Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine Vol 2 (C F) pdf

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INCLUSION CRITERIA

  SCOPEAlmost 1,700 full-length articles are included in the Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine 2, including disorders/ conditions, tests/procedures, and treatments/therapies. Throughout the Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine 2, many prominentindividuals are highlighted as sidebar biographies that accompany the main topical essays.

ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS

  Disorders/Conditions Tests/TreatmentsDefinition Definition Description PurposeCauses and symptoms Precautions Diagnosis DescriptionTreatment Preparation Alternative treatment AftercarePrognosis Risks Prevention Normal/Abnormal resultsResources Resources Key terms Key terms A preliminary list of diseases, disorders, tests and treat- ments was compiled from a wide variety of sources,including professional medical guides and textbooks as well as consumer guides and encyclopedias. Final selection of topics to include was made by the med- ical advisors in conjunction with the Gale Group editor.

HOW TO USE THIS BOOK

  In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in holistic medicine that emphasizes the connectionbetween mind and body. The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine 2 includes anumber of essays on alternative therapies, ranging from traditional Chinese medicine to homeopathy and frommeditation to aromatherapy.

MEDICAL ADVISORS

A. Richard Adrouny, M.D., F.C.P

ADVISORY BOARD

  which do not take up the stain turn red.ylobacteriosis Guillain-Barré syndrome—Progressive and usually Anti-motility medications—Medications such asCamp reversible paralysis or weakness of multiple muscles loperamide (Imodium), dephenoxylate (Lomotil), orusually starting in the lower extremities and often medications containing codeine or narcotics whichascending to the muscles involved in respiration.decrease the ability of the intestine to contract. Its two main characteristicsare uncontrolled growth of the cells in the human body and the ability of these cells to migrate from the originalsite and spread to distant sites.

B. Saunders Co., 1997

  Due to the nature of the test, it is important toevaluate for the following conditions before considering this procedure: Precautions When looking at the left side of the heart, fluoro- scopic guidance also allows the following diagnoses tobe assessed: angiography, a tech- nique of injecting a dye into the vascular system to outline the heart and blood vessels, a catheterization can aid in thevisualization of any blockages, narrowing, or abnormalities in the coronary arteries. Preparation Prior to the cardiac catheterization procedure, it is important to relay information to the physician or nurseregarding allergies to shellfish (such as shrimp or scal- lops) which contain iodine, iodine itself, or the dyes that The catheter are commonly used in other diagnostic tests.extends from the Because this procedure is categorized as a surgery, the groin area to the heart.patient will be instructed not to eat or drink anything for at least six hours prior to the test.

PERFORMING CPR ON AN ADULT

  This is more effective than no resuscita-tion attempt, as is CPR that is performed “poorly.” Car diopulmonar y r esuscitation (CPR) The first step is to call the emergency medical system for help by telephon-ing 911; then to begin CPR, following these steps: The basic procedure for CPR is the same for all peo- ple, with a few modifications for infants and children toaccount for their smaller size. CPR by bystanders may According to the American Heart Association, earlyCPR and defibrillation combined with early advanced emergency care can increase survival rates for peoplewith a type of abnormal heart beat called ventricular When performed by a bystander, CPR is designed to support and maintain breathing and circulation untilemergency medical personnel arrive and take over.

PERFORMING CPR ON AN INFANT OR CHILD UNDER THE AGE OF EIGHT

  Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter often revert to normal rhythms without the need for car- arrhythmias) Not all unusual heart rhythms (called Precautions When the heart beats too fast, blood no longer circu- lates effectively in the body. Purpose Cardioversion refers to the process of restoring the heart’s normal rhythm by applying a controlled electricshock to the exterior of the chest.

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  In addition, a lumbar puncture procedureto introduce the spinal needle using x-ray guidance.should never be performed at the site of a localized skin infection on the lower back because the infection may In order to get an accurate sample of cerebrospinalbe introduced into the CSF and may spread to the brain fluid, it is critical that a patient is in the proper position.or spinal cord. (Squamous Myringotomy—Surgical cutting of the ear drum to cells are the thin, flat cells of the surfaces of the skin and allow fluid to escape from the middle ear.cervix and linings of various organs.) Another 10% of cer- Otitis media—Inflammation of the middle ear.vical cancers are of the adenocarcinoma type.

HEREDITARY NEUROPATHY WITH LIABILITY TO PRES- SURE PALSIES (HNPP)

CMT1B

  Definition Charcot’s joints is a progressive degenerative disease Prognosis of the joints caused by nerve damage resulting in the loss ofTreatment of the disease causing loss of pain percep- ability to feel pain in the joint and instability of the joint.tion may help to slow the damage to the joints. Other conditions include tuberculosis, and spontaneous pneu-mothorax (air in the chest cavity) that causes more of the lungs), emphysema (air in the tissues Conditions that may need to be treated by chest drainage therapy include Removing air or fluids from the chest involves the insertion of a tube through the skin and the musclesbetween the ribs, and into the chest cavity.

SEXUAL ABUSE

EMOTIONAL ABUSE

  Ifthere is risk of tearing the mother’s skin, the doctor may choose to make a small incision into the perineum to Episiotomy When the top of the baby’s head appears at the open- ing of the vagina, the birth is nearing completion. Others notice a sudden surge of energy and the urge to clean or arrange things right before labor begins;this is known as “nesting.” diarrhea or nausea as labor Some women have Another sign that labor is beginning is the breaking of the “bag of waters,” the amniotic sac which had cush-ioned the baby during the pregnancy.

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