EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL, MICROBIOLOGICAL AND CONSUMER PREFERENCES OF GRAPE (Vitis vinifera) WINE EVALUASI FISIKOKIMIA, MIKROBIOLOGI DAN TINGKAT KESUKAAN KONSUMEN TERHADAP WINE BUAH ANGGUR (Vitis vinifera)

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EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL,

MICROBIOLOGICAL AND CONSUMER PREFERENCES OF

GRAPE (Vitis vinifera) WINE

EVALUASI FISIKOKIMIA, MIKROBIOLOGI DAN TINGKAT

  

KESUKAAN KONSUMEN TERHADAP WINE BUAH

ANGGUR (Vitis vinifera)

THESIS

  Submitted to The Faculty of Agricultural Technology in partial fulfillment of the requirements for obtaining the Bachelor Degree

  

By:

LUKAS TERRY BOEDIANTO

12.70.0044

  

DEPARTMENT OF FOOD TECHNOLOGY

FACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY

SOEGIJAPRANATA CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY SEMARANG

2016

  

EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL,

MICROBIOLOGICAL AND CONSUMER PREFERENCES OF

GRAPE (Vitis vinifera) WINE

EVALUASI FISIKOKIMIA, MIKROBIOLOGI DAN TINGKAT

  

KESUKAAN KONSUMEN TERHADAP WINE BUAH

ANGGUR (Vitis vinifera)

THESIS

  Submitted to The Faculty of Agricultural Technology in partial fulfillment of the requirements for obtaining the Bachelor Degree

  

By:

LUKAS TERRY BOEDIANTO

12.70.0044

This thesis report has been approved and defended in front of the examination th committee on February 24 2016 th

  Semarang, March 4 2016 Department of Food Technology Faculty of Agricultural Technology Soegijapranata Catholic University

   Supervisor Dean

Dr. Ir. Lindayani, MP. Dr. V. Kristina Ananingsih, ST, MSc.

Co-Supervisor Dra. Laksmi Hartayanie, MP

STATEMENT OF THESIS AUTHENTICITY

  I hereby declare that the thesis entitled “EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL,

  

MICROBIOLOGICAL AND CONSUMER PREFERENCES OF GRAPE (Vitis

vinifera) WINE

  ” contains no work that ever proposed to acquire a bachelorship title in a University, and along to my knowledge, there is no work ever written or published by others, except the ones used as references in this thesis and mentioned in the list of references.

  If it is proven in the future that partially or whole thesis is the result of plagiation, therefore I am willing to be revoked with all of the consequences in accordance with the law and regulations applied at Seogijapranata Catholic University and/or valid law and regulations.

  th

  Semarang, March 4 2016 Lukas Terry Boedianto 12.70.0044

  

SUMMARY

  Red grape (Vitis vinifera) is a perishable fruit, therefore some processes to extend the shelf life of grape is needed. Grape has high functional value and can be processed into wine. Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by fermentation process. During the fermentation process, the resulting compounds are not only alcohol and CO

  2 , but also produced a wide variety of other compounds that the presence must be standardized.

  Aging and sugar addition treatment are usually done to improve the sensory quality of grape wine. However, aging and sugar addition treatment may influence characteristics of grape wine. Faculty of Agricultural Technology as an institution dealt with food field has a resposibility to produce some food products. In 2009, the faculty started to conduct a research about grape wine because it has high functional value as food product. In 2009 until 2012, evaluation of wine formulation has been conducted in order that Faculty of Agricultural Technology can get the most precise formulation with the most preferable sensory quality. The most precise formulation was obtained in 2012, however, the evaluation about chemical, physical and microbiological characteristics has not been conducted yet. Eventhough, in order to make sure that the wine is safe for consumption, grape wine production 2012 (GW12), 2015 (GW15) and 2015 without sugar adddition (GW15S) treatment based on chemical, physical and microbiological, and to know consumers preferences of grape wine based on sensory characteristics. The analysis of ethanol and methanol content was done by using gas chromatography (GC) equipments. Total of SO

  2 and volatile acid was analyzed using titration and distilation method. The

  measurement of Zn was done by using Atomic Absorbsion Spectrophotometry (AAS) equipment. The antioxidant activity of grape wine was analyzed using DPPH (1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhidrazyl) solution. Physical characteristics were analyzed using turbidimeter and chromameter. Microbiological analysis was done by using spread plate and Gram staining method. While sensory analysis was done by involving 12 priests as panelists and using hedonic ranking method. Significant differences in chemical and physical analysis were analyzed using parametric test One-Way ANOVA, while significant differences in sensory analysis were analyzed using non-parametric test K- related sample with 95% level of confidence. Result showed that the total of SO

  2 , total of

  volatile acid, Zn, ethanol and methanol content of grape wines were in accordance with SNI 01-4018-1996 and Jackson (2008). Aging caused a decrease in turbidity and an increase in L value, while sugar addition caused an increase in turbidity and a decrease in L value of grape wine. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and rod-shaped positive Gram bacteria were found in grape wine. The most preferable grape wines were grape wine production 2012 (GW12) and grape wine production 2015 (GW15).

  

RINGKASAN

Anggur merah (Vitis vinifera) adalah buah-buahan yang mudah rusak. Untuk

memperpanjang umur simpannya, maka anggur merah dapat diproses menjadi produk

wine. Wine adalah produk minuman beralkohol yang dihasilkan dari proses fermentasi.

2 Selama proses fermentasi, alkohol, CO dan beberapa senyawa lain dihasilkan sebagai

  

akibat dari proses metabolisme yeast dan reaksi kimia. Proses pemeraman dan

penambahan gula seringkali dilakukan untuk meningkatkan kualitas sensory wine. Meski

demikian, kedua proses tersebut dapat menyebabkan perubahan karakteristik pada wine.

Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian (FTP) sebagai salah satu instansi yang bergerak dalam

bidang pangan memiliki tanggung jawab untuk memproduksi produk pangan tertentu.

Pada tahun 2009, penelitian mengenai wine anggur akhirnya dilakukan karena wine

anggur memiliki nilai fungsional yang tinggi. Pada tahun 2009 hingga 2012, evaluasi

terhadap formulasi wine terus dilakukan untuk mendapatkan wine dengan kualitas

sensori paling optimal. Pada tahun 2012 formulasi yang paling tepat telah ditemukan

dan digunakan hingga sekarang, namun evaluasi mengenai karakteristik kimia, fisik dan

mikrobiologi belum pernah dilakukan. Padahal untuk memastikan bahwa wine yang

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi kualitas wine produksi tahun 2012 (GW12),

2015 (GW15) dan 2015 tanpa penambahan gula (GW15S) berdasarkan karakteristik

kimia, fisik, mikrobiologi, dan untuk mengetahui tingkat kesukaan wine berdasarkan

kualitas sensori. Analisis kandungan etanol dan metanol dilakukan dengan menggunakan

alat gas chromatography, sedangkan untuk analisis kandungan total SO 2 dan asam

volatil menggunakan metode titrasi dan distilasi. Pengukuran kandungan Zn dilakukan

dengan alat Atomic Absorbsion Spectrophotometry (AAS). Pengukuran aktivitas

antioksidan dengan DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhidrazyl). Karakteristik fisik dianalisis

dengan menggunakan turbidimeter dan chromameter. Untuk mengetahui karakteristik

mikrobiologi pada wine dilakukan pengujian spread plate dan pewarnaan Gram. Tingkat

kesukaan wine diketahui dengan menggunakan metode uji organoleptik hedonik ranking

dengan bantuan 12 orang panelis yang berprofesi sebagai pendeta atau romo. Perbedaan

signifikan pada karakteristik kimia dan fisik dianalisa dengan uji parametrik One-Way

ANOVA, sedangkan perbedaan signifikan pada analisa sensori dianalisa dengan uji non-

parametrik K-related sample dengan tingkat kepercayaan 95%. Hasil menunjukkan

  2

bahwa kandungan total SO , asam volatil, Zn, etanol dan metanol telah sesuai dengan

SNI 01-4018-1996 dan Jackson (2008). Pemeraman menyebabkan penurunan tingkat

kekeruhan dan menyebabkan kenaikan nilai L, sedangkan proses penambahan gula

menyebabkan peningkatan tingkat kekeruhan dan menyebabkan penurunan nilai L pada

wine. Saccharomyces cerevisiae dan bakteri Gram positif ditemukan pada wine. Wine

yang paling disukai oleh panelis adalah wine produksi tahun 2012 (GW12) dan 2015

(GW15).

  

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

  Praise the Lord because by His grace and blessing, the author would have the opportunity to undergo the thesis research and finish the report. During the thesis research, the author did the research with title: EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL,

  

MICROBIOLOGICAL AND CONSUMER PREFERENCES OF GRAPE (Vitis

vinifera) WINE. The author would not be able to finish the research alone and only by

support and guidance given by people around the author this report could be finished.

  Special thanks for: 1.

  Dr. Victoria Kristina Ananingsih, ST., MSc. as the Dean of Faculty of Agricultural Technology Soegijapranata Catholic University. Dr. Ir. Lindayani, MP. and Dra. Laksmi Hartayanie, MP. as supervisors for taking care and support the author during thesis research and report making.

  3. Mas Pri, Mas Sholeh, Mas Lylyx and Mbak Agatha as laboratory assistants which always give support and guide the author during thesis research.

  4. My family, Papah, Mamah, Raymond, Willy and Alex who always support me in finance and cheers me every day. Thank you for all of your prayer and love!

  5. Feyii as a partner that is very helpful and cheerful during thesis research and report making. Thank you for your willingness to try to understand all the author’s complaints and provide solutions to the problems. Thank you for taking care of me lovingly! 6. Inda, Anton, Hendra, William, Lisa, Lorentia, Ika and Yonetha Putri Tantowijaya, S.S. who want to share the happiness and sadness together.

  7. BEM FTP 2012/2013, SMU 2013/2014 and BEM FTP 2014/2015 as part of my life and learning processes and all other parties that the author can not mention one by one.

  This report is far from perfect, however the author hope this report can be an inspiration and provide useful information for all the reader.

  th

  Semarang, March 4 2016 Author,

  Lukas Terry Boedianto (12.70.0044)

  CONTENTS

STATEMENT OF THESIS AUTHENTICITY .................................................... ii

SUMMARY ............................................................................................................. iii

RINGKASAN .......................................................................................................... iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ....................................................................................... v

CONTENTS ............................................................................................................ vi

LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................ viii

LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................ ix

LIST OF APPENDICES .......................................................................................... x

  

1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 1

  1.1. Background ..................................................................................................... 1

  1.2. Theory Review ................................................................................................ 2

  1.2.1. Red Grape (Vitis Vinifera) ....................................................................... 2

  1.2.2. Wine ......................................................................................................... 3

  1.2.3. Fermentation ............................................................................................ 4

  1.2.4. Sulfur Dioxide (SO

  2 ) .............................................................................. 5

  1.2.5. Volatile Acid ............................................................................................ 6

  1.2.6. Zinc (Zn) Metal ........................................................................................ 6

  1.2.7. Antioxidant .............................................................................................. 7

  1.2.8. Sensory Analysis ...................................................................................... 7

  1.3. Objectives ....................................................................................................... 8

  

2. MATERIAL AND METHOD ............................................................................. 9

  2.1. Time and Place of Research ............................................................................ 9

  2.2. Material ........................................................................................................... 9

  2.2.1. Equipment ............................................................................................... 9

  2.2.2. Material ................................................................................................... 9

  2.3. Method .......................................................................................................... 10

  2.3.1. Making of Grape Wine ......................................................................... 10

  2.3.2. Chemical Analysis ............................................................................... 10

  2.3.2.1. Ethanol and Methanol Content Analysis ..................................... 10 2.3.2.2. pH Analysis.................................................................................. 10

  2.3.2.3. Total of SO

  2 Analysis .................................................................. 11

  2.3.2.4. Sugar Content Analysis ............................................................... 11

  2.3.2.5. Total of Volatile Acid Analysis ................................................... 11

  2.3.2.6. Zinc (Zn) Metal Analysis ............................................................. 11

  2.3.2.7. Antioxidant Activity Analysis ..................................................... 12

  2.3.3. Physical Analysis .................................................................................. 12

  2.3.3.1. Turbidity Analysis ....................................................................... 12

  2.3.3.2. Color Analysis ............................................................................. 13

  2.3.4. Microbiology Analysis ......................................................................... 13

  2.3.4.1. Spread plate.................................................................................. 13

  2.3.4.2. Gram Staining .............................................................................. 13

  2.3.5. Sensory Analysis................................................................................... 14

  vii

  2.3.6. Data Analysis ........................................................................................ 14

  3. RESULT .............................................................................................................. 16

  3.1. Chemical Analysis ........................................................................................ 16

  3.2. Physical Analysis .......................................................................................... 17

  3.3. Microbiological Analysis .............................................................................. 19

  3.4. Sensory Analysis ........................................................................................... 21

  4. DISCUSSION ...................................................................................................... 23

  4.1. Chemical Analysis ........................................................................................ 23

  4.2. Physical Analysis .......................................................................................... 28

  4.3. Microbiological Analysis ............................................................................. 30

  4.4. Sensory Analysis .......................................................................................... 31

  5. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION .............................................................. 33

  5.1. Conclusion .................................................................................................... 33

  5.2. Suggestion ..................................................................................................... 33

  6. REFERENCES ................................................................................................... 34

  7. APPENDICES ..................................................................................................... 38

  LIST OF TABLES

  Table 1. Composition of Grape in 100 g .................................................................... 3 Table 2. Chemical Characteristics of Grape Wine Based on Aging Time ............... 16 Table 3. Chemical Characteristics of Grape Wine Based on Sugar Addition .......... 17 Table 4. Physical Characteristics of Grape Wine Based on Aging Time ................. 18 Table 5. Physical Characteristics of Grape Wine Based on Sugar Addition ............ 18 Table 6. Sensory Characteristics of Grape Wine ...................................................... 21 Table 7. Requirement of Wine Based on SNI 01-4018-1996................................... 38

  LIST OF FIGURES

  Figure 1. Flow Diagram of Making and Analysis of Grape Wine ........................... 15 Figure 2. Result of Spread Plate (left) and Gram staining (right) of Grape Wine with a Magnification of 10x100 in MRSa medium ......................................... 19 Figure 3. Result of Spread Plate (left) and Gram Staining (right) of Grape Wine with a Magnification of 10x100 in MEA medium ........................................... 20 Figure 4. Sensory Analysis of Grape Wine .............................................................. 22

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