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(1)PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI THE SIGNIFICANCE OF GREAT WARRIORS IN WAR IN EDITH HAMILTON’S THE TROJAN WAR AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters Presented By JATI PRADIPTA Student Number: 074214010 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF ENGLISH LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014

(2) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI THE SIGNIFICANCE OF GREAT WARRIORS IN WAR IN EDITH HAMILTON’S THE TROJAN WAR AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters Presented By JATI PRADIPTA Student Number: 074214010 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF ENGLISH LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014 i

(3) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ii

(4) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI iii

(5) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY I certify that this undergraduate thesis contains no material which has been previously submitted for the award of any degree at any university, and that, to the best of my knowledge, this undergraduate thesis contains no material previously written by any other person except where due reference is made in the text of the undergraduate thesis. Yogyakarta, October 10, 2014 Jati Pradipta iv

(6) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI DO WHAT YOU CAN, WITH WHAT YOU HAVE, WHERE YOU ARE. -Theodore Roosevelt- v

(7) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI This undergraduate thesis is dedicated to: My Father and Mother My Brothers vi

(8) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Sanata Dharma: Nama : Jati Pradipta Nomor Mahasiswa : 074214010 Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul: THE SIGNIFICANCE OF GREAT WARRIORS IN WAR IN EDITH HAMILTON’S THE TROJAN WAR Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di Internet atau media lain untukkepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin dari saya maupun memberikan royalty kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai penulis Demikian pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Dibuat di Yogyakarta Pada tanggal 10 Oktober 2014 Yang menyatakan (Jati Pradipta) vii

(9) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all, I would like to devote my gratitude to Almighty God. My deepest gratitude goes to Dra. A.B. Sri Mulyani M.A., Ph.D for being patient in guiding me to complete my thesis. I would also express my gratitude to my co-advisor, Elisa Dwi Wardani, S.S., M.Hum., for her willingness to read and review this thesis. In addition, I would also thank to all the lecturers in English Letters Department especially to Anna Fitriati, S.Pd. M.Hum who have shared their knowledge and help me to finish my thesis. My thanks go to the Secretariat Staff and the Library Staff for their best service as well. My endless gratitude goes to my parents Julianus Weko Sambodo and Siti Bintarti for their endless support. I also thank to my brother Jati Pangarsa and Jati Panantya for always cheer me up. Further, I would like to express my appreciation to all of my friends of 2007 especially Dita, Aya, Phibi, Rohman, Harry, Herman, Martin, Aryo, and Osi. I would also thank to Adul, Kenan, Victor, Hario, and Ojan at Kontrakan Kaliwaru. My deepest love goes to my beloved partner, Louciana Hapsari, for his patience and support in guiding me to finish my thesis. I also thank her for being my side in my ups and downs, and for being there when I need at most. Jati Pradipta viii

(10) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE .................................................................................................... APPROVAL PAGE .......................................................................................... ACCEPTANCE PAGE ..................................................................................... STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY ................................................................ MOTTO PAGE ................................................................................................. DEDICATION PAGE ...................................................................................... LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH ....................... ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................. TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................. ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................... ABSTRAK........................................................................................................... i ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix xi xi i CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION .................................................................... A. Background of Study ........................................................................ B. Problem Formulation ........................................................................ C. Objectives of the Study ..................................................................... D. Definition of Terms........................................................................... 1 1 3 4 4 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................................................ 6 A. Review of Related Studies ................................................................ 6 B. Review of Related Theories .............................................................. 8 1. Theories on Character and Characterization ............................... 8 2. Theories on Greek Mythology .................................................... 10 3. Theories on Men and War........................................................... 15 C. Theoretical Framework ..................................................................... 16 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY ................................................................ A. Object of the Study ........................................................................... B. Approach of the Study ...................................................................... C. Method of the Study.......................................................................... 18 18 19 19 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS ............................................................................. A. The Description of Main Characters ................................................. 1. Achilles ....................................................................................... 2. Hector .......................................................................................... B. The Description of Trojan War ......................................................... 1. The origin of the war................................................................... 2. War at Troy ................................................................................. 21 21 22 25 28 28 29 C. The Significance of Achilles and Hector in Trojan War .................. 35 1. Achilles ...................................................................................... 35 ix

(11) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2. Hector .......................................................................................... 39 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION ........................................................................ 42 BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................. 45 x

(12) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRACT Jati Pradipta. The Significance of Great Wariors in War in Edith Hamilton’s The Trojan War. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Sanata Dharma University. Literature records some crucial events that happened thousands of years ago. This undergraduate thesis discusses the work of Edith Hamilton’s The Trojan War. The Trojan War is chosen as the object of study because it contains the Greek mythological story, Trojan War. From the intrinsic elements especially character, the significance of great warriors in war is revealed. There are three objectives of study as the base of analysis. First is to find out the description of great warrior, Achilles and Hector. Second is to find out the clear depiction of Trojan War. The last objective is to identify the significance of Achilles and Hector in the Trojan War. The writing of this undergraduate thesis was conducted by applying library research. The source of data is collected through books, journal, and web-based article. The approach used in this research is mythological approach. It is used to reveal the characteristic of characters and the significance of Achilles and Hector in Trojan War. Based on the analysis, there are two characters analyzed in this thesis. First is Achilles. He is brave, bad-tempered, and an avenger. Second is Hector. He is brave and caring person. He does not only care for his family but also his country. The description of Trojan War is divided into three parts. There are the origin of the war, the war at troy and after the war. The participation of Hector and Achilles gives a big significant for their own country. As the great warrior, Achilles succeeds to gives victory for his country. He even leads the Greeks to beat the Trojans. The Greeks with Achilles are a great disaster for the Trojans. Hector is the leader of the Trojans. As the leader, he has power and strategy to drive the Greeks back to their ships. He is also the bravest warrior of Trojan. He is the only one who is capable to fight against Achilles. Although he is killed by Achilles, he has sacrificed himself for his country. xi

(13) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRAK Jati Pradipta. The Significance of Great Wariors in War in Edith Hamilton’s The Trojan War. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Universitas Sanata Dharma. Sastra mendokumentasikan beberapa kejadian penting yang terjadi beberapa ribu tahun yang lalu. Tesis ini membahas karya Edith Hamilton yang berjudul The Trojan War. Teks ini sangat bermanfaat untuk dianalisa karena menceritakan perang legendaris, Perang Troya. Dari intrinsik element terutama tokohnya, peranan ksatria besar dalam sebuah perang dapat terungkap. Oleh karena itu, The Trojan War dipilih sebagai subjek penelitian. Berikut adalah tiga tujuan penelitian yang mendasari analisa ini. Pertama adalah untuk menemukan penggambaran dari tokoh, Achilles and Hector. Kedua adalah untuk mengetahui penggambaran Trojan War. Terakhir adalah untuk mengidentifikasi peranan seorang ksatria dalam sebuah perang. Penulisan skripsi ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan studi pustaka. Sumber data yang dikumpulkan adalah dari buku-buku, jurnal, dan artikel-artikel internet. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan mitologis. Pendekatan ini digunakan untuk mengungkapakan karakteristik tokoh, Achilles and Hector serta peranan mereka dalam perang Troya. Berdasarkan analisa, ada dua tokoh yang di analisis dalam tesis ini. Yang pertama adalah Achilles. Dia adalah berani, tempramental dan pendendam. Yang kedua adalah Hector. Dia berani dan penyayang. Di tidak hanya perduli pada keluarganya tetapi juga rakyatnya. Perang Troya dibagi menjadi tiga bagian; asal usul perang, perang di Troya, dan masa setelah perang. Keikutsertaan Achilles dan Hector dalam perang sangat berpengaruh. Sebagai seorang ksatria, Achilles berhasil membawa kemenangan untuk negaranya. Dia bahkan memimpin pasukannya mengalahkan Troya. Hector adalah pemimpin Troya. Sebagai pemimpin, dia mempunya kekuatan dan stategi untuk memukul mundur Yunani ke kapal mereka. Dia adalah ksatria paling pemberani dari Troya. Dia adalah satusatunya orang yang dapat mengalahkan Achilles. Walaupun dia terbunuh, tetapi dia telah mengorbankan diri untuk Negara. xi i

(14) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Literature is used as the depiction of human life. The author of literary works tries to express their idea about life through literature. They express some phenomena that happen in society. Literature also records some crucial events that happen thousands of years ago. Among European literatures ancient Greece has a peculiar place. The Western civilization has been shaped by the ancient Greek culture that flourished over two thousand years ago. Moreover, Guth said that “The Greek have influenced many of the traditional ideas of our culture. They have helped shape our ideas about truth, about justice, and about beauty” (1981: 14). It can be said that literature also has influenced our life through the language. Greek literature is well-known for their mythology. Among the source of myth and legend in Western world, Greek mythology has long played a central role. Guth explained that “Greek myths are traditional stories about gods and legendary heroes. Many of myths originally told the early Greeks about the origin or the power of their gods” (1981: 5). The relation between Greek literature and Greek myth can be seen by looking at the relationship between gods and men, death and its aftermath, the opposition between nature and society, and conflicts within the family. The myths were believed by most Greeks that powerfully effective for conveying moral ideas. 1

(15) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2 Trojan War was the last and the greatest war in Greek’s mythology that was written by Homer entitled Iliad. In the Trojan War, the young Achilles withdraws from the battles at Troy because King Agamemnon has unfairly robbed his beautiful girl. But when, as a result of his inaction, his best friend is killed by Hector the Trojan, he returns to the battlefield in order to carry out the sacred duty on revenge, although his goddess mother warns him that if he kills Hector, he himself is destined to fall soon after. According to the story of Trojan War, Achilles and Hector have big influences toward the Trojan War. Achilles is the great warrior in Greeks army while Hector is the great warrior in Trojans. Achilles has enormous power because he is a son of goddess. In other hand, Hector is the central power of Trojans fleet. The Greeks will never win the battle without killing Hector, and Achilles is the one who can kill him. The original story of Trojan War is an oral literature, supposedly told by Homer in his epic, Illiad. This undergraduate thesis uses the adaptation’s version entitle The Trojan War by Edith Hamilton that is written in Literary Heritage by Hans. P. Guth. The use of adaptation’s version helps the writer understand the story because it is more effective than using the original version. The language of adaptation version had been simplified into modern English which is understandable. The adaptation’s version is a summary version of the epic with some modifications.

(16) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3 The adaptation’s version is written in the form of short story. Short story is one kind of short fiction which is told about the story in the effective way. Kennedy explains short story as follows A short story is more than just a sequence of happenings. A finely wrought short story has the richness and conciseness of an excellent lyrical poem. Spontaneous and natural as the finished story may seem, the writer has crafted it so carefully that there is meaning in even seemingly casual speeches and apparently trivial details. If we skim it hastily, skipping the descriptive passages, we miss the significance parts (2010: 15). Although short story is written in a short writing, the writer of short story still concerns the details of the story. It is said that we may miss the significance part if we skip some details. The Trojan War is one of Greek Mythology that is worth to analyze because it contains the story of legendary war, Trojan War. From the intrinsic elements especially character, the significance of major characters as great warriors in war is revealed. Thus, The Trojan War is chosen as the object of study. In analyzing the short story, the mythological approach is applied. This approach is used to identify any aspect of mythology underlying certain elements of a literary work. It is used to reveal the significance of great warriors, Achilles and Hector, in the Trojan War Since the story is related to Greek mythology, then the mythological approach is the most appropriate approach.

(17) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 4 B. Problem Formulation In analyzing the short story, there are three problems related to the topic of study, the problem of this research can be formulated as follows 1. How are Achilles and Hector described in the story? 2. How is the Trojan War described in the story? 3. What is the significance of great warriors, Achilles and Hector, in the Trojan War? C. Objective of the Study The objective of this research is to find out the significance of great warriors in war. Therefore, there are three problems need to be answered. The first objective is to find out the description of great warrior, Achilles and Hector. The second objective is to find out the depiction of Trojan War. The last objective is to identify the significance of Achilles and Hector in the Trojan War. D. Definition of Terms 1. Character In A Glossary of Literary Terms, Abrams states that a character is a person presented in a dramatic or narrative work, which is interpreted by the reader as being endowed with moral and dispositional qualities that are expressed in what he says, the dialogue, and what he does, the action. (1981: 20)

(18) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 5 2. Trojan War In Greek and Roman Mythology A to Z, Daly states that Trojan War is a legendary war fought between Achaean (Greek) invaders and the defenders of Troy, a seaport at the northwestern tip of Asia Minor, around 1200-1300 B.C. The Trojan War of Greek mythology lasted for 10 years, ending in the sack of Troy and a victory for the Greeks (2009: 142). In the Iliad, Homer states that Trojan War was the greatest conflict in Greek mythology, a war that was influence people in literature and art for centuries (Homer, 1974: 23).

(19) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW A. Review of Related Studies Some studies are taken as related studies for this undergraduate thesis. Some comments and criticisms of Trojan War are very helpful in analyzing the literary work. It is also used to differentiate this undergraduate thesis from others. Trojan War is an adaptation story that is written by Edith Hamilton. It is told about the war in the dark age of Greece. Some students of Sanata Dharma University have done some researches on Greek mythology. The first study is done by Andy Hermawan Harijanto entitled A Comparison between the Characters of These, Egeus, and Hippolyta in Shakespeare’s Midsummer Night’s Dream and Greek Mythology. In his study, Hermawan tries to find out the differences and similarities of three characters in Midsummer Night’s Dream and Greek Mythology. In his conclusion, he states: The character of Theseus and Hippolyta are almost the same in both stories. Thesues in both stories is good and wise king and Hyppolyta is the Queen of Amazon. While the character of Egeus is different in both of stories. In Midsummer Night’s Dream he is stubborn and selfish father of Hermia but in Greek Mythology, he was a good father of Theseus. (2001:62) In analyzing the stories, the writer uses mythological approach as the approach of the study. The mythological approach is appropriate for analyzing Greek mythology. 6

(20) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 7 The second study is done by Michelle Indrawati R. Schur entitled Female Archetypes in Greek Mythology. She discusses the basic female archetypes of Greek Mythology. In her conclusion, she states that The female characters in Greek mythology represent the Good Mother, the Bad Mother, or one of the aspects of the Triple-Goddess. There is often overlapping, but the archetypes are clearly identifiable. The female members of the Greek pantheon as personages or as archetypes supply the foundation for many characters in Western literature and art. (1998:75) Although discussing the same topic of Greek Mythology, this undergraduate thesis has different topic of study. The previous thesis focuses on female archetypes in Greek mythology. While present study focuses on the great warriors that have significance in war in the adaptaion story, the Trojan War. Another review of Trojan War is done by Joseph Roisman. In the journal entitled Greek Perspectives on the Justness and Merits of the Trojan War, he tries to explain the “justness” and merits of Trojan War based on Greek perspectives. He explains: Homer is a little help as regards the main interest of this paper. The epics identify humans or gods as the causes of the Trojan War and may even blame them for it, but they do not volunteer an opinion about whether or not it was a just war. Thus we find on the list of culprits Paris, who stole Menelaus’s wife and property. Helen, whose behavior was shameful, and even Hera, who sought to exact revenge for losing the beauty contest. Yet if there is a justification of the war in these assertions, it is only implicit. The poet’s reticence probably has to do with his and his audience’s greater interest in the military conflict and its heroes, rather than in the moral basis of the war and the respective merits of the Greek and Trojan causes. (2008: 98) According to those statements, Roisman concerns on how Greeks see the merits of The Greek and Trojan. Although discussing the similar work, Trojan War, the topic of study is different.

(21) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 8 This present study is different from the study above. The difference is on the topic. The present study conducted by the writer focuses on the significance of great warrior in Trojan War. B. Review of Related Theories In analyzing the Trojan War, there are three problems that need to be solved. There are some relevant theories that are used in order to answer the three problem formulation as follows 1. Theories on Character and Characterization Character is one of the most important aspects in the short story. Abrams states “characters are the persons presented in a dramatic or narrative work who are later on interpreted by the readers from their say and actions. What they say and do is show their “moral, dispositional, and emotional qualities” (1933:23). The character usually takes the reader’s interest. Most short stories focus on one central character. Boynton says “Another truth about most short stories is that the focus is on one central character. It is not impossible that there be more than one principal character, but it is unusual” (1972: 26-27). In short story, the author focuses on one central character because the length of short story does not often allow for the development of more than one primary focus. Characterization is used to reveal the characteristics of character. There are some examples of the ways in which an author attempts to make his characters understandable to and come alive for, his readers. Boynton explains that characteristic of character in the short story can be revealed through “what a

(22) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 9 character does, what a character says, what a character thinks, how others react to a character, how a character reacts to his surroundings, and direct description or explanation” (1972: 27-30). The description of each methods are explained as follows a. What a character does Stories show characters in action. Therefore, the most obvious method for revealing character is through what a person does. b. What a character says Another way of revealing what people are like is to show what they say. c. What a character thinks A writer may also reveal the character of people by showing what they think. We learn about his passions for order, precision, caution, and self control primarily through his own reflection on what is going on. d. How others react to a character Much can be shown about a character by the way others react to him, or by what t he y s a y a bout hi m . e. How a character reacts to his surroundings One of the commonest ways to reveal character is to show how a person reacts to his surroundings-to things and places. f. Direct description or explanation A final method of character revelation is through direct description or explanation by the author. It may seem odd to say that “direct description or explanation” is a

(23) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 10 separate way of portraying character, since an author is, after all, in complete control of everything that goes into story. 2. Theories on Greek Mythology Theories on Greek Methodology have an important part in analyzing The Trojan War. It is used to educate the writer about Greek mythology. In The Trojan War, there are some gods and goddesses that have a relation with the major characters; Achilles and Hector. The knowledge of Greek mythology is really helpful in understanding the whole story. From earliest times, humans have had a need to explain the origins and wonders of the world: the changing seasons, the mountains, the volcanoes, the storms, the floods, and the existence of animals, including humans. Then, humans make up stories about these phenomena. They also invent gods and supernatural beings. Sometimes people such as the Greeks make up stories just for entertainment. This make-up story is called myth. According to Guth, “Myth is an ancient story about supernatural forces or divine beings or godlike heroes. In early times, myth helped people understand the world around them. Their myth guided their thought and feelings about the world in which they lived” (1981: 20). Among the sources of myth and legend in the Western world, Greek mythology has long played a central role. Greek is the first people to create gods and goddesses that look like real human beings. In Greek mythology, there are many lesser gods, nature spirits, and half-divine human beings. Greek mythology

(24) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 11 also tells of many heroes who defeated their enemies by superior wit. In short, Greek mythology is explained as follows a. The beginnings of things Greek mythology began with how the world and mankind were created. According to Miles, long before the gods appeared there was only chaos. He states; The most widely accepted account of the beginning things starts with Chaos, a yawning nothingness. Out of the void emerged Gaea, the Earth, and other primeval figures-including Eros or love. Without male assistance Gaea gave birth to Uranus, the Sky, and Pontus, the Sea. Father Sky lay with Mother Earth, and fertilised her. From that union were born, first, the next generation of Gods, the Titans; then more monstrous offspring, theone-eyed Cyclopes and many-limbed Hundred-Handers (1999: 36). From the explanation above, it is recognized that from Chaos came into being the Father Heaven and the Mother Earth. Later, their child is known as the Titans. Uranus is understandably afraid of his terrible children. He is worried that their child would try to overthrow him. Then, he decides to bury his child within the body of their mother, Earth. Gaia, who is in pain, encourages them to break out and rebel. Later, Uranus is defeated by the youngest and boldest of the Titans. Cronus, now take his father’s place as the ruler of gods, with his sister-wife Rhea as his consort and the other Titans as his court. The story of father/son conflict is repeated in the next generation. Cronus is also afraid that his children will treat him as he treated Uranus. Later, he always swallows them as soon as they are born. At last Rhea takes his children against his husband. As Zeus grew up, Rhea told him how Cronus had swallowed his brothers

(25) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 12 and sister. Further, Rhea and Zeus made a plot to defeat Cronus. Miles states “At last, with the help of Cyclopes, Zeus and his siblings were victorious, and Cronus, and the other Titans were hurled down to imprisonment in Tartarus, the bottommost part of the underworld” (Miles, 1999: 36). At last, however, Zeus was established as ruler on Mount Olympus, with Hera as his sister-wife. Zeus still shares his father and grandfather’s anxiety about being overthrown by one of his child. Later, he abandons the sea-nymph Thetis to marry the mortal king Peleus, who becomes the father of Achilles. b. The Olympians Gods and Goddesses Greek mythology is rich in history and tales of gods, heroes, women, and monsters. Creech divides the divinities of the Greek mythology can be grouped into six classifications: the ancient elementals gods that made up the very fabric of the universe, the nature spirits, the immortal human-affecting spirits, the Lesser Gods, the Twelve Olympians, and the Giants, the Monsters, some mortal and some immortal (2002: 2). This research focuses on the Olympians gods and goddesses. The Greeks make their god and goddess in their own image. They are depicted in the shape of a human being. God and Goddess have an authority in world of mortal. They also have super power and responsibility for specific aspects of life, for example: Ares, god of war. The basic distinctions between gods and human are their immortality and extraordinary power. However, god and goddess are possible to fall in love with human, get married, and have children.

(26) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 13 The most important Greek gods lived on the summit of Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece. The principal gods were categorized by the Greek as ‘the Twelve Olympians’. Miles states that “They fall into two generations: the older generation of Zeus and his siblings, and the younger generation who are his children by various mothers” (1999: 21). Moreover, Miles explains the twelve greater Olympian as follow i. Zeus He is the king of gods and ruler of the universe from his throne on Mount Olympus. Originally a god of the sky and storm, thunder and lightning, he also becomes patron of kingship and government, law and custom, the patriarchal lord of the status quo. ii. Aphrodite She is goddess of love and sexuality. She is depicted as a beautiful woman. Her attributes include doves, sparrows, roses, and mirror. She is married to Hephaestus, and is known for having numerous affairs with gods and mortals. iii. Apollo He is the god of light and enlightenment in all its senses, of reason and perception, music and poetry, prophecy, medicine, and the sun. He is depicted as a beardless young man of perfect classical beauty, often surrounded by a halo of light, carrying a bow and arrows and a lyre. iv. Ares He is the god of war. He is depicted as a warrior; with armour; sword, spear; and s hi e l d.

(27) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 14 v. Artemis She is the virgin huntress, goddess of wild places and wild creatures, of chastity, and of the moon. She is depicted as a beautiful, athletic young woman, dressed as a huntress with bow and arrows. vi. Athena She is the goddess of war, of arts, crafts, and skills, of intelligence and wisdom. Hence she is an asexual virgin and an incarnation of militant intelligence. She is depicted as a tall, sternly, beautiful young woman, ‘grey-eyed’, dressed in full armour with helmet and spears, and often wearing the head of the Gorgon Medusa on her breastplate. vii. Hades He is the king of the underworld and god of the dead, who gained the realm when he cast lots with his brothers Zeus and Poseidon. It is stressing that he is not the devil, not evil or malevolent, merely a cold, grim, inflexible enforcer of the necessity of death for all mortal creatures. viii. Hephaestus He is the god of metalworking and of fire. He is son of Zeus and Hera. He is ugly and lame, because his mother or father threw him out of heaven and he was crippled by the fall to earth when he was born. ix. Hera She is queen of the gods, sister and wife of Zeus, goddess of marriage and childbirth, and the pre-eminent women’s deity. She is depicted as a beautiful and stately queen.

(28) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 15 x. Hermes He is the messenger of gods, son of Zeus and Maia. He depicted as a handsome, beardless youth, wearing a winged cap and sandals. xi. Poseidon He is the god of the sea, who won that realm by lot from his brothers Zeus and Hades called ‘Earthshaker’. He holding the three-pointed spear or trident with which he rules the waves. Moreover, humans has a relation to Greek mythology since they worships the god and goddesses. It is also possible that they get married with god or goddess. Humans are mortal. The common figures of human are kings and beautiful women. Kings are in charge of ruling his people to follow what the gods have asked. Moreover, there are women who become the mother of many Greek mythology heroes. Some gods falls in love with common women and they usually get married. The child of god or goddess and human are usually have an extraordinary power. They inherit the power from their father. Then, there are monster. They exist because some of them are god’s favorite and god’s guardian. For example, Zeus has Pegasus, a wild winged horse that becomes a carrier of Zeus’s lightning and thunderbolts. All monsters are mortal so they can be killed. 3. Theories on Men and War Men and war are related each other especially in Greek mythology. Men as a part of humans usually interfere in war. Nortwick states that “The Greeks

(29) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 16 believed that combat was naturally and appropriately an exclusively male activity” (2008: 74). The Greek, of course, has some rational reasons in saying that war is a male activity. Moreover, Nortwick explains that Greek intellectuals rationalized this belief in various ways: war requires physical strength, and men are naturally stronger than women; because they are naturally drier than women, men are simply healthier in general, and thus more reliable in combat; soldiers must depend on each other when they risk their lives to defend their communities, and women are by nature more prone to lying and untrustworthy behavior; discipline is necessary for smoothly functioning army, and women are more reproachful and combative than man. (2008: 74-75) From the quotation above, the joining of man at war is very important. They are the successful key to defeat the enemy. The ability of man in leading the soldiers is better than women. War is crucible, full of risk and opportunities, where masculinity is forged and expressed most vividly in Greek culture. The warrior risks losing control of his body when he goes into combat. By confronting death directly, the warrior is an agent for the creation and contemplation of meaning in life. C. Theoretical Framework This present study examines the description of major character as great warrior; Achilles and Hector. The theories are used as guidance in answering the question given in the problem formulation. The theories of character and characterization are used to answer the first question, to find out the characteristics of the main characters; Achilles and Hector.

(30) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 17 The theory of Greek methodology is used to find out the timeline and background story of Trojan War. It also supports the depth analysis of study in describing Trojan War for answering the second question. The theory on men and war is used in last question to identify the significance of Achilles and Hector as great warrior in Trojan War.

(31) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study The object of this research is an adaptation story entitled “The Trojan War”. The original story of Trojan War is composed by Homer in his epic, Illiad. This undergraduate thesis uses the adaptation’s version entitle The Trojan War by Edith Hamilton that is written in Literary Heritage by Hans. P. Guth. It is an anthology that consists of short stories and poems. The story of Trojan War was published by D.C Heat and Company in 1981 The Trojan War is a legendary war fought between the Greeks and the Trojans. It happens due to the abduction of Helen, Queen of Sparta, by Paris. Menelaus, King of Sparta, is angered by that accident. He complains to Agamemnon, his elder brother. They have a plan to attack the Trojan and take Helen back. Achilles is great warrior from the Greek. He leads his 50 ships and numbers of army by himself. The other army is led by Agamemnon. After dominating some towns on the coast of Troy, he gets Briseis as the prize. Unfortunately, Agamemnon steals Briseis away from Achilles. Furious, Achilles decides to retire from the war. However, knowing Patroklus is killed by Hector, he comes back to the war and slays Hector. Hector is Prince of Troy, the elder brother of Paris. He is the greatest warrior of the Trojans. Led by Hector, the Trojan is successful to defend the wall 18

(32) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 19 of Troy, especially when Achilles leaves the war. Then, the Trojan lost the war due to the death of Hector. The Trojan War is won by the Greek. B. Approach of the Study In analyzing the work of literature, there are some techniques used to interprete the piece of literature. Some critics may have different ways and approach due to their views in learning and understanding. This undergraduate thesis is focused on the characters of a Greek mythology which is Trojan War. In order to explore them, the mythological approach is used. Guerin states “the myth critic is concerned to seek out the mysterious elements that inform certain literary works and that elicit, with almost uncanny force, dramatic, and universal human reactions” (2005: 182). According to Allan W. Watts, Myth is to be defined as a complex of stories-some no doubt fact and some fantasy-which, for various reasons, human beings regards as demonstrations of the inner meaning of the universe and human life. (Guerin, 183-184) C. Method of the Study This undergraduate thesis uses library research as the most relevant method. The main process of library research is reading the main source and obtaining the important ideas which gave benefits in analyzing the short story. In this undergraduate thesis, there are primary source and secondary source. The primary source was taken from the adaptation story written by Edith Hamilton, the

(33) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 20 Trojan War. The secondary sources are online journal, essay, and some books of Greek mythology. There were some steps done in analyzing the drama. The first step was reading the primary source, The Trojan War. As the adaptation story read, a worth-studying element of works emerged and raised the intention to study the works further. The characters and story of Greek mythology were considered as the most interesting elements. Then, problem formulation was made as the guidance for the analysis. First, this study discussed the description of the main characters, Achilles and Hector. Second, it looked closely to the story of Trojan War where Achiless and Hector had significance. Third, it observed the significance of Achilles and Hector in Trojan War. The primary source was analyzed based on mythological approach. By using some theories, the analysis would be more critical. Finally, the conclusion was drawn based on the result of analysis.

(34) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS A. The Description of Great Warrior, Achilles and Hector. The Trojan War is a nine-years of war fought between the Trojan and the Greek. Both of countries has the important figure. In the Trojan’s side, there is Hector, prince of Troy. In the Greek’s side, there is Achilles, prince of Myrmidons. Achilles and Hector are the main character of the story, the Trojan War. They become the focus of the story and their existence is very crucial to establish the context and situation of the story. Here, by using theory from Boynton, the description of Achilles and Hector is explained as follows 1. Achilles Achilles is a prince of Myrmidons and the great warrior of the Greek, as well as the swiftest and most handsome. Achilles is son of goddess and human. His mother is Thetis, a sea-goddess, daughter Zeus and Nereus. Thetis is married to mortal, Peleus, king of the Phythians. The child of gods or goddessess and human are usually have an extraordinary power. According to Morford, It was not long after the birth of Achilles that Thetis left her husband for good. She tried to make him immortal, either by roasting him in the fire by night and anointing him with ambrosia by day or by dipping him in the waters of the Styx. (1971: 289) From the explanation above, Thetis tried to make Achilles immortal by dipping him in the water of Styx. Achilles’s body is invulnerable but his heels is not. Only his heels, by which Thetis hold him, remains vulnerable. Due to this fault, 21

(35) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 22 Achiless is still mortal. Although he is mortal, he is blessed by gods and goddesses. In Trojan War, Achilles is described as a bad-tempered man. It is characterized by showing anger easily. There some incidents that causes Achilles angry. The first incident is a quarrel flared up between Achilles and Agamemnon. A woman is the reason. Agamemnon is given in his share, Chryseis, and to Achilles is Briseis. Chryseis is begged by the priest, Apollo, but Agamemnon refuses it. Then, a plague comes to the Greek and it destroys the army. In the end, Chryseis is sent back to Apollo and Agamemnon takes Briseis from Achilles. This incident brings down Achilles’s honour. What Agamemnon did to him is intolerable. Achilles says, “Let them take the girl without fear for themselves, but hear him first while he swore before gods and men that Agamemnon would pay dearly for the deed” (1981: 69). Achilles repaid the dishonor done to him by withdrawing his contingent, the Myrmidons, from the war. Later, the absence of Achilles in the Trojan War leads the Greek to a temporary collapse. Further, Achilles bad-tempered is shown when he refuses Patroclus’ request to return to the war. Patroclus is Achilles’s best friend. He tries to persuade Achilles to return to the army but Achilles rejects it. His bad-tempered is shown from what he says, “Go. Take my armor, my men too, and defend the ships. I cannot go. I am man dishonored. For my own ships, if the battle comes near them, I will fight. I will not figt for men who have disgraced me” (Hamilton, 1981: 73). Achilles does not want to fight for Agamemnon because he has disgraced him by taking Briseis. Achilless is a man of honour. He would not

(36) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 23 tolerate anyone who has digraced him. He decides not to join the war. From that quotation, it is also shown that Achilles is a stubborn. Nobody can control him. He does whatever he wants. Then, Achilles is desribed as a man of vengeance. It shows in what Achilles does when he knows that Patroclus is dead. In the beginning of the story, it is told that Achilles refused to join the war. Then, Patroclus replaced Achilles’s position. He wore Achilles’s armor and led the Myrmidons in the war. Unfortunately, he fights against Hector and finally die in Hector’s hand. Knowing the fact that Patroclus is dead because of him, Achilles decides to take a revenge on Hector. It shows from what he says, Down in the sea caves his mother knew his sorrow and came up to try to comfort him “I will no longer live among men,” he told her “If I do not make Hector pay with his death for Patroclus dead.” Then Thetis weeping bade him remember that he himself was fated to die straightway after Hector. “So may I do,” Achilles answered, “I who did not help my comrade in his sore need. I will kill the destroyer of him I loved; then I will accept death when it comes” (Hamilton, 1981: 74) From the quotation above, it reveals that Achilles is an avenger. He takes a revenge to Hector because Patroclus, the man he loved, is killed by Hector. For his beloved friend, he decides to return to the Greek. It also shows that Achilles also cares about his friend. He cannot forgive them who have taken his friend. In the day that he is finally able to kill Hector, he takes revenge on Hector by dragging Hector’s body. His grief at the death of Patroclus led him to dishonor Hector’s corpse in a way that offended Greek religious conventions, and also to sacrifice twelve Trojan prisoners at the funeral of Patroclus. Hamilton states, At last when his (Achilles) fierce soul was satisfied with vengeance he stood beside the body of Patroclus and said,

(37) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 24 “Hear me even in the house of Hades. I have dragged Hector behind my chariot and I will give him to the dogs to devour beside your funeral pyre” (Hamilton, 1981: 76) From the quotation above, it shows how anger lead Achilles to take revenge on Hector. He does not return Hector’s body to his family. He even gives him to the dogs. The next characteristic of Achilles is brave. As the great warrior, Achilles is described as a brave man. He is not afraid to fight in the battle and take the risk. His bravery is revealed when Calchas asked him to guarantee his safety. The Greek’s army is afraid of Agamemnon due to his authority, Achilles is not. It is shown from what he does, Then the prophet Calchas stood up and said he knew why the god was angry, but that he was afraid to speak unless Achilles would guarantee his safety. “I do so,” Achilles answered “Even if you accuse Agamemnon himself.” (Hamilton, 1981: 69) The quotation above shows that Achilles has enough bravery to up against Agamemnon. That is the reason of why Calchas asked Achilles to guarantee him. Achilles’s fate is to die straightway after Hector. Thetis has advised Achilles to have nothing to do with the Greeks and the war. Achilles still joins the war and takes revenge on Hector. He says, “I who did not help my comrade in his sore need. I will kill the destroyer of him I loved; then I will accept death when it comes” (Hamilton, 1981: 74). It shows that Achilles has enough bravery to confront Hector for the sake of Patroclus. He does not care about his death after that battle. As a great warrior, honour is the most important thing. By confronting death directly, he shows that he is a real warrior.

(38) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 25 In short, Achilles is a great warrior of the Greeks. He is bad-tempered and its leads him to withdraw from the war. His bad-tempered bring him to be a man of vengeance. He takes revenge on Hector who has killed his beloved friend, Patroclus. In the war, he is a brave man who has a bravery to confront anyone. His bravery leads him to fight against Hector. He successes to kill Hector and fulfill his words. 2. Hector Hector is a great warrior of the Trojan. He is the Prince of Troy, son of Priam and Hecuba. In the Trojan War, he is the leader of Trojan’s army. As the great warrior, he has an important role in attacking and defending the walls of Troy. In the beginning of the story, Hamilton states “Priam, the king, and his queen, Hecuba, had many brave sons to lead the attack and defend the walls-one above all, Hector, than whom no man anywhere was nobler or more brave, and only one a greater champion of the Greeks, Achilles” (1981: 68). Since the beginning of the story, Hamilton has clearly stated that Hector is a brave man. The first characteristic of Hector is brave. His bravery is shown in the entire war. As the leader, Hector stands in the forefront of the battle. His duty is to defend the wall of Troy from the Greek’s attack. Before Hector went to the battlefield, he met Andromache, his wife, and Astyanax, his son. He smiled and looked at them silently. “He could not be a coward, he said. It was for him to fight always in the forefront of the battlefield” (Hamilton, 1981: 71). Thus, it shows that he would not step back from the war. He could not be coward, and it is him who is responsible to guard Priam and Priam’s people.

(39) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 26 In the battlefield, Hector is the one who has power to defeat the Greek. The Trojan calls him Tamer of horses. By riding his horse, he leads the Trojan to drive the Greek back to their ship. It reveals the courage of Hector. Hector seemed irresistible. Tamer of horses, the Trojans always called him, and he drove his car through the Greek ranks as if the same spirit animated steeds and driver. His glancing helmet was everywhere and one gallant warrior after another fell beneath his terrible bronze spear. (Hamilton, 1981: 72) The quotation above shows the courage of Hector in war. As the chief of the Trojans, of course, Hector has a responsibility to fight against the Greek and defend the walls of Troy. The spirit of war is in his soul and body. For Hector, it is better to die in honor than die without struggle. “Once again on the battlefield he was eager for fight, and better fortune for time lay before him” (Hamilton, 1981: 72). In the command of Hector, the Trojans win the battle for a while. Hector’s responsibility to defend his people leads him to stand in forefront of the battlefield. When the gates of Troy are fling wide, only Hector stays ahead. “By this time the gates, the great gates of Troy, had been flung wide, for the Trojans at last were in full flight and were crowding into the town. Only Hector stood immovable before the wall” (Hamilton, 1981: 75). Even Priam, his father, tells him to save himself but Hector does not listen. From the gates old Priam, his father, and his mother Hecuba cried to him to come within and save himself, but he did not heed. He was thinking, “I led the Trojans. Their defeat is my fault. Them am I to spare myself? And yetwhat if I were to lay down shield and spear and go tell Achilles that we will give Helen back and half of Troy’s treasures with her? Useless. He would but kill me unarmed as if I were a woman. Better to join battle with him now even if I die” (Hamilton, 1981: 75)

(40) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 27 The spirit of great warrior absorbs Hector. For his country and people, he already decided to fight against Achilles although he knew that he would probably die in Achilles’s hand. The death of Hector itself has been predicted by Zeus. “Father Zeus hung his golden balances and set in one the lot of Hector’s death and in other that of Achilles. Hector’s lot sank down. It was appointed that he should die” (Hamilton, 1981: 75). Later, Hector’s bravery is revealed when he fight against Achilles. For so many times, Hector strikes Achilles with his sword. What Hector do seems useless because Achilles wears the magical armor. Later, he knows that the death is near him. He says, “The gods have summoned me to death” (Hamilton, 1981: 76). As a great warrior, of course, Hector does not afraid to die in the battlefield. For him, it is an honor to die because of protecting your country. “At least, I will not die without a struggle, but in some great deed of arms which men yet to be born will tell each other” (Hamilton, 1981: 76). He risks their live to defend his country. Hector is not only a great warrior but also a husband and father. He has a great affection for his family. Hector is an affectionate husband and father. It is when he wants to go back to the battlefield. He meets his wife and his son once more, perhaps for the last time. Before he leaves them, Hector holds out his arms to his son. Afraid of the Hector’s helmet, the little Astyanatax cries. Hector just laughs and takes the helmet from his head. As the father, he prays for the safety of his son. He prays, “O Zeus, in after years may men say of this my son when he returns from the battle, far greater is he than his father was” (Hamilton, 1981: 72).

(41) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 28 From what he does to his son, it shows that he is really affectionate. Although he is in the battle, he does not forget his role as the father. He also cares about his son and his wife. As the conslusion, the descritption of Hector is brave, responsible and affectionate. He has enough bravery to fight against his enenmy although he knows that his enemy is stronger than him. Then, as the Prince of Troy, he has responsibility to defend his country. His responsibility is shown when he stands in the forefront of battlefield to fight against Achilles. However, he is also an affectionate husband and father. Before Hector joined the war, he is able to see his wife and his son. Even in his limited time, he takes the chance to pray for his son. B. The Description of the Trojan War. Trojan War is one of the legendary war fought between the Greek and the Trojan. The description of the war is divided into two parts; the origins of the war and the war at Troy. The origins of the war The Trojan War has its roots in the marriage of Peleus and Thetis, a seanymph. The goddess of Discord had not been invited to the wedding. Later, she causes a trouble in the wedding by throwing a golden apple onto the table. She said that the apple belongs to the fairest. The three goddesses; Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite reach the apple. Then, there is a confusing to choose who is the fairest. Zeus selects Paris, the most beautiful man, to be the jugde. Actually, Paris’s choice depends on what the goddess offer to him. Loomis states that “The choice

(42) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 29 lay among being lord of Asia and Europe-Hera’s offer; being the bravest and wisest warrior-Athena’s offer; and possessing the most beautiful woman in the world-Aphrodite’s offer” (Loomis, 1965: 81). Paris chooses the woman and this choice has been known as ‘the Judgement of Paris’. Aphrodite promises him that Helen, wife of Menelaus, would be his wife. From the explanation above, the Trojan War happens due to competition among goddesses. Athena, Aphrodite and Hera have a battle to be the fairest. Unfortunately, Aphrodite offers the most beautiful girl for Paris, the judge. Knowing the fact that Aphrodite promises Helen to be his wife, Paris prepares his voyage to set off Sparta and captures Helen. In Sparta, Menelaus serves Paris as a royal guest. However, Menelaus has to go to the funeral and he left Helen. In this moment, Paris kidnaps Helen and brings her back to Troy. Menelaus is outraged that Paris had taken Helen. Later, he calls Agamemnon, his brother, to help him takes Helen back. This story is the roots of the war. The abducting of Helen becomes the cause of nine-years war. A woman is the reason of Trojan War. The Trojan and Greek are in the war because wife of Menelaus, the Greeks, is taken by prince of Troy. Although the woman is the reason, both Achilles and Hector are in the war due to their duty as a great warrior. The War at Troy The kidnapping of Helen reaches Menelaus. Then, he calls Greek kings to help him recover his wife. His brother Agamemnon, Prince of Mycenae, leads the expedition to attack Troy. Due to Agamemnon’s ambition to conquer the Troy, he

(43) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 30 decides to help Menelaus. In fact, the wealth of Troy seems more interesting for Agamemnon. In order to win the battle, Agamemnon has to make an alliance between the Greeks. All Greeks agree that he must fetch her back, and promise to assist him with men and arms. Finally, preparations are completed and the fleet are ready. They are ready to attack the Troy. The great fleet arrives at the shore of Troy. Under the leadership of Achilles, the Trojan are driven back to their walls and the Greek can draw up their ships and set up camp. During some battle, Agamemnon acquires the woman, Chryseis, and Achilles gets the girl, Briseis. Chryseis and Briseis are the servant of Apollo. Then, there is a quarrel flared up between Agamemnon and Achilles. Hamilton states A woman was the reason: Chryseis, daughter of Apollo’s priest, whom the Greeks had carried and given to Agamemnon. Her father came to beg for her release, but Agamemnon would not let her go. Then the priest prayed to to the mightly god he served and Apollo heard him. From his sunchariot he shot fiery arrows down upon the Greek’s army, and men sickened and died so that the funeral pyres were burning continually (1981: 69). In order to save his army, Agamemnon has to return Chryseis to his father. Later, he sends his people to Achilles’s tent to take Briseis. Achilles lets him take the Briseis but he promises that Agamemnon would pay for it. The quarrel between Achilles and Agamemnon shows that woman has a big impact in the war. They could be the creator of a quarrel. However, the Trojan War has a close relation with gods and goddesses. The root of the war is the contest to be the fairest between the goddesses. Here in

(44) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 31 Trojan War, gods and goddesses have a great contribution to the war. They control the war indirectly by helping the human they support. The war by now have reached Olympus, the gods are ranged against each other. Aphrodite was on the side of Paris. Equally, of course, Hera and Athena were against him. Ares, god of war, always took sides of Aphrodite; while Poseidon, a lord of the sea, favored the Greeks, a sea people, always great sailors. Apollo cared for Hector and for his sake helped the Trojans, and Artemis, as his sister, did so too. Zeus liked the Trojans best, on the whole, but he wanted to be neutral because Hera was so disagreeable whenever he opposed her openly. However, he could not resist Thetis. (Hamilton, 1981: 69) Aphrodite, Ares, Apollo, and Artemis support the Trojan. Aphrodite is absolutely on Troy’s side because Paris, the man who choose her as the most beautiful goddess, is the Prince of Troy. However, Ares always takes sides with Aphrodite. Meanwhile Hera, Athena, and Poseidon take the Greek’s side. Hera and Athena are always against Aphrodite. Then, Poseidon, a lord of Greek, favors sea people. Thetis, of course, is on Greek’s side because her beloved son, Achilles, is the warrior of Greek. However, Zeus remains neutral umpire. However, when Achilles left, the Greek’s army is led by Diomedes and Ajax. Diomedes was successful to kill Prince Aeneas, son of Aphrodite. Then, he came face to face with Hector. Diomedes was lost in the hand of Hector because Ares helped Hector. Knowing this fact, Hera was angry. She asked Zeus to join the war and defeated Ares. With Ares gone, the Trojans were force to fall back. At the crisis Hector prayed to Athena, but she denied the prayer. Hector goes back to the battlefield. Previously, he meets Andromache and Astyanax, his son. Holding his son, he prays to Zeus to save the child. The participation of gods and

(45) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 32 goddesses influence the war. They gives the power to the human they choose. They also save them who are in danger. Further, they help human who prays to them. In the battlefield, Hector is successful to drive the Greek back to the beach. “His glancing helmet was everywhere and one gallant warrior after another fell beneath his terrible bronze spear. When evening ended the battle, the Trojans had driven the Greeks back almost to their ships.” (Hamilton, 1981: 72) There is joy in the Trojans but despair in Greeks. Agamemnon himself almost sails back to the Greece. Nestor, the oldest chieftain, recommends Agamemnon to negotiate Achilles so the Greeks could win the war. Agamemnon refuses it but finally he agrees with Nestor for the glory of the Greek. Later, he sends his delegation, Odysseus, to persuade Achilles. At first, Achilles welcomes him with foods and drinks. Later, Odysseus receives a refusal because Achilles does not want to back to the war. Without Achilles, the Greeks are driven back to the beach. “The next day they went into the battle with the desperate courage of brave men cornered. Again, they were driven back, until they stood fighting on the beach where their ships were drawn up” (Hamilton, 1981: 72). Furthermore, Hera helps the Greeks. With the assistance of Hera, Ajax bears down Hector. With Hector gone, the Greeks are able to drive the Trojans far away from their ships. Knowing the Trojans in the trouble, Zeus helps them. He even says that it is Hera’s doing. However, Hera is helpless. She says that it is not her doing, it is Poseidon. Later, Zeus commands Poseidon to withdraw the war and asks Hera to back to Olympus. In Troy, Apollo revives Hector with

(46) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 33 surpassing power. The Trojans, again, is near with the victory. However, the Greeks are in great despair without Achilles. The condition of Greeks is worse than before. At the crisis, Patroclus begs him to return. He told Achilles that he may have Achilles’s armor so the Trojans would be afraid of him. Then, Achilles lets him borrow his armor. Patroclus puts on the armor and leads the Myrmidons. Using Achilles’s armor, Patroclus performs great deeds and wins some battle. The Trojan is also afraid of him because they think he is Achilles. At last, he has a battle with Hector. Patroclus has not enough power to fight against Hector. He is finally killed by Hector. However, Achilles still stays in his tent waiting for Patroclus’s return. Later, Nestor’s son comes to him and says that Patroclus is killed by Hector. “Patroclus is fallen and Hector has his armor.” (Hamilton, 1981: 75) The dead of Patroclus raise the spirit of Achilles to fight against the Trojans, especially Hector. Achilles now is in a great despair because his beloved friend is dead due to his selfishness. In rage and grief at his friend’s dead, Achilles returns to the battle and takes revenge on Hector. Thetis gives him a new armor, a divine armor by the god Hephaestus. Furthermore, Achilles unites with the Greeks; Diomedes, Odysseus, Agamemnon, and many another. Achilles is ready to lead them as before. The chieftains start to prepare the battle. In the middle of preparation, Diomedes offers some foods and drinks for Achilles but he refuses it. He says “Down my throat shall go neither bite nor sup until my dear comrade is avenged” and to himself he says “O dearest friends, for want of you I cannot eat, I cannot drink” (Hamilton, 1981: 75).

(47) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 34 This is the last fight between the two great warriors, Achilles and Hector. In the command of Hector, the Trojans is successful to defense the wall. Now, Achilles returns to the fight, they could not protect the wall anymore. However, Hector is still in the forefront of the wall. He is the one who be able to fight against Achilles. In his anger, Achilles tries to find Hector. Later, Achilles meets up Hector in the battlefield. Hector cries out to him, “If I kill you I will give back your body to your friends and do you do the same to me” (Hamilton, 1981: 75). Achilles refuses it obviously. Then, Hector begins to attack Achilles. Although the spear hit the center of Achilles’ shield but it does not work. What Achilles wears is something magical and could not be pierced. Hector, then, realizes that it is Athena’s doing. Athena has tricked him and now there is no way to escape. Achilles also has armor; the one Athena had recovered for him. He attacks Hector near the throat. Hector falls, dying at last. In the last breath, Hector prays “Give back my body to my father and my mother” (Hamilton, 1981: 76). His desire is that his body is given back to his family but the arrogant Achilles refuses it. Achilles chooses to drag Hector’s body around Troy. He is satisfied that his revenge against Hector who had killed his beloved friend is accomplished. Achilles finally is able to kill Hector. It seems not enough for him. Achilles has a different mind. He decides to drag Hector’s body around the Troy. “He pierced the feet of the dead man and fastened them with thongs to the back of his chariot, letting the head trail. Then he lashed his horses and round and round

(48) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 35 the walls of Troy he dragged all that was left of glorious Hector.” (Hamilton, 1981: 76) The dead of Hector means lack of power in the Trojan’s side. They have lost the strongest and bravest warrior of Troy. Now the victory belongs to the Greek. The victory of Greek is completed due to the existence of Achilles in the army. C. The Significance of Achilles and Hector in the Trojan War. In Trojan War, there are two great warriors that have an important role. They are Achilles and Hector. As it has been explained previously, Achilles is a great warrior of Greeks and Hector is a great warrior of Trojans. Both of them give much contribution for their country. In analyzing the significance of Achilles and Hector, theory of men and war by Nortwick is applied. However, their significance in Trojan War is explained as follows 1. The Significance of Achilles Achilles is a Prince of Myrmidons. In Trojan War, he leads his people from Myrmidons to attack the Greek. His first achievement is conquers the beach of Troy so the other ships from Greek be able to pull down at the beach. Then, the tents are built as the base-camp. Here, the existence of Achilles is very important. Without Achilles, it is hard for the Greeks to reach the beach and build a tent. Achilles is also important to rise up the spirit of the army. While some of Greek’s army is killed due to the pestilence of Apollo. He tries to convince them that they cannot give up and sail home. “He told them that they could not hold out against both the pestilence and the Trojans, and that they must either find a way to

(49) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 36 appease Apollo or else sail home” (Hamilton, 1981: 69). From that quotation, Achilles has a lot of contribution to rise up the spirit of his army. He does not want his army give up from their disease. Then, Achilles tries to find out the solution of their problem. He knows that the disease comes from Apollo so he recommends the Greek to appease Apollo. The solution is that Chryseis must be given back to his father. As the owner of Chryseis, Agamemnon is greatly angered and is obliged to agree. Then, Agamemnon returns Chryseis but it is not enough for him. He cannot accept if Achilles still have his prize while he does not. Later, Agamemnon takes Achilles’ prize, Briseis. In this case, Achilles is angry at Agamemnon who takes his prize. Then, he decides to withdraw from the war. He does not want to fight under Agamemnon’s command. The presence of Achilles in the war gives a big significance for the Greek. Without Achilles, the Greek does not have enough power to attack the Trojans. However, there are Ajax and Diomedes in the army. Although they have power to kill the Trojans, they do not have enough power to fight against Hector. Their problem is that they are not stronger than Achilles. While Achilles withdraws from the war, the Greeks experiences some pains. First, the Greeks lose their warrior, Ajax, because he is killed by Hector. Then, they are driven back to their ships due to the power of Hector. Moreover, Agamemnon himself almost gives up and plans to sail home. The old Nestor advices Agamemnon appease Achilles. Nestor, however, who was the oldest among the chieftains and therefore the wisest, wiser even than the shrewd Odysseus, spoke out boldly and told Agamemnon that if he had not angered Achilles they would not have been defeated. “Try to find some way of appeasing him,” he said, instead of going home disgraced.” (Hamilton, 1981: 72)

(50) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 37 From the quotation above, Nestor also confess the important of Achilles in their army. He believes that Achilles has a capability to defeat the Trojan. He even blames Agamemnon for having a quarrel with Achilles. Nestor knows that Achilles is very crucial for the Greek. Achilles, of course, has an ability to defeat the Trojans. He is not an ordinary human. By having invulnerable body, he is able to kill anyone. Achilles is also protected by a magical armor that is given by his mother, Thetis. No swords could pierce his body. In order to kill him, the enemy should attack on his heels. No one has the power as strong as Achilles. That is why Nestor tells Agamemnon that to fight against Trojans they need Achilles in their army. The presence of Achilles in the battle could rises up Greeks’ possibility to win the war. Agamemnon then confesses that he had acted like a fool. He promises to send Briseis back and he begs Odysseus to take his offer to Achilles. Unfortunately, the mad Achilles refuses him. Achilles does not want to returns to the war. Even his beloved friends, Patroclus, cannot persuade him. Patroclus decides to borrow Achilles’ armor. He knows that by wearing Achilles’ armor he is able to rise up the spirit of his army. It shows that Achilles has a power to stir the army. “At the first onset of this new band of warriors the Trojans wavered; they thought Achilles led them on. And indeed for a time Patroclus fought as gloriously as the great hero himself could have done” (Hamilton, 1981: 73-74). The Greeks believe that if their leader is Achilles, they could win the war. However, Patroclus is not as strong as Achilles so he is killed by Hector. Then, Achilles blames himself for lending Patroclus his armor. The dead of

(51) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 38 Patroclus burns Achilles’s spirit to take revenge on the Trojans especially Hector. The return of Achilles in the army brings a joyful for the Greeks. “The Myrmidons gazed at them with awe and flame of fierce joy blazed in Achilles’ eyes as he put them on.” (Hamilton, 1981: 74) They are happy that finally Achilles can join with them. Achilles realizes that it is his fault to withdraw from the war. The girl has made him forget everything. “He felt shame before them and he told them he saw his own exceeding folly in allowing the loss of a mere girl to make him forget everything else.” (Hamilton, 1981: 75) Moreover, the return of Achilles gives a significance change for the Greeks. As what is known, the victory of the Trojans lays in Hector’s hand. Further, Achilles is the only one who is able to kill Hector. The victory of Trojans is over when Hector is dead. Then, in his anger, Achilles is searching for Hector. He risks losing control of his body when he goes into combat. In the battlefield, he finally meets Hector. Wearing the magical armor from his mother, Achilles is blessed by God. His armor saves him from Hector’s spear. Hector is helpless. Later, he is killed by Achilles. The death of Hector means lack of power in the Trojans. Then, there is only victory in the Greeks. They are saved by the powerful Achilles. He is the one who determine the victory for the Greeks. In short, Achilles is the center figure of the Greek. With Achilles gone, the Greeks are defeated by the Trojans. They are lack of power so they could be easily attacked by the Trojans. Achilles in the army means victory for the Greeks. The Greek wins the war and secedes to defeat the Trojans. As the conclusion, Achilles has a prominent role for the Greeks. As the great warrior, he succeeds to

(52) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 39 gives victory for his country. Although he is bad-tempered, he is brave enough to confess his fault. He even leads the Greeks to beat the Trojans. The Greeks with Achilles are a great disaster for the Trojans. 2. The Significance of Hector Hector is a Prince of Troy. In the Trojan War, he is the leader of the Trojans. He is the most important warrior for the Trojans. He has a great contribution in the war. The existence of Hector is very crucial to defense the Trojan’s walls. As the son of Priam, Hector has a responsibility to protect not only his family but also his people, the Trojans. Everyone in Trojans lays their hope on Hector. Although Paris is the causal factor of the war, Hector does not blame him. He knows that to be in the forefront of the battle is his responsibility as the prince. Later, he risks everything for his country includes leaving his wife and his son. For Hector, the safety of his country and his people is more important than everything. Hector is the only one who has a capability to fight against the Greeks. He has power and strategy as the chieftain of the Trojans. Driving his car, Hector goes to the Greek ranks and kills them in one time. “His glancing helmet was everywhere and one gallant warrior after another fell beneath his terrible bronze spear.” (Hamilton, 1981: 72) He is brave enough to attack the Greek for his country. Because of Hector, the Trojans is succeeding to drive the Greeks back to their ships. There is rejoicing in the Troy that night.

(53) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 40 The victory is in the Trojan side. “The Trojans under Hector fought as brave men fight before the walls of their home.” (Hamilton, 1981: 75) The victory for the Trojans means Hector is successful to lead his people. Hector is also successful to kill some important warrior from the Greeks. For instance, he kills Ajax and Patroclus. Unfortunately, the victory of Trojans cannot stay long last. The return of Achilles to the Greek makes a big change for Hector. He has to protect his home harder. From now, Hector stands immovable from the gates. He does not want the Greek attack his home. However, his father asks him to save himself but he rejects. He says, “I led the Trojans. Their defeat is my fault. Then am I to spare myself? And yet- what if I were to lay down shield and spear and go tell Achilles that we will give Helen back and half of Troy’s treasures with her? Useless. He would but killed me unarmed as if I were a woman. Better to join the battle with him now even if I die.” (Hamilton, 1981: 75) From the quotation above, Hector really loves his country. For him, it is better to join the battle rather than save himself. He wants to sacrifice himself for his country. In the day that he meets Achilles, Hector asks Achilles to return his body to his family if he died. Achilles refuses it. He is still angry to Hector who has killed his friends. Later, they have a battle in the battlefield. Hector is killed easily by Achilles because Achilles has a magical armor that cannot be hit by anything. The dead of Hector in the battlefield gives a significant change in the Trojans’ side. They lost their great warrior. The dead of Hector means the despair of the

(54) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 41 Trojans. It shows that without Hector, the Trojans cannot defense their people. The Trojans is defeated by the Greeks. In short, Hector is the center figure of the Trojans. The command lays in him. Hector in the battlefield means victory for the Trojans. They are almost successful in making the Greeks back to their ship. Without Hector, the Trojans lose their power. They are defeated by the Greeks because their great warrior has been died. As the conclusion, the existence of Hector is very significant in the war. First, he is the prince of Troy who has a responsible to protect his country and his people. Then, He is the leader of the Trojans. As the leader, he has power and strategy to drive the Greeks back to their ships. He is also the bravest warrior of Trojan. He is the only one who is capable to fight against Achilles. Although he is killed by Achilles, he has sacrificed himself for his country. By confronting death directly, the warrior is the agent for the creation and contemplation of meaning in life. The dead of Hector means the end of the war. The Trojans have to confess their defeat from the Greeks.

(55) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION This thesis analyzes Edith Hamilton’s The Trojan War. The first is to figure out the description of main characters. There are two main characters analyzed in this thesis. They are Achilles and Hector. Achilles is a great warrior of the Greeks. He is bad-tempered and its leads him to withdraw from the war. His bad-tempered bring him to be a man of vengeance. He takes revenge on Hector who has killed his beloved friend, Patroclus. In the war, he is a brave man who has a bravery to confront anyone. His bravery leads him to fight against Hector. He gives the victory for the Greeks by killing Hector. Hector is brave, responsible and affectionate. He has enough bravery to fight against his enenmy although he knows that his enemy is stronger than him. Then, as the Prince of Troy, he has responsibility to defend his country. His responsibility is shown when he stands in the forefront of battlefield to fight against Achilles. However, he is also an affectionate husband and father. Before Hector joined the war, he is able to see his wife and his son. Even in his limited time, he has a chance to pray for his son. The second is to figure out the description of the Trojan War. Trojan War is divided into three parts; origins of the war, the war at troy, and after the war. The origin of the war is the contest between the goddesses Athena, Hera, and Aphrodite to be the fairest. The winner is Aphrodite. She is chosen by Paris 42

(56) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 43 because she gives Helen as her promise. From here, Paris kidnaps Helen from Menelaus. The kidnapping of Helen makes the Greeks angry and they decide to attack the Trojans. The war at Troy happened for a long time. There are some important events happen in the Trojan War. First is the quarrel between Achilles and Agamemnon. Then, Achilles withdraws from the war so the Greek is driven back to their ships. The victory is in the Trojans. The death of Patroclus wakes up Achilles’s spirit to fight against the Trojan. Later, he returns to the Greek’s army to take revenge on Hector. Next is the death of Hector. He is killed by Achilles. The death of Hector means lack of power in the Trojan’s side. The Greeks finally gets their victory. In Trojan War, there are two great warriors that have an important role. They are Achilles and Hector. Achilles is the center figure of the Greek. He has the capability to defeat the Trojans especially Hector. With Achilles gone, the Greeks are defeated by the Trojans. They are lack of power so they could be easily attacked by the Trojans. The return of Achilles in the army means victory for the Greeks. The Greek wins the war and successes to defeat the Trojans. As the conclusion, Achilles has a prominent role for the Greeks. As the great warrior, he succeeds to gives victory for his country. Although he is bad-tempered, he is brave enough to admit his fault. He even leads the Greeks to beat the Trojans. The Greeks with Achilles are a great disaster for the Trojans because he is the only one who is able to kill Hector. Hector is the center figure of the Trojans. He has power that is only second to Achilles. The command lays in him. Hector in the battlefield means victory for

(57) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 44 the Trojans. They are almost successful in making the Greeks back to their ship. Without Hector, the Trojans lose their power. They are defeated by the Greeks because their great warrior has been died. The existence of Hector is very significant in the war. First, he is the prince of Troy who has responsibility to protect his country and his people. Then, He is the leader of the Trojans. As the leader, he has power and strategy to drive the Greeks back to their ships. He is also the bravest warrior of Trojan. He is the only one who is capable to fight against Achilles. Although he is killed by Achilles, he has sacrificed himself for his country. The dead of Hector means the end of the war. With the death of strongest warrior, The Trojans have to admit their defeat from the Greeks.

(58) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI BIBLIOGRAPHY Abrams, M. H. A Glossary of Literary Terms. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston Inc. 1981. Bowra, M. C. Ancient Greek Literature. London: Oxford University Press. 1952. Boynton, Robert W. and Maynard Mack. Introduction to Short Story. New Jersey: Hayden Book Company, Inc. 1972 Bressler, Charles E. Literary Criticism: An Introduction to Theory and Practice. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1999 Creech, Steven and Kevin Ruesch. The Lore of the Gods. Booked one: The Greek Gods. London: Bastion Press, Inc. 2002. Daly, Kathleen. N. Greek and Roman Mythology A to Z. New York: Chelsea House Publishers. 2009. Guerin, Wilfred. L. A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature. New York: Harper & Row Publishers. 2005 Guth, Hans P. The Literary Heritage. Toronto: D.C Heath and Company. 1981. Hamilton, Edith. The Trojan War. 1981. The Literary Heritage. ed. Hans P. Guth. Toronto: D.C Heath and Company. 1981, pp. 68-76. Harijanto, Andy Hermawan. A Comparison Between the Character of Theseus, Egeus, and Hyppolyta in Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream and in Greek Mythology. Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Universitas Sanata Dharma. 2001. Homer. The Iliad, translated by Robert Fitzgerald. London: Oxford University Press. 1974. Loomis, Julia Wolfe. Mythology Greek Roman Norse Babylonian Indian. New York: Monarch Press. 1965. Kennedy, X. J. and Dana Gioia. An Introduction to Fiction 11th edition. New York: Longman. 2010. Miles, Geoffrey. A Classical Mythology in English Literature. A Critical Anthology. London: Routledge. 1999 Morford. Mark. P.O. and Robert J. Lenardon. Classical Mythology. New York: David McKay Company, Inc. 1971. Nortwick, Thomas Van. Imagining Men: Ideals of Masculinity in Ancient Greek Culture. Connecticut: Preager Publisher. 2008. 45

(59) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 46 Roisman, Joseph. “Greek Perspectives on Justness and Merits of the Trojan War”. College Literature. Vol.35 No.4 (Fall 2008), pp. 97-109. Schur, Michelle I. R. Female Archetypes in Greek Mythology.Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Universitas Sanata Dharma. 1998

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