h e / s h e t a k e s b e c a u s e r e a d i n g c a n i m p r o v e h i s / h e r c o m p r e h e n s i o n i n l e a r n i n g E n g il s h . o H w e v e ,r t h e r e a r e s o m e s t u d e n t s w h o a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d i - n r e a d i n g n o n a c a d e m i c t e x t s a tf e r t h e y h a v e p a s s e d B o o k R e p o r t

  C o u r s e . T h e r e a r e

  3 3 . 3 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s w h o d i s a g r e e w ti h s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r

  1 3 . T h e n , t h e r e a r e 5 . 3 % o u t o f a ll t h e s t u d e n t s w h o a l s o s rt o n g l y d i s a g r e e w ti h s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r

  1 3 . I t m e a n s t h a t n o t a l l o f t h e s t u d e n t s a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g n - o n a c a d e m i c E n g il s h t e x t s a tf e r t a k i n g B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . H o w e v e r , t h e m a j o r ti y o f t h e s t u - d e n t s a g r e e t o r e a d n o n a c a d e m i c t e x t s a tf e r t a k i n g B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e .

  T h e s t u d e n t s w h o a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g s p e n d t h e i r it m e r e a d i n g a c a d e - m i c a n d n o n a c a d e m i c E n g il s h t e x t .s A c c o r d i n g t o G a o n a a n d G o n z a l e z (

  2

  1 1 ,) t h e it m e o n a c a d e m i c r e a d i n g i s t h e it m e t h a t t h e p e r s o n d e v o t e s t o r e a d i n g t h e b o o k s o n h e r o r h i s s t u d y s u b j e c t . M e a n w h li e , it m e s p e n t o n n o n - a c a d e m i c r e a d i n g i s t h e it m e t h a t t h e p e r s o n d e v o t e s t o r e a d i n g t h e b o o k s n o t d ri e c lt y r e l a t e d t o h i s o r h e r s t u d y s u b j e c .t T h e r e s u tl f o s t a t e m e n t n u m b e r

  1

  4 s h o w s t h a t 1 7 . 5 % t o u o f t h e s t u d e n t s s rt o n g l y r a g e e t h a t t h e y s p e n d t h e i r it m e r e a d i n g a tf e r t a k i n g B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . M o r e o v e r , t h e r e a r e

  4 9 . 1 % o u t o f a ll t h e s t u d e n t s w h o a l s o a g r e e t h a t t h e y s p e n d t h e i r it m e t o r e a d i n g a tf e r t a k i n g B o o k

  R e p o r t C o u r s e

  . M e a n w h li e , t h e r e a r e s t li l

  3 1 . 8 % ( c o n s i s it n g

  2 9 . 8 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s w h o d i s a g r e e a n d 1 . 8 % o u t o f t h e s t u d e n t s w st h o r o n g l y d i s a g r e e ) o u t o f a ll t h e s t u d e n t s w h o d o n o t s p e n d t h e i r it m e d r e a i n g a c a d e m i c a n d - n o n a c a d e m i c

  E n g il s h t e x t s a tf e r t a k i n g B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e .

  F r o m f o u r s t a t e m e n t s s h o w n i n T a b l e 4 . 6 , t h e r e s u tl s s h o w t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e p o s i it v e p e r c e p it o n o n B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . T h e s t u d e n t s b e c o m e i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g E n g il s h n o v e l s . M o r e o v e r , t h e s t u d e n t s a r e n o t o n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g E n g il s h n o v e l s b u t a l s o o t h e r E n g il s h t e x t s . T h e t e x t s a r e r e l a t e d t o a c a d e m - i c a n d n o n a c a d e m i c r e a d i n g . S o m e o f t h e s t u d e n t s a r e n o t s t u d e n t s s p e n d t h e i r it m e r e a d i n g E n g il s h t e x t s a tf e r t a k i n g B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e . I t m e a n s t h a t B o o k R e p o r t C o u r s e b u li d s r e a d i n g h a b ti f o r m a it o n f o r t h e E n g il s h L a n g u a g e E d u c a it o n S t u d y P r o g r a m s t u d e n t s .

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS In this chapter, the writer draws conclusions and proposes some

  

suggestions. There are two important points presented in conclusions. The

suggestions are intended for the lecturers, students, and future researchers.

A. Conclusions

  There are two conclusions based on the research findings and discussion

in the previous chapter. First, based on the discussion of reading problems faced

by the students in Book Report Course, the problems arise because reading

English novels is a new experience for the majority of Book Report Course

students. There are four reading problems faced by Book Report Course students.

Those reading problems are lack of prior knowledge of English vocabulary, low

reading interest, lack of understanding of English grammar, and personal

problems. The personal problems consist of the difficulty in managing time to

read and low motivation in consulting the meaning of vocabulary to the

dictionary.

  Second, based on the discussion of the perception on Book Report

Course , the researcher makes some conclusions. The students have experience in

reading English texts before taking Book Report Course. However, the majority of

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  73 The assignments are reading the novels, making the written reports, and doing the

oral examinations. In reading English simplified/abridged and original/unabridged

novels in Book Report Course, the students preview the novels before they begin

to read. If they find unknown English words, they tend to skip the words and

guess the meanings. They prefer to have a silent reading to an oral reading. The

students also finish reading the whole story of the novels. It means that they

students do not read others’ summary of the stories. The students make the written

reports completely based on the form of the written reports given by the lecturer.

  

They also can write summary of the story with their own words. Besides, the

students can also retell the story in the oral examinations.

  The researcher finds out that the students have a positive perception on

reading activity in Book Report Course. The students enjoy reading both

simplified/abridged and original/unabridged novels. Reading the novels is not

wasting time but it is useful for them. Reading four novels in one semester is not

too many for the students. Besides, they get benefits through Book Report Course.

The students get many new English vocabularies in reading the novels. Some of

the students become interested in reading English novels. The students can also

speak English more fluent because they practice speaking through oral

examinations in Book Report Course. In conclusion, reading English novels in

Book Report Course builds the students’ reading habit formation.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  74 B.

   Suggestions Based on the findings, there are some suggestions intended for the lecturers, the students, and future researchers.

  1. For Lecturers of Book Report Course in the English Language Education Study Program The researcher has some suggestions for the lecturers to improve Book

  

Report Course . Since the students face some reading problems, the lecturers can

give feedback to the students. The feedback can be both general and personal. It

can be given in the meetings in the classroom of Book Report Course. In the

meetings, the lecturers can give motivation and suggestions for the students. By

giving the feedback in the classrooms, the students also can learn from their

friends’ mistakes. It also can help the students who have difficulties in reading or

understanding the novels, making the written reports, or doing oral examinations.

  

Besides, the lecturers can add the recommended novels so that the students can

read many varieties of novels.

  2. For Students of Book Report Course It is suggested for the students to be more active in Book Report Course.

  

It means that the students should do some efforts to solve the problems in reading,

to make the written reports, or do oral examinations. To solve the reading

problems especially related to vocabulary and grammar, the students should read a

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  75

the vocabulary and understand grammar. For the students who are not interested

in reading, they can choose the novels or books which are simple and appropriate

to the ability or the topic that they are interested in. The personal problem which

is related to managing reading time, the students should make priority of the

important assignments so that they can finish each assignment on time. The

suggestion also gives for the students to consult the meaning of vocabulary in the

dictionary. In making the written reports, the students should avoid plagiarism

because the important thing is not the result but the process of learning in Book

Report Course . It is the same as the oral examinations. The oral examinations are

the chance for the first semester students to practice speaking in English. It is

therefore needed for the students to practice and discuss with their friends so that

in oral examinations they can speak fluently.

3. For Future Researchers

  The researcher realizes that this study has a lot of limitation so that the

study also welcomes future researchers who are interested to conduct further

studies related to this matter. The previous study has discussed the teaching

learning activities in Book Report Course. This present study discusses reading

habit formation. The future studies can conduct the research related to reading,

speaking, and writing skills. The other factors that are not included in the study

can also be examined in further studies.

  

S E C N E R E F E R

  . )

  7 . 2 ( R . W , g r o B & , . P . J , ll a G , . D . M , ll a G

  .l li H w a r G . c M : e r o p a g n i S . )

  U g n i g a n a m d n a g n i d n a t s r e d n .r u o i v a h e b l a n o it a z i n a g r o

  9 . 1 ( W . E , n a m r o N & , . R . J , l e k n e a r F

  9

  3

  1 2 , .r l m t h u O / c e w / c s / a z . c a . e v it c a . w w w // : p tt h

  8 (

  3

  , m o r f

  h t

  2

  6

  M s k o o b t x e t g n i d a e r l a i r e t a . h c r a M d e v e ir t e R

  1 . 2 ( M , tr o f r E

  E h c r a e s e r l a n o it a c u d A : n t n i n o it c u d o r

  h t

  R e g d e lt u o : n o d n o L .r e m l a F . s ll i k S g n i d a e R . )

  . g n i d a e r g n i h c r a e s e r d n a g n i h c a e T

  . y ti li b a g n i d a e r e s a e r c n i o t w o H

  9 . 1 ( A . J ,s ir r a H

  5

  4

  . )

  : n o d n o L . n o it a c u d E n o s r a e P

  2 . 2 ( F , r e ll o t S & , . W , e b a r G

  . c n I , n o it a c u d E n o s r a e P : n o t s o B . ). d e

  . )

  n o it a c .r o ir e p u S

  R g n i d a e r n e e w t e b p i h s n o it a l e , f o e l p m a s a n i e c n a m r o fr e p c i m e d a c a d n a y r a r b il y ti s r e v i n u s ti b a h s t n e d u t s y g o l o h c y s p E u d a L e D a t s i v e R : o g l a d i H e d s a l o c i N n a S .

  V . R . E , z e l a z n o G & . G . C . J , a n o a G

  1 . 2 (

  1

  . )

  3

  . n o it a c u d e n i s d o h t e m h c r a e s e R

  . )

  5

  A s u o m y n o n . )

  . c n I ,s s e r P c i m e d a c A : n o d n o L

  O r o i v a h e b l a n o it a z i n a g r : T . e c it c a r p d n a y r o e h

  V , . S , n a m tl A

  9 . 1 ( R . M , s tt e g d o H & , . E , i z n e a

  8

  . )

  2

  U y ti s r e v i n e g d ir b m a C : e g d ir b m a C .s s e r P

  . ) . 2 ( C . J , n o s r e d l A . g n i d a e r g n i s s e s s A

  : a tr a k a J . a k e n i R . T P . a t p i C

  P e b i g o l o k i s l r a j a

  9 . 1 ( W , o n o y ir p u S & , . A . H , i d a m h A

  9

  1

  4 A 2 l ir p ,

  1 . 2 ( i m o K

  . ) . 2 ( K , n o s ir r o M & , . L , n o i n a M , . L , n e h o C

  I n o it a c u d e

  I . n o it a c u d e t n o m l e B A C , l e N : . d t L , n o it a c u d E n o s

  n i h c r a e s e r o t n o it c u d o r t n

  6 . 2 ( K . C , n e s n e r o S & , . C . L , s b o c a J , . D , y r A

  B t n o m l e . ). d e A C , . g n i n r a e L n o s p m o h T h tr o w s d a W : . )

  h t

  6 (

  n i h c r a e s e r o t n o it c u d o r t n

  

X i s

t a k a r a y s a m a c a b t a n i m n a k n it a h ir p y h a d n e r a y g o

  2 . 2 ( A , h e i v a z a R & , . C . L , b o c a J , . D , y r A

  . )

  1 2 , m o r f // : p tt h d i. o g .r p d . w w w / a ti r e b / d i/ l m t h .i s i m o k

  3

  ,

  h t

  1 J 1 y l u d e v e ir t e R .

  . n a m g n o L : k r o Y w e N

  • a c a b - g n a r o - a i s e n o d n i - a m u c - 1 0 - n e s r e p l m t h .

  T f o e r u t a n e h : g n i d a e r f o s l o c o t o r p l a b r e

  E g n i d a e r e v it c e ff g n i d a e r g n i v o r p m I : . n o i s n e h e r p m o c d n a s e t a r

  9 . 1 ( D . R , r o g y a R & , . L . A , r o g y a R

  8

  5

  I s e t a i c o s s A . )

  E m u a b lr e c n e r w a L : J N , e l a d s ll i H . c n

  

V

. g n i d a e r e v is n o p s e r y l e v it c u r t s n o c

  9 . 1 ( P , h c a b r e lf f A & , . M , y e l s s e r P

  9 . 2 ( L , n o m i S

  9

  5

  .s s e r P n o t p m a H : g r u b s tt i P . . )

  A y c a r e ti l n o it is i u q c : d a e r o t g n i n r a e L d n a n e r d li h c y b s tl u d a

  9 . 1 ( A . M , n o r r a M & , . A . C , it t e f r e P

  9

  8

  G w o r c M : k r o Y w e N - . c n I ll i H . )

  A s r e n r a e l t l u d a r o f e d i u g e c n e r e f e r : s g n i n n i g e B w e N .

  T g n i d a e r f o s s e c o r p e h : t n e u lf f o s i s y l a n a e v it i n g o c A . d a e r o t g n i n r a e l d n a g n i d a e r

  9 . 1 ( H , m u a b l e t

   , s s e c o r P : e g a u g n a l d n o c e s a n i g n i d a e R . e c it c a r p d n a t c u d o r p

  9 . 1 ( J . C , ri e W & , . H . A , tr a h u q r U

  9

  8

  I . )

  , r e t s u h c S & n o m i S : k r o Y w e N . c n

  .s t r o p e r k o o b e ti r w o t w o H

  9

  .l l a H e c it n e r P : n o t g n i h s a W . )

  5

  T i e . )

  C a i b m u l o : k r o Y w e N . y ti s r e v i n U

  . g n i d a e r f o n o it a v it l u c e h T

  9 . 1 ( H . G , w o h c s a T

  8

  5

  . d t L s n o S & y e li W n h o J : k r o Y w e N . )

  9 . 1 ( C . D , l e h c ti M

  . ) . 2 ( T , e g d e H

  8

  4

  . )

  I . n a a y a d u b e K n a d n a k i d i d n e P n e m e tr a p e D

  , a tr a k a J : a i s e n o d n

  .s t n e d u t s e g e ll o c r o f s e u q i n h c e t g n i d a e R

  9 . 1 ( S . D , o y r a t s u K

  8

  .) . d e i R e l d d a S r e p p U r e v J N , . n o it a c u d E n o s r a e P : . )

  9 . 1 ( R , o d a L e g a u g n a L t g n i h c a e A : . h c a o r p p a c if it n e i c s w a r G c M : k r o Y w e N -

  h t

  4 (

  U g n i g a n a m d n a g n i d n a t s r e d n r o i v a h e b l a n o it a z i n a g r o

  5 . 2 ( M . J , e g r o e G & , . R . G , s e n o J

  . )

  O o f x : d r .s s e r P y ti s r e v i n U d r o f x O

  . m o o r s s a l c e g a u g n a l e h t n i g n i n r a e l d n a g n i h c a e T

  6

  . c n I ,l li H

  8

  1 / 2 /l a n o i s a n m o c .s w e n n u b ir t. w w w // : p tt h

  2

  . )

  : J N , e l a d s ll i H A n o s i d d - P y e l s e W . y n a p m o C g n i h s il b u

  .s ll i k s g n i d a e r g n i h c a e t n i e s r u o c t r o h s A

  9 . 1 ( S . B , y k c e l u k i M

  9

  . )

  3

  3

  7 1 / 5 /

  / t a n i m

  1 2 , : m o c .s w e N

  3

  T n u b ir m o r f ,

  h t

  1 . 2 ( S , u a l a M . ) m o c .s w e N n u b i r T d e v e ir t e R . y a M 7

  . n a m g n o L : k r o Y w e N V e r p l a n k e n , B . (

  2

  1 2 ) .

  I f y o u d o n ’ t u n d e r s t a n d h a b ti s , h o w c a n y o u h o p e t o c h a n g e t h e m ? C h a ll e n g e s a n d o p p o r t u n i it e s t o c o u r a g e s u s t a i n a b l e il v i n g . t h

  R e t ir e v e d J a n u a r y 1 ,

  2

  1 4 , f r o m h tt p : // w w w . m o n a s h . e d u r/ e s e a r - c h / s u s t a i n a b li ti y i n s t ti u t e / a s s e s t s / d o c u m e n t s / s e m i n a r s /

  1 2 - 7 0 -

  2 4 _ b w a _ v e r p l a n k e n _ p r e s e n t a it o n . p d .f h t m l

  S E C

  I D N E P P A

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  APPENDIX A Questionnaire

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  80 Questionnaire The study is conducted by Yasinta Retnaningrum, student from semester

seven of the English Language Education Study Program (ELESP) Sanata

Dharma University with student number 091214093. The researcher is conducting

a study about students’ perception on Book Report Course in ELESP Sanata

Dharma University. Your voluntary participation in this questionnaire is required

in order to obtain more data which are important for the finding of the study. Your

responses will be kept confidentially. Therefore, your name and your cell phone

number will not be recorded and your response will remain anonymous. Thanks

for your voluntary participation. rd Yogyakarta, 3 December 2012 Personal Identity

  1. : Name 2. : Male Female Sex 3. : Class 4. : Phone number

  A.

   Answer these statements below by giving a tick (v) in each statement.

  Degree of agreement: SA : strongly agree A : agree SD : strongly disagree D : disagree

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  81 SD No. Statement SA A D I. Reading Before Taking Book Report Course I like to read in my spare time.

  1. I read English texts for entertainment.

  2. I read English texts for academic purposes.

  3. Before I take Book Report Course, I read something 4. that is related to my study. Before I take Book Report Course, I read something 5. that is not related to my study.

II. Reading in Book Report Course

  I read title, table of content, theme, etc. of the novels 1. before read. I skip the unknown words and guess the meaning.

  2. I prefer silent reading to oral reading.

  3. I read all of the content of the novels not the summary.

  4. III.

   Writing Report and Oral Examination in Book Report Course I always fill the written report completely.

  1. The written report helps me to understand the story of 2. the novel. I can write the summary with my own words of each 3. novel chronologically. I enjoy doing the oral examination.

  4. I can retell the story of each novel in oral examination 5. chronologically. I can retell the story of each novel in oral examination 6. fluently.

IV. Perception on Book Report Course It is necessary to read simplified novels.

1. It is necessary to read original novels.

  2.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  82 No. Statement SA A D SD Reading the novels is not wasting my time.

  4. Reading four novels in one semester is not too many.

  5. Having taken Book Report, I understand the story of 6. each novel well. Having taken Book Report Course, I understand 7. English text easily. Having taken Book Report Course, I get new English 8. vocabulary. By reading the novels, I can find moral values and 9. connect it with my personal life. Having taken Book Report Course, I can speak English 10. fluently. After having taken Book Report Course, I am 11. interested in reading English novels. After having taken Book Report Course, I read 12. something that is related to my study. After having taken Book Report Course, I read 13. something that is not related to my study. After having taken Book Report Course, I spend more 14. time to read.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  83 B.

  

Answer the question below based on your experiences in Book Report

Course.

  1. What is (are) your difficulty (ies) in Book Report Course? ___________________________________________________________

  2. In your opinion, why do you have that difficulty (ies)? ___________________________________________________________

  3. How do you solve your problem/difficulty in Book Report Course? ___________________________________________________________

  4. What is your suggestion to improve Book Report Course? ___________________________________________________________

THANK YOU

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  84 APPENDIX B Students ’ Interview Questions

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  85 STUDENTS ’ INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 1.

  Apa pendapat Anda tentang aktivitas belajar mengajar di kelas Book Report? 2. Apa pendapat Anda tentang written report dan oral examination di kelas Book

  Report ? 3.

  Apakah Anda tahu tujuan kelas Book Report? 4. Kalau tahu, apa tujuan dari kelas Book Report? 5. Menurut pendapat Anda, apakah aktivitas belajar mengajar di kelas Book

  Report sudah mencapai tujuan dari kelas Book Report? 6.

  Kalau iya/tidak, mengapa? 7. Sebelum mengikuti kelas Book Report, apakah Anda suka membaca novel atau buku ber-Bahasa Inggris? Mengapa?

  8. Setelah mengikuti kelas Book Report, apakah Anda suka membaca novel atau buku ber-Bahasa Inggris? Mengapa?

  9. Menurut pendapat Anda, apakah kelas Book Report memengaruhi kebiasaan membaca Anda? Mengapa?

  10. Apakah Anda mendapatkan manfaat dari kelas Book Report? Jelaskan! 11.

  Apakah Anda mengalami kesulitan saat mengikuti kelas Book Report? Jelaskan!

  12. Apa saran Anda untuk kelas Book Report agar menjadi lebih baik?

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  86 APPENDIX C Lecturer ’s Interview Questions

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  87 LECTURER ’S INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

  1. How many classes of Book Report Course were opened in 2012?

  2. Why is Book Report Course taken in the 1st semester?

  3. How does teaching-learning activities in Book Report Course?

  4. Do you find any problems from the students when they are doing assessments?

  5. What are their problems?

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  88 APPENDIX D

Lesson Unit Plan of Book Report

Course

  89 PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  90 PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  91 APPENDIX E

Results of Closed-Questions in

Questionnaire

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  92 RESULTS OF CLOSED QUESTIONS OF QUESTIONNAIRE SA : strongly agree A : agree SD : strongly disagree D : disagree

  Part 1. The following statements are about reading before taking Book Report Course Degree of Agreement No. Statement SA (%) A (%) D (%) SD (%)

  24.6

  59.6

  15.8 Before I take Book Report Course, I 2.

  • 1. I like to read in my spare time.

  14

  57.9

  24.6

  3.5 read English texts for entertainment. Before I take Book Report Course, I read English texts for academic

  31.6

  57.9

  10.5 purposes.

  • 3.

  Part II. The following statements are about reading in Book Report Course Degree of Agreement No. Statements SA (%) A (%) D (%) SD (%) I read title, table of content, theme, 1.

  47.4

  43.8

  5.3

  1.8 etc. of the novels before read. I skip the unknown words and guess 2.

  35

  33.3

  24.6

  7 the meaning. I prefer silent reading to oral reading.

  3.

  28

  57.9

  10.5

  1.8 I read all of the content of the novels 4.

  45.6

  43.8 7 - not the summary.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  93 Part III. The following statements are about writing reports and oral examination in Book Report Course Degree of Agreement No. Statements SA (%) A (%) D (%) SD (%)

  I always fill the written report

  36.8

  52.6

  10.5 completely. The written report helps me to 2.

  • 1.

  38.6

  52.6 8.8 - understand the story of the novel. I can write the summary with my own 3.

  38.6 -

  54.4

  7 words of each novel chronologically.

4. I enjoy doing the oral examination.

  29.8

  57.9

  10.5

  1.8 I can retell the story of each novel in

  70.2

  • 19.3

  10.5 5.

  oral examination chronologically.

  

Part IV. The following statements are about students’ perception on Book

Report Course Degree of Agreement No. Statements SA (%) A (%) D (%) SD (%) It is necessary to read simplified 1.

  35

  59.6 -

  5.3 novels. It is necessary to read original novels.

  2.

  17.5

  64.9 17.5 - I enjoy reading the novels.

  3.

  22.8

  66.7

  8.8

  1.8 Reading the novels is not wasting my 4.

  22.8

  57.9

  17.5

  1.8 time. Reading four novels in one semester is 5.

  21

  43.9

  26.3

  7 not too many. Having taken Book Report,

  I 6. understand the story of each novel

  24.6

  63.2

  8.8

  1.8 well. Having taken Book Report Course, I 7.

  22.8 -

  33.3

  42.1 understand English text easily. Having taken Book Report Course, I 8.

  56.1

  38.6

  3.5

  1.8 get new English vocabulary.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  94 Degree of Agreement No. Statements SA (%) A (%) D (%) SD (%)

  Having taken Book Report Course, I 10.

  12.3 -

  71.9

  14 can speak English fluently. After having taken Book Report 11.

  15.8

  61.4

  21 - Course, I am interested in reading English novels. After having taken Book Report

  12. Course, I read something that is -

  17.5

  70.2

  10.5 related to my study. After having taken Book Report

  13. Course, I read something that is not

  7

  52.6

  33.3

  5.3 related to my study. After having taken Book Report 14.

  17.5

  49.1

  29.8

  1.8 Course, I spend more time to read.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  95 APPENDIX F

Results of Open-Questions in

Questionnaire

Dokumen baru

Tags

Dokumen yang terkait

A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education
0
0
88
A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education
0
0
91
A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education
0
0
300
A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education
0
0
86
A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education
0
0
83
A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education
0
0
181
A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education
0
0
149
A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education
0
0
89
A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education
0
0
84
A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education
0
0
77
A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education
0
0
96
A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education
0
0
226
A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education
0
0
111
A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education
0
0
96
A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education
0
0
159
Show more