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(1)PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI THE CONCEPT OF SHAKESPEAREAN TRAGIC HERO IN WOLE SOYINKA’S DEATH AND THE KING’S HORSEMAN AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By JOHN PIETER OLIYANTO GOA Student Number: 074214057 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014

(2) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI THE CONCEPT OF SHAKESPEAREAN TRAGIC HERO IN WOLE SOYINKA’S DEATH AND THE KING’S HORSEMAN AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By JOHN PIETER OLIYANTO GOA Student Number: 074214057 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014 i

(3) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ii

(4) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI iii

(5) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY I honestly declare that the thesis which I wrote does not contain the works or part of works of other people except those cited in the quotations and references, as a scientific paper should. Yogyakarta, August 14, 2014 The writer John Pieter 074214057 iv

(6) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI LEMBARAN PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Sanata Dharma: Nama : JOHN PIETER OLIYANTO GOA Nomor Mahasiswa : 07 4214 057 Dengan perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya berjudul : Concepts of Shakespearean Tragic Hero In Wole Soyinka’s Death and the King’s Horseman beserta perangkat yang diperlukan. Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di internet dan media lain untuk kepenting akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin dari saya ataupun memberikan royalti kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai penulis. Dengan pernyataan ini yang saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Dibuat di Yogyakarta Pada tanggal 14 september 2014 Yang mengatakan (JOHN PIETER) v

(7) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Our greatest weakness lies in giving up. The most certain way to succeed is always to try just one more time. (Thomas A. Edison) vi

(8) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First of all, my gratitude goes to my beloved God, Jesus Christ for helping me to finish this undergraduate thesis. His abundant blessings and guidance always be with me to face anything in my life. My deep gratitude goes to my advisor, P. Sarwoto,S.S.,M.A.,Ph.D for his patience, helps and inspirations. It is my pleasure to have him as my advisor during this writing process especially for his correction and suggestion. My greatest debt is to Dra. A.B. Sri Mulyani, M.A., Ph.D. for correcting my millions of grammatical and spelling mistakes in this undergraduate thesis. I also give my gratefulness to my beloved parents, Shinta and Jonny, for their loves, prayers and supports. I thank all my friends for their supports to finish this undergraduate thesis. First thanks goes to Horas, Frandy, Adonk, Windu, Aldo and many more, who were generous with their time and friendship. I owe profound thanks for all my friends in campus, especially Natalis Yapto, Paul, Adi for all the memories of happiness and hardship. My gratitude also goes to everyone in Sanata Dharma University, my big family in Jawawawo and Giriwawo who cannot be mentioned one by one here. John Pieter vii

(9) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE ....................................................................................................................... i APPROVAL PAGE ............................................................................................................. ii ACCEPTANCE PAGE ........................................................................................................ iii MOTTO PAGE .................................................................................................................... vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ................................................................................................... vii TABLE OF CONTENTS ..................................................................................................... viii ABSTRACT ......................................................................................................................... x ABSTRAK............................................................................................................................ xi CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................ 1 A. Back Ground of the Study ...................................................................................... 1 B. Problem Formulation ............................................................................................. 5 C. Objectives of the Study .......................................................................................... 5 D. Definition of Terms ............................................................................................... 6 CHAPTER II: THEORETICAL REVIEW........................................................................ 7 A. Review of Related Studies ..................................................................................... 7 B. Review of Related Theories ................................................................................... 12 1. Theory on Character and Characterization .................................................. 12 2. Theory on Plot ............................................................................................ 14 3. Theory on Shakespearean Tragic Hero........................................................ 16 C. Theoretical Framework .......................................................................................... 21 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY .................................................................................... 22 A. Object of the Study ................................................................................................ 22 B. Approach of the Study ........................................................................................... 23 C. Method of the Study............................................................................................... 25 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS ................................................................................................ 26 A. Characteristics of the Hero ..................................................................................... 36 1. Humorous ................................................................................................... 27 2. Arrogant and Opportunist ........................................................................... 28 3. Redemptive ................................................................................................ 31 B. Plot of the Play ...................................................................................................... 32 1. Exposition or Introduction .......................................................................... 33 2. The rise and the development of the Conflict .............................................. 37 3. Crisis .......................................................................................................... 41 4. Declining Action ........................................................................................ 43 5. Catastrophe................................................................................................. 44 C. The Characteristics of Shakespearean Tragic Hero Reflected From Characteristics of the Hero and Plot of the Play .............................................. 45 1. A high Degree and Admirable Person ......................................................... 45 2. Complex Characteristics ............................................................................. 48 3. Supernatural Elements ................................................................................ 50 4. The Appearance of Chance or Accident ...................................................... 54 viii

(10) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 5. Exceptional Being ...................................................................................... 55 6. Pity and Admiration ................................................................................... 56 7. Fate and Welfare of Nation or Empire ........................................................ 58 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION ........................................................................................... 60 BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................................ 63 ix

(11) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRACT JOHN PIETER OLIYANTO GOA. Concept of Shakespearean Tragic Hero in Wole Soyinka’s Death and the King’s Horseman. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2014. Shakespeare is one of the famous English writers in this world. He gives a lot of contributions to the development of English literature with his abundant works including his tragic plays. In writing tragic plays, Shakespeare has his own concept of tragedy which is different from other writers in his life time. His work of tragedy has influenced many writers and one of them is Wole Soyinka. Wole Soyinka was 1986 Nobel laureate and also hailed as African Shakespeare. Soyinka’s work related to tragedy is Death and the King’s Horseman; written in 1975. The writer chooses this play as object of study because the writer wants to prove the concept of tragic hero presented in Soyinka’s Death and the King’s Horseman with concept of Shakespearean tragic hero since Soyinka is hailed as African Shakespeare. Death and the Kings Horseman is analyzed trough three problems formulated in this research. The first is how Soyinka characterizes his tragic hero. The second is how Soyinka draws his plot and the last is how the characteristics of hero and the plot reflect the concept of Shakespearean tragic hero. The aim of this research is to find out the characteristics of Shakespearean tragic hero in the Soyinka’s Death and the King’s Horseman. The method of this study is a library research. Some steps applied are collecting the data, gaining the data necessary for the problem formulations and reading and revealing concept of Shakespearean tragic hero from characteristics and plot of the play. As a knife to observe the object of the study, the writer used structuralist approach. Structuralists believed that things could not be understood in isolation. They had to be seen in the context of the larger structures. Through the analysis on the problem formulation, it is known that Soyinka does not fully take the concept of Shakespearean tragic hero because he makes modification in his tragic hero. His tragic hero is not a king or prince only chief of king’s horseman. The story is not about the life of a state or a kingdom but about the death ritual of king’s horseman, but it should be noted that Soyinka adopts Shakespearean tragic hero in his play. The hero, Elesin Oba, shares qualities like in Shakespeare’s tragic hero such as; he has high degree position and admired by his people, he has complex characteristics, he is close to supernatural elements, he experiences chance or accident, he is an exceptional being, his fate incurs pity and admiration and his fate affects the lives of many. x

(12) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRAK JOHN PIETER OLIYANTO GOA. Concept of Shakespearean Tragic Hero in Wole Soyinka’s Death and the King’s Horseman. Yogyakarta: Jurusan Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma,2014. Shakespeare adalah salah satu penulis berkebangsaan Inggris yang tersohor di dunia. Ia banyak berkontribusi terhadap perkembangan kesusasteraan Ingris dengan karya-karyanya termasuk drama-drama tragis. Dalam menulis drama tragis, Shakespeare memiliki konsep pahlawan tragis yang berbeda dari penulis lain di zamannya. Karya-karya tragisnya telah mempengaruhi banyak penulis diantaranya adalah Wole Soyinka yang adalah pemenang hadiah nobel sastra di tahun 1986 dan dipuja sebagai Shakespearenya Afrika. Karya Soyinka yang berhubungan dengan tragedi adalah Death and the King’s Horseman sebuah drama yang di tulis pada tahun 1975. Penulis memilih drama ini karena penulis ingin membuktikan konsep pahlawan tragis yang ada di dalam karya Soyinka dengan konsep pahlawan tragis milik Shakespeare. Dalam penelitian ini, Death and the King’s Horseman dikaji melalui tiga rumusan masalah. Yang pertama adalah bagaimana Soyinka mengkarakterisasi pahlawan tragisnya. Yang kedua adalah bagaimana Soyinka mendeskripsikan alur cerita dan yang terakhir adalah bagaimana karakterisasi dari pahlawan dan alur cerita merefleksikan konsep pahlawan tragis milik Shakespeare. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menggali karakteristik pahlawan tragis milik Shakespeare dalam drama yang ditulis Soyinka. Adapun metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode pustaka. Beberapa langkah yang diperlukan untuk penelitian ini adalah pengumpulan data, memperoleh data yang relevan dengan rumusan masalah, menganalisis dan mengungkap konsep pahlawan tragis milik Shakespeare melalui karakteristik dan alur. Sebagai pisau untuk membedah masalah, penulis menggunakan pendekatan strukturalis. Para pemikir strukturalis percaya bahwa pemahaman akan karyakarya tidak dapat diperoleh melalui karya-karya tersebut melainkan harus dikaitkan pada struktur yang lebih luas. Melalui analisa yang diperoleh dari rumusan masalah, diketahui bahwa Soyinka tidak sepenuhnya mengambil konsep pahlawan tragis milik Shakespeare. Ia memodifikasi pahlawan tragisnya. Pahlawan tragisnya hanyalah seorang kepala kusir kuda bukan raja atau pangeran seperti dalam karya Shakespeare. Ceritanyapun tidak berhubungan dengan kerajaan tetapi sebuah ritual bunuh diri tetapi perlu diakui bahwa Soyinka tetap mengadopsi konsep pahlawan tragis milik xi

(13) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Shakespeare. Pahlawan tragisnya, Elesin Oba memiliki beberapa persamaan dalam cerita milik Shakespeare seperti; seorang yang berkedudukan tinggi dan dipuja banyak orang, memiliki kepribadian yang kompleks, dekat dengan hal gaib, mengalami sebuah kebetulan, memiliki penderitaan yang luar biasa, kejatuhannya mendatangkan rasa belas kasih dan kekaguman serta nasibnya menentukan hidup banyak orang. xii

(14) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of The Study Reading a work of literature becomes an interesting thing for some people. A presentation of a literary work is closely related to the reality of human’s life. Over the centuries people have tried to define what literature is. In defining literature, X.J Kennedy and Dana Gioa express their idea in Literature; an Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, And Drama that literature in broader sense is about something written, it offers pleasure and illumination (Kennedy and Gioa, 1998: xxxviii). Charles E. Bressler puts a detail explanation when defining literature in his Literary Criticism, an Introduction to Theory and Practice. He notes that literature is text whose certain qualities contains some elements, such as plot, character, tone, symbol, conflict that often represents the author’s life and has a major function to teach good values and clearly to entertain readers (Bressler, 1999: 10). From the given information, it can be concluded that literature is a piece of human work, commonly presented in the written form and carries major functions; to convey good values and to entertain readers. In the matter of conveying good values and entertaining readers, literature is composed by some elements like plot, character, tone, symbol, and conflict. 1

(15) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2 There are many genres in literary work such as fiction, poetry, drama, and essay. From all those three, drama is a unique one. In How to Analyze Drama Christopher Russel Reaske states that drama is different from other literary work. Its medium is dialogue and action of the characters on the stage, or in other words, drama is designed to be acted on the stage (Reaske, 1966: 55). Reaske’s argument on drama is elaborated more by Richard Abrican, Marvin Colts and Peter Richardson who write that drama is fundamentally different from other literary forms. Unlike fiction, for example, most plays are designed to be performed in public, not read in private. The word drama itself is derived from Greek word for action, deed or performance, and theater derives from Greek word for sight or contemplation. By their nature, plays are more spectacular than poems or works of fiction. Dramatist use words as starting points for, rather than realizations of, their artistic visions ( Abrican et all,1988: 17). With the reference to idea previously, it is known that drama originates from Greek. It gains specialty from its performance. Language plays important role to reveal the artistic vision of dramatist. Drama is aimed to be enjoyed by spectators. The words drama and play may be interchangeably for some people. Kenny and Gioia expound the two as follows. We use drama as a synonym for plays, but the word has several meanings. Sometimes it refers to one play (“a stirring drama”); or to the work of a playwright, or dramatist (“Ibsen’s drama”); or perhaps to a body of plays written in a particular time or place (“Elizabethan drama,” “French drama of the seventeenth century”) (Kenny and Gioa, 1988: 196). Apart from the definition of drama and its synonym with plays, drama falls in to three categories. A Glossary in Literary Term written by M. H. Abrams clearly categorizes that as comedy, tragic-comedy and tragedy. Comedy is defined as a

(16) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3 kind of drama whose intention is to amuse its audience. Tragic-comedy is described as a type of drama presenting story about upper class and the lower class. There are serious actions inflicted to the protagonist but the story has the happy ending. Tragedy is something related to the death of a hero, it involves story of kings, gods and heroes (Abrams, 1985: 25). Tragedy in play mostly follows two big concepts that are Greek or Shakespearian tragedy. A.C Bradley in Shakespearean Tragedy argues that Greek tragedy reveals the gods’ power over the human beings; human beings are not able to escape from their tragic fate. In contrast to that, Shakespearean tragedy offers a way for human beings to determine their own lives but choose the wrong path and leads them to the tragedy of their own (Bradley, 1961: 11). Many people have plunged themselves to write tragedy and one of playwrights who writes about tragedy is Wole Soyinka. He is also known as one of the best African playwrights, who won the noble prize in 1986. Not only famous as a playwright Soyinka is also popular as a poet and novelist, critic, editor and translator. His plays are commonly well-known than others of his works. His multi-talent is described clearly by V.N Manjula retold what Ventaka K Reddy says in her work A Song for the Road Wole Soyinka’s Imagery and Tradition. He is a poet, play Wright, novelist, essayist, critic, editor and translator, all rolled into one. He is undoubtedly the greatest of contemporary African play Wrights. He has been hailed as one of the finest poetic playwrights who have ever written in English. Soyinka has to his credit fifteen plays in which has made extensive use of Yoruba Mythology (Manjula, 2012: 8).

(17) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 4 Besides his abundant contribution to work of literature, Wole Soyinka is recorded as an African playwright whose half of study period was spent in England around 1954-1973. Based on Nobel Prize’s account sited in www. nobelprize.org, edited by Wilhelm Odelberg, Soyinka spent his six years in England and became a dramaturgist for Royal Court Theater in London 19581965 (Odelberg, 1987). As his biography noted in Academy of Achievements written by Brian Blaine Reynolds in http://www.achievment.org, his close ties between England happened not merely when he studied in England but since his childhood. He got used to British religious, political and educational institution. Those experiences he had were related to the status of Nigeria as a British Empire dominion (Reynolds, 2013). One of Soyinka’s outstanding plays, eloquently written that is related to British life in Nigeria and the concept of Yoruba mythology is Death and the King’s Horseman. When comprehending Soyinka’s Death and the King’s Horseman the writer then knows that the play is regarded as a tragic play, in which the hero dies tragically at the end of the story. Tracing back to the concept of tragedy; Greek and Shakespearean tragedy, it is doubtless to say that Wole Soyinka follows those concepts but it is still not known yet which path Soyinka follows. When reading Death and the King’s Horseman reviewed by Tanure Ojaide, the writer starts to put interest in analyzing the play. Ojaide says that it is necessary for him to call Soyinka as African Shakespeare in order to arouse his

(18) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 5 pupils mind when teaching African drama in America (Ojaide, 1992). He continues that Soyinka has double heritage of African and Western dramatic tradition. Soyinka, as Ojaide remarks, is very familiar with Shakespearean drama because he studied at Leeds under the famous Shakespearean scholars Wilson Knight, who become his mentor. His argument can be found at (http://www.thefreelibrary.com//). Mirroring in Ojaide’s statement, it is known that in writing tragedy, Soyinka is well equipped with the knowledge of Shakespearean tragedy. The writer then is challenged to find the characteristics of Shakespearean tragedy by focusing on the tragic hero presented in his Death and the King’s Horseman. B. Problem Formulation In order to find out Shakespearean tragic hero in Soyinka’s Death and the King’s Horseman, the problems are formulated as follows. 1. How are the characteristics of the hero presented in the play? 2. How is the plot described in the play? 3. How do the characteristic of hero and the plot of the play reflect the concept of Shakespearean tragic hero?

(19) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 6 C. Objective of the Study Based on three problems formulated previously, this study is aimed to identify the concept of tragic hero as presented in the play Death and the King’s Horseman. In the first part of the analysis, the writer tries to analyze the characteristics of the hero which is described in the play. For the second part of the analysis the writer tries to analyze the plot of the play and the last part is to find the concept of Shakespearean tragic hero reflected from plot and characteristics of the hero. D. Definition of Term In order to avoid misunderstanding in comprehending this undergraduate thesis, it is better to know the meaning of the relevant terms namely, Shakespearean and tragic hero. 1. Shakespearean Tragic hero Bradley expounds that in the sense of the concept of Shakespearean tragic hero, a hero is described as a person of high estate or having greatness more than common man who experiences suffer conducting to his death (Bradley, 1960: 10). Shakespeare was not attempting to justify the ways of God to men, or to show the universe as a Divine Comedy like in Greek Tragedy.

(20) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW In this chapter the writer leaves some reviews in order to support the analysis. This chapter consists of the review of related studies, review on related theories, theory on character, theory on plot, theory on Shakespearean tragedy and theoretical framework. A. Review of Related Studies The play Death and the King’s Horseman, since itsfirst publication in 1975, has received a lot of criticism, reviews and analysis from various critics and scholars. Thus, it is crucial for the writer to state some of those analyses in the brief exposition in order to prove the urgency and the originality of this thesis. Michael Billington in The Guardian said that the play written by Soyinka was full of suspense. Death and the King’s Horseman encompassed several issues such as identity, tradition and the belief of locals about life and death. Moreover he added that the play was a tragic-comedy, it began with comedy and ended with a tragedy. His idea is cited as follows. Wole Soyinka is adamant that his great, neglected 1975 play cannot be reduced to a study of "the clash of cultures". I see what he means. This rich turbulent piece, which starts as folk comedy and ends as Greek tragedy, takes on board an abundance of ideas: identity, tradition, the passage from life to death(Billington:2009,Thursday 9 April). Similar to Billington’s idea about Greek tragedy, Iva Gilbertova who did the research on the Death and the King’s Horseman stated that the genre of the play 7

(21) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 8 was a combination between Greek and Shakespearean tragedy. The characteristic of Greek tragedy could be traced in the use of chorus in the play meanwhile the characteristic of Shakespearean tragedy was mirrored by the use of setting and the depiction of human being’s happiness and sadness. She also added that Soyinka projected two leading figures or heroes in his play; Elesin and Olunde: Death and the King's Horseman is a very powerful tragedy and it seems to grow from both the tradition of Yoruba tragedy and from ancient drama and Shakespeare, to quote at least two classical examples of the nonAfrican drama. The market women form a chorus of the Greek kind, only perhaps more actively entering the action, the praise-singer and, to a certain extent, Iyaloja play similar, though more individualized roles. Elesin, of course, is a classical hero and Olunde a more modern one. Though there is not a perfect unity of place and action, both are in fact very much centered on the principal dramatic conflict, and the time observes fully the classical requirement of one day, for all the action takes place within one evening and night. At the same time, like Shakespeare, O'Casey and like the African theatre, Soyinka sees life as a constant mixture of joys and sadness and knows the importance of a comic element within the grave atmosphere of a play (Gilbertova, 1995: 89). Gilbertova, as in her previous statement, not only hailed Soyinka because of the combination of genre he made but also in creation of joy and sadness. For her, the constant mixture of joy and sadness was one of the important elements of a play. Bernard Ayo Oniwe also delivered his analysis about the protagonist character in his thesis entitled; Portrait of Hybrid Tragic Protagonist in Selected Metaphysical Plays by Wole Soyinka. He argued that Death and the King’s Horseman was a play in which Soyinka adopted protagonist figure from various part of the world. He combined mythology of Greek, Jews and Yoruba to create his protagonist character. Oniwe’s idea is poured in to following paragraph:

(22) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 9 In most of his so-called metaphysical plays, those that are played out within the Yoruba ritual and mythical worldview, Soyinka appropriates, reconstitutes and extend limits of the received Western canon's conception of the tragic hero. Soyinka achieves this literary landmark by creating tragic heroes via an eclectic mix of features derived from the Western hero archetypes like Dionysius, Christ as well as Ogun, the Yoruba god who occupies prominent place among the Yoruba pantheon of gods (Oniwe: 2009: x). Besides some critics were focusing on genre, structure of the play and the concept of protagonist character as previously stated, some criticisms came from postcolonial interpretation. Even though th e writer does not discuss postcolonialism in this undergraduate thesis, it is important to state some opinions in order to open the readers’ horizons that this play can be rendered from some aspects. In relation to postcolonial criticism, George Olankunle in his Cultural Criticism in Wole Soyinka’s Death and the King’s Horsemansaw the play in different way. He gave a counter criticism to Biodun Jeyfo who employed Marxist ideological criticism in rendering the play, he argued that Two general propositions drive Jeyifo's argument: one, that only a marxist analysis can adequately recover the social problematic at the heart of Soyinka's drama and, two, that the writer needs explicitly to present "possible or necessary" choices. In the contemporary critical climate, our tendency would be to contest both propositions-rightly so. Nonetheless, one does not have to subscribe to either of them to be able to show that Soyinka's drama presents "the fundamental conflicts and contradictions in African society." The crux of the matter might lie in how one construes the very idea of contradiction (Olakunle, 1999: 69). Olankule than proposed the theory of postcolonial to unearth the fundamental conflicts and contradiction in the play. He stated that by exerting the postcolonial

(23) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 10 theory, the play would bring the interpretation about the non-western writing subverted so called Eurocentric modes of seeing(Olakunle, 1999: 70). Awam Ampka also gave comment on this play through his Postcolonial Theatre and the Ethics of Emancipatory Becoming stated that Soyinka’s play was related to the essence of the ritual itself and as an inspiring writing to dissect postcolonial study. …play Death and the King’s Horseman to suggest that Soyinka’s dramatic practice represents an inspiring and agitated archaeology of postcolonial cultures. Grounded in the conceptualization of mythic tragedy as a site for fueling communal consciousness of marginality and desire for change, rather than as a bastion for consolidating tradition for its own sake, his works challenge authoritarianism whether derived from colonial or indigenous sources and enunciate symbolisms of resistance and agency--the birthing, if not the destination of postcolonial desire(Ampka, 2003: 31). Ampka, in previous quotation, told that Soyinka’s play became the symbol of change and as an inspiring work to express postcolonial desire. His play asserted the idea of changing from both sides whether indigenous or colonial culture toward the dramatic incident happens in the play. For him, Soyinka demanded a critical view on practicing a tradition. Ikfina Maufuriyah contributed her opinion in The Native’s Resistance against Colonialism in Wole Soyinka’s Death and the King’s Horseman, she commented that Soyinka’s play shed lights on the idea of cultural oppression and native resistance. She then added that “native’s actions were considered as acts of cultural resistance and had proven that colonialism could not root out the custom which had been well established in Yoruba community.” When doing her undergraduate thesis, Maufuriyah quoted Evan Paul Gold Smith’s review on the play Death and the King’s Horseman. Gold Smith idea was

(24) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 11 that the play had a similarity to the play of Shakespeare and Sophocles which Elesin’s proud contributed to his own destruction (Maufuriyah, 2005: 8). In reflection to scholars and researchers’ arguments previously, the writerlearns that it is a good achievement in a literary practice that a piece of literary work particularlyDeath and the King’s Horseman is criticized from various aspects. Those people have given a lot of contribution to construct readers understanding when rendering the play but there is one thing that writer wants to propose which makes this undergraduate thesis differs from those studies. The differences of this undergraduate thesis with above studies are; firstly this undergraduate thesis excludes both idea of native’s resistance toward the oppression from westerners and the effect of colonialism toward African culture. Despite some scholars pay their attention more in the issue on clash of culture and postcolonialism, the writer in this study tries to see the play in the different angle. This undergraduate thesis tries to reveal the concept of tragic hero presented by Wole Soyinka. Secondly, In relation to the Smith’s and Gilbertova’s idea about genre of drama (Shakespearean and Greek), the writer chooses to use Shakespearean concept of tragic hero instead of Sophoclean concepts which follows the idea of Greek tragic hero. Thirdly, this undergraduate thesis does not corporate the discussion on mixing hero’s characteristic such as Christ, Dionysius or Ogun in Yoruba mythology as in Oniwe’s writing.

(25) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 12 B. Review on Related Theories In working this study, there are several theories needed to support the accuracy of the analysis. The theories cover the theory on character, theory on plot and the theory on Shakespearean tragic hero. 1. Theory on character and characterization Abrams states that characters are the person presented in a dramatic or narrative work who are interpreted by the reader as being endowed with moral and dispositional qualities that are expressed in what they say and what they do. (Abrams, 1985:20). Similar to Abrams, Christopher Reaske in How to Analyze Drama, argues that a character is the fictitious creation of person presented in the dramatic or narrative work that can be interpreted through the combination of the dialogue and action expressed (Reaske,1966: 40). He continues that there are six devices of characterization such as the appearances of the character, asides and soliloquies, dialogue between characters, hidden narration, language, and character in action (Reaske, 1966: 44-48). A brief explanation can be found in Chris Baldick’s argument. He argues in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Term that character is a person, in a narrative or dramatic work. Itis different from the characterization. Characterization is the way in which character is presented. Therefore, a character is the result while the characterization is process (Baldick, 1981:83).

(26) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 13 Milly S. Barranger in Understanding Plays Second Edition, (1994: 339) states that “in drama, characters are traditionally defined by their physical characteristics, speech, and dress; their socioeconomic status; their psychological makeup; and their moral and ethical choices.” She explains that there are four ways to approach understanding drama’s characters; first, observing what playwrights say about them in stage directions and, second, hearing or reading what characters say about one another in dialogue, third, noticing general types such as physical and psychological and fourth, construing the moral or ethical choices that determine their destinies. Sylvan Barnet (1988:172) in Literature for composition: Essay, Fiction, Poetry and Drama, explains that the way to understand the characteristic of a character through. a. What the character or figure says How the characters says will help the readers interpret her/ his characteristics. b. What the character does or acts The readers can learn the attitudes or behavior of a character and they may guess how actually the author creates the character. c. What others say about the character

(27) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 14 A character interacts with other characters. They share their opinion and give comments about that character. Such comment and opinion may reflect the characteristic of the character. 2. Theory on plot To reveal the issues on the play Death and the King’s Horseman, it is necessary for the writer to employ theory on plot. Richard Gill in Mastering English Literature states that “a plot can be defined as the order of events in which the reader learns of them” (Gill, 1995: 165). Plot is an essential part which constitutes consecutive events in the story and shows the description of characters and how they act. It is made by cause and effect. In relation to Gill’s idea,the writer thinks that it becomes an importantpartin this research to exert Shakespearean plot because the writer identifies characteristics of Shakespearean tragic hero in the play. The writer employs Bradley’s argumentations about Shakespearean tragic plot. He states that the plot in the tragedy roughly can be divided in to three; exposition, conflict and catastrophe (Bradley, 1991:40). About those three, Bradley explains that exposition expounds the situation of state or affair from which conflict arises. Besides that it introduces the world of persons; their position, their circumstances, their relation to one another, and something of theirs characters. It also describes the situation which threatens conflict but not one of conflicts (Bradley, 1991:41). Conflict, for Bradley, has its beginning, growth and the vicissitudes before it goes to catastrophe. Conflict embraces the second, third, four acts and the initial

(28) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 15 part of fifth act. There is two big scenarios in Shakespeare’s conflict that affecting the end of the story. First scenario describes the fortunate situation of hero, Bradley identifies this as A. The second scene, identified as B, describes the difficult position of the hero. At this stance, the villain takes over the situation until the last moment of the defeat of the hero. Let us for the sake of brevity call the two sides in the conflict A and B. Now, usually, as we shall see presently, through a considerable part of the play, perhaps the first half, the cause of A is, on the whole, advancing; and through the remaining part it is retiring, while that of B advances in turn underlying this broad movement, all through the conflict we shall find a regular alternation of smaller advances and retirals; first A seeming to win some ground, and then the counter-action of B being shown. And since we always more or less decidedly prefer A to B or B to A, the result of this oscillating movement is a constant alternation of hope and fear, or rather of a mixed state predominantly hopeful and a mixed state predominantly apprehensive(Bradley, 1991: 50). To qualify about the Shakespeare’s construction about A and B, Bradley gives the example story of Hamlet.Hamlet’s conflict stat at hero’s feigning to be insane from disappointment of love and he successfully convinces Polonius. Bradleypoints this as advance of A. The next scene depicts the King's great uneasiness about Hamlet's melancholy, and his skepticism as to Polonius's explanation of its cause: advance of B. Hamlet completely baffles Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who have been sent to discover his secret, and he arranges for the test of the play-scene: advance of A. king decides to then send Hamlet to England because of unconvincing story about his strange behavior. Hamlet story of love does not affect his strange behavior. Bradley says this asAdvance of B. He argues that there are some oscillating scenes between A and B until catastrophe where the hero perishes (Bradley, 1991: 51).

(29) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 16 Bradley’s argument about structure of a tragedy does not finish at those three. As he explains the conflict, Bradley says that there is a critical point in the action called crisis. Crisis does not last long but it is essential to show the top point of the conflict which hero in one side and villain in the other. After crisis there is a declining point of action towards catastrophe. Bradley’s argument is depicted through the followings. …Crisis, as a rule, comes somewhere near the middle of the play; and where it is well marked it has the effect, as to construction, of dividing the play into five parts instead of three; these parts showing(1) a situation not yet one of conflict, (2) the rise and development of the conflict, in which A or B advances on the whole till it reaches (3) the Crisis, on which follows (4) the decline of A or B towards (5) the Catastrophe (Bradley, 1991:52). To conclude, the division of plot based on Bradley’s notion previously, Shakespearean tragedy has five parts as a whole. They are; exposition, conflict, crisis, decline or falling action and the catastrophe. When explain the catastrophe or fallen of the hero, Bradley says that “In several plays Shakespeare makes an appeal which in his own time was evidently powerful: he introduces scenes of battle.” But he continues that battle is not the most interesting scene to expose the tragic character because some of heroes such as Brutus, Cassius, Othello and Anthony do no die fighting but still in their defeat there is sympathy and admiration (Bradley, 1991: 63). 3. Theory on Shakespearean Tragic Hero

(30) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 17 Shakespearean tragedy concerns with one person or at most two which later they become the hero and the heroine. The concept of hero and heroine, who lastly end in tragedy, directly creates the concept of tragic hero. Bradley argues that Shakespearean tragedy is not a general tragedy, which may happen to common people but it deals with a man who has a high status, public importance or a person who is placed above common man. The hero in Shakespearean tragedy is described as someone strong, powerful, and has certain authority. The story presents the death of a hero caused by exceptional calamity (Bradley,1961:3). The death of a hero also is led by conflicts. Conflicts happen are caused by man him self, or sometimes the conflict is in the soul of the hero. Some errors or mistakes done, usually called as tragic flaw, that the hero has a fatal deed that he could not control it anymore. His downfall affects the welfare of the whole nation or the empire (Bradley, 1961: 10). According to the Bradley (1961:13-16) Shakespearean tragic heroes have several characteristics they are: (1) A High Degree and Admirable Person. The hero in Shakespearean tragedy is not a common man but a person of high degree, having specialties in the character and admired by many people.Bradley argues that a tale, for example, of a man slowly worn to death by disease, poverty, little cares, sordid vices, petty persecutions, however piteous or dreadful it might be, would not be tragic in the Shakespearean sense.Tragedy with Shakespeare is concerned always

(31) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 18 with persons of 'high degree' ; often with kings or princes; if not, with leaders in the state like Coriolanus, Brutus, Antony; at the least, as in Romeo and Juliet, with members of great houses, whose quarrels are of public moment (Bradley, 1991:8). (2) Complex Characteristics; More than Good or Evil. His characteristics are confusing more than good or evil.Shakespearean tragedy will not hide the imperfection of a man manifested in hero’s attitudes. The imperfection leads the hero to his own fall. We find that the comparatively innocent hero still shows some marked imperfection or defect,—irresolution, precipitancy, pride, credulousness, excessive simplicity, excessive susceptibility to sexual emotions, and the like. These defects or imperfections are certainly, in the wide sense of the word, evil, and they contribute decisively to the conflict and catastrophe.(Bradley, 1991:34-35). The imperfection lying in the soul of a hero is a natural thing in Shakespearean tragedy. In this sense, Shakespeare reveals the trait of imperfection human being as in the real life. (3) Supernatural Elements. Supernatural elements such as ghost and witches who have supernatural knowledge. This supernatural is always placed in the closest relation with character. Shakespeare also introduces the supernatural into some of his tragedies; he introduces ghosts, and witches who have supernatural knowledge. And further, it does contribute to the action (Bradley, 1991:13). (4) The Appearance of Chance or Accident.

(32) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 19 The appearance of chance or accident as an appreciable influence at some point in the action which brings into a tragedy.“Shakespeare, in most of his tragedies allows to 'chance' or 'accident' an appreciable influence at some point in the action. Chance or accident here will be found, I think, to mean any occurrence (not supernatural, of course) which enters the dramatic sequence neither from the agency of a character, nor from (Bradley,1991:14). the obvious surrounding circumstances” Bradley states that accident is fact happens in human’s life.He later gives some example such as Romeo never got the Friar's message about the potion, and that Juliet did not awake from her long sleep a minute sooner; an accident that Edgar arrived at the prison just too late to save Cordelia's life; an accident that Desdemona dropped her handkerchief at the most fatal of moments; an accident that the pirate ship attacked Hamlet's ship, so that he was able to return forthwith to Denmark (Bradley, 1991:15). (5) The Exceptional Being. He is also an exceptional being differ from other common man not only because his degree but also his particular sufferings.The suffering and calamity are, moreover, exceptional. They befall a conspicuous person. They are themselves of some striking kind. They are also, as a rule, unexpected, and contrasted with previous happiness or glory (Bradley, 1991:19). (6) Pity and admiration.

(33) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 20 He is not completely a good person of far from being good but there is some greatness in him until last moment when he wins our pity and admiration.Inline with this idea, Bradley comments that “Such exceptional suffering and calamity, then, affecting the hero, and—we must now add—generally extending far and wide beyond him, so as to make the whole scene a scene of woe, are an essential ingredient in tragedy and a chief source of the tragic emotions, and especially of pity”. For him, the proportions of this ingredient, and the direction taken by tragic pity, will naturally vary greatly. Pity, explained Bradley, has a much larger part in King Lear than in Macbeth, and is directed in the one case chiefly to the hero, in the other chiefly to minor characters (Bradley, 1991: 8). In here, the writer spot that the pity strikes readers attention concerning to the calamity befall unto major character and minors characters. (7) Fate and Welfare of Nation or Empire. His fate affects the welfare of a whole nation or empire. It is understandable that the death of a hero influence the sustainability of a nation or empire because Shakespearean tragedy embodies the figure of high degree in one state or country. Bradley declares that the fall of a hero suddenly from the height of earthly greatness to the dust, produces a sense of contrast, of the powerlessness of man, and of the omnipotence. Shakespeare’s style of drama is the greatest according to Bradley’s opinion. He adds that the story of fortune or fate in

(34) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 21 Shakespearean sense possibly has no rival especially instory about private life (Bradley, 1991:10). C. Theoretical Framework In this part the writerdiscussesbriefly the theories applied in the analysis. The reviews taken from internet and library are used to compare writer studies to some of other studies. This is to fulfill the academic requirements to make a study original and urgent. The theory of character and characterization and plot are used to analyze the character regarded as a hero in the play, as stated in the first and the second questions in problem formulation. In answering the third question, the theory on Shakespearean tragedy is applied to match the hero presented on the play with the idea of Shakespearean tragedy seen from characteristics of the hero and plot of the play.

(35) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of The Study The object of this research is Death and the King’s Horseman written by Wole Soyinka, the first African Nobel laureate in 1986. This play is first published in 1975 by Eyre Methuen Ltd and the version that writer uses is Death and the King’s Horseman published by Methuen Publishing Limited in 1999. This five-act play has inspired many critics and students to do research on because this play offers various interpretations; including the concept of tragic hero that writer wants to presents. The play portrays a local hero, Elesin Oba, a king’s horseman in Yoruba. It starts with the burial of the local king. According to the custom his chief horseman, Elesin Oba has to die on that day as well and be replaced by his son to keep the tribe’s continuity through ritual sacrifice. When the ritual sacrifice is about to perform, the district officer, Simon Pilkings and his wife, Jane Pilkings prevent Elesin from ritual suicide by jailing him. Pilkings’ intrusion in ritual sacrifice brings a catastrophe to the tribe because Elesin’s son, Olunde who will become the tribe’s successor, dies in the shame to his tribe. He is dishonored by his father who fails to perform the ritual. In other side Elesin is accused by his tribe for his betrayal. Seeing his son dies in vain, and being accused by his tribe for betraying them, Elesin feels sorry and so depressed and decides to end his life to remedy his fault. His decision brings the possible calamity to Yoruba people as a whole. 22

(36) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 23 B. Approach of the Study In conducting this study the writer employs the structuralist approach. This approach is necessary to use because the writer tries to relate the concept of tragic hero built by Wole Soyinka in Death and the King’s Horseman to the idea Shakespearean tragic hero. Before the writer states the importance of structuralism in this study, it is better to understand the history of structuralism and its impact to literary practice. Peter Barry in Beginning Theory; an Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory argues that Structuralism is rooted on the thinking of Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913). Saussure was a Swiss linguist who created a modern approach of language development which rejected the assumption of nineteenth century linguistic scholars who postulated that to analyze a language one should be focused on the origin of the language. Unlike those scholars, Saussure focused on pattern and function of language in use today with emphasize on how meaning are maintained and established on the function of grammatical structures (Barry, 2009: 40). Saussure’s proposed three ideas about meaning. He stated that meaning is arbitrary, relational and attributed (Barry, 2009: 40). Arbitrariness of a meaning is achieved by convention. When a thing has its name, the name for it should be agreed by whole society (convention) first. A “bike”, for example, gets its name from human being through a convention first. People agree that a road vehicle with two wheels that someone rides by using pedals be called bike. Meaning is also relational; words such as pen, pencil and marker are related to each others as means for writing. Relational meaning of a word, quoted Barry, can be found in the binary opposition of other word. The word “male” can be defined as not female so vice versa. Other

(37) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 24 words which contain binary opposition are good and bad, right and left, day and night and many more. Attribution of meaning for Saussure can be deduced from an example of “terrorist” and “freedom fighter”. One can be regarded as a terrorist by some people but at the same time that one can be called freedom fighter depends on who calls them. If addressor feels threatened by the one he or she may call that one as terrorist but if that one in the same side of the addressor, that one can be called as freedom fighter. For Saussure, “meaning is always attributed to the object or idea by human mind. It is constructed and expressed through language; it is not already contained within the thing”. Based on the example above, the same person can be labeled with two different characteristics because there is no neutral or objective way to define that person (Barry, 2009: 41). Saussure’s idea influences structuralists’ ways of thinking that an individual item relates to other items thus creates a larger structure. In addition to Barry’s idea, Bressler states that “structuralists seek meaning in various components of a system. When it is applied to literature, to find a meaning in literary text, structuralist will relate an individual text with other text. Structuralists focus on how a text conveys meaning rather than what meaning is conveyed” (Bressler, 1999: 94). At a glance, the title Death and the King’s Horseman reflects Barry’s notion about binary opposition. The word “death” opposes with the word “life” because death means not live so vice versa and the word “king” is antonym with the word “commoners”. Soyinka’s title really reflects the idea of tragic hero which describes the death of a man from higher position. When it associates to idea of structuralist’s relational meaning, Death and the King’s Horseman can be

(38) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 25 regarded as a tragic text which is part of the larger structure of tragedy in this sense is Shakespearean tragedy. Since the focus of this undergraduate thesis is to find the relational concept of tragic hero, structuralist approach is appropriate to relate the hero in Death and the King’s Horseman with Shakespearean tragic hero. C. Method of The Study In doing the analysis of Death and the Kings Horseman, the writer applied the library research method where books became the primary source to collect the data. The important sources used in this study were the play Death and the Kings Horseman and the related books or journals. In order to gain the more current and sound information, Internet exploration was also needed to complete the analysis of the play. The writer took some steps when doing this study. Firstly, the writer perused the play Death and the King’s Horseman to understand the story and grasped the interesting topic discussed by the author. Secondly, after having the topic the writer then formulated the objective of the study. Thirdly, after finding the interesting topic, the writer did the library research to gain supporting information and references based on chosen topic. This information was hoped to help the writer to answer questions in problem formulation. Those information and references were used to find the correlation to the issue discussed in the thesis statement. After that, the writer did the analysis. Here writer used experts’ views on literary works to support the writer’s arguments. The last step was to draw conclusion about some findings in the analysis.

(39) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS This chapter answers the problem formulations that have been stated in the first chapter. Based on the three problems formulated previously, this analysis is divided into three parts. The first part covers the discussion on the hero’s characteristics in the play Death and the King’s Horseman. The next part covers the discussion on plot of the play and the last covers the discussion on the characteristic of Shakespearean tragic hero reflected from the characteristics of the hero and the plot of the play. To make the analysis easier, the writer abbreviates Death and the King’s Horseman into DKH when pointing out important quotations from the play. A. The Characteristics of The Hero The hero in the play Death and the King’s Horseman is Elesin Oba. He is the main character, the chief of king’s horseman, who is duty bound to perform death ritual. Based on local’s belief, after he dies his soul will accompany his master to the world of their ancestor in afterlife. He also will become an intercessor to his tribe. To characterize the hero, the writer uses scholars’ (Barranger, Barnet, Reaske and Baldick’s) arguments. They suggest that characterizing a character can be done through several ways such as; observing what playwrights say about them in 26

(40) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 27 stage directions and, hearing or reading what characters act or say about one another in dialogue, construing the moral or ethical choices that determine their destinies. By referring to scholars’ arguments, the characteristics of Elesin Oba can be described as follows. 1. Humorous In act one; the playwright through initial narrator’s line describes Elesin as a person who has sense of humor. ELESIN Oba enters along a passage before the market, pursued by his drummers and praise singers. He is a man of enormous vitality, speaks, dances and sings with that infectious enjoyment of life which accompanies all his action…ELESIN dances towards the market-place as he chants the story of Not-I bird, his voice changing dexterously to mimic his character. He performs like a born raconteur, infecting his retinue with his humor and energy. Still in the act one, after he is hailed as the man of honor by his tribe, Elesin pretends to be offended. Iyaloha and the Women confused when he feels offended. They then beg him to accept their apology. WOMEN: We know you as man of honor. ELESIN: Stop Enough of that! WOMEN: (puzzled, they whisper among themselves, turning mostly to IYALOHA.) what is it? Did we say something to give offense? Have we slighted him in some way? ELESIN: Enough of that sound I say. Let me hear no more in that vein. I’ve heard enough. IYALOHA: We must have said something wrong. (Comes forward a little.) Elesin Oba, we ask forgiveness before you speak. PRAISE SINGGER. The strictest father unbends his brow when the child is pertinent, Elesin…Speak now in plain words and let us pursue the ailment to the home of remedies.

(41) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 28 ELESIN. words are cheap. “We know you for a man of honour. Well tell me, is this how a man of honour should be seen? Are these not the same clothes in which I came among you a full half-hour ago? (He roars with laughter and the WOMEN, relieved, rise and rush into stalls to fetch rich cloths.) WOMEN. The gods are kind. Fault soon remedied is soon forgiven. Elesin Oba, even as we match our words with deed, let your heart forgive us completely. ELESIN. You who are breath and giver of my being how shall I dare refuse you forgiveness even if the offence were real (DKH, i. 238-279). It is previously known that Elesin does not really angry at his tribe; he pretends to be angry but laugh at them when he sees his tribe at big confusion. He does not really mean to frighten his tribe but to crack a joke. Looking at two descriptions above the writer considers Elesin as a humorous person. 2. Arrogant and Opportunist Elesin is the one who holds the important duty in ritual sacrifice. He will be sacrificed in order to accompany his master in after life. Since Elesin holds the important duty, he has the privilege more than any members of tribe. His privilege is reflected from Iyaloha’s words. IYALOHA: …Today is your day and the whole world is yours. Still, even those who leave town to make a dwelling elsewhere like to be remembered by what they leave behind (DKH, i. 401-404). Knowing that he is granted privilege by his tribe, Elesin then asks his tribe to let him marry a betrothed young girl. His intention to marry a betrothed young girl is seen as follows. IYALOHA. Elesin Oba… ELESIN. What where do you all say I am? IYALOHA. Still among the living.

(42) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 29 ELESIN. And that radiance which so suddenly lit up this market I could boast I knew so well? IYALOHA. Has one step already in her husband’s home. She is betrothed. ELESIN. (irritated) why do you tell me that? (DKH, i. 392-400). Elesin is so irritated when Iyaloha reprimands him to concentrate on his duty. She considers that Elesin is not ready to leave the world so she says that Elesin is “still among the living”. Elesin rebukes that, his proposal to marry that betrothed young girl is not to postpone the ritual itself. For him, marrying that girl is nothing to do with postponing but it is a way to honor him before he dies. In this part the writer also notices that Elesin is an arrogant person because forcing his tribe to fulfill his wish. WOMEN. (relieved) Ah Elesin Oba, we knew you for a man of honour. ELESIN. Then honour me. I deserve a bed of honour to lie upon. IYALOHA. The best is yours. We know you for a man of honour. You are not the one who eats and leaves nothing on his plate for children. Did you say it your self? No one who blights the happiness of others for a moment’s pleasure. ELESIN. Who speaks of pleasure? O women, listen! Pleasure palls…I am girded for the route beyond burdens of waste and longing. Then let me travel light. Let seed that will not serve stomach on the way remain behind, let it take root in the earth of my choice, in this earth I leave behind (DKH, ii. 413-440). Elesin, previously, insists that his intention to marry a young girl is not because of pleasure but to give him the offspring. He hopes that the offspring will make people remember about him. Basically the writer, in this stance, regards that Elesin is distracted by the beauty of the young girl because if he wants to be remembered by having an offspring, Elesin may take another girl. He insists to take that betrothed young girl instead. More over, in act four it is stated that he has

(43) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 30 already a son named Olunde. So his idea to be remembered is unacce ptable. Not only becomes an arrogant person, Elesin also is regarded as opportunist after all from his confession when he is arrested by Simon Pilkings. His admission is narrated as follows. ELESIN. My young bride…I have taken countless women in my life but you were more than a desire of flesh. I need you as the abyss across which my body must be drawn…you were the final gift of the living to their emissary to the land of ancestors, and perhaps your warmth and youth brought new insight of this world to me and turned my feet leaden on this side of the abyss. For I confess to you, daughter, my weakness came not merely from the abomination of the white who come violently into my fading presence, there was also a weight of longing on my earth-held limbs. I would have shaken it off, already my foot had begun to lift but then, the white ghost entered and all was defiled (DKH, V. 120-139). Above confession underlines his inability to leave the world because of his sexual desire. Elesin says “For I confess to you, daughter, my weakness came not merely…there was also a weight of longing on my earth-held limbs. I would have shaken it off, already my foot had begun to lift but then, the white ghost entered and all was defiled”. From his words, the writer deduces that He is not really ready to leave the world. He plots his marriage with the young girl to having some fun before he dies. He is an opportunist because he takes the advantage from the privilege given to him by marrying a betrothed young girl to prolong his life without thinking bad consequence that might happen.

(44) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 31 3. Redemptive Despite he is considered to fail the ritual sacrifice, Elesin admits his frailty to the girl” “For I confess to you, daughter, my weakness…”.when he is arrested by Pilkings, Elesin shows his resistance to free him self so he can perform ritual sacrifice. ELESIN. …You saw it, Iyaloha. You show me struggle to retrieve my will from the power of the stranger whose shadow fell across the doorway and left me floundering and blundering in a maze I had never before encountered. My senses were numbed when the touch of cold iron came upon my wrist. I could do nothing to save my self. IYALOHA. You betrayed us… ELESIN. Enough Iyaloha, enough. IYALOHA. I wish I could pity you. ELESIN. I need neither your pity nor the pity of the world. I need understanding… IYALOHA. I gave you warning. The river which fills up before our eyes does not sweep us away in its flood. ELESIN. May the world forgive me (DKH, V. 234-300). Referring at above talk, it is seen that Elesin struggles to be free so that ritual sacrifice can be performed. He knows that he has slowed the ritual down but he does not mean to fail it so he pleads forgiveness for the mistake he makes. He requires some understanding but Iyaloha states that he betrays his tribe. Her accusation lets Elesin in depression. At the final part of the play, Elesin commits suicide. ELESIN has stood rock-still, his knuckles taut on the bars, his eyes glued to the body of his son. The stillness seizes and paralyses everyone, including PILKINGS who has turned to look. Suddenly ELESIN flings one arm round his neck, once, and with the loop of the chain, strangles himself in a swift, decisive pull. The guard rush forward to stop him but there only in time to let his body down…

(45) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 32 IYALOHA. …He is gone to the passage but oh, how late it all is. His son will feast on the meat and throw him bones (DKH, V. 496-497). When studying above situation, the writer learns that it is not only because of depression Elesin ends himself but also paying his failure and showing his loyalty to his tradition. Looking at Iyaloha’s statement “how late it all is”, the writer thinks that Elesin tries to fix the error he makes but he is too late. His position has been replaced by his son. Elesin is regarded as redemptive person because; 1) he admits that he has slowed down the ritual and he is apologized about that. 2) He tries to pay his failure by ending his life even if Iyaloha considers that he is too late. In this part the writer also thinks that Elesin loves his tradition even though Pilking considers the ritual sacrifice as barbaric act. He rejects Pilking’s notion to survive. B. Plot of the play When dealing with the concept of tragic hero, it is important for the writer to see the plot of the story. For the writer, the concept of tragic hero in the play can be precisely matched with the Shakespearean tragic hero by looking at plot besides looking at the characteristic of the character. Richard Gill says that a plot can be defined as the order of events in which the reader learns of them (Gill 1995: 165). He continues that Plot is an essential part which constitutes consecutive events in the story and shows the description of characters and how they act. It is made by cause and effect.

(46) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 33 Bradley states that the plot in the tragedy roughly can be divided into three; exposition, conflict and catastrophe (Bradley, 1991:40). He continues that there is a crisis in the conflict so later he divides Shakespearean plot into five they are; exposition, rise and development of conflict, climax, falling action and catastrophe. Learning about Shakespearean plot by referring to Bradley’s notion about plot, plot of the Death and the Kings Horseman can be seen as follows. 1. Exposition or Introduction Bradley explains that exposition expounds the situation of state or affair from which conflict arises. Besides that it introduces the world of persons; their position, their circumstances, their relation to one another, and something of theirs characters. It also describes the situation which threatens conflict but not one of conflicts (Bradley, 1991:41). The exposition of the play can be described as follows. The story opens in market place; several women go back home after doing market activity. Elesin enters the market place and followed by drummer and Praise Singer. At his first appearance, Elesin is described as a humorous person who speaks, dances, and sings with great enjoyment. Elesin and the Praise Singer exchange to sing each other about the passage that Elesin will take after he dies. When he dies, Elesin will be remembered and glorified by entire community members for his sacrifice.

(47) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 34 ELESIN. …My fame, my honour are legacies to the living stay behind and let the world sip its honey from your lips PRAISE SINGER. Your name will be like the sweet berry a child places under his tongue to sweeten the passage of the food. The world will never spit it out (DKH, i. 32-36). Besides speaking about the passage, Praise Singer also talks about the philosophy of life in Yoruba’s view. It is told that Yoruba people are really closely connected to their ancestors. She chants that there will be a misery to the whole community if death ritual is failed to do or Elesin is unable to perform the ritual. PRAISE SINGER. There is only one home to the life of a river mussel; there is only one home to the life of tortoise; there is only one world to the spirit of our race. If that world leaves its course and smashed on boulders of the great void, whose world will give us shelter? (DKH, i. 61-66) After telling about the significance of the ritual to Yoruba people through Praise Singer, the story developes to a stage which Elesin seems afraid to his up coming ritual. He chanted Not-I bird as a manifestation of his fear. The Praise Singer feels confused about the bird and asks his readiness to perform the ritual. At the same moment, the character of Iyaloha and Women are introduced along with Elesin’s recital. Iyaloha is the leader of the ritual or known as mother of the market. Women and Praise Singer are dancing and singing about the ritual. All of them ask Elesin’s readiness and remind him about the significance of ritual. Having been questioned by the community for his readiness, Elesin firmly states that he will not turn aside to face the ritual; he is ready for the ritual. When the people heard Elesin’s commitment to carry the ritual, they manage themselves to prepare the ritual.

(48) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 35 During the preparation of the ritual, Elesin cracks a joke by pretending to be irritated when Women hail him as the man of honour. He argues that he has enough hears his tribes’ compliments toward him and he wants to hear it no more. To their surprise, Woman, Praise Singer and Iyaloha are confused about Elesin’s changing attitude and feel sorry if they have made a mistake. They are so afraid if they hurt Elesin’s feeling. They ask apologize from Elesin. Their request is seen in Iyaloha’s statement. IYALOHA. If we offended you now we have mortified the gods. We offended heaven itself. Father of us all, tell us where we went astray. (She kneels, the other women follow.) (DKH, i.250-253). After Elesin hears Iyaloha’s solicitation above, he laughs at her and forgives them. He says that he does not mean it. Next, all of them feel relived and manage to perform the ritual. Elesin than is adorned with rich clothes, cap and shawl. The whole members of community are in a great happiness at that moment because their time to the ritual is really close. Women start to dance around Elesin but Elesin is distracted by the beauty of a young girl who enters the market. He then asks Iyaloha to marry that girl. At this point, Elesin creates a dissident between Iyaloha and the Women because the girl is betrothed to Iyaloha’s son. ELESIN. …do me credit. And do me honour. I am girded for the route beyond burdens of waste and longing. Then let me travel light. Let the seed that will not serve the stomach on the way remain behind. Let it take root in the earth of my choice, in this earth I leave behind (DKH, i.435-442). WOMAN. But she is betrothed to your own son. Tell him. IYALOHA. My son wish is mine. I did the asking for him, the loss can be remedied. But who will remedy the blight of closed hands on the day when all should be openness and light?...you pray to him who is your intercessor to the other world—don’t set this world adrift in your own time …

(49) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 36 WOMAN. Not many men will brave the curse of a dispossessed husband. IYALOHA. Only the curses of the departed are to be feared… (DKHii.447-458). After having a long argument, Iyaloha and the Women permit him to marry the young girl. As a consequence, death ritual will be performed after Elesin’s marriage then his bride will lay his shroud after he dies. Yoruba people then continue to dance and sing while drums are played aloud to welcome Elesin’s marriage and death ritual. While the marriage preparation is on the way, in the act two, characters of Simon Pilkings, his wife; Jane, Amusa (a native sergeant) and Joseph (a native house boy) are introduced. It is stated that Simon Pilkings (westerner) who is District Officer dancing with Jane, his wife, wearing engungun; a death cult uniform. They are practicing dancing using that “fancy-dress” to welcome the arrival of Britannia Prince in Africa. Based on native’s tradition, engungun is forbidden to wear in any occasion except in death ceremony. Seeing his District Officer is wearing engungun, Amusa is shocked and begging Simon to take it off. Simon then feels confused and says to Amusa what he means. Amusa explains that he will be cursed if he wears engungun. Simon seems irritated and asks Amusa to stop his nonsense talking. It is hard for Simon to understand that the uniform will bring a bad fate only by wearing it. Pilkings then orders Amusa to report everything happens in their district to welcome the Prince. Being a native sergeant makes Amusa naturally perceptive with his surrounding including hearing the sound of drums coming from the tribe. When

(50) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 37 hearing the sound of drums suddenly knows that the sounds indicated the death ritual. Studying about Bradley’s argument about exposition, the writer learns that the tribes are about to perform ritual sacrifice, a part of their cultural heritage. The characters are introduced such as Elesin, Women, Praise Singer, Iyaloha, Amusa, Joseph, Simon Pilkings and Jane with their position and relation to one and another. From the exposition the writer sees Elesin as the central figure in the story. He is regarded as hero because he is the main character who is duty bound to perform ritual sacrifice. Besides that, the villains are Pilkings and Jane; it is seen from their negative reactions when Amusa says that engungun is forbidden to wear except in death ceremony. Their responses to native’s tradition threaten conflict but it is not yet the conflict in the story. 2. The Rise and Development of The Conflict Grounded on Bradley’s idea that rise and development of conflict contains the basic conflict in which A or B advance on the whole till it reaches crisis, the raising and development of conflict be rendered as follows. After hearing the sound of drums, Amusa writes a report to Pilkings that a prominent chief, namely, the Elesin Oba, is about to commit suicide as a result of native custom. Pilkings and Jane then are startled when reading Amusa’s note and require some clear information about the death ritual from their native house boy; Joseph. PILKINGS. You do mean he is going to kill some body don’t you? JOSEPH. No master. He will not kill anybody and no one will kill him. He will simply die. JANE. But why Joseph?

(51) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 38 JOSEPH. It is native law and custom. The King died last month. Tonight is his burial. But before they can burry him, the Elesin must die so as to accompany him to heaven. PILKINGS. I seem to be fated to clash more often with that man than any of the other chiefs. JOSEPH. He is the Kings Chief Horseman (DKH, ii. 130-139). Looking at pervious talk, it is known that based on Yoruba’s tradition, the kings chief horseman should die to follow his master in afterlife before the king is buried. It also known that ritual suicide does not harm anybody else. In spite of listening to Joseph’s story, Pilkings and Jane do not comprehend the tradition. He and his wife consider the tradition as a barbaric one; the both agree to stop the ritual. JANE. You know this business has to be stopped Simon. And you are the only man who can do it. PILKINGS. I don’t have to stop anything. If they want to throw themselves off the top of a cliff of poison themselves for the sake of some barbaric custom what is that to me? If it were ritual murder or something like that I’d be duty bound to do something (DKH, ii. 251-257). Pilkings then send sergeant Amusa to arrest Elesin. He insists that Elesin should be saved from Yoruba’s ‘barbaric’ culture. To him, no life should be thrown deliberately. Pilkings’s perception is automatically contrasted to native custom and as the consequence his perception bring clash between him and natives. Under Pilking’s instruction, Amusa alongside with two constables go to market place. In act three, he intimidates Women there to bring Elesin because death ritual should be stopped. The Women reject his order and say that they are celebrating the marriage not ritual suicide. Amusa is in great confusion because he knows the meaning of the drums’ sounds. He is angry because he is fooled around

(52) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 39 by the Women. He then asks Iyaloha to seek the truth. Iyaloha utters that no one can stop the marriage and death ritual even white man. She then asks Amusa to leave market place. Amusa gets nothing to do and the tribe continues to dance and sing. As the tribe sings and dances, Pilkings, Jane, Resident and all westerners in that place celebrate the welcome ceremony with the Prince. Suddenly the Resident approaches Pilkings and says his anxiety about the situation of residence. He hears the noisy sound, and afraid if there will be a disturbance happens. He asks Pilkings about what goes on then Pilkings replies that there is a death ritual. The natives are gathering to burry their king but before burial, the king’s chief horseman should die through ritual sacrifice. The Resident becomes afraid and orders Pilkings to clear the situation before something bad happens to them because the Prince is around. RESIDENT. …I ought to get back to his highness as quick as possible and offer him some plausible explanation for my rather abrupt conduct. Can you think of one Pilkings? PILKINGS. You could tell him the truth sir. RESIDENT. I could? No no no no Pilkings, that would never do. What! Go and tell him there is a riot just two miles away from him? This is suppose to be a secure colony of His Majesty, Pilkings. PILKINGS. Yes sir (DKH, iv. 39-46). It is seen that Resident predicts the riot happens. He instructs Pilkings to secure the land from any bad possibility. After Hearing that, Pilkings states that he is waiting for Amusa’s report to arrest the chief of King’s horseman but he is not come back yet.

(53) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 40 After arriving at Pilkings’ house, Amusa meets Olunde who is the eldest son of Elesin. Olunde is described as a young black man dressed in a sober western suit. He arrives with the Brittanie Prince’s convoy. He is studying medical in England but comes back to burry his father. Olunde then salutes Jane and starts a conversation with her. While they have the conversation, Olunde mildly criticizes Jane for desecrating an ancestral mask. Jane is so offended and cynically says that Olunde is not fully edified although he studies in England. Olunde replies that he comes back home in order to burry his father as soon as he hears that his king has dead. Hearing Olunde’s confession, Jane is shocked and calls Yoruba as a feudalistic tribe. JANE. However cleverly you try to put it, it is still a barbaric custom. It is even worse---it’s feudal! The king dies and a chieftain must be buried with him. How feudalistic can you get! (DKH, iv. 236-239) Olunde rebukes Jane’s scolding about barbaric custom. He says that westerners try to civilize other tribe by wiping out people. Westerners set war then kills many people. He argues that death ritual is better than mass suicide. Westerners, to him, practice something worst than what his tribe is about to perform. Olunde next introduces his status as tribe’s successor. OLUNDE. It is nothing Mrs. Pilkings and I’m really anxious to go. I couldn’t see my father before it’s forbidden for me, his heir and successor to set eyes on him for the moment of the king’s death. But now… I would like to touch his body while it is still warm (DKH, iv. 337-341).

(54) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 41 Related to previous conversation, it is known that Olunde understood if his father has died. His intention to come back was triggered by his tradition. At this part, Olunde reveals himself as the one who holds important duty after his father dies. After having his conversation, Olunde begs Jane not to meddle with native’s affair because westerners do not understand the meaning of death ritual but Jane and his husband Pilkings are still on their stand to stop the ritual and save Elesin. From the rising action, it is seen that the conflict is triggered the inability of Pilkings and his wife to understand the tradition (in Bradley’s term this action is identified as B since the villains take over the situation) they then determine to interrupt the ritual. Conflict in the play starts when Pilkings send to Amusa to stop the ritual (advance of B), it develops to a stage which Amusa has a quarrel with natives and Olunde with Jane. 3. Crisis Bradley argues that there is a critical point in the action called crisis. Crisis does not last long but it is essential to show the top point of the conflict. The climax of the play can be depicted as follows. In the act four, Pilkings is so upset because Amusa reports that he can not arrest Elesin. He then decides to capture Elesin him self. He is afraid if the Prince will be in danger. Finally, after a long endeavor he success arrested Elesin forcedly: ELESIN. (An animal bellow from off) Leave me alone! Is it not enough that you have covered me in shame! White man, take your hand from my body!

(55) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 42 (OLUNDE stands frozen on the spot. JANE understanding at last, tries to move him.) JANE. Let’s go in. it is getting chilly out there. (OLUNDE does not move.) PILKINGS. (Off.) Carry him ELESIN. give me back the name you have taken away from me you ghost from the land of nameless! PILKINGS. Carry him! I can’t have a disturbance here. Quickly! Stuff up his mouth (DKH, iv. 472-480). Referring to above quotation, it is known that Olunde is in the place where his father is arrested. He is standing like a stone because of hearing his father’s voice but Jane insists him to leave. Olunde then is taken aback when he learns that his father is still alive. He feels hurt and gets angry. Olunde realizes that if his father fails to perform death ritual, it means that all the community will get blight from their ancestors. The calamity will befall upon Yoruba tribe as a whole. He denies his father at that moment. ELESIN. Olunde? (He moves his head, inspecting him from side to side.) Olunde! (He collapses slowly at OLUNDE’s feet) Oh son, don’t let the sight of your father turn you blind! OLUNDE. (He moves for the first time since he heard his voice, brings his head slowly down to look on him.) I have no father, eater of left-overs (DKH, v. 489-494). Olunde is so sad and runs away from his father. Jane can not stop him while Pilkings is too busy to instruct his man to prison Elesin. Elesin at that moment lives in great misery and sobs into the ground.

(56) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 43 4. Declining Action Declining action is noted by the decline of A or B towards catastrophe, the description of decline action in the play can be seen as follows. After Elesin is arrested, he was placed in a prison. He is so depressed and regrets to postpone his ritual suicide. He confesses to his young bride about his weaknesses. He says that his intention to stay longer in the world prevents him to perform the ritual (DKH, V. 120-139). Besides that Iyaloha accuses him for betray his own tribe. IYALOHA. You have betrayed us… ELESIN. Enough Iyaloha, enough. IYALOHA. We call you leader and oh, how you led on us. What we have no intention of eating should not be held to the nose. ELESIN. Enough, enough. My shame is heavy enough (DKH, v. 240- 263). Being accused by his Iyaloha, Elesin is so mad. He asks Pilkings to set him free so he can perform ritual suicide but Pilkings argues that he would not let Elesin do the ritual. He insists that Elesin should stay inside jail: ELESIN. White man, you must let me out. I have a duty to perform. PILKINGS. I most certainly will not. ELESIN. There lies the courier of my King. Let me out so I can perform what is demanded of me. PILKINGS. You’ll do what you need to do from inside there or not at all. I have gone as far as I intended to with this business (DKH, v.424- 430). Knowing that he is strongly prevented from performing the ritual, Elesin is so sad. His sadness then becomes greater when he knows that Olunde; his only son,

(57) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 44 his successor died in the shame of him. Olunde is so ashamed because of Elesin’s failure. He decides to change Elesin’s position to save his family’s honor. IYALOHA. (Moves forward and removes the coverings) Your courier Elesin, cast your eyes on the favored companion of the King. (Rolled up the mat, his head and feet showing at either end is the body of OLUNDE.) There lies the honour of your household and of our race. Because he could not bear to let honour fly out of doors, he stopped it with his life (DKH, v. 478-484). Iyaloha’s statement previously reflects that Olunde understands well about death ritual. To Olunde, death ritual is not about avoiding ancestor’s curse or to accompany his king to afterlife, but it also about honor of his family. Decline action in the previous story is the decline of A, it describes the moment after the defeat of hero before the catastrophe. 5. Catastrophe Death and the King’s Horseman is a tragic play. Rooted on Bradley’s account, catastrophe is the part which shows the doom of the hero. Catastrophe of the play can be noted as fallows. Elesin, at that moment, is in deep anguish. His sorrow is not only because he is considered as betrayal, but he also sees his son’s death. He feels guilty when witnessed his son’s body. He is so depressed and finally ends his life. Elesin finally prefers die to live as Pilkings wants. Elesin’s death can be traced from the narrator’s line in act v. ELESIN has stood rock-still, his knuckles taut on the bars, his eyes glued to the body of his son. The stillness seizes and paralyses everyone, including PILKINGS who has turned to look. Suddenly ELESIN flings one arm round his neck, once, and with the loop of the chain, strangles himself in a swift,

(58) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 45 decisive pull. The guard rush forward to stop him but there only in time to let his body down. Pilkings’ effort to save Elesin’s life is in vain. Iyaloha states that Elesin is too late so his son arrives first in their king’s place by saying figuratively; “His son will feast on the meat oh, how and throw him bones” (DKH, v. 498-499). Iyaloha continues that ritual suicide is intended to Elesin not for his son but both of them died tragically. Iyaloha states to forget about the death and the living. She asks her tribe to turn their hope to the unborn. In the catastrophe, it is told that the gloomy atmosphere strikes Yoruba community (DKH, v. 495-515). C. The Characteristics of Shakespearean Tragic Hero Reflected On The Play As it is stated in the problem formulation, the third problem is about the characteristics of Shakespearean tragic hero reflected on the play. To deal with the characteristics of Shakespearean tragic hero and to deepen the analysis, the writer employs the theory of Shakespearean tragedy by A.C Bradley. Referring to characteristics of the hero and plot of the play, the characteristics of Shakespearean tragic hero in the play can be explained as follows. 1. A High Degree and Admirable Person A. C Bradley states that Shakespearean tragedy does not concern about a man who slowly worn to death by disease, poverty, little cares, sordid vices, petty persecutions, however piteous or dreadful it might be, would not be tragic in the

(59) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 46 Shakespearean sense. Tragedy with Shakespeare is concerned always with persons of 'high degree' ; often with kings or princes; if not, with leaders in the state like Coriolanus, Brutus, Antony; at the least, as in Romeo and Juliet, with members of great houses, whose quarrels are of public moment (Bradley, 1991:8). Death and the Kings Horseman is a play which tells about a king’s chief horseman who is duty bound to perform the death ritual in order to accompany his king in the afterlife. The play presents a single hero; Elesin. Similar to Shakespeare, Wole Soyinka tells Elesin’s death is not because of decease, poverty, little cares, sordid vices or petty persecutions. His death is mainly driven by the misunderstanding of Simon Pilkings and his wife to comprehend his culture. Pilkings and his wife intend to “save” Elesin’s life from the “cruelty” of his tribe. Elesin, at the final part of the play decides to commit suicide because of depression. His depression stems from the interference of Pilkings by jailing him. The interference prevents him to perform the ritual and it makes other problems that are; his tribe’s accusation to him for betrayal and his son’s death. In relation to Shakespearean tragic hero, it should be noted that Wole Soyinka adds a new perspective when creating his tragic hero. His tragic hero is a chief king’s horseman, not a prince or a leader of a state but Wole Soyinka keeps the quality of a public importance or high degree person to character Elesin. The proof that Elesin is an important person can be seen as follows. ELESIN. …My fame, my honour are legacies to the living stay behind and let the world sip its honey from your lips PRAISE SINGER. Your name will be like the sweet berry a child places under his tongue to sweeten the passage of the food. The world will never spit it out (DKH, i. 32-36) (See Plot; Exposition).

(60) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 47 The conversation between Elesin and Praise Singer above indicates that Elesin is a man full of honour, a famous person. When he dies his name will be remembered by entire community. Here, the writer learns that the character Elesin shares same qualities of heroes in Shakespearean tragedy in the matter of famous or honorable person. In Shakespearean play, a king or a prince indeed is an honorable and famous person. When they die they will always be remembered by their people. Besides that, Elesin holds an important duty which is performed by no others except him self. Similar to kings or princes in Shakespearean heroes, Elesin’s duty determines the well being of entire community. Moreover, Elesin is described by Soyinka as an extraordinary person who should be respected. A respectable Elesin is reflected in Iyaloha’s statement. Through Iyaloha, Soyinka puts Elesin like an immortal being. IYALOHA. If we offended you now we have mortified the gods. We offended heaven itself. Father of us all, tell us where we went astray. (She kneels, the other women follow.) (DKH, i.250-253) (See Plot; Exposition). In regards to ideas previously, the writer concludes that Soyinka adopts Shakespearean hero in the matter of a high degree person. Even though Elesin is not a prince or a king, Soyinka portrays Elesin as an important, honorable and respectful person like the way Shakespeare creates his tragic hero.

(61) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 48 2. Complex Characteristics: More Than Good or Evil Bradley argues that Shakespearean tragedy will not hide the imperfection of a man manifested in hero’s attitudes. The imperfection leads the hero to his own fall. He says that the innocent hero still shows some marked imperfection or defect,—irresolution, precipitancy, pride, credulousness, excessive simplicity, excessive susceptibility to sexual emotions, and the like. These defects or imperfections are certainly, in the wide sense of the word, evil, and they contribute decisively to the conflict and catastrophe (Bradley, 1991:34-35). Comparing to concepts that has been built by Shakespeare about tragic hero, Wole Soyinka also exposes the imperfection of Elesin in the matter of sexual emotion. When comprehending Death and the King’s Horseman, the reader will be confused about Elesin’s conducts. Elesin is a leading figure who is easily distracted by beauty of young woman. Elesin’s sexual desire is shown by Soyinka in the act one when he spots a beautiful young woman in the market place. Soyinka underlines Elesin’s defect through his conversation with Iyaloha. Elesin insists to marry the betrothed young girl. He claims that his decision to marry young girl is to honour him before he dies. In this perspective the writer captures the evil side of Elesin; an old man who forcedly asks his tribe to take a betrothed young girl for him to marry. He is arrogant when forcing his tribe to take a betrothed young girl. His focus on the ritual becomes disarray. Elesin’s lack of seriousness can be seen in Iyaloha’s statement, who utters that he is still among the living.

(62) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 49 IYALOHA. Elesin Oba… ELESIN. What where do you all say I am? IYALOHA. Still among the living. ELESIN. And that radiance which so suddenly lit up this market I could boast I knew so well? IYALOHA. Has one step already in her husband’s home. She is betrothed. ELESIN. (irritated) why do you tell me that? (DKH, i. 392-400) (See Characteristic of the Hero; Oppurtunist and Arrogant). Soyinka strengthen Elesin’s defect about sexual desire from his confession to his young bride when he is imprisoned by Pilkings. ELESIN. My young bride…I have taken countless women in my life but you were more than a desire of flesh... For I confess to you, daughter, my weakness came not merely from the abomination of the white who come violently into my fading presence, there was also a weight of longing on my earth- held limbs. I would have shaken it off, already my foot had begun to lift but then, the white ghost entered and all was defiled (DKH, V. 120-139) (See Characteristic of the Hero; Opportunist and Arrogant). Looking at his confession, despite Elesin has taken countless women; Elesin still wants to have the betrothed girl to be his wife. He is an opportunist person because he wants to have some fun before he dies. He plots his marriage with a beautiful betrothed young girl. He is not really ready to leave the world as soon as possible. In line with Bradley’s idea that imperfection leads up the hero to conflict and catastrophe, Elesin’s marriage contributes to catastrophe. His decision to marry a betrothed a young girl brings a conflict between him and his tribe especially the women. His sexual emotion inhibits him to perform death ritual as soon as possible before westerner’s interference. If Elesin does not follow his desire to marry the girl, death ritual can be performed.

(63) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 50 His decision to marry the girl, open a chance to westerners to interrupt the ritual sacrifice and capture him. He then has conflict with westerners and his son Olunde (see Plot of Play; Crisis). At the end of the play he next has a conflict with Iyaloha since Iyaloha condemns him for betraying his tribe. Elesin has been given the best from his tribe (a betrothed young girl and best clothes) but he fails to carry the death ritual. Being accused by his tribe Elesin feels guilty and so depressed and chooses to end his life to remedy his fault. Studying about Bradley’s argument about complex character, Soyinka has practiced it in Elesin. Soyinka reveals Elesin in one side as an evil but in other side he also a good man. Elesin is an evil person because of his character as an arrogant and opportunist but he is not a bad man at all. He is apologized for mistake he has done and trying to remedy his fault by committing suicide. The imperfection lying in the soul of a hero is a natural thing in Shakespearean tragedy. In this sense, the imperfection of Elesin like Shakespeare shows the trait of imperfection human being as in the real life. Elesin’s defect incites series of conflict that leads him to catastrophe. 3. Supernatural Elements Bradley comments that supernatural is always placed in the closest relation with character. He continues that Shakespeare also introduces the supernatural into some of his tragedies; he introduces ghosts, and witches who have

(64) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 51 supernatural knowledge. And further, it does contribute to the action (Bradley, 1991:13). In creating his character, Soyinka also incorporates supernatural elements like Shakespeare does. In broader sense, supernatural can be defined as an event, forces or powers that cannot be explained by the laws of science and that seems involve gods or magic. Death and the king’s horseman is a story about the passage of the king’s chief man. Based on story, king’s chief horseman should die to accompany his master (king) to the afterlife through ritual suicide. When he dies, He will be the mediator between the unborn, living and the death. When reading the play, the writer knows that Soyinka adopts the belief of Yoruba about the transition of life. Soyinka puts an event (death ritual) which relates to the supernatural things. Death ritual is the ritual which connects Yoruba people to their gods and ancestors who live heaven. In the scientific way, those concepts could not be understood. Soyinka underlines the inability of science in understanding death ritual through Jane’s argument. JANE. However cleverly you try to put it, it is still a barbaric custom. It is even worse---it’s feudal! The king dies and a chieftain must be buried with him. How feudalistic can you get! (DKH, iv. 236-239) (See Plot; Raising Action). Jane calls the tribe feudalistic because she does not understand what the tribe does. She still insists that life should not be thrown deliberately. Here, Soyinka puts the idea that cannot be grasped by people’s minds by letting the supernatural element works in his play.

(65) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 52 If it is in the character, Soyinka’s concept of character that has a supernatural knowledge can be seen in the character of Iyaloha; mother of the market and the ritual leader. Iyaloha in Soyinka is not witches as in Shakespeare’s Macbeth and Hamlet. In the story of Macbeth, Macbeth meets three withes who tell a prophecy that he will become the king of Scotland or in Hamlet who sees the ghost that tells him the murderer of his father but they share the same role in the play. Their role contributes to the plot development of the play. Iyaloha is described by Soyinka as the figure who knows well how to prepare the ritual, how to avoid the curse. Her knowledge can be seen when Elesin asks the tribe to marry a young girl. Even if the girl is betrothed to her own son, Iyaloha understands that the death ritual is more important than his son’s wish. Elesin is more important that his own son. She lets Elesin to marry the young bride in order to save the whole community. Giving the importance to the Elesin is similar to giving the importance to her tribe’s fate. WOMAN. Not many men will brave the curse of a dispossessed husband. IYALOHA. Only the curses of the departed are to be feared…(DKH. ii.455458) (See Plot; Exposition). Rendering Iyaloha’s answer previously, it can be inferred that she comprehends the meaning of death ritual well. She asks the tribe to put Elesin in the first place and his son in the second place. She sacrifices her family’s interest to save her tribe so that the curse will not befall unto them. In relation to development of the play and above explanation, Iyaloha’s contribution is depicted from her role to set Elesin’s marriage. It is known previously that marriage of Elesin becomes the main source of catastrophe since

(66) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 53 his marriage opens a chance to westerners to stop the ritual sacrifice. Without Iyaloha’s role the marriage will not happen. If Iyaloha does not give permission to Elesin, westerners will not have chance to stop the ritual because only ritual sacrifice will be held on that day. Soyinka plays role of Iyaloha to create a pathway to catastrophe. Learning soyinka’s concept of supernatural Elements (character of Iyaloha) the writer learns that there is a combination between Greek and Shakespearean tragedy. In Greek tragedy the role of supernatural elements such as oracle and witches are positive, they lead hero to act something good. When learning Shakespeare’s version, those supernatural elements becomes negative. They urges hero to do something bad such as hatred and revenge. Iyaloha shares positive and negative role in the story. The positive side of Iyaloha is seen from her intention to let Elesin marry the girl. She prepares the ritual sacrifice. Her role turns to negative when she blindly accuses Elesin for betraying his tribe. She does not realize that Elesin’s failure is more affected by western intrusion, not by Elesin attitude to marry the girl. Iyaloha’s accusation creates the inner conflict in Elesin so Elesin finally ends his life in prison because of depression.

(67) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 54 4. The Appearance of Chance or Accident Shakespeare, in most of his tragedies allows to 'chance' or 'accident' an appreciable influence at some point in the action which brings into a tragedy. “Chance or accident here will be found, I think, to mean any occurrence (not supernatural, of course) which enters the dramatic sequence neither from the agency of a character, nor from the obvious surrounding circumstances (Bradley, 1991:14). Mirroring from Bradley’s argument previously, the accident in the play is the ritual sacrifice held on the day of the arrival of Britannia Prince in that place. From the exposition, it is known that Simon Pilkings and Jane are dancing in their home using engungun a death ritual costume to welcome the arrival of the prince. The arrival of the Prince impacts greatly to the conduct of Pilkings to stop ritual sacrifice. When listening to the story of ritual sacrifice from Joseph, Pilkings and his wife Jane agree to stop the ritual. JANE. You know this business has to be stopped Simon. And you are the only man who can do it. PILKINGS. I don’t have to stop anything. If they want to throw themselves off the top of a cliff of poison themselves for the sake of some barbaric custom what is that to me? If it were ritual murder or something like that I’d be duty bound to do something (DKH, ii. 251-257) (See Plot; Raising Action). Not only by his conversation with his wife Pilkings wants to interfere the ritual, he becomes more determined to stop the ritual when he gets instruction from his resident. Pilkings is instructed to clear the situation so that the Prince can be stay peacefully in their land. Resident’s instruction can be read through the followings.

(68) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 55 RESIDENT. It musn’t Pilkings. It musn’t. Where is it that damned sergeant?i ought to get back to his highness as quick as possible and offer him some plausible explanation for my rather abrupt conduct. Can you think of one Pilkings? PILKINGS. You could tell him the truth sir. RESIDENT. I could? No no no no Pilkings, that would never do. What! Go and tell him there is a riot just two miles away from him? This is suppose to be a secure colony of His Majesty, Pilkings PILKINGS. Yes sir (DKH, iv. 39-46) (See Plot; Raising Action). From above talk, it is informed that Pilkings is instructed to secure the land. From this instruction, Pilkings then capture Elesin himself. The instruction is positively gets its result when Elesin is finally put in prison and ritual sacrifice fails to be performed. When the writer learns the plot, Elesin then ends his life in prison because he is unable to perform the ritual. 5. The Exceptional Being Bardley comments that the hero is different from other common man not only because his degree but also his particular sufferings. The suffering and calamity are, moreover, exceptional. They befall a conspicuous person. They are themselves of some striking kind. They are also, as a rule, unexpected, and contrasted with previous happiness or glory (Bradley, 1991:19). Wole Soyinka sets Elesin not only as the hero admired by many people, but also having a particular suffering that contrasts with his previous happiness and glory. At first of his appearance Soyinka depicts Elesin as humorous person. He and his tribe start to sing and dance: ELESIN Oba enters along a passage before the market, pursued by his drummers and praise singers. He is a man of enormous vitality, speaks, dances and sings with that infectious enjoyment of life which accompanies all

(69) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 56 his action…He performs like a born raconteur, infecting his retinue with his humor and energy (See Characteristic of Hero; Humorous.). Not only that, of Elesin’s as humorous person is seen when pretends to be angry at his tribe and let them in a big confusion. He laughs at them and says that he only pretends. (See Characteristic of Hero; Humorous). After describes Elesin as humorous person, Soyinka moves the story into a stage in which he shows the suffering of Elesin because he fails the ritual suicide. His first suffering is started from the denial of his son Olunde to him by saying “I have no father, eater of left-overs” (DKH, v. 489-494) (See plot; Climax.) After that Elesin is torn by grief again when he sees his son’s body. His son; Olunde dies because of shame that he could not perform death ritual (DKH, v. 478-484) (See Plot; Falling Action). Not only that, Elesin’s sadness becomes greater when he is accused as a betrayer by his tribe. Studying previous explanation, it is argued that Soyinka portrays the contrast life of Elesin. He; an honorable person admired by many people, then falls into the dust of shame and dishonored by his son and own people at the end. 6. Pity and admiration He is not completely a good person of far from being good but there is some greatness in him until last moment when he wins our pity and admiration. Inline with this idea, Bradley comments that “Such exceptional suffering and calamity, then, affecting the hero, and—we must now add—generally extending far and wide beyond him, so as to make the whole scene a scene of woe, are an essential

(70) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 57 ingredient in tragedy and a chief source of the tragic emotions, and especially of pity”. For Bradley, the proportions of this ingredient, and the direction taken by tragic pity, will naturally vary greatly. Pity, Bradley explains, has a much larger part in King Lear than in Macbeth, and is directed in the one case chiefly to the hero, in the other chiefly to minor characters (Bradley, 1991: 8). Pity and admiration also become the part of the play. After reading the story of Death and the King’s Horseman, readers will take pity on the characters inside. The pity is driven not by the fallen of the hero but also the calamity happens into Yoruba community. The pity strikes readers when learn that Elesin dies in agony. His failure, death of his beloved son and accusation of his tribe to him place Elesin in a difficult position. In this position, Soyinka attracts readers’ attentions to throw some pity to Elesin. Not only to Elesin is the pity addressed but also to the minor characters; Olunde and members of society (Iyaloha, Praise Singer, the Women and Elesin’s bride). Readers’ pities address to Olunde because of his death. Olunde is a young man who studies medical in England and becomes tribe’s successor. After Elesin dies, Olunde will take his position in their tribe. In the normal life, death of a highly educated young man is a great misery to a family. Like wise what happens in the play, young men usually become the future of their family, society and nation so the death of a young man like Olunde of course brings some pity to readers.

(71) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 58 The next pity is addressed to the member of society. As it is stated in the play, death ritual is part of their cultural heritage. The tribe has prepared everything to do the ritual but the death ritual is messed up by Pilkings’ interference. His interference to ban the ritual makes the tribe in chaos. The interference causes important figures in Yoruba society; Olunde and Elesin, die tragically. Besides drawing pity in the play, Soyinka also puts admiration about the action of Elesin. Even though Elesin fails the death ritual, he still loves his culture. He admits that he has done wrong and apologized it. He ends his life as a remedy to his fault (DKH, v. 498-499) (See Plot; Catastrophe). Tracing back to Bradley’s argument about pity and admiration, it right to say that Soyinka wins the pity and admiration of readers like Shakespeare does in his tragic hero’s stories. The pity in Death and the Kings Horseman befalls unto major and minors characters but it should be underlined that the great pity and admiration are chiefly given to Elesin as the major character. 7. Fate and Welfare of Nation or Empire Bradley states that hero’s fate in Shakespearean tragedy affects the welfare of a whole nation or empire. It is understandable that the death of a hero influence the sustainability of a nation or empire because Shakespearean tragedy embodies the figure of high degree in one state or country. The death of Elesin in the story really affects the welfare of his tribe. As it is stated previously, despite Elesin is not a price or a king, he also holds an

(72) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 59 important duty. His duty is to accompany his master; the king of Yoruba to heaven where their ancestors dwell. If Elesin fails the ritual, the curse of ancestors will fall unto him and Yoruba people at whole. The tribe really put their hope in Elesin. Soyinka mirrors Yoruba’s hope through Praise Singer. PRAISE SINGER. There is only one home to the life of a river mussel; there is only one home to the life of tortoise; there is only one world to the spirit of our race. If that world leaves its course and smashed on boulders of the great void, whose world will give us shelter? (DKH, i. 61-66) (See Plot; Exposition). Not only through Praise Singer Soyinka gives idea of getting the curse he also strengthen it trough Iyaloha’s statement. Iyaloha, who acts as leader of the tribe, warns the women when they try to hinder Elesin from marrying a young girl. She tells that it is important to pleasure Elesin before he dies. If Elesin rejects to perform ritual suicide, they will have no intercessor to the world of ancestors. IYALOHA. My son wish is mine. I did the asking for him, the loss can be remedied. But who will remedy the blight of closed hands on the day when all should be openness and light?...you pray to him who is your intercessor to the other world—don’t set this world adrift in your own time…(DKH, i.447-454) (See Plot; Exposition). Reffering at two quotations above, it can be concluded that Soyinka indeed makes Elesin as the prominent figure whose duty affects the welfare of his tribe. When Elesin dies in jail because of Pilkings interference, the reader knows that the tribe will get possible blight from their ancestors since Elesin fails to carry out the ritual.

(73) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION In the reference to the analysis previously, the writer concludes that despite Death and the Kings Horseman is not a play which tells about the tragic end of a king or prince of a state like Shakespeare does in his stories, but Wole Soyinka incorporates the concept of Shakespearean tragic hero when creates his hero. Soyinka combines the story of native African’s belief with concept of Shakespearean tragic hero in this play. The hero in the play; Elesin, is a kings chief horseman who has several characteristics such as; he has high degree position and admired by his people, he has complex characteristics, he is close to supernatural elements, he experiences chance or accident, he is an exceptional being, his story incurs our pity and admiration and his fate affects the lives of many. The proof that Elesin is a high degree and admirable person is marked by his duty to perform the ritual. He is the only one who holds the important duty; to accompany his king in the life after. He is also hailed by his tribe as a man of honor. When he dies he will be the intercessor for his tribe and his name will be remembered by his community. Elesin has complex characteristics like humorous, opportunist, arrogant and redemptive. He is not a perfect man. His imperfection lies in his susceptibility to 60

(74) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 61 sexual emotion. His uncontrollable sexual desire makes him suspend the ritual sacrifice and leads him to his catastrophe. The hero automatically is closed to supernatural elements since the essence of the story is about the belief of Yoruba’s tradition; the passage of the king and the concept of living, death and unborn. Soyinka puts Elesin closes to Iyaloha; mother of the market and ritual leader who has supernatural knowledge. Soyinka creates inner conflict via Iyaloha’s accusation which contributes to Elesin’s death. Elesin experiences accident that leads him to a tragic end. The accident is the arrival of Britannia Prince in his place happens at the same time with ritual sacrifice. Prince arrival makes Pilkings, the district officer, more determined to arrest Elesin because he is afraid if chaos will affect prince life. Prince arrival contributes to Elesin’s catastrophe. Elesin is an exceptional being, not only because of his honor but also his suffering. His suffering stems from his incapability to carry out the death ritual. His incapability incurs him a great mental sufferings like denial of his own son toward him, death of his son and the accusation of his own tribe for betraying them. His fall brings pity and admiration to the reader. The pity comes to the reader when learns his failure and the possible calamity happens in Yoruba community. Besides that the death of his son and the accusation of his tribe toward him also become others source of pity. The admiration is given to Elesin

(75) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 62 in the matter of redemptive action he takes. He is apologized for the mistake he has done and tries to remedy it. Lastly, Elesin’s fate impacts to the welfare of many people. The ritual suicide is intended to connect his people to their ancestors besides that when he dies Elesin will accompany his master to the life after, if it is failed to do, Yoruba people will get curse from their ancestors. In the story the writer learns that Elesin’s fails to do his duty. His failure then impacts greatly to the wellbeing of the community because the curse of ancestors will fall to them. When learning those concepts above, it is true what Ojaide remarks that Soyinka can be necessarily called as African Shakespeare based on the concept of tragic hero that he presents in Death and the Kings Horseman but it should be noted that the play incorporates the story of native’s tradition. The writer concludes that there are some modifications lying in the body of the play such as; the hero is chief of king’s horseman, the story is about death ritual and supernatural agent is a ritual leader not witches or ghost.

(76) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI BIBLIOGRAPHY Abrican, Richard, Marvin Klotz and Peter Richardson.Literature: Reading and Writing the Human Experience. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998. Abrams, M.H. A Glossary of Literary Terms. Sixth edition. New York: Harcout Brace JavanovicColleage Publisher, 1985. Ampka, Awam. Postcolonial Theater and the Ethics of Emancipator Becoming.London: Routledge, 2003. Appiah, Anthony.” An Evening with Wole Soyinka”. Black American literature forum. Vol.22No.4 (Winter 1988) pp.777-785.JSTOR. Arp, Thomas R & Greg Johnson. Perrine’s Literature: Structure, Sound and Sense TenthEdition. Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2009. Baldick, Chris. The Consice Oxford Dictionary of Literary Term.Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990. Barnet, Sylvan. Literature for Composition: Essays, Fiction, Poetry and Drama (7th edition). London: Longman Publisher, 2004. Barranger, Milly S. Understanding Plays Second Edition. Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon, 1994. Barry,Peter. Beginning Theory and Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory.Third Edition. Manchester: Manchester Press, 2009. Billington, Michael. Death and the King’s Horseman. London: GNM Press Office, 2009. (6 March 2014). Bradley, A.C. Shakespearean Tragedy, Lectures on Hamlet, Othello, King Lear,and Macbeth. New York: St. Martin Press, 1961. Bressler, E. Charles. Literary Criticism: An Introduction to Theory and Practice. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1999. Gilbertova, Iva. “Wole Soyinka: Death and the Kings Horseman.” Undergraduate Thesis.UnivesitatisBrunesis, 1995. Gill, Richard. Mastering English Literature.London: Macmillan Press LTD, 1995. Guerin, Wilfred L., Earle Labor, Lee Morgan, Jeanne C. Reesman, and John R. Willigam. A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature Fifth Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. 63

(77) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 64 Holman, C. Hugh and William Harmon.A Handbook to Literature Fifth Edition.New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1986. Kennedy, X.J, Dana Gioia, Literature an Introduction to Fiction, Poetry and Drama Seventh Edition, 1998. Maufuriyah, Ikfina. “The Native’s Resistance against Colonialism in Wole Soyinka’s Death and the King’s Horseman.”Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University, 2005. Manjula V. N, A Song for the Road Wole Soyinka’s Imagery and Tradition.India, 2012. Odelberg, Wilhelm. WoleSoyinka-biographical. Stockholm., 1987. Http://www.nobelprize.org-nobel_ prize/literature/laureates/1986/soyinkabio.html (11 February 2014) Olakunle, George. “Cultural criticism in Wole Soyinka’s Death and the King’s Horseman”.Representation. No 67 (Summer, 1999), pp.67-91. Ojaide, Tanure. Teaching Wole Soyinka’s Death and the King’s Horseman to American Collage Students. West Chester University., 1992. Vol. 19 No. 3(1992). (6 March 2014). Oniwe, Bernard Ayo. Portraits ofthe Hybrid Protagonist In Selected Metaphysical Plays By Wole Soyinka. Dissertation. United States: Universirty of South Carolina, 2009. Reaske, Christopher Russel. How to Analyze Drama. New York: Monarch Press, 1966. Reynolds, Bryan Blane. Voice for Human Rights, Democracy and Freedom. 2009.(11 February 2014). Soyinka, Wole. Death and the King’s Horseman. Great Britain: Metheun Publishing, 1999.

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