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(1)PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CRITICISM ON ENVIRONMENTAL DESTRUCTION, SOCIAL INJUSTICE, AND EXTREMISM IN INDONESIA THROUGH NAVICULA SELECTED SONG LYRICS A THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement to Obtain the Magister Humaniora (M. Hum.) Degree in English Language Studies Herda Pramundito Student Number: 166332012 THE GRADUATE PROGRAM OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2019

(2) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CRITICISM ON ENVIRONMENTAL DESTRUCTION, SOCIAL INJUSTICE, AND EXTREMISM IN INDONESIA THROUGH NAVICULA SELECTED SONG LYRICS A THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement to Obtain the Magister Humaniora (M. Hum.) Degree in English Language Studies Herda Pramundito Student Number: 166332012 THE GRADUATE PROGRAM OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2019 i

(3) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI A THESIS CRITICISM ON ENVIRONMENTAL DESTRUCTION, SOCIAL IN.nJSTICE, AND EXTREMISM IN INDONESIA THROUGH NAVICULA SELECTED SONG LYRICS Dra. Novita Dewi, M.S.. M.A. (Hons), Ph.D. Yogyakarta, 11 January 2019 Thesis Advisor II

(4) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI A THESIS CRITICISM ON ENVIRONMENTAL DESTRUCTION, SOCIAL INJUSTICE, AND EXTREMISM IN INDONESIA THROUGH NAVICULA SELECTED SONG LYRICS Presented By: Herda Pramundito 166332012 Studen ~ mb r: Defended before ilie Thesis Committee nd Declared Accep able THESIS COMMITTEE J' ,. Chairperson : Paulus Sarwoto, PhD. Secretary : 'Qra. ativo~ Dewi;:M.S., Member : 1. Dr. Tatang Iskama . 2. Sri MUlyani, Ph.B. Yogyakarta, 11 January 2019 The Graduate Program Director I 111

(5) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY I honestly declare this thesis which I have written does not contain the phrases, sentences or parts of the other people's work except those cited in the quotations and the references as a scientific paper should. I understand the full consequences including degree cancellation if! took the other people's work. Yogyakarta, 11 January 20 I9 Herda Prarnundito IV

(6) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI LEMBARPERNYATAANPERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma: Nama : Herda Pramundito NIM : 166332012 Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma, karya ilmiah saya yang beIjudul: CRITICISM ON ENVIRONMENTAL DESTRUCTION, SOCIAL INJUSTICE, AND EXTREMISM IN INDONESIA THROUGH NAVICULA SELECTED SONG LYRICS Beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (hila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan dalam bentuk lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempubliksikannya di Internet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta izin dari saya maupun memberikan royalti kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai penulis. Demikian pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Dibuat di Yogyakarta Pada tanggal II lanuari 2019 Herda Prarnundito v

(7) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In this part, I want to express my deepest gratitude for those people who become my support system in this thesis. First of all, I want to give the greatest gratefulness to Allah SWT. I also want to give another gratitude to my only one prophet Muhammad SAW whom I wait his blessing in the end of the world. Secondly, my deepest thankfulness goes to my thesis advisor Dra. Novita Dewi, M.S., M.A. (Hons), Ph.D. for her time, guidance and also the support during my thesis writing. I would like to thank also for the comments and the suggestions, without that I cannot finish my thesis. I also want to give another thankfulness to all lecturers in ELS department, Prof. Dr. Soepomo Poedjosoedarmo, Paulus Sarwoto, Ph.D., F.X. Mukarto, Ph.D., Dr. B.B. Dwijatmoko, M.A., Dr. E. Sunarto, M. Hum., Dr. Fr. Borgias Alip, M. Pd., M.A., and Dr. J. Bismoko for the knowledge and inspiration inside or outside the class. I dedicate this thesis to my beloved parents; Drs. Prajudi ‘Prataph Singh’ and Dra. Suparti who always give me strength and courage during the study and the thesis writing. Before I forget, I want to thank also to my not so little brother Henu Abiseka Prasida for disturbing me during my thesis writing. I would also give my big thanks to my classmates in ELS, Listi, Florence, Sr. Christine, Eirene, Desca, Bu Ismi, Witta and all friends. To ELS staffs, mbak Marni and her assistants. To my friend, Yoseph. The last but not the least, I would like to thank to anyone that cannot be mentioned one by one for helping me finishing this thesis, may God bless you all, and all living creatures in this world. Herda Pramundito vi

(8) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI MOTTO Layukallifullahu nafsan illa wus’aha Allah does not charge a soul except [with that within] its capacity [QS. Al-Baqarah: Verse 286] CREATE. COURAGE. CREATE. WONDERFUL Will you create courage no matter what? [The Globe Philippines] Berusaha bener - bener gimana caranya. Menekuni. Membuat sesuatu yang tidak mungkin menjadi mungkin dan Insyaallah gimana caranya selesai [Fajar – Alexa] vii

(9) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE ......................................................................................................... i APPROVAL PAGE .............................................................................................. ii ACCEPTANCE PAGE ........................................................................................ iii STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY ................................................................... iv LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN .....................................................v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................. vi MOTTO ............................................................................................................... vii TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................... viii LIST OF APPENDICES .......................................................................................x ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................ xiii ABSTRAK .......................................................................................................... xiv CHAPTER I ............................................................................................................1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................1 A. Background of the Study.............................................................................. 1 B. Research Questions .................................................................................... 13 C. Benefit of the Study ................................................................................... 13 CHAPTER II ........................................................................................................15 LITERATURE REVIEW....................................................................................15 A. Review of Related Studies ......................................................................... 15 B. Review of Related Theories ....................................................................... 22 C. Theoretical Framework .............................................................................. 31 CHAPTER III ......................................................................................................33 THE WAY NAVICULA CHALLENGES THE UNRESOLVED ENVIRONMENTAL DESTRUCTION IN INDONESIA THROUGH THEIR SONG LYRICS ....................................................................................................33 A. Environmental Pollution in Indonesia ........................................................ 34 B. Tree, Forest, the Protectors and Ecosystem Issues .................................... 52 C. The Movement of Navicula to the Environmental Destruction ................. 69 D. Navicula’s Attitude and Ideology behind the song lyrics .......................... 78 CHAPTER IV .......................................................................................................83 NAVICULA’S CRITICISM TO SOCIAL INJUSTICE IN INDONESIA AS REVEALED IN ITS NAVICULA’S SONG LYRICS ......................................83 viii

(10) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI A. Mafias and the People Representatives in Indonesia ................................. 84 B. Munir Case as the Representation of Unresolved Human Rights .............. 94 C. Environmental Destruction to Social Injustice in Indonesia .................... 104 D. Navicula’s Attitude and Ideology behind the song lyrics ........................ 108 CHAPTER V ......................................................................................................114 RESPOND TO EXTREMISM THREAT IN INDONESIA THROUGH NAVICULA SONG LYRICS ............................................................................114 A. Extremism in the Context of Terrorism in Indonesia............................... 114 B. Extremism as the Main Factor of the Religious Conflict in Indonesia .... 123 C. Navicula’s Attitude and Ideology behind the song lyrics ........................ 132 CHAPTER VI .....................................................................................................135 CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION .............................................................135 A. Conclusion ............................................................................................... 135 B. Suggestion ................................................................................................ 142 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..............................................................................................144 APPENDICES ....................................................................................................162 ix

(11) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix 1: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Kali Mati” [The Dead River] from Alkemis Album [2005]......................................................................... 139 Appendix 2: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Lagu Sampah” [The Waste Song] from Earthship Album [2018]. ............................................................. 141 Appendix 3: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Ibu” [Mother] from Earthship Album [2018]. .................................................................................................. 143 Appendix 4: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Metropolutan” from Love Bomb Album [2013]. ...................................................................................... 145 Appendix 5: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Zat Hijau Daun” [Chlorophyll] from Alkemis Album [2005]......................................................................... 147 Appendix 6: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Bubur Kayu” [Wood Pulp] from Love Bomb Album [2013]. ........................................................................... 149 Appendix 7: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Harimau! Harimau! (A Tale of the Last Sumatran Tiger)” [Tiger! Tiger!] from Love Bomb Album [2013]..... 151 Appendix 8: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Orangutan” from Love Bomb Album [2013]. .................................................................................................. 152 Appendix 9: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Over konsumsi” [Over Consumption] from Salto Album [2009]. .................................................................... 154 Appendix 10: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Dead Trees” from Tatap Muka Album [2015]. ......................................................................................... 156 x

(12) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI Appendix 11: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Mafia Medis” [Medical Mafia] from Love Bomb Album [2013]. ......................................................... 158 Appendix 12: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Mafia Hukum” [Mafia of Law] from Love Bomb Album [2013]. ......................................................... 160 Appendix 13: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Dagelan Penipu Rakyat” [People's Deception Comedy] from Earthship Album [2018]. .................. 163 Appendix 14: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Refuse to Forget” from Love Bomb Album [2018]. ............................................................................. 165 Appendix 15: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Bekas Luka” [Scar] from Tatap Muka Album [2015]. ............................................................................. 167 Appendix 16: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Biarlah Malaikat” [Let the Angel] from Earthship Album [2018]..................................................... 169 Appendix 17: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Kartini” from Single in order to support Kendeng’s female farmers struggle [2016]. .................. 171 Appendix 18: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Budi Si Berani Mati” [Budi, Dared to Die] from Salto Album [2009].................................................... 172 Appendix 19: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Everyone Goes to Heaven” from Salto Album [2009]. ................................................................... 174 Appendix 20: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Peace Pretenders” from Salto Album [2009]. ......................................................................................... 176 xi

(13) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI Appendix 21: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Kill the Fireflies” from Salto Album [2009]. ......................................................................................... 178 xii

(14) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ABSTRACT Pramundito, Herda. 2019. Criticism on Environmental Destruction, Social Injustice, and Extremism in Indonesia Through Navicula Selected Song Lyrics. Yogyakarta: The Graduate Program on English Language Studies, Sanata Dharma University. Navicula is a group band known for their consistency in voicing environmental issues all around the world especially in Indonesia. This thesis attemps to answer three main questions namely, (1) In what way do Navicula song lyrics challenge unresolved environmental destruction in Indonesia? (2) How do Navicula song lyrics criticize social injustice in Indonesia? (3) How do the song lyrics from Navicula respond to the danger of extremism in Indonesia? In order to answer those questions, Theory of Ecocriticism is used to analyze the action from Navicula to challenge the unresolved environmental destruction through the band’s songs. The various theories in social injustice including that of John Rawls are used to reveal the criticism. Theories on extremism from Emile Durkheim, Anthony Giddens, and Ted Robert Gurr are used to elaborate the main problem in extremism depicted in the song lyrics. Using these theories, Navicula’s ideology and attitude can be revealed as to why the group band uses song to send its messages. This study shows that two main problems, pollution and deforestation are criticized as seen in Navicula’s songs. The first problem of pollution can be seen from such disaster like flood that is caused by humans behaviour and habit of throwing waste to the river. The second problem is the massive deforestation in many places in Indonesia especially Sumatra and Borneo that affect the life of many living organisms like Tiger and Orangutan as seen in the songs. Navicula’s songs also show the way they challenge the problems of pollution and deforestation. The second section on the social injustice can be seen from various cases, i.e. the practice of mafias, the deception role of parliaments, the unresolved dehumanization cases, and the problems of social injustice as the result of environmental destruction in Indonesia through the songs. The case of the mafia’s practice in Indonesia can be seen from the medical cases and law cases in Indonesia. The case on the deception role of parliaments shows that the function of the parliaments is to represent people but in reality they work only for themselves and their political parties. The unresolved dehumanization case can be seen in the representation of Munir’s case. The last case in social injustice is the environmental destruction in Kendeng for cement factories. The third section on extremism deals with two main problems namely, Bali Bombing and religious conflicts that occur from the early Reformation Era until today. Keywords: Navicula, environmental destruction, social injustice, extremism, song lyrics. xiii

(15) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ABSTRAK Pramundito, Herda. 2019. Criticism on Environmental Destruction, Social Injustice, and Extremism in Indonesia Through Navicula Selected Song Lyrics. Yogyakarta: Program Pascasarjana Kajian Bahasa Inggris, Universitas Sanata Dharma. Navicula adalah sebuah grup band yang dikenal dalam konsistensinya menyuarakan isu lingkungan di seluruh dunia khususnya di Indonesia. Tesis ini mencoba menjawab tiga pertanyaan utama yaitu (1) Dalam cara apa lirik lagu Navicula menantang kerusakan lingkungan yang belum terselesaikan di Indonesia? (2) Bagaimana lirik lagu Navicula mengkritisi ketidakadilan sosial di Indonesia? (3) Bagaimana lirik lagu dari Navicula menanggapi bahaya ekstremisme di Indonesia? Untuk menjawab pertanyaan-pertanyaan tersebut, Teori Ekokritisisme digunakan untuk menganalisis tindakan dari Navicula untuk menantang kasus perusakan lingkungan yang belum terselesaikan melalui beberapa lagu. Berbagai teori dalam ketidakadilan sosial termasuk John Rawls digunakan untuk mengungkapkan kritik. Berbagai teori ekstremisme dari Emile Durkheim, Anthony Giddens, dan Ted Robert Gurr digunakan untuk menguraikan masalah utama dalam ekstremisme yangdigambarkan pada lirik lagu Navicula. Menggunakan teori-teori ini, ideologi dan sikap Navicula dapat diungkapkan seperti mengapa Navicula menggunakan lagu untukmengirimkan pesan. Studi ini menunjukkan bahwa dua masalah utama, polusi dan deforestasi dikritik dalam lagu Navicula. Masalah pertama, polusi dapat dilihat dari bencana seperti banjir yang disebabkan oleh perilaku manusia dan kebiasaan membuang sampah di sungai. Masalah kedua adalah deforestasi besar-besaran di banyak tempat di Indonesia terutama Sumatra dan Kalimantan yang berdampak pada kehidupan banyak mahluk hidup seperti harimau dan orangutan yang terlihat dalam lagu. Lagu Navicula juga menunjukkan cara mereka menantang masalah polusi dan deforestasi. Bagian kedua tentang ketidakadilan sosial yang dapat dilihat dari berbagai kasus yaitu praktik mafia, penipuan dalam parlemen, kasus-kasus dehumanisasi yang belum terselesaikan, dan masalah ketidakadilan sosial sebagai akibat dari kerusakan lingkungan di Indonesia melalui lagu. Kasus praktik mafia di Indonesia dapat dilihat dari kasus medis dan hukum di Indonesia. Kasus penipuan dalam parlemen menunjukkan bahwa fungsi parlemen itu untuk mewakili rakyat, namun dalam kenyataannya mereka bekerja hanya untuk mereka sendiri dan partai politik mereka. Kasus dehumanisasi yang belum terselesaikan dapat dilihat dalam representasi kasus Munir. Kasus terakhir dalam ketidakadilan sosial adalah tentang kerusakan lingkungan di Kendeng untuk pembangunan pabrik semen. Bagian ketiga tentang ekstrimisme berkaitan dengan dua masalah utama yaitu Masalah Bom Bali dan konflik agama yang terjadi dari awal Era Reformasi hingga saat ini. Kata Kunci: Navicula, ekstremisme, lirik lagu. kerusakan xiv lingkungan, ketidakadilan sosial,

(16) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter consists of three sections: the background of the study, research questions, and benefit of the study. The first section deals with the reason why Navicula song lyrics are chosen as the primary data for this research. The second section presents the limitation given to this research. The third section shows the benefit for further research. A. Background of the Study This study focuses on the analysis of the song lyrics from Navicula, a group band and activists who concern about three main issues in Indonesia, namely environmental destruction, social injustice, and extremism. This study shows how Navicula attempts to voice, criticize, and respond to environmental destruction, social injustice, and extremism in the country through their songs. Nowadays, Indonesia being a developing country has abundant natural resources, various ethnic groups, religions, and cultures. However, the wealth that Indonesia possesses has not made Indonesia free from common problems often occur in developing countries such as corruption, crime, unemployment, social injustice, environmental issue, and also extremism. There are many solutions in order to solve the problem from developments of infrastructure, economic improvement, human resources enhancement, until social welfare without destroying nature and its habitats. 1

(17) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 2 In the era of technological and scientific advancement, the acceleration of environmental destruction is also rapidly growing as the result of those accelerations. Recovery for environmental damage requires a high commitment from the world authorities to preserve the environment including Indonesia as one of the largest contributors of forests destruction in the world1 Indonesia’s forests become home for many living creatures including rare floras and faunas. Environmental issues become the current problem for Indonesia such as massive deforestation, climate change, and also pollution in all sectors. The environmental problem in Indonesia is featured in, for example, the Time’s magazine showing the serious deforestation statistics from Nature Climate Change journal. 2 There are many examples of environmental issues as the result of human’s treatment to the environment such as pollution3 and deforestation.4 1 Andini, Afifah Rahmi, Tri Cahyo Utomo, and Sheiffi Puspapertiwi, "10. Identitas dan Kebijakan Luar Negeri: Komitmen Jepang Terhadap Penanganan Illegal Logging di Indonesia dalam Kerangka Asia Forest Partnership Tahun 2002-2012." [10 Identity and Foreign Policy: Japan's Commitment to Handling Illegal Logging in Indonesia in the Asia Forest Partnership Framework for 2002-2012] Journal of International Relations 3. 1 (2017): 98-105. 2 Melissa Hellman, “Indonesia Now Has the Highest Rate of Deforestation in the World.” Time Magazine, 2014. http://time.com/2944030/indonesia-now-has-the-highest-rate-of-deforestation-inthe-world/ Accessed December 14, 2017. 3 Muhammad Amin and Suci Amaliah Assyahra, " Analisis Social Costs pada Pembuangan Limbah Tailing Pt Freeport Indonesia di Sungai Ajkwa” [Social Costs Analysis of Tailings Disposal of Pt Freeport Indonesia on the Ajkwa River]. Jurnal Ilmiah Universitas Bakrie 3. 1 (2015).; (2) Rene C. Kepel, Desy MH Mantiri, Darus SJ Paransa, James JH Paulus, and Billy T. Wagey, "Arsenic Content, Cell Structure, and Pigment of Ulva sp. from Totok Bay and Blongko waters, North Sulawesi, Indonesia." AACL Bioflux 11. 3 (2018): 765-772.; (3) Keith Bentley and Amin Soebandrio, "Arsenic and Mercury Concentrations in Marine Fish Sourced from Local Fishermen and Fish Markets in Mine-impacted Communities in Ratatotok Sub-district, North Sulawesi, Indonesia." Marine pollution bulletin 120. 1-2 (2017): 75-81.; (4) Teevrat Garg, Stuart E. Hamilton, Jacob P. Hochard, Evan Plous Kresch, and John Talbot, "(Not so) Gently down the Stream: River Pollution and Health in Indonesia." Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 92 (2018): 35-53.; (5) Younoh Kim, James Manley, and Vlad Radoias, “Medium-and Long-run Consequences of Pollution on Labor Supply: Evidence from Indonesia's Forest Fires of 1997.” (2017): 1-7. 4 Atsuhiro Takahashi, Tomo’omi Kumagai, Hironari Kanamori, Hatsuki Fujinami, Tetsuya Hiyama, and Masayuki Hara, "Impact of Tropical Deforestation and Forest Degradation on Precipitation over Borneo Island." Journal of Hydrometeorology 18. 11 (2017): 2907-2922.

(18) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 3 The existence of the Indonesian rain forest has slowly began to change with palm oil plantation, starting to destruct and ruin the ecosystem of many living creatures. As the forest ecosystem is destroyed, the rainforest species such as the orangutan, Borneo elephant and Sumatran tiger start to meet their extinction point. The tribals are the first level of people who protect the forest for the next generations and they also the people who are brutally driven out from their land. The smallest form of environmental destruction can be seen from human daily activities such as polluting the river by throwing all wastes and materials, using vehicles that create air pollution, and also consuming the air conditioner that can make the depletion of the ozone. The Indonesian government states in Pasal 1 butir 12 Undang-Undang Nomor 23 Tahun 1997 that environmental pollution is entry or inclusion of living creatures or other components into living environment by activity to decrease the quality into certain level and create malfunction to the living environment. In the Pasal 1 butir 14 The Indonesian government states that environmental destruction is the act that affects a direct change to the malfunction of living environment. Those two constitutions really indicate that environmental issue has become a serious concern in Indonesia. Social issues also become another important issue in Indonesia. Social injustice and poverty become the primary roots for all social issues in Indonesia. Social injustice grows as the setback of the law enforcement in Indonesia. The law implementation as what states in Undang-Undang Dasar 1945 Pasal 27 ayat 1 UUD 1945 that every one should be treated the same in front of the law. The moral

(19) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 4 decadence of the constitution and also the representatives of the people themselves cannot be denied as one of several issues in Indonesia.5 There are some issues related to the setbacks of the law enforcement in Indonesia such as the dehumanization case of Minah, Basar and Kholil, Manisih, Sri Suratmi, Rusmanto and Yuwono, Siptoyono and Sulastri, Parto, Aspuri, and also Rasminah and Aal are the victims of social injustice in Indonesia.6 Those people above are the small examples for social injustice case in Indonesia. There are still massive dehumanization cases in Indonesia that have not been resolved until now such as Munir,7 Udin,8 and also Marsinah9 which have all become the evidence that the enforcement of human rights in Indonesia is still questionable. The other issues can be seen from the role of mafias in Indonesia like mafia of law and mafia of food. This mafias create social gap in the society which as seen in poverty problems. Poverty is a situation where there is an inability to fulfill basic needs such as food, clothing, and shelter. Poverty can be caused by the scarcity of basic needs 5 AA Ngurah Oka Yudistira Darmadi, "Kebijakan Hukum Pidana dalam Penanggulangan Korupsi di Indonesia (Suatu Perspektif Politik Hukum)” [Criminal Law Policy in Countering Corruption in Indonesia (A Legal Political Perspective)]. Jurnal Kertha Wicaksana 21. 1 (2017): 21-25. 6 Setiawan Nurdayasakti, "Mendesak, Amandemen Pasal Pencurian Ringan dalam KUHP” [Urgent, Light Theft Article Amendment in the Criminal Code]. Jurnal Ilmiah Hukum LEGALITY 20. 2 (2013). 7 Herlambang P. Wiratraman, "Legal Reforms for Improving the Freedom of the Press in Indonesia." JSEAHR 1 (2017): 80.; (2) Allan Nairn, "Trump’s Indonesian Allies in Bed With ISIS-Backed FPI Militia Seek to Oust Elected President Jokowi." 2017. (3) Philip Lorenz, "From Alien to Inalienable? Changing Attitudes about Human Rights in the Indonesian Security Sector." (2018): 19. 8 D. N. Susilastuti, Hermin Indah Wahyuni, and Munawar Akhmad, "Jejak Relasi Agency-Struktur dalam Perjalanan Pers di Indonesia” [Traces of Agency-Structure Relations in the Press Journey in Indonesia]. Jurnal Ilmu Komunikasi 15. 3 (2017). 9 Riyadi, "Transformasi Pelaksanaan Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) dalam Pengembangan Masyarakat (Community Development)” [Transformation of the Implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in (Community Development)]. Interaktif: Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Sosial 1. 2 (2018).; (2) Sri Yanuarti, "Pengawasan Intelijen Demokratik Sebagai Instrumen Pencegahan Pelanggaran HAM” [Supervision of Democratic Intelligence as an Instrument to Prevent Human Rights Violations]. Jurnal Penelitian Politik 14. 2 (2017): 127-144.

(20) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 5 fulfillment media and also the difficult access to education and employment. This situation currently becomes an obstacle in the society or in a wider scope can be seen as one of social problems in Indonesia. Poverty is also considered as a social problem when the stratification in society has created boundary lines or often called as social gap. This gap creates a dividing line in the interaction or communication between people in their daily activities. Poverty can also impact the environment which will damage the environment itself as the result of environmental destruction. Land conversion is one of many factors that will damage the environment. Land conversion can occur due to economic, social, environmental conditions and government regulations. Poor people who do not have home will look for critical lands or conservation lands like river banks as settlements. Land that must be functioned as a buffer zone loses its environmental function and is converted into residential areas. The behaviour of poor people also aggravates the environmental condition by throwing wastes into the river. The next result, it will cause environmental imbalances that lead to many disasters like landslides, floods, and diseases. Land conversion is not only carried out by the poor but also by businessmen to enrich their pockets. Industrial development is important for the development of the nation, but it must be followed by the ethics of sustainable development and good governance to the environment. The law protects the sustainability of people and environment from the industrial development through UU no 32 tahun 2009 regarding protection and management of the environment. The development of cement factories in the Kendeng Karst Mountains becomes one of many examples

(21) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 6 of land conversion that can disrupt the ecological balance. The development disrupts the water absorbing area for natural irrigation of thousands of hectares of agricultural area in Kendeng. This development also affects to the social injustice in many aspects like the environment and Kendeng people due to the threat of ecological disaster. Extremism also becomes one more important issue that needs to be resolved in Indonesia. The term “extremism” can be understood as an abuse form of political activity that utilizes minority groups or organizations.10 This term is often used to depict political or religious understanding which in doing the action they will use all ways to reach or achieve the goals. Extremism can be divided into two sections. The first section is related with religious conflicts in Indonesia. The second section deals with the action of terrorism in Indonesia. The example of extremism in religious context can be seen from the religious conflict in Sampang11, Mesuji12, Maluku13 etc. The basic problem of this conflict is caused by the inability of the nation to implement the meaning of unity in the diversity as one Indonesian nation. The other form of extremism can be seen in rampant terrorism occurring in the country. Terrorism becomes a global issue Matthew L.N. Wilkinson, “An abuse form of political activity” in The Genealogy of Terror: How to distinguish between Islam, Islamism and Islamist Extremism. (Routledge, 2018), p. 4. 11 Ali Imron, “Konflik Perebutan Lahan Pemakaman: Studi di Desa Mambulu Barat Kecamatan Tambelangan Kabupaten Sampang” [Funeral Land Seizure Conflict: Study in Mambulu Barat Village, Tambelangan District, Sampang Regency]. Paradigma 5. 1 (2017). 12 Idrus Ruslan, “‘Membangun’ nasionalisme Sebagai Solusi Untuk Mengatasi Konflik Sara Di Indonesia” [‘Building’ Nationalism as a Solution to Overcoming Sara's Conflict in Indonesia]. Jurnal TAPIS 10. 1 (2017): 85-102. 13 Yunus Rahawarin, “Kerjasama Antar Umat Beragama: Studi Rekonsiliasi Konflik Agama di Maluku dan Tual” [Interfaith Cooperation: Study of Reconciliation of Religious Conflicts in Moluccas and Tual]. Kalam 7. 1 (2017): 95-120. 10

(22) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 7 after the bombing tragedy on October 12, 2002 in Paddy’s Pub and Sari Club in Legian Street, Kuta, Bali, followed by the biggest one near US’s Consulate Office that created chaostic situation in Legian.14 The history of terrorist groups in Indonesia can be seen from the existence of various groups such as Negara Islam Indonesia (NII)15, Jama’ah Islamiyah (JI)16, Mujahidin Indonesia Timur (MIT)17, Mujahidin Indonesia Barat (MIB)18, Laskar Jihad (LJ)19, Jamaah Anshaarut Tauhid 14 Bambang Waluyo, R. Narendra Jatna, and Jamal Wiwoho, "Eradication of Al Jamaah Al Islamiyah in Indonesia." Yustisia Jurnal Hukum 6. 1 (2017): 1-13. 15 NII was founded by Sekarmadji Maridjan Kartosoewirjo in 1949. This organization becomes the first terrorist group who want to establish Islamic country. The law of this organization is Islamic law, and this organization becomes the predecessor of Islamic organization. Indra Utama Tanjung, "Pendirian Negara Khilafah Islam Di Indonesia Perspektif Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (Kajian Teoritis Hukum Tata Negara)." [Establishment of Islamic Khilafah State in Indonesia Perspective of Hizb ut-Tahrir Indonesia (Theoretical Study of Constitutional Law)] Jurnal Penelitian Medan Agama 9. 1 (2018): 95-104. 16 Jamaah Islamiyah was formed in the end of 1980’s by some Indonesian extrimists. The branch of this organization has spread through Malaysia, Thailand, Saingapore and any other countries in Southeast Asia, the smaller branch also spreads outside SEA. The purpose of this organization is to establish an Islamic state in Indonesia. The member of this organization has been educated in Afghanistan by Al-Qaeda in order to create an Islamic state through violence action like bombing. The product of this organization can be seen in some case such as Bali and Australian Embassy Bombing. This organization also became the part of a new extremist organization in Aceh that declared as an Indonesian Al-Qaeda. Bambang Waluyo, R. Narendra Jatna, and Jamal Wiwoho, "Eradication of Al Jamaah Al Islamiyah in Indonesia." Yustisia Jurnal Hukum 6. 1 (2017): 1-13. 17 Mujahidin of Eastern Indonesia (Mujahidin Indonesia Timur, MIT), is based in Poso, Central Sulawesi and the leader is Abu Wardah also known as Santoso. This organization is also involved in the Maluku conflict in 1999 and 2002. MIT also has a purpose to establish an Islamic state in Indonesia through fighting against Shia, Christians, and also Indonesian government. Nodirbek Soliev, "Uyghur Militancy in and Beyond Southeast Asia: An Assessment." Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses 9. 2 (2017): 14-20. 18 Mujahidin of Western Indonesia (Mujahidin Indonesia Barat, MIB) is located in Jakarta and West Java. This organization was founded by Abu Roban in 2012. Abu Roban died in 2013 due to the Police operation. This organization has purpose to unite the jihadists all over Indonesia, this organization also known as the fund raiser for the operation. The method used by this group to find money is robbery in several places in Java and Sumatra. Mahathir Muhammad Iqbal, "Meneguhkan Konsep Islam Nusantara Sebagai Perspektif Alternatif Kontra Ideologi Radikalisme dan Terorisme." [Affirming the Concept of Islam Nusantara as an Alternative Perspective of Counter Ideology of Radicalism and Terrorism] Jurnal Aghniya 1. 1 (2018): 45-56. 19 Laskar Jihad, was an Islamist and anti-Christian Indonesian militia, which was founded and led by Jafar Umar Thalib in 2000. Laskar Jihad is established due to the sectarian conflict in Maluku, this organization also involved in the sectarian conflict after the first conflict in Maluku by joining Ambon’s Muslim jihadists. Chris Wilson, "Religious Violence and Conciliation in Indonesia: Christians and Muslims in the Moluccas by Sumanto Al Qurtuby." Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International and Strategic Affairs 39. 1 (2017): 217-219.

(23) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 8 (JAT)20, Jamaah Anshaarut Daulah (JAD)21, and Jamaah Ansharusy Syariah (JAS)22. After conducting several investigations on the case of Bali bombing, there is a connection between the suspect and the former of Jamaah Islamiyah, Abu Bakar Baasyir.23 The court of Bali bombing case began in 2003 against Imam Samudera and his affiliations as the suspects. After the bombing tragedy in Bali, the government issued UU No.15 Tahun 2003 regarding the terrorism eradication.24 The head of Ministry of Religious Affairs found out that there are many elements that cause extremism arise in Indonesia; one of which is social injustice.25 Meanwhile, the law, constitutions, and Jama’ah Ansharut Tauhid (JAT) is an organization that founded by Abu Bakar Bas’asyir in September, 2008. This organization has member from some members from Jama’ah Islamiyyah. This organization declares that people need to do jihad in order to go against Islam’s enemy, however they insist on arguing that they do not resist against the law. They also think that the human law is considered as haram (illegitimate). Asman Abdullah, "Radikalisasi Gerakan Jamaah Ansharut Tauhid dan Pengaruh Isis di Indonesia.” [Radicalization of the Movement of Jamaah Ansharut Tauhid and the Influence of Isis in Indonesia] Jurnal Sosiologi Reflektif 12. 2 (2018): 213-232. 21 JAD was formed by Aman Abdurrahman in Nusakambangan. This organizations has several purpose such as a place to unite ISIS’s supporters in Indonesia from various Islamic organizations, preparing Indonesian Muslims to welcome the arrival of the Khilafah Islamiyah, and also preparing Indonesian Muslims to go jihad. The difference between JAD and JAT can be seen from the knowledge of the members, JAT is educated outside in Indonesia and create a massive bomb like car bomb. JAD stands for local education and creating smaller bomb with an intense attacking. V. Arianti, "Aman Abdurrahman: Ideologue and ‘Commander’of IS Supporters in Indonesia." Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses 9. 2 (2017): 4-9. 22 JAS is the fraction of JAT organizations that founded in 2014. This organization is established due to the dissent from JAT about the concept of Islamic state from ISIS. This organisation rejects ISIS’s Khilafah perspective and chooses Khilafah Rasyidah that related to the prophet teachings. Kumar Ramakrishna, "The Growth of ISIS Extremism in Southeast Asia: Its Ideological and Cognitive Features—and Possible Policy Responses." New England Journal of Public Policy 29. 1 (2017): 6. 23 Anne Barker, "Bali Bombings 'Ideological Leader' Could Be Granted House Arrest". ABC News, 2018, https://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-03-03/bali-bombings-leader-bashir-could-be-grantedhouse-arrest/9505806. Accessed 13 Aug 2018. 24 UU No.12 Tahun 2003 is the final arrangement of the constitutions for Bali Bombing tragedy. The previous constitution was Perpu No. 2 Tahun 2002 and also Perpu No. 1 Tahun 2002 issued by the Indonesian president Megawati Soekarnoputri. 25 Agung Sasongko, “Menag: Pisahkan Istilah Radikalisme dari Extrimisme” [Minister of Religion: Separate the Term of Radicalism and Extremism]. Republika Newspaper, 2015. http://republika.co.id/berita/dunia-islam/islam-nusantara/15/10/28/nwxugn313-menag-pisahkanistilah-radikalisme-dari-ekstrimism Accessed October 4, 2017. 20

(24) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 9 also government regulations are not really responsive to handle the social injustice faced by them. Religious understanding also becomes another element causing extremism arise. Shallow and incomplete understanding of religion becomes the justification of extremism acts, i.e., bombing. The reason why people become extrimists sometimes comes from the social factors, Such people do not receive a good feedback from government whose role is to give peace and prosperity to the people. The result of the extrimists’ disappointment can be seen from their efforts to destroy Indonesia and create a new country based on their religious teachings which they think will give them prosperity. Environmental destruction and social issues including extremism become a global problem for all countries around the world, from developed countries to mostly developing countries such as Indonesia. The effects of those problems have been widespread in the mass media, hence the evidence that the solution of the problems is still limited in Indonesia. Solutions to those problems above are not only the responsibility of the government as a driver of state policy, but citizens as stake holders who have to contribute for it, especially young generation. Young generation is a generation with dynamic and optimistic characters but has no stable emotional control. Nowadays, the young generation faces a period of social and cultural change; and college students are listed as examples.26 26 Asni Ovier, "Generasi Milenial Harus Siap Menghadapi Perubahan". Beritasatu.Com, 2018, https://www.beritasatu.com/nasional/495144-generasi-milenial-harus-siap-menghadapiperubahan.html. Accessed 12 Jan 2019.

(25) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 10 College students always become the part of a nation's journey. The wheel from the history of democracy always puts students as pioneers, activists, even as decision makers. Critical, democratic and constructive thinking are always born from the mindset of college students. Student voices often represent and elevate the social reality that occurs in the society. The idealism attitude encourages college students to fight for an aspiration to the authorities in their own way. In this case, college students carry three strategic functions, namely as agents of social control, as agents of change, and as the next generation of iron stock. To express the dismay from the researcher that caused by such issues like environmental destruction, social issues, and extremism, literary works like novels, poems, and musics can function as a medium to convey the message to college students. College students are used as the medium to spread the message of the issue above because they can be functioned as as agents of social control, as agents of change, and as the next generation of iron stock to the next decades. The concern of the researcher to those issues is also from the concern of Sanata Dharma University where the researcher concluded the study as shown in the university’s research roadmap. In Rencana Induk Penelitian Sanata Dharma University,27 several points related to this study include Kerusakan Lingkungan Hidup [Environmental Destruction], Pelestarian Alam [Nature Conservation], Kemiskinan Sebagai Tantangan Gereja dan Masyarakat [Poverty as the Challenges of the Church and Society], Radikalisme Agama [Religious Radicalism], and Sumbangan Sanata Dharma University’s Research Roadmap is the main plan of research management that will be carried out by the university for the period of 2016-2020 by considering several points from university’s vision and mission until source of funds. 27

(26) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 11 Kajian Bahasa, Sastra dan Budaya Pada Peningkatan Kesejahteraan, Toleransi, dan Pelestarian Lingkungan [ Contribution of Language, Literature and Culture Studies in Improving Welfare, Tolerance and Environmental Conservation]. The researcher believes that college students are one of many solutions in fighting those issues that are related to the university’s concern. One of the media that has the ability to campaign on combating those issues is music. The ideas related to this issue can be found in both lines such as the popular music industries and also independent or indie music industries. The indie music industry is the industry that goes against all norms and traditions in popular music industry. Navicula is one of the group bands that moves on the independent music track and pays attention to those three issues mentioned above. Navicula’s group band’s members include Gede Robi Supriyanto (vocal, guitar), Dadang S. Pranoto (guitar), Made Indria Dwi Putra (bass), and A. A. Ngurah Rai Widya Adnyana aka Gembul (drum).28 Navicula has released several albums such as Self Portrait (1999), K.U.T.A. Keep Unity Through Art (2002), Navicore Neo Rock Club (2003), Alkemis (2005), Beautiful Rebel (2007), Salto (2009), compilation album entitled Kami No Mori (2012), Love Bomb (2013), Tatap Muka (2015), and the latest album Earthship (2018). Navicula has joined a big major label Sony-BMG in 2007 and launched an album called Alkemis, but on the next albums Navicula has decided to get back on the indie track. The name of the band, Navicula, is inspired by a type of single celled golden algae which looks 28 Made Indra has been passed away due to the car crash in Sukawati, Gianyar, Bali after performing in Ubud. Made’s position changed by the additional player. The position of AA Ngurah Rai Widya Adnyana aka Gembul as a drummer temporarily changed by Palel Atmoko due to Gembul’s hiatus for religious purpose.

(27) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 12 like a small ship. Navicula chooses grunge rock as their genre of music, whereas Navicula’s lyric is often inspired by the members’ involvement as the activists. The song lyrics mostly contain messages such as peace, environmental awareness, social injustice, extremism, love, and also freedom. Formed in 1996, Navicula is also known as the “green grunge gentlemen” for their consistency in voicing the environmental issues through grunge music. Navicula’s music is strongly influenced by the alternative 90’s rock, especially grunge rock/Seattle sound.29 There are many bands who became the influence for Navicula such as Soundgarden, Pearl Jam, Alice in Chains, and Nirvana. But what makes Navicula different from the other bands is their unique combination of musicians-activists and creativity with which the band composes songs to represent their concerns for grave problems in Indonesia. In this thesis, the researcher will analyze how Navicula song lyrics criticize, challenge, and respond to the issues concerning environmental destruction, social injustice, and also extremism in Indonesia. Navicula and the three problems above are chosen by the researcher because none of the students in the university have made Navicula or grunge music to be the topic of their research. Through this thesis, the researcher hopes that Sanata Dharma University’s students will be motivated to conduct research on literary works especially on non-mainstream music as their material to analyze some problems around them which also become a concern of Sanata Dharma University as listed in the university research roadmap. In a wider 29 Tomi Wibisono and Triantoro Soni, "Navicula: 17 Years of Green Grunge!" Warning Magazine, 2013. http://www.warningmagz.com/navicula-17-years-of-green-grunge/. Accessed 13 June 2018.

(28) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 13 scope, the researcher hopes that the society especially the young generation will be more sensitive and critical to the problems around them because songs become one of many mediums that is familiar to juvenile. Navicula is also chosen as the data in this study in order to open the perspective of the wider community that Navicula, grunge or underground music cannot be underestimated anymore. Those genres of music do not only offer loud music without benefits, they also care about problems in their own way of music. The object of this thesis is the selected 21 song lyrics from Navicula that related to three topics in this study. The selected song lyrics is chosen as the data of this thesis due to the relation of the three main issues above. B. Research Questions This study examines the representation of each song from Navicula related with the main three issues aformentioned in Indonesia. This study aims at exploring the depiction of environmental destruction, social injustice, and extremism in Navicula songs. It also attempts to provide the reason why Navicula deals with those issues. This thesis formulates the questions as follows. 1. In what way do Navicula song lyrics challenge unresolved environmental destruction in Indonesia? 2. How do Navicula song lyrics criticize social injustice in Indonesia? 3. How do the song lyrics from Navicula respond to the danger of extremism in Indonesia? C. Benefit of the Study This thesis aims to have benefit for researcher who want to study the main three issues, i.e. environmental destruction, social injustice, and extremism in

(29) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 14 Indonesia. This thesis can also be useful for interested students in analysing song lyrics campaigning to fight related issues in Indonesia.

(30) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW A. Review of Related Studies The arrival of Indonesia in the music industry cannot be separated from the era as well as social and political issues as its background since the late 20th century until now. Indonesian music scene can be organized from keroncong to a variety of genres nowadays i.e. indie, rock, pop, jazz, dangdut, blues, electronic dance, and underground. Discussing a variety of underground genres as one of many sources in this study, Indonesia music industy cannot be separated to various influences on underground music. Grunge is one of many influences on Indonesian music scene, a fusion genre of music among punk rock and heavy metal which is initially unknown and only consumed by local communities in the Northwest of the United States, Seattle. Grunge itself means shabby, dirty, but then becomes something "worshiped" globally until now. Grunge in the music field can be categorized into a sub-genre of alternative rock through its heavy guitar distortion and melancholic lyrics. There are several bands that emerged in Grunge music scene and they become popular like Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Soundgarden, and Alice in Chains which is known as The Big Four of Grunge.30 Grunge music enters Indonesian music scene 30 There are some opinions about Grunge bands in that they do not want to be labelled as Grunge bands due to the meaning of Grunge itself that is worse, garbage or dirt. Grunge is known as a bad lifestyle on a certain group in Seattle. This group is known as orphans who eat by scavenging trash and earning money by surrounding people who give coins to them. However, none of these grunge musicians have such a lifestyle. Their styles may be randomly messed up but their music is far from their style. Eddie Vedder, "Grunge (Early to Mid-1990s)." Street Style in America: An Exploration (2017): 143-147. 15

(31) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 16 in 1990’s through the popularity of Nirvana’s “Smell Like Teen Spirit.” However, the development of Grunge music in Indonesia not as much as in the 1990s, this music develops their music scene through band’s community and fans that spread all around Indonesia. The theme of Indonesian music scene is also different from era to era according to the situation and condition of each respective time. In the late 1990-s, there are several bands criticizing the New Order era as a result of Soeharto’s draconian leadership. They include D’Lloyd, God Bless, OM Pancaran Sinar Petromaks31, Elpamas, and also Slank. The theme nowadays changes into various issues such as social injustice as the effect of Munir’s issue, environmental as the result of deforestation, ozon depletion, and the other environmental destruction, and also extremism and radicalism as the effect of Bali bombing tragedy. There are many group bands that really concern those issues and most of them come from the underground scene such as Superman Is Dead, Bangkutaman, Marjinal, Dead Squad, Seringai, Superglad, Auman, Navicula, Efek Rumah Kaca, and etc. The study about environment, social injustice, and extremism issues has emerged in order to support the environment from the danger of extinction. There are many social movements which create campaign about those issues stated above. A study on environmental issue in Bali32 begins with the assumptions that many 31 Raditya Putra, "Kritik Sosial dalam Lagu Orkes Moral Pancaran Sinar Petromaks Tahun 19781982” [Social Criticism in the Songs of Orkes Moral Pancaran Sinar Petromaks in 19781982]. Avatara 3. 3 (2015). 32 Putu Kartika Cahyani, Ikma Citra Ranteallo, and Imron Hadi Tamim, "Band Indie: Bentuk Gerakan Sosial Berbasis Lingkungan di Denpasar” [Indie Band: Form of Environmental-Based Social Movements in Denpasar]. Jurnal Ilmiah Sosiologi (Sorot) 1. 2 (2014).

(32) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 17 indie bands in Denpasar can affect the community in Bali to raise their awareness to protect and maintain their environment indirectly. This study uses close reading and content analysis to examine the song lyrics to see how they 1) challenge unresolved environmental destruction in Indonesia, 2) criticize social injustice in Indonesia, 3) respond to the danger of extremism in Indonesia. The bands can create critical evaluation on the environmental movement, the use of the song become an important part in this section, bands can affect and influence the audiences through their songs. Songs become the effective way to spread the message to the audiences.33 The audiences from Dialog Dini Hari, Nosstress, and Navicula are mostly the young generation who is capable to make the message about the environmental issues spread easily to others. The bands really concern about the environmental issues and the fact about the environmental destruction and through the song they can spread the message about the environmental issues. Songs can be interpreted not only as a way to express feeling or create campaign about issues nowadays, but also as a medium to voice many issues regarding to environmental destruction, social injustice, and also extremism. Environmental issue is used by several indie bands such as Superman is Dead, Dialog Dini Hari, Slank, Shaggydog, Nosstrees, Navicula, Efek Rumah Kaca, Endah and Rhesa, Naif, /rif, Semenjana, Kapital, Hutan Tropis, Musikimia and etc. 33 Sidney G Tarrow, Power in movement: Social movements and contentious politics. (Cambridge University Press, 2011).; (2) Patricia Fox Ransom, "Message In The Music: Do Lyrics Influence Well-Being?" (University Of Pennsylvania, 2015).

(33) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 18 In the scope of social injustice and extremism, there are many bands and musicians who use songs to voice human concerns which cannot be voiced through common people or especially marginalized people, for example, Efek Rumah Kaca, Superglad, Slank, Bangkutaman, Sisir Tanah, Navicula, Seringai, and Marjinal. The last name of the list becomes one of the bands who voices many problems from political issue until social injustice i.e. the issue about Marsinah, the woman who died to fight for the labor’s right.34 Marsinah’s name becomes a song by Marjinal that represents the injustice issue. It is also the name Marsinah that had inspired the band to change its name from ANTI-MILITARY become Marjinal.35 Studies about the song “Marsinah” have been documented arguing that the song criticizes the way Marsinah is being marginalized as a labor.36 The way Marjinal raises Marsinah’s case through song is an example of how a song can become medium to voice the social injustice. Like Marjinal, other Indie bands also take up social criticisms as theme for their songs, for example the local band called Bangkutaman.37 The representation of environmental destruction can be seen through their song entitled “Ode Buat 34 Marsinah is one of the leaders for labors who demonstrate to PT. Catur Putra Surya to get a raising salary from IDR 1.750 to IDR 2.250/day. Marsinah got the salary increase but she was discovered dead in the morning after three days lost with many wounds of tortures. The case was left unresolved due to the involvement of military department. 35 The name Marjinal was coined after Marsinah’s issue . Beforehand, this band’s name was ANTIABRI and ANTI-MILITARY because this department is the primary example of the practicioner of violence in the New Order era. 36 Achmad Budiman Sudarsono and Andi Murniadi, “Penggambaran Kritik Sosial pada Lirik Lagu Marsinah dan Buruh Migran pada Grup Band Marjinal” [Depiction of Social Criticism on the Lyrics of Marsinah Songs and Migrant Workers through Marjinal Group Band] https://isip.usni.ac.id/jurnal/Achmad%20Budiman%20new. 2017. Accessed 5 Oktober 2017 37 Bangkutaman is an indiepop band from Yogyakarta founded in 1999 after the moment of reformation. Bangkutaman was founded by the community of common people, the community who loves an indiepop music.

(34) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 19 Kota.” Bangkutaman potrays the situation of a certain city when the color of the river is getting dark, the roads are getting narrowed, and under the bridge the kids sing along.38 The song is composed in a simple arrangement, however the meaning is deeper than the word presented in the lyric. “The dark colored river” symbolizes the behavior of people who throw everything to the river including waste which make the river polluted because of the waste. “The roads are getting narrowed” in the lyric symbolize the development of the city where there are many apartments and hotels invited other people to make the road are getting narrowed by the building itself. The meaning of the lyric “under the bridge the kids sing” is the picture of poverty makes homeless kid live under the bridge in the capital city. The song shows the condition faced by Indonesia, the song is adressed to a certain city or town, however the situation actually faced by Indonesia. Bangkutaman used this song as a medium to criticize the condition in their show. The way this band delivers the music is also different from others band like underground music who deliver the message with scolding and cursing, they deliver the song in a satirical way to those problems to differentiate between underground music and indie music. The development of songs as a social criticism cannot be separated from Efek Rumah Kaca, an indie rock band from Jakarta. This band takes social issue and environmental issue as their theme on their album. “Di Udara” is one of their famous song from first album that discusses the death of Munir, a human right activist. “Hijau” is one of the songs from their latest album titled Sinestesia, it Doan Mitasari, “Menonton Bangkutaman: Subkultur Musik Indie Yogyakarta” [Watching Bangkutaman: Yogyakarta Indie Music Subculture]. Retorik 4. 2 (2017): 137-153. 38

(35) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 20 contains two symbols, Hijau: Keracunan omong kosong and Hijau: Cara pengolahan sampah. Those two songs can be interpreted into the way people are poisoned by waste and the way waste are processed. However, the meaning is actually different, the first song has meaning of how television has lied to people about the political situation and also poisoned people with political interest, while the second song has meaning of the political parties have given the false hope and also deceived people with their false information.39 The representation of the symbols of their songs show how indie music potrays the situation in their environment. The songs can be presented as a medium to criticize the unfinished case or situation in Indonesia. The audiences of those bands above are mostly young generations who do not really want to read the history and news. Songs can be a medium for them to read and understand the history and issues about environmental destruction and also social injustice. The development on social criticism through songs can be one of the way to educate and inform young generations to become aware about the situations of their environment. Navicula becomes the medium for people to voice the three issues, environmental destruction, social injustice, and extremism. Studies on Navicula have been done by several writers, for example a study on social issues in the songs by Moore. Moore states that criticizing social injustice is risky business as proven through some socio-political situations in Indonesia.40 39 Rd. G. R. Kusuma, Sri Dewi Setiawati, and Baruna Tyaswara, “Semiotika Lagu Hijau di Album Sinestesia Efek Rumah Kaca” [Semiotics on the song “Hijau” in Efek Rumah Kaca’s Synesthesia Album]. Jurnal Ilmu Komunikasi (J-IKA) 2. 2 (2015). 40 Rebekah Moore, "“Politrick (s)” and “Medical Mafia”: Rock and Social Justice in Indonesia." Meeting of the Society for Ethnomusicology, Los Angeles, CA. 2010; Those situations

(36) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 21 Navicula potrays the representation of poverty in their music video through people who work in the informal sectors such as “Metropolutan” and “Terus Berjuang [Keep Struggle].” The representation of people who work in informal sectors can potray the economical condition in certain area. The development of the city can invite the investors and increase the development of formal sectors. However the informal sectors must face the reality, they become marginalized and defeated. The result of the condition is that people who work in informal sectors will live under a line of poverty. The role of government does not help people who live under a line of poverty, in the name of city development, they have to violate people and civilize people as the legacy of the colonial policy. From all studies, the discussion on environmental destruction, social injustice and extremism through song lyrics have not covered all those cases in Indonesia. In this thesis, song lyrics have function not only to entertain people, but it is also used as medium to criticize environmental destruction, social injustice and extremism in Indonesia. The previous studies of Navicula discuss the song only from each study like environmental issues, social issues only. The analyses from the previous studies only discuss each study on the context of the song and do not can be potrayed in the novel Bumi Manusia from Pramoedya Ananta Toer and punk concert in Aceh. In the social justice movement against the social injustice, there is no limitation to become an activist as seen from the musicians and bands who become the activists to protest and fight for something right and for justice, for example Metallica band with their song entitled “And Justice for All.” However, the situation in several places is different when underground music has been labelled as a rough music and need to be exterminated in order to create a healthy environment even though they voice social injustice as well as become the victim there. People do not understand and cannot differentiate between punk and posser: punk as an ideology and punk as a fashion. The example is visible on the street when people identify homeless kid as a punk because of their life and their hair color. There is a paradigm on several moral values and image labelling cannot be erased from Indonesian people when facing some issues like punks. Although they do a positive movement, Indonesian people tend to become skeptic rather than accepting the reality nowadays.

(37) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 22 combine or validate the study to the reality. This thesis is considered as a new study because this thesis combines all issues raised by Navicula into a complex and comprehensive study. B. Review of Related Theories 1. Ecocriticism Literature has been discovered as an anthropocentric study that focuses on human beings’ benefits. The result of the fact can be seen from the values and morals become the foundation of human beings’ daily activities in the society. The study of ecocriticism has been emerged as a response to the need to study environment and to discover the values in literary work to raise awareness to care for all living creatures in this universe. Ecocriticism does not only study and discover about the human’s exploitation on nature but also speak for human minorities.41 Ecocriticism is a modern literary criticism that scrunitizes issues in literature study and environment. According to Cheryll Glotfelty, ecocriticism is the study about two relations between literature and the physical environment.42 This theory becomes the foundation of all ecocriticism theories which become the introduction of the study. Ecocriticism has been described by Garrard as a study to help decide, explore, and answer the ecology issue in a wide understanding.43 It can be seen that the use of 41 Michael Bennett, "From wide open spaces to metropolitan places: the urban challenge to ecocriticism." Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment (2001): 31-52. 42 Cheryll Glotfelty and H. Froom (eds.), “Ecocriticism is the study about two relations” in The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Literary Ecology. (London: University of Goergia Press, 1996), p. xix. 43 Greg Garrard, “A study to help decide, explore, and answer the ecology issue in a wide understanding” in Ecocriticism. (New York: Routledge, 2004), p. 4.

(38) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 23 ecocriticism theory becomes the medium for the researcher to explore the issues about ecology through the study of literature especially song analysis. Literature can be seen also as a medium to present attitude, perspective, and also response to show ideas about environment and issues around it. Lawrence Buell's The Environmental Imagination. Thoreau, Nature Writing, and the Formation of American Culture explores some criterias about literary work that can be categorized as a ecocritical literature i.e., the non-human environment comes not only as a frame but also a presence. It shows that human history is implied with nature history; human interests are not understood as a legitimate interest; and also some environmental understandings is known as a process and it does not belong to a fixed understanding.44 The criteria on the ecocritical literature from Buell complement the foundation of ecocritical literature as seen in the Garrard’s criteria of ecocriticism from pastoral genre. The other criteria can be seen from the characteristics of an ecocritical literature that contains pastoral genre with apocalyptic narration.45 The presence of pastoral genre in ecocriticism becomes important due to the relevance of the reality as seen in some points of pastoral literature in ecocriticism. There are several points related to pastoral literature in ecocriticism i.e. ecocentric, norm and etiquette in tune with nature, the ideal and comfort place, and also the idea about the unity between human and the environment in physical and 44 Lawrence Buell, The Environmental Imagination. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995), p. 8 45 Garrard sets up three categories of pastoral i.e., the elegy looks back to a vanished past with a sense of nostalgia; the idyll celebrates the beautiful present; the utopia looks forward to a redeemed future.

(39) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 24 metaphysical. Those points from the pastoral literature in ecocriticism supports the reality that the human in their life will need the environment to fulfil their needs and also unite with the environment both physical and metaphysical is a destiny as written on the pastoral literature towards ecocriticism. Serpil Oppermann’s The Future of Ecocriticism: New Horizons defines the three waves of ecocriticism.46 The first wave happened when ecocriticism deals with the interaction between energy, matter and ideas or known as the nature writing. The second wave of ecocriticism is related with its revolution, Scott slovic adds supporting information that the second wave turns its attention to wider genres of literature such as environmental justice and urban ecology.47 It can be seen that ecocriticism in second wave is associated with the engagement in cultural studies. Joni Adamson and Slovic supports the revolution of ecocriticism by claiming that the engagement today related to all facets of human experience from various environmental viewpoints.48 The third wave of ecocriticism starts from layering the ecocritical trends and visualize multiple layers from the sea of ecocritical ideas.49 Oppermann states that ecocriticism has evolved into transdisciplinary field and refers to a complex set of ideas nowadays, explain as follows: Today ecocriticism refers to a complex set of ideas derived from cultural and literary studies, science and animal studies, ecophilosophy, environmental ethics and history, environmental justice movement, ecofeminism, animal studies, sociology and Serpil Oppermann, Ufuk Özdağ, and Nevin Özkan, eds, The Future of Ecocriticism: New Horizons. (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2011), pp. 10-14. 47 Scott Slovic, "The Third Wave of Ecocriticism: North American Reflections on the Current Phase of the Discipline." (2010): 5-7. 48 Serpil Oppermann, "Feminist Ecocriticism: A Posthumanist Direction in Ecocritical Trajectory." International perspectives in feminist ecocriticism. Routledge (2013): 37-54. 49 Serpil Oppermann, et al., “The third wave of ecocriticism” in The Future of Ecocriticism: New Horizons, p. 15 46

(40) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 25 psychology, and globalism studies among other academic domains.50 The statement above shows that the evolution of ecocriticism has led to various fields. The evolution makes ecocriticism can be combined with other fields like social justice and cultural issues on the next part. Oppermann also defines ecocriticism as a study which focus on various fields and cultural issues as the engagement of ecocriticism to various studies, explain as follows: The deepening of engagement of ecocriticism, for example, with such cultural issues as race, gender, ethnivity, and identity, and with social issues, such as global systems of hegemonic power, operations of imperalist systems of political, economic and cultural domination, oppression of nonhuman animals, and of marginalized sexualities and genders, globalization of social injustice, and its more recent engagements with environmental justice movement, and queer theory […]51 It must be noted that ecocriticism becomes a study which focuses on several cultural issues including social injustice as a transdisciplinary study. The evolution of ecocriticism can be used to reveal various issues in another study like social justice that will be discussed in the next point. 2. Social Injustice The concept of social justice has emerged in many studies across many disciplines such as education, psychology and philosophy as an interdisiplinary study. John Rawls defines social justice as the most fundamental layer of society Serpil Oppermann, et al., “Today ecocriticism” in The Future of Ecocriticism: New Horizons, p. 16 51 Serpil Oppermann, et al., “The deepening of engagement of ecocriticism” in The Future of Ecocriticism: New Horizons, p. 16 50

(41) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 26 that leads to the fundamental rights and duties, it determines the division of advantages from social cooperation.52 Social justice has been formulated by Minton as having three stages, i.e. outcome, procedure, and system.53 Social justice actually does not only depend to the amount of the outcome, but also depends to the treatment and also the system behind it, it means that the three stages are related each other to gain the social justice. The types of social injustice can be categorized into stereotype, marginalization, and subordination which can lead to domination to a group that does not have power. One example that can summarize the types of social injustice above can be seen from the case of Marsinah, she is a female labour and died in fighting for the labour’s rights. The first reason is the combination between stereotype and subordination when Marsinah worked as female labour and also activist, people stereotype that labour cannot fight for their rights on that era and the gender of the labour usually male. The second reason is marginalization, Marsinah is being marginalized by some people from the factory, the action of marginalization can be seen from the assassination of Marsinah as the effort to marginalize and silence the demonstration from the labour. A group that does not have power usually ends with domination and being marginalized with a primacy group as the effect of the power. The example of domination and marginalization usually happen among the majority population and the minority population in certain place or country. Social justice itself can be 52 John Rawls, A Theory Of Justice. (Massachusetts: Harvard university press, 2009), p. 6. Russel Cropanzano, Thierry Nadisic, and Jordan H. Stein, Social justice and the Experience of Emotion. (London: Routledge, 2011), p. 3. 53

(42) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 27 categorized into distributive justice, commutative justice, and also procedural justice.54 Distributive justice will be used as the theory on the next chapter about social injustice. Distributive justice according to Rawls has a function to become the foundation for several fields such as the societal system, political interest, law, and also social institution. However Rawls focuses on the primary justice which is the society system.55 There are two main principles to reveal the concept of distributive justice, namely, the equal liberty principle and also the difference principle. The equal liberty principle deals with several liberties i.e., liberty to participate in political interest, liberty to speak, liberty to choose the religious interest and etc.56 This principle becomes important in this study in order to reveal the problem of social injustice. The difference principle can be categorized into the difference principle and also the equal opportunity principle. The first principle discuss about the social and economical differences must be controlled to give an advantage to the most disadvantaged people. The second principle focuses on the social injustice that can arrange the bridge between the advantaged and disadvantaged people. It can be understood that the use of some principles in distributive justice are needed to reveal the problem of social injustice such as marginalization between the majority and minority population, stereotype on the people’s perspective towards 54 David Matzko McCarty, Vicki Schieber, and Trudy D. Conway, eds, Redemption and restoration: A Catholic perspective on restorative justice. (Minnesota: Liturgical Press, 2017), pp. 21-40. 55 Joseph P. De Marcu, “Rawls and Marx” Theory of Social Justice. (Ohio: Ohio University, 1980), pp. 359 – 430. 56 John Rawls, A Theory Of Justice. 1st ed., (Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard UniverSity Press, 1971), p. 214.

(43) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 28 something or someone, and also the subordination on people’s judgement and discrimination. 3. Extremism Discussion on the root theory of extremism becomes the latest issue related to the extremism phenomenon.57 Theory of structural functionalism which can be seen as a theory that is often used to explain how a conflict can arise in a society. Theory of functionalism focuses on observing several factors from certain society that must be seen by government to maintain national safety, i.e. the equal rights, civil protections and also freedom.58 Those various factors become the sign that extrimists arise as the effect of social injustice and lead to the revolt as a form of dissapointment to the government. Emile Durkheim also argues that norms and values become the social glue in order to wrap the people together in the society through various aspects such as attitudes, behaviours, rules and institutions.59 It means that the role of norms and values take an important position in the society, when the social glue gets weak, the unity of the society will also be threatened and lead to the frustration of the society as seen in the next theory. The theory of relative deprivation and theory of absolute deprivation can be used as medium to analyze the origins or causes of extremism. Theory of relative deprivation has been developed by Ted Robert Gurr to discover the relation between frustation and agression by certain subject as a foundation to take action Kirk A. Johnson, “The longue duree: Indonesia's response to the threat of jihadist terrorism 19982016.” Diss. (Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, 2016). 58 Joshua Sinai, "New trends in terrorism studies: strengths and weaknesses." Mapping terrorism research. (Routledge, 2006), pp. 45-64. 59 Justine Burns, George Hull, Kate Lefko-Everett, and Lindokuhle Njozela, “Defining social cohesion." Cape Town: SALDRU, UCT. (SALDRU Working Paper Number 216) (2018): 2-13. 57

(44) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 29 to the object of frustation.60 The foundation of social movement comes from the basic frustration in individual or group. The feeling of frustration does not show a massive effect in the early stage, it will become a massive effect when the individuals gather and create a conflict, movement, or even revolt. The example is the group of terrorists, the damage of individual frustration will not be massive because it can be seen as the normal behaviour. The danger of massive frustration can be seen from the terrorist groups that create a conflict or revolt in the form of the bombing action. Anthony Giddens’ The third way: The renewal of social democracy explores the social movement become the collective way to reach certain business together through collective action outside the formal institution.61 It can be understood that many social movements come from the same frustration or problems that create people to move together to reach the same purpose even though the action is prohibited or dangerous. Theory of absolute deprivation shows the relation between the political violence and primary needs, a certain group can organize the political violence when their primary needs to survive are ignored by the government or social system. Theory of relative deprivation and absolute deprivation used to connect the path between the feeling of frustation, social movement and the reason behind the revolt to the state. The extrimists arise as a result of the frustation of their primary needs 60 61 Ted Robert Gurr, Why men rebel. Routledge, 2015. pp. 160. Anthony Giddens, The third way: The renewal of social democracy. John Wiley & Sons, 2013.

(45) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 30 to survive are ignored by the government and the only way to reach the same purpose is doing a chaos as the only way. 4. Reading Song Lyrics as a Text Song can be seen as a medium to communicate between musicians and the audience about their perspective. Song can also be used as a medium to deliver the message about love, friendship, peace, freedom, or even serious messages such as environmental destruction, social injustice, and religious issues. The message from the musician can have several forms, namely oral and written form. The oral form can be seen from their live performance in the concert, while the written form can be revealed from the meaning of the song lyric. The use of language in the song can be the vocal skill, language style, or tone of the song that can manipulate the song lyric to be the atmosphere or the background of the song.62 Those factors will make the audience understand about the message of the musician. Popular song lyrics is often considered as the object of analysis for the literary study, cultural studies, and musicology.63 Allan F. Moore64 argues that if the theory about analyzing song is present, the theory must persist on the fact that the primary text of songs is purely musical, and everything else, the words of the songs and any commentaries on them, particularly rock criticism, is secondary to their meaning.65 This theory is interesting due to the 62 Mokoo Awe, Iwan Fals: Nyanyian di Tengah Kegelapan [Song in the Middle of the Dark]. (Yogyakarta: Ombak, 2017), p. 51. 63 J. Rubén Valdés Miyares, "Breaking Joy Division’S “Glass”: Reading Song Lyrics as Literature". Journal of The Spanish Association of Anglo-American Studies 38. 2 (2016): 161-180. 64 Allan F. Moore is considered as one of many current musicologists who produce many surveys on reading the rock song. 65 Allan F. Moore, Rock: The Primary Text. Developing a Musicology of Rock. 2nd ed. (Aldereshot: Ashgate, 2001), p. 1.

(46) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 31 requirement on the justification for the rock song. Nowadays, many rock bands especially from Indonesia combine the musical arrangement with messages about the environmental and social issues as a weapon of journalism to inform to the audience about the importance of the issue. Music nowadays is considered as the medium to deliver the message and not only about the musical performance of the song. Rene Wallek and Austin Warren state that a song lyric, like poetry, is different from the daily language. It means that the song lyric has an ambiguous language and a full expression. This combination affects to the song lyrics that tend to influence, persuade, and change the audience’s perspective toward something.66 With this view in mind, analysis on song lyrics receives similar treatment to that of poems. C. Theoretical Framework Having analyzed some theories above, this section will show how those theories can be applied to answer this study’s research questions. The theory of ecocriticism is applied herein because environment and ecology become the focus of this thesis. Ecocriticism theories will help understand how the danger of environmental destruction is imagined in Navicula’s songs. The songs also illustrate how Navicula as a group band and activists show concerns for the danger of environmental destruction and how the group band started to go against it. 66 Rene Wellek and Austin Warren, Teori Kesusastraan [Theory of Literature]. (Jakarta: PT Gramedia, 1989), pp. 14-15.

(47) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 32 The second theory, Social injustice theory, is used to reveal the inequalities and injustice in some issues revealed in Navicula song lyrics. According to the Rawls, the theory of a jusstice has a function to become the base for several fields such as the society system, political interest, law, and also social institution. However in this study especially social injustice, the focus on this study is started on the primary justice which is the society system. The third theory is related to the extremism i.e., the theory of relative deprivation and theory of absolute deprivation. Those theories can be used as tools to analyze the origin of extremism. Theory of relative deprivation and absolute deprivation have been developed by Ted Robert Gurr to discover the relation between frustation and agression to the object of it. By combining the theory of relative deprivation and absolute deprivation, the study will apply the origin and the cause of extremism in the religious context in Indonesia. The review of related studies is used as reference to add knowledge, insights, and concepts to support the study. Even though this study uses similar basic principles in literature studies, this study analyses the song lyrics from different perspectives. Song lyrics is considered as the object of analysis for the literary study, cultural studies, and musicology. Rene Wallek and Austin Warren state that a song lyric, like poetry, is different from daily language. It can be understood that a song lyric can have similar treatment like poetry.

(48) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER III THE WAY NAVICULA CHALLENGES THE UNRESOLVED ENVIRONMENTAL DESTRUCTION IN INDONESIA THROUGH THEIR SONG LYRICS This chapter is divided into several parts in order to organize neatly how Navicula criticizes the issues around destruction of natural resources. The first part of the discussion will show how water/river and the issues inside as the most important resource for human being. The second discussion looks at how the lungs of the world, forest and the ecosystem, is threatened as the result of massive environmental destruction as seen in the song lyrics. The last discussion is related to the respond of Navicula as musician and also activist to maintain the environment through their songs. Those points of discussions will be presented in the next section of this paragraph. The data for this study is taken from several albums of Navicula i.e. “Kali Mati” [The Dead River],67 “Zat Hijau Daun” [The Chlorophyll],68 “Over Konsumsi” [Over Consumption],69 “Bubur Kayu” [Wood Pulp], “Orangutan”, “Metropolutan”, “Harimau! Harimau! (A Tale of the Last Sumatran Tiger)” [Tiger! Tiger!],70 “Dead Trees.”71 “Lagu Sampah” [The Waste Song], and “Ibu” [Mother].72 The analysis and discussion of the songs will be divided into three major topics. The first topic will discuss criticism toward environmental pollution. The Navicula – Alkemis Album (2005) Navicula – Alkemis Album (2005) 69 Navicula – Salto Album (2009) 70 Navicula – Love Bomb Album (2013) 71 Navicula – Tatap Muka Album (2015) 72 Navicula – Earthship Album (2018) 67 68 33

(49) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 34 second topic will analyse the threat to forest and the ecosystem. The last topic will show the respond of Navicula to the environmental destruction as seen in the songs. A. Environmental Pollution in Indonesia Environmental pollution is an old unfinished problem faced by Indonesian society that cannot be resolved until now. Environmental pollution occurs when there is no balance between biotic components and abiotic components. There are two main factors causing environmental pollution: natural process and human behavior. The last factor can be categorized into the complicated problem that related to water pollution, air pollution, soil pollution and even the technological development. Then, the materials that can cause pollution or the causes of pollution are called pollutants. The effect of those factors can be seen from the decreasing of environmental quality and the worst case of this scenario happened when the function of environment is stopped working for all living organisms. The first natural resources can be seen from the function of river to human civilization all over the world including Indonesia. River cannot be separated from human civilization as one of the main sources to support the sustainability in the daily life of human beings. Many rivers become the place of civilization and the place to survive as seen in the importance of water for human being. However, water pollution is one of the problems currently faced by Indonesia. Many rivers in Indonesia are polluted by dangerous chemicals from many factories; moreover the problem about people awareness of the clean environment is still below average in Indonesia. The data shows the fact

(50) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 35 that almost 70% of the total rivers in Indonesia are heavily polluted.73 One of them is Citarum River, the most polluted river in the world.74 Citarum River becomes the main source for 5 million people and 500 factories around the river which they compete each other to dispose the waste to Citarum.75 There are more rivers which are polluted by the factory waste, Citarum River is one of the result of heavily polluted river in Indonesia.76 Water pollution becomes a serious issue from time to time. There are many social communities, activists, and also musicians who take notice of this issue to be a medium to to call for environmental awareness. Navicula delivers this issue in the form of song entitled “Kali Mati” [The Dead River] in the Alkemis album released in 2005. Although released more than a decade ago as a result of water pollution, the message of this song is still relevant to discuss in this era. The song presents the warning and impacts of water pollution in Indonesia. Here, Citarum River is used as one of the examples to support the analysis of the song lyrics. Mungkinkah, sudah pada tuli buta Walau sekian tanda ada Yudha Putra, “KLHK: 75 Persen Air Sungai Indonesia Tercemar Berat” [Ministry of Environment and Forestry: 75 Percent of Indonesian River is Heavily Polluted]. Republika, 2017. https://www.republika.co.id/berita/nasional/daerah/17/09/28/owzx0t284-klhk-75-persen-airsungai-indonesia-tercemar-berat. Accessed 02 September 2018. 74 Cassandra Elrod, "The Domino Effect: How Inadequate Intellectual Property Rights in the Fashion Industry Affect Global Sustainability." Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies 24. 2 (2017): 575596. 75 Pri Hermawan and Kyoichi Kijima, "Conflict Analysis of Citarum River Basin Pollution in Indonesia: A Drama-theoretic Model." Journal of Systems Science and Systems Engineering 18. 1 (2009): 16-37. 76 Novita Dewi, "Manusia dan Lingkungan dalam Cerpen Indonesia Kontemporer: Analisis Ekokritik Cerpen Pilihan Kompas” [Human beings and the Environment in Contemporary Indonesian Short stories: An Ecocritical Analysis of Short Stories Chosen by Kompas]. Jurnal Litera 14. 2 (2015): 376 - 391. 73

(51) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 36 Untuk lestarikan kali The song starts with a grief concern that Navicula argues people are deaf and blind about the warning from the river. Navicula realizes that the river has a sign to warn the people not to throw waste to the river. Many people and factories do not treat their waste responsibly but throw them into the river.77 The main problems for Citarum River are solid and industrial waste; while the growth of waste volume around Citarum River is not compatible with the waste treatment. The problem about water pollution not only happened in Java but also happened in other areas such as Batang Arau River in Sumatra and also Martapura River in Borneo. Those rivers are mostly polluted by the behaviour of the people throwing waste to the river.78 Kita buang sampah Mahluk sungai marah The behaviour of throwing waste to the river must become the concern of all elements from society until the government itself. Navicula depicts the illustration that river organisms become angry due to the people behaviour polluting their ecosystem as seen in the line “River organisms angry…” River organisms deserved to be angry due to the behavior of humans throwing garbage in the river. 77 Utomo Sarjono Putro, Kuntoro Mangkusubroto, and Khrisna Ariyanto, "Roles of Emotion in Negotiation Process: An Application of Drama Theory in Citarum Riverbasin Problem." Journal of Technology Management 7. 1 (2007). 78 Erniwati, "Studi Dinamika Kualitas Air Daerah Aliran Sungai Batang Arau di Propinsi Sumatera Barat” [Dynamics Study of Water Quality in the Batang Arau River Basin in West Sumatra Province]. Jurnal Dampak 15. 1 (2018): 37-42.; (2) Tangguh Perdana Putra, Sidharta Adyatma, and Ellyn Normlenai, “Analisis Perilaku Masyarakat Bantaran Sungai Martapura dalam Aktivitas Membuang Sampah Rumah Tangga di Kelurahan Basirih Kecamatan Banjarmasin Barat” [Behavioral Analysis of the Community of the Martapura River in the Activity of Removing Household Garbage in the Basirih Sub-District of West Banjarmasin District]. JPG (Jurnal Pendidikan Geografi) 3. 6 (2017).

(52) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 37 According to the Ministry of Environment the result of the research has carried out on some rivers where used as monitoring points, domestic waste has the most role as pollutan for the river. Dan semua tahu akhirnya Akibatnya kita yang rasa Makan jiwa korban harta Navicula illustrates people who know the effect of people treatment to the river. The disaster comes such as flood that results in a massive effect to the people as illustrated in the line “Eating soul, victim and property…”79 People’s awareness of the waste problem will reveal itself when disasters come and destroy everything. Many people do not want to problematize and prevent the disaster. The awareness only appears for a moment in the event of its occurance; after that people will return to normal life and forget about the flood disaster and the care for environment. People must be aware of the ecosystem of the river and its problem as the factor of the disaster, not only blaming the government for the mistakes they made. Banjir bandang datang Kitapun meradang Semua hilang Punah sudah Tinggal limbah tinggal wabah (kali mati)…isinya…semuanya…mati Panji Prayitno, "Ancaman Banjir Warga Cirebon Tak Enak Tidur” [Flood Threats, Cirebon and Indramayu Residents Don't Sleep Well]. Liputan6.Com, 2018. https://www.liputan6.com/regional/read/3265206/ancaman-banjir-warga-cirebon-dan-indramayutak-enak-tidur. Accessed 12 Oct 2018. 79

(53) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 38 The main problem about water pollution causing the disaster for the people besides Citarum River in the other lines, “Flash floods come… We are also inflamed…” Here, the disaster is not only flood which causes devastation to the river bank, but also destruction to the river ecosystem itself. The proper example of the destruction can be seen in the next lines: “[the dead river]… the contents…all…die.” Navicula shows the result of water pollution as seen in the line “Just waste… just the plague…” as another bad impact of throwing waste especially industrial waste to the river that makes the living creatures in the river unable to be rescued.80 The remnants are only waste and plague which cause another disaster for people like many diseases i.e., cholera, dysentery, as well as like URI (Upper Respiratory Tract Infection).81 Anehnya, manusia tak pernah jera Berulang bikin hal serupa Buang sampahnya di kali The behaviour of throwing waste in the river must be stopped in order to cut the disaster like flood. Navicula mentions this bad behaviour as the reason to the disaster from the river “Strangely, humans have never been deterred… Repeat making similar things… Discard the garbage at times…” Humans must be able to make such disaster like flood as a lesson not to throw any waste in the river, otherwise what they spread they will harvest in time, like waste and disaster. 80 Jenna Cavelle, "A Political Ecology of the Citarum River Basin: Exploring “Integrated Water Resources Management” In West Java, Indonesia." Berkeley Undergraduate Journal 26. 1 (2013). 81 Tifa Asrianti, "Citarum River Brings Fresh Water Along with Disease, Poor Harvests." The Jakarta Post, 2011. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/09/06/citarum-river-brings-freshwater-along-with-disease-poor-harvests.html. Accessed 3 Sept 2018.

(54) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 39 Navicula also creates the song about river in order to problematize and satire people on treating the river as an important resource for people. Orang masih girang Ikan sudah hilang… Navicula shows another satire to the people’s awareness through the lines “People are still happy… Fish is gone...” The problem of the disaster in the river actually starts when people throw their waste to the river. There are many factors causing the water pollution in Indonesia, one of them is the problem of waste that will discuss on the next topic. The problem of waste in Indonesia has become a complicated problem for years. This problem is compounded by the fact that Indonesia has turned the world's second largest plastic waste contributor after China.82 Population growth followed by consumptive lifestyle also becomes the cause of the increasing waste production in Indonesia. The dumping of waste in Indonesia is dominated by human activities. Human beings have various activities to fulfil their needs prosperity through producing groceries, beverages, and other goods from the natural resources. On one side, those activities produce goods to be consumed. At the same time, those activities also produce generate unwanted or useless waste materials. It takes years to unravel the waste especially plastic waste that difficult to be decomposed by the soil. The behavior of people who often dispose waste to the river has negative impacts on the environment from flooding to the disease problems as seen in the Nurhadi Sucahyo, "Ancaman Sampah Plastik di Laut Indonesia” [Threat of Plastic Waste in Indonesian Sea]. VOA Indonesia, 2018, https://www.voaindonesia.com/a/ancaman-sampah-plastikdi-laut-indonesia/4430037.html. Accessed 24 Oct 2018. 82

(55) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 40 song “Kali Mati” [The Dead River]. In order to reveal the problem of waste in Indonesia, Navicula publishes a waste-themed song in their Earthship album entitled “Lagu Sampah” [The Waste Song]. Navicula sees the problem of waste in Indonesia that has never found a single solution and this song is presented as a medium to voice the problem about waste in Indonesia. Sampah… Sampah… Coba pikir sebentar kawan Sampah darimu bisa kemana-mana Coba rasa sebentar kawan Sedikit saja bisa pengaruhi dunia Waste is proposed by Navicula to be the main concern in order to reveal the problem of environmental destruction in the country. The discussion about waste is almost seen in many Navicula songs which discuss about the environmental and religious contexts such as “Kali Mati” [The Dead River], “Kill The Fireflies”, “Ibu“ [Mother], and many more. Navicula asks the audience to stop and ponder for a moment about the waste which can spread everywhere even to the corner of the world. The amount of waste even a little waste can affect the world. Garbages are found in several beaches in Indonesia where most of them consist of foods and beverages.83 This fact becomes evidence that humans do not have awareness about the danger of plastic waste in the sea or even in the river. Racuni Air M. Razi Rahman, “Greenpeace Temukan 700 Merek Sampah Plastik di Pantai” [Greenpeace Finds 700 Brands of Plastic Waste in Beach]. Antara News, 2018. https://www.antaranews.com/berita/755546/greenpeace-temukan-700-merek-sampah-plastik-dipantai Accessed 24 Oct. 2018. 83

(56) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 41 Kau Bunuh semua kunang-kunang Cahaya di gelap malam The discussion about water especially river is reviewed again in the latest album of Navicula in this section. The water pollution issues become the main attention to Navicula. It seems that water pollution problems have not met the endpoint so they have to discuss it again in their latest album to voice the danger of water pollution to the river’s ecosystem. Polluted water kills fireflies which are useful to illuminate the dark night as seen in the lines “You kill all the fireflies… Light in the dark night…” The fireflies become important to the ecosystem of the river due to the bioindicator of the clean environment.84 The fireflies are insects that are very sensitive to the environmental degradation and pollution. In addition, their natural habitats must be free from any kind of fertilizer or anorganic pesticides. Navicula mentions the fireflies in order to inform the audience about the importance of these insects as a bioindicator to the environment. Sampah… Sampah… Satu hal yang kita mengerti Bahwa kita tidak hidup sendiri Tapi sering kita ingkari Hanya karena kita tidak peduli Humans see environment with various needs and desires to be fulfilled through a competition among other species. In this part, humans have a bigger 84 Antonio Pugliese and Nicola Rombolá, "Fireflies: Biodiversity and Environmental Ethics." Medicina nei Secoli 29. 2 (2017): 665-678.

(57) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 42 ability than the other species especially in the term of using resources. Humans have a dependency relationship with the environment that consists of all goods, powers, conditions, living organism, and also attitudes as seen in the lines “One thing we understand… That we don't live alone…” The attitudes take an important part in delivering the message from Navicula as seen in the lines “But we often deny it… Just because we don't care…” The ignorance of people becomes a serious issue regarding to the environmental treatment. Humans have caused so much damage to this earth by throwing wastes without considering the effect to the environment. The environment responds the treatment by delivering diseases and even disasters to humans as a form of disappointment. Racuni udara, kau buat gerah matahari Panasnya di sepanjang hari Navicula explains that the activities of humans have poisoned the air and creating hot temperatures all day long as seen in the lines “Poisoning air, you make the sun hot… The heat is all day long…” Human activities contribute almost all of the air pollution in the world such as the use of transportation facilities, the number of air conditioner users in big cities, and also the spread of factories that contributed most of the air pollution. Air pollution happens because of several things that cause more pollutants in the air and it create hot temperatures in the big cities as what Navicula explained in the song. Dahulu bumi ini pernah indah Karena Tuhan tak menciptakan sampah Mungkinkah bumi ini tetap indah?

(58) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 43 Mungkin bisa, jika kita berubah The Earth is the beautiful place to live in million years ago because God does not create waste. The waste is the product of human’s evolution, the waste destroying another living creature’s life and also killing the living creature itself. The effect of the waste has destroyed the rural landscape, polluted the environtment and also spread diseases that become a main problem in China and also the world.85 Navicula invites all the people to start moving on to change the world into a better place through the lines “Maybe, if we change…” as a form of green campaign. The key to create a beautiful world is in human’s hand itself by using a degradable product, recycling the waste into another useful thing and also campaigning about the danger of the waste that can harm all the living creature inside the earth. Earth is a beautiful place to live for all living things whose age is getting older, often sick and not as healthy as it was before. In its age that is getting older, the earth is still trying to survive as long as possible to provide prosperity for all beings. Humans as the most perfect creature in the Earth is required to keep the earth as a home for all beings in the form of maintaining and balancing the sustainability of the surrounding environment and nature. However, the environmental conditions are facing a crisis that has been going on for a long time. To fulfil their greed, humans exploit environment and nature to their private interests without considering other rights of all beings. Navicula depicts this situation in their latest album entitled Earthship, the song namely “Ibu” [Mother] 85 Ruqiong Qin and Hong Chen, "The Status of Rural Garbage Disposal." IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 108. 4 (2018).

(59) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 44 presented as a form of a disappointment from Navicula. The song tells about the depiction of Earth as a mother who needs to be respected. The depiction of Earth as Mother has been taught from the ancestor to the later generation as a belief that the mother is earth and the father is space.86 Earth and Mother have a similar connection87 and the connection can be interpreted as a Mother who sustains her children. Ibu, maafkan aku Yang telah menghisap habis darahmu Ibu, maafkan aku Yang telah mencukur habis rambutmu Ibu, maafkan aku Beramai kami telah merenggut mahkotamu The feeling of guilty and regret become the first impression about the atmosphere from the song entitled “Ibu” [Mother] in Navicula’s latest album, Earthship. Navicula starts the lines with the depiction of Mother as a pronoun of the Earth and it can be seen that Navicula wants to treat Earth like they treat their Mother. Navicula starts the first part by asking an apology for the mistake as seen 86 Teguh Budiharso, "Simbol Literal dan Kontekstual dalam Mantra Jawa Aji Seduluran." [Literal And Contextual Symbols In A Spell of Javanese Mantra AJI] Konstruktivisme: Jurnal Pendidikan & Pembelajaran 6. 2 (2014): 157-173. 87 In the book entitled Staying Alive: Women, Ecology and Development written by Vandhana Shiva, Earth and Mother have a connection, India's history places many women in human imagination about nature. Shiva adds that the basis of the formation of the earth is a collision between good and bad, soft and hard, unity and divorce, whose dynamics are called Shakti. The manifestation of all these energies comes from nature or Prakriti. Shiva states that the representation of Praktiri as a feminine figure appears in the Indian philosophy, Praktiri said: “There is nothing besides me, as the mother who gave birth to life” Vandana Shiva, Staying Alive: Women, Ecology and Development. (Brooklyn, New York and Boston: South End Press, 2010), pp. 38-52.

(60) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 45 in the lines “Who has consumed your blood…” The meaning of the blood can be seen in two perspectives, the water and also the crude oil. Those sources are important to fulfil the need of nations or companies. The other apology goes to the case of deforestation as seen in the lines “Who has shaved off your hair…” The meaning of Mother’s hair refers to the forest that being exploited by Palm Oil Company resulting a massive deforestation all over the world especially Indonesia. Deforestation becomes a serious and complex issue as seen in the “Wood Pulp” song analysis. Ibu, maafkan aku Kusuntik racun di batang nadimu Navicula asks an apology for injecting poisons in her vein as seen in the lines “I inject poison in your vein…” The relation between poison and mother’s vein becomes interesting when the poison stands for the waste and the mother’s vein refers to the river flow. The relation of poison and vein supported by the fact that tons of wastes are dumped in the river resulting in massive river pollution in several areas in Indonesia. The result of poisoning the river with tons of waste can be seen in the analysis of “Kali Mati” [The Death River] where river ecosystem is extinct and there are only only waste and plague left for human being. Ibu, maafkan aku Yang telah merogoh isi rahimmu Oh ibu, maafkan aku Beramai-ramai kami memerah keringatmu

(61) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 46 Navicula also mentions the mine exploitation of many companies in Indonesia resulting a massive destruction to nature especially forest and river ecosystem as seen in the lines “Who has reached your womb…” The massive exploitations of mining resources destroying nature and all the ecosystem inside in several places such as Sumatera, Borneo, Halmahera, Java etc. 88 Navicula also criticizes about the other exploitations of natural resources in other fields as seen in the lines “We exploit your sweat together…” Navicula shows the issue of natural resources exploitation in this song in order to inform to the audience about the massive effect of exploitation as seen in Indonesia in the last several years.89 Kini aku berikrar Ku kan selalu menjagamu Kubasuh kakimu Karena kutahu di sana ada surga To show how Navicula really takes note of the danger of environmental destruction, the band vows to maintain the sustainability of the Earth by uttering the danger of environmental destruction through the lines “Now I vow… I will always look after you…” The other action of Navicula can be seen through the 88 Ibrahim, Dwi Haryadi, and Nanang Wahyudin, "From Charm to Sorrow: the Dark Portrait of Tin Mining in Bangka Belitung, Indonesia." PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences 4. 1 (2018).; (2) Djoko M. Hartono, Emirhadi Suganda, and Muhammad Nurdin, "Metal Distribution at River Water of Mining and Nickel Industrial Area in Pomalaa Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia." Oriental Journal of Chemistry 33. 5 (2017): 2599-2607. 89 Helena Varkkey, Adam Tyson, and Shofwan Al Banna Choiruzzad, "Palm oil intensification and Expansion in Indonesia and Malaysia: Environmental and Socio-political Factors Influencing Policy." Forest Policy and Economics 9. 2 (2018): 148-159.; (2) Sudharto P. Hadi, "In Search for Sustainable Coastal Management: A Case Study of Semarang, Indonesia." IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 55. 1 (2017).

(62) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 47 responsibility given as Bali Environmental Ambassador in 2007. 90 The lines “I washed your feet… Because I know there is a heaven…” form an assimilation between cultural and religious context in Indonesia where creating a deep meaning inside it. The meaning of washing mother’s feet can be seen as a form of respect in cultural context to mother and heaven on mother’s feet comes from religious context.91 Tak akan ada ibu Bumi kedua Bila ibu Bumi telah tiada Kujaga dia, kujaga selamanya Dan aku tahu dia pun jaga kita Through the lines, Navicula wants to emphasize the audience that there will be no more another mother earth in this world when the earth is destroyed as seen in the lines “There will be no second mother Earth… When the mother of Earth is gone…” The message is clear that Navicula tries to engage people awareness about the danger of environmental destruction to the mother earth. Depicting nature as a mother, Navicula believes that when people maintain the mother earth such as stopping deforestation, exploitation, and also pollution, then the mother earth will take care of them by eliminating natural disaster as a form of appreciation to human beings. However, the treatment of humans to the Earth especially in some capital cities does not go as expected, one of the obstacles is the development of asocial Yurika, "Trash Stock Bali // Interview with Robi “NAVICULA” | Mave". Mavemagz.com, 2015. http://mavemagz.com/trash-stock-bali-interview-with-robi-navicula.html. Accessed 8 Sept 2018. 91 The representation of washing mother’s feet can be seen from Islam’s teaching that Heaven lies on the sole of the Mother. The meaning of the action also represents that people must respect mother. 90

(63) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 48 behaviour. The development of asocial behaviour around the capital city will be presented in the next discussion. One of many complex problems faced by most developing countries in this world is the development of asocial behaviour around the capital city. The development of the country including the system and the law must direct the capital city into a prosperous and orderly country. Meanwhile, the situation in Indonesia especially Jakarta does not meet the expectations. There are two main problems in the capital city, urban macro problems with their management systems and also the law which related to the citizen behavior in the capital city. The development invites urbanites to migrate to Jakarta in order to obtain a decent life. Urbanites expect a decent life from the capital city, however the reality throws urbanites into an alienated community because of the system of the capital city cannot be applied to urbanites. There are many criminal cases as a form of urbanites saturation, besides that, the development on the capital city also creates asocial behaviour to the environment as an effect of unpreparedness of change. Navicula elaborates the condition into one song entitled “Metropolutan,” a song that becomes an ode for the capital city of Indonesia. Through the song entitled “Metropolutan” from Navicula, this section will discuss about the relation between citizen behaviour and the massive effect to the environment as a result from capital city development. Kepalaku mau pecah Emosi mau tumpah Kota ini parah

(64) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 49 Jalan macet bikin gerah Di kaki gedung pongah Injak siapa yang kalah Jakarta becomes one of the most crowded capital cities in the world.92 There are many business and administrations run in this city. There are so many problems as the result of the centralization in Jakarta i.e. congestion and flood. Navicula potrays the situation in Jakarta as a crowded city, they are sick of the situation and the citizen behaviour as seen in the lines “My head is going to break… Emotions will spill… This city is severe...” Navicula shows the opinion with two possible analysis, the first opinion “Road jams make hot…” means that the traffic makes them sweating, the second opinion shows that they are tired in the term of emotion to the situation of Jakarta. Navicula shows a personification to the building that can oppress the minority or loses party as seen in the lines “At the foot of an arrogant building… Step on who loses...” It depicts the reality in Jakarta that people must oppress the other to survive in Indonesia’s capital city. Slalu banjir tiap hujan Asap jalan jadi awan Di jantung Metropolutan Navicula depicts the obstacles of living in the heart of Metropolutan, the place where waste and pollution become a common problem for people. The effects to the environment are flood and the abnormal hot temperature, they cannot be Zulkifli Amin and Steven Zulkifly, "Molecular Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Mortality Associated with Vehicle Emission Pollution." Journal of General and Emergency Medicine (2017). 92

(65) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 50 separated each other from Jakarta over the last few years. Navicula potrays the situation in the lines “Always flood in every rain… Smoke becomes cloud...” The fact of the lines can be seen in some serious events over the last few years.93 Orang-orang tak peduli Alam berkonspirasi Tenggelamkan kota ini Aku terjebak di sini Hey, aku ada di dalam kota Metropolutan There are some serious situations that people do not care about their environment in the capital city. Navicula potrays the situation by mentioning the nature that conspire to drown the capital city as seen in the lines “People don't care… Nature conspires… Immerse this city” The meaning of conspiration in the lines has meaning as a feeling of disgust to the people behaviour in the capital city. The bad behaviour that leads nature drowning the city as a form of disappointment to the people through the floods and also the abnormal hot temperature. Navicula explains the feeling of imprisoned through the lines “I'm stuck here… Hey, I'm in the city of Metropolutan…” The feeling imprisoned here means that Navicula cannot move everywhere due to the condition of Jakarta as what explained above. Orang anti kata antri Semua mau berlari "Hujan Sejak PAGI, Sebagian Jakarta Banjir Lagi” [Rain since Morning, Part of Jakarta Flooded (Again).]" BBC News Indonesia, 2018, https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/indonesia-43068797. Accessed 9 Sept 2018. 93

(66) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 51 Berlarilah sampai mati To clarify the reality of life in Indonesian big cities, Navicula brings queuing culture into a thing that need to be discussed. Queueing culture become an important attitude because almost every activity requires queuing. Navicula depicts the reality that most of people want to preced the others even though they have to step on other people’ rights as seen in the lines “People refuse to queue… All people want to run… Run to death…” There is no need a sign of queueing in order to make people want to queue because Indonesia still adhering eastern culture including polite behaviour and mutual respect. Aku terjebak di sini Hey, aku ada di dalam kota Metropolutan Hey, aku ada di dalam kota yang mau tenggelam In the end of the song, Navicula reiterates about the feeling of imprisoned as the result of air pollution and also the ignorance of people that makes Navicula addresses Indonesian big cities including Jakarta as a Metropolutan city. Metropolutan consists of the word metro as a representation of a big city and pollutan as a thing that creates pollution. Navicula gives the title of their song as “Metropolutan” in order to remind the people about their awareness and attitude to maintain the environment. To sum up the song, Navicula mentions the threat that will happen to the people about the sinking of the city due to their ignorance to the environment through the lines “Hey, I'm in a city that will sink…”

(67) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 52 B. Tree, Forest, the Protectors and Ecosystem Issues Urban environmental problems in Indonesia are categorized into several points such as the building density, population of people, waste problem, and also the numbers of trees as the lungs of the city. The number of urban density becomes a complicated environmental problem in the big city.94 This problem happens because people need energy, space, and a massive resource to survive. The problem of urban density has impact on the lack of groundwater recharge, agricultural land, and also trees as the urban lungs that cause the city to become increasingly uninhabitable, especially in terms of healthy life. Besides, the sustainability of a city can no longer be seen by the city's physical development program, but it will be reflected in the level of the citizen’s health population. In this part, the role of the trees in the city becomes a special concern of Navicula by publishing the song from Alkemis album entitled “Zat Hijau Daun” [Chlorophyll]. The song will be analysed in order to find the importance of the trees in the big city being the representation of the lungs for the city. Ah, hijau kotaku Berseri wajahmu Payungi diriku Di panas dan abu Navicula depicts the representation of the trees in the city where it creates beautiful scenery and also becomes a protector for people. The function of the tree 94 Daniel R. Richards, Paul Passy, and Rachel RY Oh, "Impacts of population density and wealth on the quantity and structure of urban green space in tropical Southeast Asia." Landscape and Urban Planning 157 (2017): 553-560.

(68) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 53 can create oxygen to prevent hot temperature. Navicula depicts the function of the trees as the shield from the dust and hot temperature as the result of the pollution in the city. However, this lines also be seen as a form of satire to contrast the condition of big cities with no trees seen in the introduction of the song. Tanpa pohon bisa kubayangkan Hanya tiang besi dan bangunan Zat hijau daun, untung kau ada Ayo, ambil racun di udara Navicula gives an illustration in the city where there are no trees at all, there are only iron poles and also buildings. The function of chlorophyll on the leaf used to filter the pollution in the air. Navicula depicts the illustration of leaf’s chlorophyll by absorbing the poison in the air as seen in the lines “Leaf’s chlorophyll, fortunately you are there… Let’s absorb the poison in the air…” Navicula depicts their discouragement that only clorophyll that can maintain the environment, not human. This line also means that Navicula tries to satirize people’s awareness through the medium of clorophyll. Ku ingin di kota Bertambah pohonnya Disayang manusia Berdaun – berbunga Navicula satirize the situation in the city where Navicula imagines about the increasing of the trees in the city and the trees will be treated well by human being as seen in the lines “I want in the city… The tree increasing… Loved by humans…”

(69) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 54 The reality finds out many trees are dying to die and are not maintained well. 95 In this section, Navicula does not satirize but also dream that people will love the trees and realize to increase the amount of the trees in the city. Pohon, paru-paru jantung kota Kau redam polusi yang menggila Zat hijau daun, untung kau ada Segera ambil racun di udara The trees play an important role as a lung and heart in the cities where many pollutions from vehicles and buildings are absorbed by the trees as seen in the lines “Trees, lungs and heart for the city… You absorb the crazy pollution…” Through the lines, Navicula also expresses a feeling of safe and healthy due to the trees as the protectors. The meaning of trees as lungs and heart refers to another function for the city such as the natural air conditioner, urban climate controller and also the hydrological function including the primary absorber of flood in the city.96 Chlorophyll also supports the trees by taking poison in the air and turn it into oxygen for people. This song actually alludes to human behavior by referring to Andy Pribadi, "Hutan Srengseng Tidak Terawat” [Srengseng’s Forest is Not Maintained]. Warta Kota, 2012, http://wartakota.tribunnews.com/2012/10/03/hutan-srengseng-tidak-terawat. Accessed 18 Sept 2018. (2) Ismail Marzuki, "Kondisi Pepohonan di Jalan Kota Medan yang Tidak Terawat” [Trees Conditions are Not Maintained on Medan’s street]. Mudanews.com, 2017, http://mudanews.com/lingkungan-kesehatan/2017/01/12/kondisi-pepohonan-di-jalan-kota-medanyang-tidak-terawat/. Accessed 20 Sept 2018. 96 Purwanto, “Manfaat dan Guna Pohon dan Hutan Kota” [Benefits and Use of Trees and Urban Forests]. Krida Rakyat 2. 2 (2012).; (2) Khairunnisa, Ezra Salikha, and Indrajati Petrus Natalivan, “Evaluasi Fungsi Ekologis Ruang Terbuka Hijau di Kota Bandung Dalam Upaya Pengendalian Iklim Mikro Berupa Pemanasan Lokal dan Penyerapan Air (Studi Kasus: Taman-Taman di WP Cibeunying)” [Evaluation of the Ecological Function of Green Open Space in the City of Bandung in Micro Climate Control Efforts in the Form of Local Heating and Water Absorption (Case Study: Parks in WP Cibeunying)]. Jurnal Perencanaan Wilayah dan Kota SAPPK 2. 2 (2013) 1-10. 95

(70) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 55 trees and chlorophyll as the savior of humanity from the threats of pollution produced by humans themselves. Pohon, tebang… biasa Pohon, hilang… biasa Coba bayangkan Usia benih tumbuh Jadi pohon besar… Navicula criticizes people’s perception about underestimating the problem of deforestation and consider it as a common trivial problem. The fact is more complex than people’s perception; Navicula tries to make the audience imagine about the way seed becomes a big tree and the process will take decades to grow into a big tree. This misinformation about people’s perception as seen in the song become a serious problem for the Indonesian people and this becomes a mission not for Navicula but also for everyone to campaign and remind about the danger of deforestation that trees need decades to restore their function as the lungs of the world. Andai… Dimasa depan Nisan kuburan Diganti tumbuhan In the end, Navicula provides an interesting solution in the future to restore the trees by replacing headstone into the tree. The idea of replacing headstone becomes an alternative solution to restore the trees in the world. Human body can

(71) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 56 be useful for another living creature in the world. The decomposed bodies can be converted into fertilizers that are useful for the trees; and the trees are then converted into the forest that can be useful for another living creature by producing oxygen and also the place for many living organisms. The problems about trees in the big cities are only the small part of the bigger problem of trees and forest in Indonesia. Indonesian rain forest becomes another issue that needs to be noticed. There are various species living in the rain forest ecosystem through their own way. However, this species faced an intense heat and massive habitat destruction due to the human activities that creating the climate change. Some species are physiologically affected by the climate change. The increasing of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere causes an escalation in temperature, sea level and dry season. The climate change also affects the ecosystem such as forest fires, drought, and even tropical cyclone storm that causing disturbance on the forest vegetation. It will only take a few decades for many species and forest vegetations to become extinct one by one due to the conditions. The observation of forest and soil condition are needed to ensure the sustainability of the rain forests are achieved. The observation is also used to evaluate the effect of human activities among the forest and the soil in Indonesia. There are many social and environmental communities who observe and evaluate the effect of industrial activities in Indonesia especially in Borneo. Navicula is one of many bands who show concerns about the situation in Borneo and their observation is the real act of Navicula as a group band and also an activist.

(72) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 57 In 2012, Navicula joined Greenpeace to take Borneo tour to spread the danger of palm forest and also the danger of deforestation. Kepak Sayap Enggang, Tur Mata Harimau Seri Kalimantan, the tour brought Navicula with many communities such as Greenpeace, Walhi, AMAN, SOB and many more. Navicula uses music as a weapon to spread the danger of environmental destruction. The tour opened the fundraising on a website called kickstarter.com by selling merchandise and the album compilation. The observation on Kepak Sayap Enggang, Tur Mata Harimau Seri Kalimantan is started from Palangkaraya to Pontianak. The early observation in Borneo started when they arrived in Pulang Pisau, Kalimantan Tengah, as they saw a burning peat forest releasing million tons of carbon to the atmosphere. Another journey in Delang, Kalimantan Tengah, Navicula only saw a palm forest and dead trees on their way to Pontianak. They felt that it is so difficult to find a real forest like what they imagined before. Navicula also stayed in Pendaun, Kalimantan Barat. They lived in one ethnic village to hear the problem about the deforestation. The villagers looked so skeptical about the future of their customary forest because they are one of many ethnics that have around 1.000 hectare of customary forest that soon will be replaced by palm forest. Having briefly analyzed the situation above, it seems that Navicula realized the fact that mass media does not want to broadcast the real situation in Borneo due to the power domination. Video channel such as Youtube becomes the medium for them to deliver the message about the fact in Borneo. The observation from Navicula and the communities are trying to reveal the reality in Borneo. There are so many problems on the environmental destruction, such as deforestation and the

(73) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 58 effect of palm forest for Orangutan habitat. The evidence from the observation can be seen through the song entitled “Wood Pulp.” Even though this song is made before the tour, this song is one of many songs that can reveal the situation behind the deforestation in Borneo. Wood pulp, oh my forest You are cut down to make wood pulp Cut more, sell more It won’t stop until the rainforest becomes… Wood pulp tastes good The introduction of this song defines about the situation of the forest that becomes the wood pulp that depicted by Navicula as seen in the lines “Wood pulp, oh my forest… You are cut down to make wood pulp…” Navicula describes the reality that the forest transformed into money for the logger. This destruction will be end if the rainforest is disappeared and turns into wood pulp. The greeds and needs change people to destroy their future and their environment by transforming forest into money. Wood pulp, pulp floods Pulp floods now become mud floods Cut more, sell more It wont stop until the rainforest becomes… Wood pulp tastes good Navicula depicts another reality that the process of deforestation seem to find the effect as seen in the lines “Wood pulp, pulp floods… Pulp floods now

(74) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 59 become mud floods…” Flash floods is the product of the deforestation that destroying human and their ecosystem. However, the disaster does not make people realize to save the environment as seen in the lines “Cut more, sell more… It won’t stop until the rainforest becomes… wood pulp…” The environment warns the people by delivering mud floods or flash floods, but their needs and greeds defeat their logic and common sense. Wood pulp is your breakfast After eating, wash your hands The forest dies, now replanted But palm oil tress are not the true trees, Palm oil tastes good Through the stanza, Navicula wants to emphasize that wood pulp is the breakfast for the paper company. The word “breakfast” has a meaning of the earliest forest destruction to be converted into paper pulp or wood pulp; it is Navicula’s sarcastic statement to the industrial products. “The forest dies, now replanted…” The meaning of the line shows that the factory is trying to change the trees by cutting down and replanting the trees into palm oil trees. “But palm oil tress are not the true trees, palm oil tastes good” the line represents that Navicula wants to remonstrate that palm oil trees are not the trees, palm oil trees absorbs the nutrients from the soil and it destroys the soil which those tastes good for the factory. The palm oil trees will bring prosperity to the factory and disaster for the environment because of the effect of those trees. Forest protectors, have no power

(75) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 60 Because the robber is the leader Cut more, sell more It won’t stop until the rainforest becomes… Wood pulp tastes good Furthermore, the meaning of “Forest protectors, have no power…” will have double interpretations. The first meaning refers to the animal which is tiger. The tiger does not have the power because the robber is human and make tiger look powerless. The second meaning refers to people, the defenders such as Greenpeace or Walhi. It can be seen in the line “Because the robber is the leader....” Those defenders do not have power to protect the rainforest because the robber is the leader as seen in the latest case in Borneo.97 Actors of illegal logging will cut more and sell more because the law and regulation can be bought by money. People should realize that the forest helps them to breathe by producing oxygen. It becomes the lung of the world. Not only forest is lung of the world, but it is also the place for non-human living organisms. Many of them belong to the list of endangered species as a result of the massive deforestation. Many Indonesian forests are converted to a palm oil plantation for human’s benefit. Taking and killing endangered animals also become a serious issue to be discussed. There are many animals which are listed to the endangered species i.e. Sumatran elephant, Sumatran tiger and also Orangutan. In Lizsa Egeham, “Tangkap Tangan Anggota DPRD Kalteng Terkait Suap Perkebunan Dan Lingkungan” [The Ambush of the Corruption Transaction of the Parliament’s member of Central Borneo Regarding Plantation and Environment Bribery]. Liputan6.Com, 2018, https://www.liputan6.com/news/read/3677501/tangkap-tangan-anggota-dprd-kalteng-terkait-suapperkebunan-dan-lingkungan. Accessed 29 Sept 2018. 97

(76) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 61 2017, Sumatran elephant is listed on the verge of extinction given that half of its population has been lost to only one generation. Jambi is one major habitat for Sumatran elephant for many years and now there are only 150 elephants left.98 Sumatran elephant finds difficulty in renewing its generation due to the domination of female population to the male population. Sumatran elephant is predicted to be extinct in the next 30 years due to the problem. Sumatran tiger is also listed to the next endangered species.99 There are thousand years Panthera tigris sumatrae or Sumatran tiger that roam and dominate in the tropical rain forest of Sumatra Island.100 From the five remaining tiger subspecies around the world, Sumatran tigers become special species due to their genetics which is not mixed with other subspecies. However, the situation changes as the result of deforestation and massive area of palm oil plantation. The number of Sumatran tigers are decreased to 400 in the last few years.101 The other problem for Sumatran tiger is the territory of the tiger itself. There is only 130.000 km2 of a natural rain forest in Sumatra and only 42.000 km2 is secured to be a protected forest. The problem about the protected forest continues when the conservation Garsetiasih Setiasih, Anita Rianti, and Mariana Takandjandji, “Potensi Vegetasi dan Daya Dukung untuk Habitat Gajah Sumatera (Elephas Maximus Sumatranus) di Areal Perkebunan Sawit dan Hutan Produksi Kecamatan Sungai Menang, Kabupaten Ogan Komering Ilir” [Vegetation Potential and Carrying Capacity for Sumatran Elephant Habitat (Elephas Maximus Sumatranus) in Palm Oil and Production Forest Areas in Menang River Sub-District, Ogan Komering Ilir Regency]. Berita Biologi 17. 1 (2018): 49-64. 99 Wulan Pusparini, Timbul Batubara, Fahrudin Surahmat, Tri Sugiharti, Muhammad Muslich, Fahrul Amama, William Marthy, and Noviar Andayani, "A pathway to Recovery: the Critically Endangered Sumatran Tiger Panthera Tigris Sumatrae in an ‘in danger’UNESCO World Heritage Site." Oryx 52. 1 (2018): 25-34. 100 Alessandro Minelli, "Taxonomy Faces Speciation: the Origin of Species or the Fading Out of the Species." Biodivers J 6 (2015): 123-138. 101 J. Goodrich, A. Lynam, D. Miquelle, et al., "Panthera tigris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e. T15955A50659951." (2015). 98

(77) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 62 areas are isolated each other due to the deforestation of the protected forest. The interchange of the Sumatran tiger among the conservation area is important to maintain the territory of the tiger. Nowadays, there are many cases about Sumatran tigers attack people on the settlements, the tigers actually do not attack the people but they try to inform that the settlements is tiger’s territory. Navicula’s observation also shows the dangerous situation and threat among the animals and their habitats “Harimau! Harimau! (A tale of the Last Sumatran Tiger)” [Tiger! Tiger!] and “Orangutan.” Robi the frontman of Navicula gives the explanation that Navicula wants to spread the ecological research data to call for care of environment.102 Navicula also wants to be the medium between environmental researcher and public through their songs. “Harimau! Harimau! (A Tale of the Last Sumatran Tiger)” [Tiger! Tiger!] and “Orangutan” will be the next songs to be analysed from the nonhuman living organism section. The population of Sumatran Tiger (Panthera Tigris Sumatrae) is endangered by the condition of the environment nowadays. Forest as a habitat for Sumatran tiger to live is increasingly narrowed due to the deforestation and conversion of natural plantation to company plantation. Sumatran tiger is the last species of three Indonesian’s tiger species that still exist and there are only 400 left in Sumatra Island.103 Aga Depresi, "Navicula: Wahai Seniman Comfort Zone is an art killer” [NAVICULA: O! Artists! Comfort Zone is an Art Killer!]. Degil Zine, 2018, https://degilzine.com/2018/07/22/navicula-wahai-seniman-comfort-zone-is-an-art-killer/. Accessed 1 Oct 2018. 103 Indonesia has three out of thirteen species of tiger in the world. The three species are Sumatran Tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), Bali Tiger (Panthera tigris balica), Javan Tiger (Panthera tigris sondaica). 102

(78) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 63 This condition is worsened by another problem about Sumatran tiger named Bonita.104 Bonita is accused of murdering of two people in Indragiri Hilir, Riau province.105 The case of Bonita must be seen as a warning to people that Sumatran tiger is threatened; they are threatened by the act of people in treating their environment. Navicula had written the song about Sumatran tiger long time ago as a result of massive deforestation in 2008.106 “Harimau! Harimau! (A Tale of the Last Sumatran Tiger)” [Tiger! Tiger!] will be the next song to be discussed in order to reveal the problem about Sumatran tiger. Tired tones leading the way No unknown foliage falls away Claws create fear dominates Near the end nature strives to change Navicula potrays the song entitled “Harimau! Harimau! (A Tale of the Last Sumatran Tiger)” [Tiger! Tiger!] in first-person point of view. It means that Navicula tells the story in Sumatran tiger’s perspective to show the danger of being a Sumatran tiger and its anxiety. The song starts from the journey of the tiger finding the path of its home in the lines “Tired tones leading the way… ” The tiger feels exhausted of finding its home, the condition is worsened by the reality that along the path there is no tree at all as seen in the lines “No unknown foliage falls away…” It means that the tiger do the journey in the barren land as a result of deforestation 104 Bonita, the name of a female Sumatran tiger. The name is given for its the beautiful appearance, the name of Bonita means beautiful. 105 Rizal Harahap, "Sumatran Tiger Captured After 100 Days Of Hunting". The Jakarta Post, 2018, http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2018/04/22/sumatran-tiger-captured-after-100-days-ofhunting.html. Accessed 2 Oct 2018. 106 “Harimau! Harimau! (A Tale of the Last Sumatran Tiger)” [Tiger! Tiger!]

(79) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 64 and it also has meaning that the tiger does not recognize its own path. Navicula also depicts the use of claws create a fear domination to the other animal and human in the past through the lines “Claws create fear dominates… Near the end nature strives to change…”107 However, the claws do not create a fear domination anymore, the nature change nowadays as the result of human’s act. Do you care I'm longing for home As i face the future all alone Harimau! Navicula defines the feeling of Sumatran tiger that the tiger is longing for home and facing the future by itself as seen in the lines “Do you care I'm longing for home… As i face the future all alone…” From the statement above, it can be seen that the tiger asks the human and especially logger about the humanity to the animal like Sumatran tiger. The meaning of all alone can be related to the situation nowadays.108 Sumatera skies colored in red Guns to fangs fury takes today People cheer as angels cry By this bullet i have learned to fly 107 Tiger always uses his claws to create a scratch as a marker of its territory. The scratch can also be used to create fear domination among human and animal. 108 Asrizal Paiman, Riana Anggraini, and Maijunita Maijunita, “Faktor Kerusakan Habitat dan Sumber Air Terhadap Populasi Harimau Sumatera (Panthera tigris sumatrae Pocock, 1929) di Seksi Pengelolaan Taman Nasional (SPTN) Wilayah III Taman Nasional Sembilang” [Habitat and Water Source Damage Factors Against Sumatran Tiger Population (Panthera tigris sumatrae Pocock, 1929) in the National Park Management Section (NPMS), Region III Sembilang National Park]. Jurnal Silva Tropika 2. 2 (2018): 22-28.

(80) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 65 Navicula potrays another situation as seen in the lines “Sumatera skies colored in red…” The situation can be described into two meanings based on the line. The first meaning stands for the literal meaning, Sumatra skies have red colour due to the deforestation and combustion of the forest to open a company plantation area. The second meaning can be seen from the deeper meaning behind the word “red”; Sumatra skies have red colour as signs of the anger of nature to the human beings because of their greed. The following line supports the reality that guns are used to humiliate or even to kill the animal especially Sumatran tiger. Then, Navicula depicts irony situation when people cheer as a result of the hunting, however in another side angel cry as a representation of the nature. Sumatran tiger takes its role by expressing the last line “By this bullet i have learned to fly …” The tiger has learned how to fly by the bullet, the bullet that takes its life. Navicula potrays the situation of Sumatran tiger in 2008 but still relevant nowadays due to the many threats to Sumatran tiger like Bonita. Human thinks that Sumatran tiger is the threat among human itself, however the tiger actually is the victim of the human. Human uses weapon to eliminate the tiger without think about the future of Sumatran tiger. I need someone to love As i face the future all alone Harimau! Harimau! Navicula invites people to take care and maintain the population of Sumatran tiger by showing the feeling of the tiger through the lines “I need someone to love… As i face the future all alone…” Sumatran tiger needs everyone to

(81) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 66 maintain the population and Sumatran tiger is also the last species of Indonesia and one of the last six subspecies of tiger in the world that survives today. Sumatran tiger cannot be blamed for killing two people, Sumatran tiger is only a victim of the complicated problem of deforestation. The tiger lost its habitat, food, and home due to the massive environmental destruction. To maintain the sustainability of Sumatran tiger everyone must be involved, BKSDA and government cannot face this problem by themselves. Navicula creates the song in order to help maintain the population through media, especially to inform the young generation about the danger of environmental destruction can affect the life of the forest species. Discussing about the other forest species, Navicula also creates another song about endangered animal that included to Navicula’s campaign, orangutan. Orangutan is considered as the herbivorous great ape located in Asia especially in Indonesia. Orangutan has two subspecies in Indonesia, Bornean orangutan and Sumatran orangutan that live based on the location of orangutan. Orangutan also belongs to an endemic and also endangered animal that need to be rescued due to the habitat destruction in the wild life. Orangutan becomes the umbrella species that indirectly maintain and protect many other species in its ecological community and habitat of tropical rain forest.109 Orangutan also plays an important role for tropical rain forest regeneration through fruits and seeds natural processor in orangutan. 109 P. G. Siregar, J. Supriatna, R. H. Koestoer, and D. Harmantyo, "Assessment and mapping of tradeoffs land uses in the Orangutan habitat: A case Pongo pygmeus pygmeus habitat of West Kalimantan." AIP Conference Proceeding 1862. 1 (2017).; (2) Wanda Kuswanda, and Sriyanti Puspita Barus, "Diversity and Determination of Wildlife ‘Umbrella Species' in the Gunung Leuser National Park." Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea 6. 2 (2017): 113-123.

(82) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 67 The presence of orangutans has an important role for many animals and plantations in tropical rain forest. The orangutan cruising range can reach to 100km during its life time. From its cruising range, the process of rain forest conservation can be seen from orangutan throwing the seeds and the leftovers to the forest.110 It means that orangutan becomes a buffer for other animals, in other words if orangutan becomes extinct, it affects to another non-human living organism. Sumatran and Bornean orangutan have included to critically endangered animals based on the IUCN red list. The preservation of orangutan is needed to maintain the population against the various threats of its life and habitat of orangutan. Navicula brings music as a medium to increase the awareness about the importance of orangutan to maintain the sustainability of tropical rain forest. Navicula releases single entitled “Orangutan” from Love Bomb album in order to remind people about the life and threat to orangutan that soon to be a legend. “Orangutan” becomes an important part of revealing the pattern of Navicula uses song as a medium to help non-human living organism. Orangutan muda, rumahnya dibelantara, Dijaga papa dan mama yang kemarin masih ada. Kini tiada… Orangutan muda diculik perambah rimba Dibawa paksa ke kota, jadi hiburan manusia Terpenjara… Ike Nayasilana, Utami Atmoko, and N. Andayani, “Analisis Vegetasi di Habitat Orangutan, Stasiun Penelitian Ketambe, Taman Nasional Gunung Leuser, Aceh Tenggara” [Analysis of Vegetation in Orangutan Habitat, Ketambe Research Station, Gunung Leuser National Park, Southeast Aceh]. BIOSITE| BIOLOGI Sains Terapan 1. 1 (2015). 110

(83) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 68 Navicula starts the song with the illustration of a young orangutan that live in the forest “Young orangutan, his house in the wilderness…” Navicula depicts the young orangutan is guarded by its parents yesterday, the word yesterday stands for the time before the hunters kill the old orangutan. The hunters kidnap the young orangutan to the town for sale and the young orangutans are valuable pets for the moneybags “Young orangutans are kidnapped by the loggers… Forced to go to the city, becomes human’s entertainment…” Navicula realizes that orangutan becomes prisoners rather than animal where the orangutan lives in the city. Orangutan gila karena manusia gila Tak betah tinggal di kota, dia rindu habitatnya Di rimba… Navicula potrays another reality that the orangutan does not feel happy to live in the town. Orangutan becomes crazy because of the human attitude that crazier than the orangutan itself as seen in the line “Orangutan becomes crazy because humans also crazy…” Making orangutan as pets is the fact that people are crazier than orangutan, orangutan must live in the forest to maintain the sustainability of the forest itself. Orangutan becomes crazy because the orangutan cannot live its life the same as the orangutan live in the forest. Orangutan shows its crazy behaviour as an effect of longing its home and habitats in the forest through the lines “Feel not at home in the city, he missed his habitat… In the jungle...” Orangutan murka mengamuk serang manusia Manusia bawa senjata, orangutan tertawa Terbang ke surga…

(84) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 69 Orangutan becomes angry and attacking the human due to the human treatment to orangutan. Navicula illustrates the respon from the human by carrying the gun and killing the orangutan. The act of killing can be seen from the last line that orangutan goes to heaven as the effect of the human act. In this part, the act of laugh can be translated to a satire for the people due to the quality of solution how to treat a crazy orangutan. Killing an orangutan becomes a solution without knowing the problem of the orangutan itself. Orangutan becomes crazy because of the treatment of the human, the habitat of orangutan is in the forest. Orangutan will extinct and becomes a legend if human still use gun to solve the problem of orangutan. C. The Movement of Navicula to the Environmental Destruction The environment can be categorized as all external factors that affect life and all activities that carried out by humans, animals and plants. The environment where the function can be seen in the explanation in previous discussion has been threatened by humans to fulfill their need and satisfy their greed in order to survive in this world. The statement above is a fact that cannot be denied. Humans do not realize about the reality that in exploiting and polluting the nature they often forget to think about the balance of the nature itself. The effect of those activities can be seen from the previous analyses such as environmental pollution and also forest destruction.111 Environmental destruction can occur due to the natural events. However, human 111 The result of those destructions affecting other damages such as the landslide on the hill as the result of erotion, the loss of trees that creating oxygen for humans.

(85) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 70 activities and behaviours is the main factor causing the damage such as deforestation, pollution, and also exploitation to all living organisms. Humans have over exploited the environment for the sake of their needs without taking care about the situation for their future generations. From the reality, this makes humans are believed to be over consumption towards the environment. Navicula takes the position to save the environment from the human’s over consumption through the song entitled “Over Konsumsi” [Over Consumption]. The song entitled “Over Konsumsi” [Over Consumption] from Salto album becomes the action from Navicula to maintain and save the environment. Navicula believes that the song can be a medium to voice the environmental problems in Indonesia. This song becomes one of many actions from Navicula in maintaining the environment. The content of this song is mostly related to the action to save the environment, even though the previous analyses also show Navicula’s other efforts. Lautku yang biru, Tubuhmu yang beku menghampiriku Langitku yang biru, selimut kelabu membungkusmu Matahari, cahyamu… seperti membakar hari-hariku Navicula shows the introduction of this song by illustrating the changes that happen in the world as the effect of the environmental destruction. Navicula tries to illustrate the condition of the sea and the ice continent has melted due to the climate change as seen in the lines “My blue sea… Your frozen body approached me…” The problems of climate change become the concern of Navicula voicing the environmental destruction as seen in other lines “My blue sky, gray blanket

(86) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 71 wrapped around you… The sun, your light... like burning my days…” Navicula shows the reality that the sky has turned into gray as the result of the air pollution from the factories and the over consumption of fuel and another emission. Navicula also describes that the light of the sun has burned people due to the depletion of the ozon that makes the light of the sun directly hit the people without any filtering from the atmosphere. Di sini, negeriku sayang Hutannya hilang, bencana datang Nelayan dan petani rugi Karena iklim tak berteman lagi Penguasa jagalah dunia Bumi kita, rumah kita bersama Navicula depicts another situation of the environmental destruction from Indonesia through the deforestation problem that can create a disaster as seen in the lines “Here, my beloved country… The forest is gone, disaster is coming…” The disasters such as landslide and flashfloods are the examples of the massive deforestation in Indonesia.112 Fishers and Farmers become the victim of the climate change that make their harvests greatly reduced. The climate change can affect the harvest due to the climate change that can create the planting season and also Budi Nahaba, “Kurang Serius Atasi Deforestasi, Aceh Kembali Dilanda Banjir Dan Longsor” [Less Serious to Overcome Deforestation, Aceh Hit by Floods and Landslides again]. VOA Indonesia, 2015, www.voaindonesia.com/a/kurang-serius-atasi-deforestasi-aceh-kebali-dilandabanjir-dan-longsor/2728560.html. Accessed 16 October 2018. 112

(87) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 72 harvesting season.113 Navicula voices their action through the lines “Sovereigns maintain the world… Our Earth, Our home together…” Navicula wants the world’s sovereigns to realize that this destruction ruins the Earth as our home, if the Earth is gone, where we can find another home to live because we only have one Earth so far. Amerika, kurangi emisi gasmu Jerman juga, hentikan agro-kimia Jepang Cina, harusnya jaga Asia Kita semua, telah over konsumsi Navicula starts their action by mentioning many countries that creating the climate change in this world. Navicula mentions Unites states of America as the first country that must be reduced their gas emissions to save the environment especially the ozone as seen in the line “America, reduce your gas emissions…” The next country is Germany, Navicula mentions this country in order to stop their agrochemical due to the chemicals that can create the destruction to the soil as seen in the line “Germany too, stop agrochemicals…” Japan and China are also mentioned by Navicula in order to join the action to save the environment. Navicula thinks that people become over consumption and destroying their environment. Di sini, Indonesia... Hutannya hilang, bencana datang Juli Rahaju, “Dampak Perubahan Iklim Terhadap Usaha Apel Di Kecamatan Poncokusumo Kabupaten Malang” [The Impact of Climate Change on Apple Business in Poncokusumo District, Malang Regency]. AGROMIX 5. 1 (2017).; (2) Ary Wahyono, “Ketahanan Sosial Nelayan: Upaya Merumuskan Indikator Kerentanan [Vulnerability] Terkait Dengan Bencana Perubahan Iklim” [Fishermen's Social Resilience: Efforts to Formulate Vulnerability Indicators Related to Climate Change Disasters]. Masyarakat Indonesia 42. 2 (2017): 185-199. 113

(88) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 73 Penguasa, awasi dia… Mafia kayu tak tahu malu Yeah... Yeah... Yeah... Navicula explains again about deforestation as one of many environmental destructions in Indonesia that can cause many disasters. Navicula asks the sovereign to watch the shameless mafia of woods that create the environmental destruction because of the massive deforestation as seen in the lines “Sovereign, watch him… Shameless wood mafia…” Navicula mentions other mafias in Indonesia as seen in this song, the mafia of woods. Selamatkan diri kita Dari diri kita sendiri In the end of this song, Navicula asking all people to save themselves as seen in the lines “Save ourselves… From ourselves…” Navicula shows the action by asking people to save themselves from their behaviour of destructing the environment for their needs and greeds. Navicula states that people’s behaviour will destroy the people through the disaster as the effect of the environmental destruction. Over consumption becomes the reason of Navicula proves their persistence in voicing the environmental destruction not only creating song but also joining the real action as a proof of their seriousness. Navicula proves their seriousness and persistence in fighting against environmental criminals by joining Greenpeace to campaign for a number of issues

(89) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 74 including rescuing tigers and fight against the expansion of oil palm plantations.114 Navicula also proves their totality by not stopping only as a symbol or a sign of activist, but they also directly involved in the campaign like in Papua where joining Greenpeace's Rainbow Warrior ship exploring Indonesia with a green campaign mission.115 Navicula argues that saving the environment is not only criticizing but also giving an opinion including solution. Navicula thinks that music can be a medium to gather a mass that suitable with eastern culture as seen in Indonesian society.116 Navicula shows the action to save the environment through some parts of the songs from the beginning of this chapter. The song entitled “Dead Trees” from Tatap Muka album becomes the medium from Navicula to the young generation to save the environtment, not only criticizing but also campaigning to save the environment.The song also becomes an ode for the souls of the fallen trees and also a message to the young generation. Friends from the forest are calling me I’m hearing them scream they want to be free I want to stand with them and the tall trees For it will be gone tomorrow 114 The action of rescuing tigers can be seen from their journey in Kepak Sayap Enggang Tur Mata Harimau Seri Kalimantan and also the analysis of “Harimau! Harimau! (A Tale of the Last Sumatran Tiger)” [Tiger! Tiger!] 115 Achmad Ibo, “Cerita Relawan Saat Ikut Kapal Rainbow Warrior GreenpeaceJelajahi Nusantara” [Volunteer Stories When Joining Greenpeace's Rainbow Warrior Ship Explore the Archipelago]. Liputan6.Com, 2018, https://www.liputan6.com/lifestyle/read/3480660/cerita-relawan-saat-ikutkapal-rainbow-warrior-greenpeace-jelajahi-nusantara. Accessed 13 Oct 2018. 116 "Robi Navicula: Semua Masalah ada Solusinya” [Robi Navicula: All Problems Have Solutions]. Balebengong, 2015, https://balebengong.id/kabar/robi-navicula-semua-masalah-ada-solusinya.html?lang=id. Accessed 24 Oct 2018.

(90) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 75 The introduction of this song tells about the anxiety of the living creature inside the forest as seen in the lines “Friends from the forest are calling me… I’m hearing them scream they want to be free...” This song also becomes the culmination of animal anxiety from “Orangutan” song until “Harimau! Harimau! (A Tale of the Last Sumatran Tiger)” [Tiger! Tiger!] song. Navicula wants to stand with the living creature who live in the forest because the forest will be gone tomorrow as the result of deforestation that happens in Indonesia as seen in the lines “I want to stand with them and the tall trees… For it will be gone tomorrow…” The meaning of the stand in the line means that they want to fight against the sovereign who become the logger. Don’t tell me there’s nothing to say Nature is not something you can throw away It’s wrong to believe there’s time to act tomorrow Today is now tomorrow Navicula describes the criticism is about the action to save the environment and the ecosystem inside. Navicula states that the people must care and take an action to the environment because it is an important factor of people’s life as seen in the lines “I want to stand with them and the tall trees… For it will be gone tomorrow…” Navicula also refuses the slogan on the time to act is tomorrow in the line “It’s wrong to believe there’s time to act tomorrow…” Navicula thinks that today is the representation of tomorrow. When the people do not start to take an action, it will be late to wait until tomorrow because environmental destruction do not understand the meaning of waiting until tomorrow.

(91) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 76 I feel something wrong is happening today People are moving so fast they’re losing their way I understand what we think and believe in today can affect tomorrow Navicula continues the song by seeing the mistakes of human being nowadays as seen in the line “I feel something wrong is happening today…” Navicula thinks that the massive change of globalization affects people and makes them blind and losing their way of being a living creature who need nature to survive. Navicula makes the audience to imagine about the effect of tomorrow is the result of our behaviour and action, they try to persuade the audience when the decision is taken by the people, it will affect in the future. And can you find peace of mind, the end could be today You choose your way, the games you play, it’s up to you Navicula shows an illustration again to make the audience to imagine about the end of the environment and the ecosystem. Navicula asking the audience about the situation when it is possible or not for people find the peace of mind when the environment is being exploited as seen in the line “And can you find peace of mind, the end could be today…” Navicula depicts another interesting illustration about the way, game, and decision as seen in the line “You choose your way, the games you play, it’s up to you…” The line illustrates about people’s decision that people will choose to continue the environment destruction until the disaster comes or stop the destruction and save the environtment for the next generation, it depends on the people itself. They left me a sign to help me find,

(92) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 77 Cause they’re running out of time Oh, my friend, I know you are watching me… Navicula illustrates the environment left a sign to them to be fixed because the environment do not have enough time as seen in the lines “They left me a sign to help me find… Cause they’re running out of time…” The meaning of the lines is very pathetic to face the reality that the environment is really running out of time. The meaning on the sign is actually the action from the people to save the environment from the massive destruction. Navicula realizes that the environment is waiting for the action from people to save them, the environment and the ecosystem inside. Dead trees marking my way, it all disappears, that’s why I’m here I keep finding my way, so that one day My darling we’ll walk through the green In the end of the song, Navicula describes about the hope and the solution to overcome the problems. Navicula illustrates the dead trees as a sign or symbol of the forest destruction because of the deforestation. The meaning of Navicula’s presence in the song is the action from Navicula to save the forest or even the environment as seen in the line “Dead trees marking my way, it all disappears, that’s why I’m here…” Navicula shows the action to save the environtment to prove their friends in the forest that someday they will return to their home as seen in the lines “I keep finding my way, so that one day… My darling we’ll walk through the green…” The meaning of the lines is more than the animal’s saving, but it is about the action from Navicula to save the whole environment.

(93) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 78 D. Navicula’s Attitude and Ideology behind the Song Lyrics Mixing music and ideology is considered as unpopular and even taboo for music industry. Musicians must follow the market in order to make profits and popularity to survive in the music industry. However, there are some music groups who use their music as a medium to voice their ideology. One of them is Navicula. This band is considered as one of the most vigorous bands in conducting campaigns on the environment. They are not only producing songs and talking about the danger of environmental destruction in social media but also giving permissions to some environmental institution to use their songs for free.117 Navicula argues that producing songs is not enough to voice the campaign, so they decide to go directly to the field to see Indonesian nature and how humans destroy it. Navicula uses music as a medium to increase people’s awareness on how important forest and nature are as the most important natural resources for human being. Navicula has produced many songs in relation to raise people’s awareness to the environment starting from Alkemis album in 2005. There are two of many movements from Navicula that can be seen from their songs entitled “Orangutan” and “Harimau! Harimau! (A Tale of the Last 117 Jaya Lim, "Belajar Peduli Lingkungan Bersama Navicula” [Learning to Care to the Environment with Navicula]. News, 2012, http://indonesiakreatif.bekraf.go.id/iknews/belajar-peduli-lingkunganbersama-navicula/. Accessed 29 Nov 2018. Navicula gives their songs for free in order to help the organization campaign their concern about the issue such as “Busur Hujan” [Rain Bow], “Harimau! Harimau! (A Tale of the Last Sumatran Tiger)”, and “Orangutan.” The song “Busur Hujan” [Rain Bow] is used by Greenpeace to voice their corncern about environmental destruction. The song “Harimau! Harimau! (A Tale of the Last Sumatran Tiger)” is used by several organizations from Greenpeace to local organization in Borneo to campaign about the endangered animal, tiger, the song brings Navicula to join the tour called Kepak Sayap Enggang, Tur Mata Harimau Seri Kalimantan. The last song “Orangutan” is used by several organizations especially The Centre for Orangutan Protection (COP), Navicula also joins the charity concert from this organization called Sound for Orangutan (SPO).

(94) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 79 Sumatran Tiger).” The song “Orangutan” and “Harimau! Harimau! (A Tale of the Last Sumatran Tiger)” become the evidence that Navicula really notices environmental destruction as a serious issue. Navicula sees that mainstream media filter too much on the deforestation issues, so they decided to go directly to the field to witness the truth.118 Navicula also releases music video for the song “Orangutan” as a series of Orangutan events in collaboration between Akarrumput.com, Sawit Watch, and WALHI Bali entitled Suara untuk Alam II which were held in December 17, 2011 in Bali. The sources of the music video are taken from the various footages from Green the Film, a documentary film made by Patrick Rouxel. “Orangutan” also brings Navicula to win the Planetrox International Band competition and they have the opportunity to perform at Envol et Macadam Music Festival in Quebec, Canada, September 7-8, 2012. This opportunity is one of many ways for Navicula to bring orangutan and deforestation issues as a global concern all around the world. Navicula argues that being a musician and creating a song to voice the campaign about environmental destruction is not enough. Another campaign from Navicula finally takes a serious action by releasing a public funding project for Borneo Tour in Kickstarter.com. Navicula also brings orangutan as a campaign symbol on their tour. Navicula also joined Greenpeace and other communities such as Wahana Lingkungan Hidup (Walhi) and Aliansi Masyarakat Adat Nusantara (AMAN) to “Mata Najwa: Peduli Orangutan Band Navicula Rela Keliling Kalimantan dengan Sepeda Motor” [Mata Najwa Video: Care for Orangutan, Navicula Willing to Take a Tour to Kalimantan by Motorbike]. Metrotvnews.Com, 2017, http://video.metrotvnews.com/mata-najwa/0kpJ2ZRNpeduli-orangutan-band-navicula-rela-keliling-kalimantan-dengan-sepeda-motor. Accessed 29 Nov 2018. 118

(95) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 80 create a big tour entitled Kepak Sayap Enggang, Tur Mata Harimau Seri Kalimantan crossing three provinces in Borneo (South, Central and West). In this tour, Navicula meets indigenous groups who have conflicts with mining companies and palm oil companies. Navicula also carries the footage of the tour to Sound for Orangutan concert where this concert is a form of fund raising to save orangutan organized by Centre for Orangutan Protection (COP). The song entitled “Harimau! Harimau! (A Tale of the Last Sumatran Tiger)” becomes another evidence of Navicula in order to voice the campaign of environmental destruction in Indonesia. The music video for this song is directed by Riri Riza, one of the famous directors in Indonesia. This song is not only explaining about endangered species but also describing a massive destruction on Indonesian forest as the result of humans’ greed in consuming the environment. Navicula brings this song to the next level by signing Tiger Manifesto in Protect Paradise campaign in November, 2013.119 Navicula’s action becomes one of many examples from musicians to show their awareness about the environmental destruction as to alert the government to take actions. Navicula shows their attitudes and awareness by joining Kepak Sayap Enggang, Tur Mata Harimau Seri Kalimantan. The other action from Navicula in voicing the environmental destruction issue is by campaigning about environmental destruction in every concert. The government cannot stop environmental 119 Jay Fajar, "[Navicula Releases Music Video Harimau! Harimau!]" Mongabay Environmental News, 2014,http://www.mongabay.co.id/2014/07/07/navicula-rilis-video-klip-harimau-harimau/. Accessed 29 Nov 2018.

(96) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 81 destruction in Indonesia at least in the last ten years. Hence, the analysis on the song lyrics above related to the latest condition of Indonesian’s environment. To sum up this chapter, Navicula raises these problems as the results of the massive environmental destruction in Indonesia. The nickname pinned on Navicula as the Green Grunge Gentlemen is not without reasons. Navicula wants to challenge the unresolved environmental destruction in Indonesia through their songs. The album entitled Earthship120 shows that 22 years is not enough to campaign on environmental issues. The action of Navicula who wants to challenge the unresolved environmental destruction can be seen through the analyses above such as “Kali Mati” [The Dead River], “Zat Hijau Daun” [The Chlorophyll], “Over Konsumsi” [Over Consumption], “Bubur Kayu” [Wood Pulp], “Orangutan”, “Metropolutan”, “Harimau! Harimau! (A Tale of the Last Sumatran Tiger)” [Tiger! Tiger!], “Lagu Sampah” [The Waste Song], “Ibu” [Mother], and “Dead Trees” as the culmination of Navicula’s effort to challenge the unresolved environmental destruction in Indonesia. Navicula argues that creating song about the environment is not enough to save the environment. One of the examples can be seen on Navicula’s effort in saving Indonesian environment through a serious campaign to the center of the forest problems in Indonesia, Borneo.121 Navicula argues that music and song can be used as media to deliver the environmental destruction messages to Indonesian society and to create social changes on environmental perspectives, the example 120 Earthship is the latest album from Navicula which released in October, 2018. Kepak Sayap Enggang Tur Mata Harimau Seri Kalimantan is the evidence that Navicula take an action to the environmental problems, not only criticizing through the songs. 121

(97) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 82 can be seen through many direct actions from Navicula such as joining environmental organization in potraying the reality of the environment, performing in charity concert to save orangutan, and also giving songs to many organizations as a media for campaign. Through the songs, Navicula hopes that the songs can trigger people’s awareness to save the environment from the destruction.

(98) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER IV NAVICULA’S CRITICISM TO SOCIAL INJUSTICE IN INDONESIA AS REVEALED IN ITS NAVICULA’S SONG LYRICS This chapter presents the analysis and discussion of the second topic in this study. The question is how Navicula song lyrics challenge unresolved social injustice in Indonesia. The answer of the question will be answered and discussed in this chapter. This chapter is divided into three main discussions. The first discussion starts from the criticism to the mafias and the representative people in Indonesia in the songs entitled “Mafia Hukum” [Mafia of Law], “Mafia Medis” [Medical Mafia],122 and “Dagelan Penipu Rakyat” [People's Deception Comedy]123 The second discussion moves to the bigger social issues in Indonesia which is the human rights activists assassination case, in this case Navicula choose Munir as the representation of the unfinished human rights activist case as seen in several songs i.e. “Refuse to Forget”, “Bekas Luka” [Scar],124 and “Biarlah Malaikat” [Let the Angel].125 The last discussion focuses on the struggle of class social as the effect of environmental destruction in Indonesia as seen in the song “Kartini”.126 Navicula – Love Bomb Album (2013) Navicula – Earthship (2018) 124 Navicula – Tatap Muka Album (2015) 125 Navicula – Earthship (2018) 126 Single from Navicula in order to support Kendeng’s farmer to go against the construction of a cement factories in Rembang and Pati, Central Java, Indonesia. 122 123 83

(99) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 84 A. Mafias and the People Representatives in Indonesia There are many social issues that appear in society as the result of conflict between culture and human being in a certain period of time. Some certain social issues could be problems in a certain region, but perhaps not in other areas. Social issues emerge from several factors, i.e., discrepancy between social values and the social act, the minority interests exceed the majority, miscarriage of social control in society, culture, psychology, etc. There are many examples of social issues that happened in Indonesia such as poverty, human overpopulation, social and economy gap, environmental issue, and also social justice gap. The next section will be started from the control of Mafia in Indonesia where everything can be traded under Mafias’ control. This section starts with the social issue related to medical problem. The news about medical malpractice had been spread as a result of dissatisfaction of one hospital's service located in Tangerang, Banten. The social movement called “Koin Untuk Prita” is the result of people’s disappointment about the court decision to Prita Mulyasari, an Indonesian housewife and also a patient at at Omni International Hospital in Tangerang, who was misdiagnosed about her illness in 2008.127 There are many bands from many genres support this social movement and create a charity concert named Konser Koin Untuk Keadilan.128 127 Muhammad Anshari and Mohammad Nabil Almunawar, "Evaluating CRM implementation in healthcare organization." arXiv preprint arXiv: 1204.3689 (2012). 128 ID, Nugroho, “Silver and Stars at Charity Concert.” Jakarta Post, 2009. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2009/12/29/silver-and-stars-charity-concert.html Accessed 7 December 2017

(100) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 85 Navicula is one of many bands which supports Prita by creating a song named “Mafia Medis” [Medical Mafia]. The song comes from the seventh album called Love Bomb which was released in 2013. This song tells about the conspiration of the medical department and the staffs about the issues in 2009 about “Koin Untuk Prita.” Terbius senyum palsumu aku pasrahkan Ikuti apa saja yang kau suntikkan Tubuh ini tak terima, kau tak peduli Dengan halus kau memerasku tuk terus membeli Aku terdiam Aku orang awam Navicula writes the song lyric as the result of the social injustice in medical issue. Navicula illustrates the situation when she obedients to the injection and the medicine although the doctor does not give the right medicine to the patient as seen in the lines “Drugged on your fake smile I gave up… Follow whatever you inject… This body doesn't accept, you don't care…” It can be seen from the story of Prita that she distrusts about the doctor who gives her many injection without permission and the problem about the lab’s result, revision about lab result. The result from laboratory should be clear and there is no revision about the result.129 Navicula criticizes the respond of the hospital about the false diagnose and make the patient “InIlah Curhat yang Membawa Prita ke Penjara” [The Confidence That Brings Prita to Prison]. Kompas.com, 2009. https://megapolitan.kompas.com/read/2009/06/03/1112056/inilah.curhat.yang.membawa.prita.ke.p enjara Accessed 2 February 2018. 129

(101) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 86 should pay more money as the result of her innocent as seen in the lines “You smoothly blackmail me to keep buying… I was silent… I'm a layman…” Ada iblis yang sembunyi di jubah suci Aku silau dengan cahaya di ranjang neraka Diagnosa yang ku tanya, ku tak mengerti Sambil menahan derita, ku pendam curiga The next section deals with the medical department in Prita’s case. Navicula shows the protest through the potrayed of evil behind the holy uniform, the white jacket and the bed in the hospital is described as hell due to the false diagnose that can create death, the illustration can be seen in the lines “There are demons hiding in holy robes… I glare with the light in the bed of hell…” The patient does not know about the effect of the malfunction because she is only a layman. Navicula also potrays the pain that she had and the feeling of suspicious about the service of the hospital as seen in the lines “Diagnosis that I’m asking, I don't understand… While holding back the pain, I was suspicious…” Mafia Medis… Kau bermain dengan nyawaku Kau bermain dengan nyawaku Kau bermain dengan nyawaku Oh tolong ingatlah sumpahmu… In the end of the song, Navicula mentions the name of medical mafia as the representation of business in the health service. Navicula also argues that medical mafia trifling with people’s life as seen in the line “You play with my life…”

(102) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 87 Navicula reminds the medical department especially the doctor to remember of their oats as a doctor as seen in the line “Oh please remember your oat...” Navicula knows that the oats of the doctor to be honest in front of the patient. To mention in passing, this depiction of medical department fiasco is’s also seen in Marjinal’s song lyric entitled “Benar-Benar Rumah Sakit” [The True Hospital]. Like Navicula, Marjinal criticized hospitals that ignore humanity in their action. Besides, the first point of Doctor’s Oath in Indonesia said: “I will maintain the utmost respect for human life.”130 However in the reality Marjinal sees this oath has been countered by business orientation. Business-oriented health services can be understood as a health services that put humanity under the money orientation. Marjinal captures the situation in the lines “Humanity does not need to be thought… If you have money then it is another matter… Humanity does not need to be thought… Hospitals pay first, the money is prioritized.” The tragedy about Prita creates another misdiagnosed medical case in Indonesia and also slashes the new wounds of the predecessors who become figure who pioneered the independence movement such as Dr. Tjipto Mangoenkoesoemo, Dr. Wahidin Soedirohoesodo, Dr. Soetomo, etc. On that era, they were not only treated patients but also tried to treat their nation from medical dilapidation and exploitation. 130 Agus Purwadianto, Broto Wasisto, and R. Sjamsuhidajat, "Penerapan Revisi Sumpah Dokter Terbaru oleh World Medical Association (WMA) di Indonesia” [Application of the Latest Doctor Oath Revision by World Medical Association (WMA) in Indonesia]. Jurnal Etika Kedokteran Indonesia 2. 1 (2018): 7.

(103) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 88 Health is the basic right of Indonesian people, even our constitution guarantees that. Still, on the reality, many health services still focus on the business orientation. Medicines do not only be produced for people interests, but also for profit purpose. Health services placed as a commodity, similar as court case in Indonesia. Law enforcement in Indonesia does not work properly due to the law that only run on the middle to lower class people. The injustice cases have become ordinary things, hence creating an apathetic society. Law enforcement is always followed by mafia issues in every court sector in Indonesia. Navicula creates two songs with “mafia” titles in order to inform their audience that there are many mafias in Indonesia, “Mafia Medis” [Medical Mafia] written as a criticism towards the health service case especially Prita’s case. The next song entitled “Mafia Hukum” [Mafia of Law] written as a form of protest to the unfinished legal case especially corruption in Indonesia. Korupsi... Korupsi... kata ini lagi Selalu menghantui negeri yang frustasi Korupsi... Korupsi... semakin menjadi Apapun terjadi diatas transaksi Corruption becomes the first word to be presented by Navicula as a form of protest to the massive case of corruption in Indonesia. Navicula presents the lines “Corruption… Corruption… This word again…” as a disgust of negative behaviour from Indonesian people, the frustrated country. Navicula sees corruption is the specter of a frustrated country, corruption can be formed in every transaction, it can

(104) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 89 be seen from many corruption cases in Indonesia are happened under some projects from Indonesian government. Tertangkap bercinta dihukum penjara Korupsi berjuta masih berkuasa Prinsip imprasial tak berlaku lagi Siapa punya modal takkan masuk bui Navicula tries to satirize Indonesian court by sentencing couple who caught making love but corrupting million rupiah still in charge in position, as seen in the lines “Caught making love sentenced to prison… Corruption of milllions are still in power...” The impartial principle no longer applies in Navicula opinion because there is no right equality for each person in the diversity background towards the justice. The effect of that principal creates an assumption that money or fund will save you from prison. Navicula sees this situation as a serious problem that need to be noticed to their audience, the danger of legal mafia that can create inequality for people. Mafia hukum Hukum saja Karna hukum tak mengenal siapa Navicula sees the case of legal mafia must be noticed as a serious issue. Legal mafia must be sentenced due to the impartial principle, justice must be upheld to gain equality among people. Navicula depicts the justice must be upheld in the lines “Because the law does not recognize who…” Mau lawan mereka, hati-hati saja

(105) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 90 Karena mereka dijaga buaya Buaya-buaya piaraan mafia Mafia-mafia isinya pengusaha The discussion moves to the warning from Navicula to anyone who tries to go against the legal mafia. The meaning of crocodile in the lines “Because they are guarded by crocodile… Crocodiles mafia’s pet…” remind of the Lizard vs Crocodile case several years ago, the case between KPK (Corruption Eradication Commission) and Indonesian National Police that creates a great shock in Indonesian justice.131 Navicula believes that many mafias come from the businessmen, the one who operates many cases of corruption in Indonesia. The result of the Lizard and Crocodile case can be seen in the efforts to criminalize the commissions of KPK (Corruption Eradication Commission) from Bibit Samad Riyanto, Chandra Hamzah, Abraham Samad, Bambang Widjojanto, Antasari Azhar, until the latest case to Novel Baswedan. Penguasaha-pengusaha kongsi dengan penguasa Walau sudah kaya masih kurang juga Hukum direkayasa hanya buat yang kaya Yang jadi korbannya, RAKYAT JELATA To legitimate the businessman power, they have relation with the sovereign. Navicula sees the businessman as a greedy character. Law can be manipulated only Ansori, “Analisis Yuridis Upaya Harmonisasi Antar Lembaga Penyidikan Tindak Pidana Korupsi di Indonesia [Juridical Analysis: Efforts to Harmonize Inter-Corruption Investigation Institutions in Indonesia.]" Keadilan Progresif 8. 2 (2017).; (2) Cindy Rizka Tirzani Koesoemo, “Eksistensi Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (Kpk) dalam Penanganan Penyidikan dan Penuntutan Tindak Pidana Korupsi” [The existence of the Corruption Eradication Commission (CEC) in Handling Investigation and Prosecution of Corruption Crimes]. Lex Crimen 6. 1 (2017). 131

(106) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 91 for the rich where the poor becomes the victim of the legal mafia as seen above where people are caught for making love and corrupting millions rupiah still in charge of their position. Navicula creates this song as a medium to criticize the condition in that era where the impartial principle does not build justice as a medium for people’s equality. The impartial principle to build justice also does not apply to the Indonesian people representatives. It can be seen from the discussion below. The parliaments like to deceive people to fulfil their needs on individual or political party, this is the reality that need to be noticed by Indonesian people. The discussion about the act of Indonesian people representative that like to deceive Indonesian people has led to the other department called Indonesian people’s representatives. This department becomes one of many factors who bring negative inheritance of spreading the lies to Indonesian people. Spreading lies becomes the characteristic of Indonesian people’s representatives nowadays. There are many conflict of interests in the department that create a stereotype to the Indonesian society. The history has recorded that Indonesian people’s representatives become the place where corruption and the other dirty behavior has infected this department for a long time.132 It needs to be questioned that this department has served and represented who in the Indonesian government so far. Navicula depicts this reality into the song entitled “Dagelan Penipu Rakyat” [People's Deception Comedy] as the representation of the department’s situation nowadays. 132 Supriyono, "Gagasan Penerapan Hukum Progresif Terhadap Pelaku Kejahatan Kerah Putih” [The Idea of Progressive Law Implementation for White Collar Crime]. Deviance Jurnal kriminologi 1. 1 (2017): 12-23.

(107) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 92 Kau gila! Bisa kau memutar logika massa Ku jadi gila Karena mencoba membuat waras dunia Navicula starts the song by creating a comparison between Navicula and the member of the House of Representative or known as The People's Representative Council of Indonesia. The member is characterized as an insane person due to the ability to play the logic to the mass such as turning the truth into error and vice versa as seen in the lines “You are crazy! You can play the mass’ logic…” Navicula depicts their characteristic as a person that turns crazy due to their effort to make world sane. Navicula becomes crazy as the result of their effort to make the world sane but in the same time the member can turn the effort becomes a futile thing due to the ability of playing logic. Penguasa… Suka manipulasi janji surga Etika… Integritas adalah sesuatu yang langka Navicula continues the discussion by criticizing the sovereigns by a satire that they like to give promises about heaven. In this case, the promises about heaven can lead to many political lies and also weapons to take people’s vote in the election. Navicula also criticizes about ethics and integrities of the sovereigns and also the

(108) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 93 members of the representative council that have so many issues at least in the last ten years.133 Ethics and integrities become the most important part of human development in Indonesia. Navicula becomes one example of many people who underestimate about the ethics and integrities through their song in this section. The distrust of Navicula can cause a public ethics in society as a form of concern to the bad public services due to the conflict of interest and corruption. Conflict of interests involves many things in people’s lives such as money, facilities, political party, companies, or religious group as a form of abuse power.134 Bila gedung rakyat dijajah pendusta Maka hanya ada satu kata dari kita: LAWAN! To fight the depravity of people's representatives, Navicula asks the audience to counter the depravity of the representatives as a form resistance. Navicula presupposes the representative building colonized by the liars, the reality is worse than the presupposition. The people's representative council has been invaded by the rats and liars that undermine the people rights, many decisions do not favor the people but only for their associates. Mencuri… Tapi penjaga hukum yang dibui 133 Leonard Cahyoputra, "Kinerja DPR Masih Rendah” [DPR performance is still low]. Tribunnews.com, 2013, http://www.tribunnews.com/nasional/2013/04/13/kinerja-dpr-masihrendah. Accessed 4 Oct 2018. 134 Johannes Haryatmoko, Etika Publik Untuk Integritas Pejabat Publik Dan Politisi [Public Ethics for the Integrity of Public Official and Politician]. (Jakarta: Gramedia, 2011), pp. 80-99.

(109) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 94 Curi lagi… Ada 1000 celah yang kau miliki Stealing becomes one of many problems about social injustice in Indonesia, Navicula mentions the word in order to remind people about the danger of corruption that become the main problem in Indonesia. Navicula mentions the problem of corruption in Love Bomb album which released in 2013, it means that Navicula sees corruption as problems that must be raised on their new album in Earthship. Navicula refuses to forget about the tragedy when many leaders of Indonesia’s Corruption Eradication Commission criminalized by the sovereign and also the mafias as seen in the lines “But the law guard is imprisoned…” The criminalization process of the commission starts from Antasari Azhar’s case until Novel Baswedan’s case.135 Navicula believes that the corruptor and the mafias have thousand gaps to steal people’s money after the criminalization case and Navicula needs to take an action to this issue by creating song in their latest album. B. Munir Case as the Representation of Unresolved Human Rights Pancasila, the Indonesian fundamental ideology is formulated by the ancestor in order to develop the foundation for Indonesian people. Pancasila becomes the guide from the the beginning of Indonesian independence until the reformation era that the principles contain the hope for Indonesia's future as stated in the opening of UUD 1945 which said “protect the entire Indonesian people and all of Indonesia's bloodshed and to advance public welfare, educate the life of the 135 Saldi Isra, Feri Amsari, and Hilaire Tegnan, "Obstruction of justice in the effort to eradicate corruption in Indonesia." International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice 51 (2017): 72-83.; (2) H. R. Mufti, and B. Kanumayoso, "KPK and the commitment of the Indonesian government to eradicate corruption (2004–2014)." Cultural Dynamics in a Globalized World. (2017): 29-35.

(110) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 95 nation, and participate in carrying out world order that based on freedom, eternal peace and social justice.” However, the reality in Indonesia is different today, the spirit of Pancasila is now starting to dissapear from Indonesian civilization. Social justice is no longer manifested in Indonesian civilization, this can be seen from the legal context and the practice in Indonesia. The implementation of justice in Indonesia is non existence longer exist, this can be seen from the law that can be arranged due to the amount of money and power. Social justice for all Indonesian people seems to have not been applied in Indonesia due to some factors, one of them is the dehumanization case on Munir assassination. Munir Said Thalib or known as Munir is a human rights activist who died in September 7th, 2004, a month before the inauguration of President-election Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono. Munir struggled to advocate victims of violence, crime, even murder, especially during the New Order regime led by Suharto. For the sake of expressing all the reality of truth and justice from various sources which he analyzed from such as victims, friends, and relatives of victims who affected by the dehumanization case, Munir often get threats and terrors against himself and his family. The case of Munir is one of the cases that has caught the attention of music artists in Indonesia, there have been many voices of change made by artists such as Efek Rumah Kaca, Iwan Fals, Homicide, Merah Bercerita, Superman Is Dead, Efek Rumah Kaca, and also Navicula. Navicula released a song entitled “Refuse To

(111) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 96 Forget” in order to inform the audience that Munir still exists and multiplies everywhere. I can see your bloody past Reflected on poison glass You tried to hide this in the sky But we learned how to fly The unfinished case of Munir becomes a motivation for Navicula to write the song entitled “Refuse To Forget” to support for the alleviating Munir’s case. Navicula tries to potray the atmosphere by remembering the tragedy that reflected on a poison glass, the medium full of arsenic poison to assasinate Munir on his flight to Amsterdam. Some people are trying to hide the fact about the death of Munir, however Navicula potrays the lines “But we learned how to fly” as an affirmation that people will find the truth behind the death of Munir. History is all the same Seeds of change, laced with pain Even if I lose my voice, I still have a choice I refuse to forget Navicula sees the reality that history at the basic level is the same, the seeds of change will be mixed with the pain. It means that the truth and change will wade

(112) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 97 through obstacle in the form of pain or even dead bodies. The next line contains an interesting discussion about the voice and choice: “Even if I lose my voice… I still have a choice… I refuse to forget…” Navicula wants to emphasize the meaning of voice and choice as a musician and also activist to fight for the Munir’s case. Voice and choice are related each other, it can be seen on some situations where some activists will be silenced when they have choice to voice and find the right and equality for people.136 Navicula tries to depict the situation in the song, even in the future where the voice will be silenced, they have choice on Munir’s case that refuse to forget the case. Hide the truth with buried bones All that’s left are broken homes Vultures eat his frozen flesh His soul will never rest Navicula criticizes the dirty way to hide the truth by assassinating human rights defender and burying the truth with the buried bones. Navicula also argues how the suspect rip the rights in Indonesia by illustrating the death ceremony in Mongolia as seen in the line “Vultures eath his frozen flesh…” However, Navicula believes that the soul of human rights defender will never rest and they will ask for the justice even though the struggle will be continued by the other activists including Navicula. 136 The unfinished and unresolved dehumanization cases of Marsinah and Udin become the representation of the case above in responding the song.

(113) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 98 Stealing, killing, spreading lies One man dies, millions rise You can’t tell us where to go Or what not to know I refuse to forget To convince the serious situation about the danger of being the human rights defender, Navicula illustrates another situation happened in the shift of New Order era to Reform era. “Stealing, killing, spreading lies…” the lines represents the events that happened before and also in the transition of New Order era.137 Stealing represents the situation where many activists are kidnapped and killed in order to silence the chaos in that era. Spreading lies means that Indonesian government in that era were spreading lies in order to hide the assassination towards the human rights defenders and also activists. However, Navicula believes of what Munir statement that one man dies, million people will rise as the result of assassinating the activist. The meaning of million people will rise can be understood as the other Munir will rise to voice and fight for the human rights, Munir Munir did not die, Munir still existed and multiplied everywhere. The reform government era creates a space towards the musicians, the activists and also the human rights defender to speak up of the silence. Navicula believes that Indonesian people cannot be lied to believe what the government said, they realize that people refuse to forget about the 137 The case that represents the action of stealing, killing, and spreading lies can be seen from the unresolved Marsinah case as a perfect combination for the lines in New Order era.

(114) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 99 tragedy that takes a lot of lives, this is the time to rise and fight about the social injustice in the society. Navicula continues to voice about the dehumanization case of Munir by releasing another song for Munir entitled “Bekas Luka” [Scar]. Navicula tries to show the audience that the case of Munir is not finished even the perpetrator is arrested. The case of Munir must always be echoed to Indonesian people to remind them that the struggle is not finished, one of the ways is through this song. Sakit itu masih terasa Tlah ku coba lupa tapi tak bisa Ku bekap luka-luka lama Through the song entitled “Bekas Luka” [Scar] compiled in Tatap Muka album which released in 2015, Navicula tries to remind again on Munir’s tragedy in 2004. The tragedy has been discussed in the song “Refuse to Forget” in Salto album, however Navicula does not see the strong conclusion and releasing another song in order to remind the audience about Munir’s case. Navicula expressing the feeling of deep pain through the lines “This pain still feels…” and “I try to forget but I can't…” This lines creating a statement that the feeling of deep pain refers to the unfinished Munir’s case. The result of the deep pain makes Navicula only wipe the old wounds as a form of disappointment about the unfinished case as seen in the lines “I wiped the old wounds…” Waktu memang sembuhkan

(115) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 100 Tapi bekasnya tak kan bisa sirna Ku cerna maaf yang kau minta… Dariku… Navicula illustrating the condition that time will cure all the wound but the scars will remain the same forever. The illustration means that the time will cure or erase Munir’s tragedy in the future, but the scar will be left for those who have been wiped as seen in the lines “But the scars cannot disappear…” The lines also create meaning that the time will cure the wound, but Munir cannot back alive to the world. Then, Navicula are trying to digest the apology that the sovereign needs from the activists in the lines “I digest the apology that you asked... From me...” The activists do not need to ask an apology to those name that has been mentioned in the ongoing legal process. The purpose of the activists is only reminding the people to not forget the case of Munir. Bisa saja kau dustai dunia Tapi ku yakin hatimu tersiksa Entahlah… aku tak sanggup mengira Navicula argues about the possibility of the sovereign who lied to the world about the truth behind Munir’s assassination. However, Navicula believes that there must be a feeling of being tortured deep inside sovereign’s heart. This becomes an interesting discussion about the feeling of being tortured, there is no sovereign who feel of being tortured moreover killing the human rights activists. The assumption

(116) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 101 goes to two possibilities, the sovereign’s heart has died or the sovereign does not have heart for killing the human rights activists. Walau aku memaafkannya Bukan berarti ku melupakannya Pasti aku memaafkannya Semoga…kau tau artinya In the end of Navicula’s song “Bekas Luka” [Scar], Navicula gives messages about the Munir’s case in the lines “Even though I forgive him… Does not mean that I forget about it…” The message is clear that even though Navicula forgives about the case, it does not mean that Navicula will forget the case. Navicula hopes the sovereign will understand that justice must be upheld to create an equality treatment in front of the law. This song is dedicated to the unfinished Munir’s case, even though people will forgive but they will never forget about the case. The sovereign must be imprisoned to create justice for all societies because millions of apologies cannot bring Munir back to life. It seems that after being for almost fifteen years, Munir's root causes have not been completed. On Earthship, the latest navicula album, a track entitled “Biarlah Malaikat” [Let the Angels] becomes an antithesis for the process of justice enforcement on Novel Baswedan’s case, Navicula is inspired to write this song from Baswedan’s book entitled “Biarlah Malaikat yang Menjagaku.”138 However, 138 Faiq Hidayat, "Lagu 'Biarlah Malaikat', Navicula Terinspirasi Kasus Novel Baswedan" [Song “Let The Angel” Navicula is inspired of Novel Baswedan’s Case]. Detiknews, 2018,

(117) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 102 in this analysis, the use of the song “Biarlah Malaikat” [Let the Angels] can be seen also as the representation of discouragement from Navicula to the unresolved and unfinished case of Munir assassination. Aku heran, setelah sekian lama Tak ada tanda tanda keadilan tiba Aku tahu bukannya kau tak mampu Semua tahu karena kau tak mau The discussion about the unfinished Munir’s case reappears in the latest Navicula album entitled “Biarlah Malaikat” [Let the Angel] Fifteen years passed with uncertainty about the one who masterminded the Munir’s case. There are even no signs of justice even though the president has changed several years ago. Navicula shows their scepticism on the new president about the unfinished Munir’s case in the lines “I know it's not because you can't… Everyone knows because you don't want to…” The reality in the case shows that a new evidence can be used to continue on the Munir’s case.139 The problem of raising the Munir’s case lies on the number of conflicts of interest, there are many parties involved in this case. Bohong… Siapa yang bohong? Dikitari para ular, sang harimau ompong Haruskah kisah sandiwara tahta https://news.detik.com/berita/d-4325391/lagu-biarlah-malaikat-navicula-terinspirasi-kasus-novelbaswedan. Accessed 1 Dec 2018. 139 Taufiq Siddiq and Endri Kurniawati, “Polri Perlu Bukti Baru untuk Memproses Kembali Kasus Munir” [Indonesian Police: Need New Evidence to Process the Munir Case]. Tempo.co, 7 Sept. 2018, nasional.tempo.co/read/1124542/polri-perlu-bukti-baru-untuk-memproses-kembali-kasusmunir. Accessed 18 October 2018.

(118) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 103 Didominasi penipu, bukannya para ksatria The question is asked by Navicula about their statement that the president does not want to continue the case. Navicula describes that the tiger surrounded by the snakes. The snakes have many deceits to make the tiger roar like what it supposed to be, the forest king. The snakes refer to the bad politicians who have many negative characters and willing to sacrifice anything for their own benefit.140 The president becomes powerless due to the conflict of interests and the number of liars that surrounded him, he must be careful when taking a policy because of the conflict of interests. The irony of being a president in Indonesia can be seen on the presidential election, the presidential candidates must have political vehicles to win the election. The presidential candidates must coalesce with many political parties to win the election where the conflict of interests emerged in this situation. Coba, kasih tau aku Cara jitu tuk membuktikan cintaku Aku kasih hati, kau mau jantung Menungguku mati, baru kau berkabung Navicula is challenging people to show them the way how to express love to the human rights activists as seen in the lines “Try, tell me… The right way to prove my love…” Navicula feels that they find a dead end in order to voice Munir’s case, a lot of effort has been carried out but still the same. The lines “Waiting for me to die, then you mourn…” showing the fact that the government is dealing with Nur Rohim Yunus, “Etika Politik dan Moralitas Anggota Dewan” [Political Ethics and Morality of Board Members]. Mizan: Journal of Islamic Law 2. 2 (2018). 140

(119) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 104 nothing, the meaning of the lines also defines the way Indonesian government react to the issues. The government tends to mourn and they do not have a quick and right solution to overcome the issues. This section becomes a form of Navicula’s disappointment and discouragement to the government in human rights enforcement efforts. Biarlah… Malaikat yang menjagaku Dan, Biarlah… Waktu yang menghakimimu Navicula shows another feeling of discouragement in the lines “Let it be… The angel guarding me…” The lines mean that Navicula does not believe anyone in finishing the unfinished case, the assassination of Munir. The only hopes from Navicula addressed to the time that will reveal and dismantle all the truth in Munir’s case. The discouragement comes as a result of distrust to all institutions that cannot solve this problem due to the numbers of interest inside the case. C. Environmental Destruction to Social Injustice in Indonesia Environment and resources sometimes become a serious issue and grow into a conflict of interest in the society. Conflict of interest appears as a result of dead lock on the agreement in the environmental issues. Navicula also explains one of many reasons to fight for the people rights as a part of social injustice in Indonesia as seen in the lines.

(120) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 105 “We are interested in discussing social conflict, how custom society must defend their own land from the irresponsible development.”141 The resources will run out if the one who has an interest, company or government keeps exploit it continuously. The way the one get the resources will destroy other resources or ecosystem in the area of exploitation. Biological resources are the kind of renewable resources that need a long process to be renewed as well as a case of cement factory development in Kendeng Mountain, Central Java, Indonesia. The development of cement factory in Kendeng generates a prolonged conflict between two sides. On one side, Central Java governor Ganjar Pranowo gives development permit to a cement factory that has been rejected and it creates a controversy in society.142 On the other side, there are people who feel aggrieved from the Governor’s decision because he does not notice the need and misery of the people. Large scale of deforestation, water pollution, and no irrigation become another problem as a result of the decision. Many opinions from various circles must be seen as a public ignorance of unfinished conflict. The result can be seen from the demonstration of Kendeng female farmers, they put cement mixture on their feet as an evidence of cement factory rejection. Navicula tries to potray the Antaranews, "Navicula Membela Lingkungan dengan Bahasa Rock’N Roll” [Navicula Defends the Environment with Rock'n Roll Language]” Naviculamusic.com, 2012, http://www.naviculamusic.com/dev/antaranews-navicula-membela-lingkungan-dengan-bahasarockn-roll/. Accessed 28 Oct 2018. 142 Angling Adhitya Purbaya, “Jawa Tengah Terbitkan Izin Lingkungan Pabrik Semen di Rembang” [Central Java Provincial Government Issues Environmental Permit for Cement Factory in Rembang. Detiknews, 2017, news.detik.com/berita/d-3430804/pemprov-jateng-terbitkan-izin-lingkunganpabrik-semen-di-rembang. Accessed 14 October 2018. 141

(121) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 106 situations in term of a song entitled “Kartini” as a representation of Kartini’s struggle in this era. “Kartini” becomes the proof that Navicula cares and follows the progress of the problems in Kendeng. Navicula still often visits Kendeng to monitor the progress of Kendeng’s case and also as a form of concern for Kendeng’s Kartini. Through the song, the voices of Kendeng’s case can spread to the audience and also the young generation. The struggle of women is also appeared on three novels written by Pramoedya Ananta Toer, the presence of women in those three novels represents the struggle to uphold their problems in order to find the proper life like the struggle of Kendeng’s female farmers.143 Panggil namaku Kartini saja Itu namaku Kartini saja Dirimu kecil dipasung batu kakiku Tapi suaraku menembus ruang dan waktu Navicula wants to name the female farmers as a Kartini designation. The name of Kartini must be seen as a valuable name for Navicula, Navicula sees the female farmer as a symbol of struggle to fight for their rights to gain the truth. The depiction of the female farmer character in the song can be seen from the lyrics as a small farmer stocked by the rocks from their mountain. The female farmers want to express their feeling through their voice and action. It can be seen from the latest Novita Dewi, "Women of Will for Nation Building in Pramoedya’s Three Early Novels." Kritika kultura 20 (2013): 6-27. The presence of women struggle appears on the analysis of three women in Pramoedya’s early novels entitled Keluarga Gerilya, Korupsi, and Sekali Peristiwa di Banten Selatan. The main characters of these three novels struggle to find their proper place in their life, in this case, these three women, unlike their respective husbands. The study shows that Kartini is the model of Pramoedya’s heroines. The struggle here is similar to other women in Kendeng, they fight for their rights to find a proper place in their life. 143

(122) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 107 action of Kendeng’s farmers who go to Presidential Palace to demand the President’s promise for Kendeng’s case and meet with Moeldoko.144 Navicula argues that kartini’s voice will be heard by anyone through the time and space. Navicula believes that Kartini will be exist from generation to another generation, the representation of Kendeng’s female farmers can be seen as nowadays Kartini. Lewat duta aksara kan ku kabarkan padamu dunia Karnaku yakin habis gelap terbitlah terang Terang Through the illiterate, the female farmers want to inform the world that there are people who want to fight for their rights even they are illiterate. The female farmers believe that through their struggle there will be a hope and way out of the problem as Kartini said “Habis gelap terbitlah terang (After dark comes sunshine)...” Nowadays, Kartini’s statement can be seen also as the struggle to fight all kinds of oppression and social injustice like the struggle of Kendeng’s female farmers. Panggil namaku kartini saja Ku nyala lentera dengan darah dan air mata Navicula tries to show the audience that the Kendeng’s female farmer should be named kartini due to their struggle including their action in front of the Presidential palace. The female farmers have ignited the lantern of struggle with Vindry Florentin and Juli Hantoro, “Usai Bertemu Moeldoko, Kartini Kendeng Stop Aksi di Istana” [After Meeting Moeldoko, Kartini Kendeng Stop the Action at the Palace]. Tempo.co, 2018, nasional.tempo.co/read/1060700/usai-bertemu-moeldoko-kartini-kendeng-hentikan-aksi-diistana/full&view=ok. Accessed 14 October 2018. 144

(123) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 108 blood and tears, Navicula notes the female farmers as a contemporary kartini due to their struggle in Kendeng and also in front of the Presidential palace. Meski berat ku di dunia usai sudah Tapi bangsa yang besar takkan pernah lupakan sejarah Ku titipkan api cinta untukmu Jagalah agar tetap menyala In this lyric, Navicula also tells about the struggle through one of the female farmers named Patmi who died in her struggle in front of the Presidential palace. Navicula depicts the story from Patmi’s point of view in the end of the song to voice another struggle of the female farmers. Navicula believes Patmi’s struggle in the world has been done, but the other will fight for the solution of Kendeng’s problem. Navicula also believes that the great nation will not forget the history, in this case the history refers to the struggle of the female farmers. The Kendeng’s female farmers especially Patmi entrust hope to those who still fight for the struggle and freedom, keep the justice fly high wherever it is. The song also becomes the evidence that Navicula supports all forms of social injustice no matter the victim is men or women, Navicula does not see gender as a measure of their struggle because the struggle against social injustice does not distinguish sex. D. Navicula’s Attitude and Ideology behind the Song Lyrics Songs have the power to unite a society and become one of many strategies to deliver the message to the people. This is the reason why music becomes the medium used by musicians and activists to spread their campaign to the society on criticizing social conditions. The quality of song lyrics also has an important role

(124) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 109 in determining whether a song has the value of social criticism. 145 Navicula is one of many group bands who criticizes environmental issues. This band is also known as a group band whose lyrics are pregnant with social criticism. Navicula uses their music like journalistic weaponry to voice the reality about social condition in Indonesia. The reason behind this concept is the role of one vocalist or singer in Navicula, Robi. He is working for the environmental non-governmental organization. Robi did not understand why information on social issues was only prevalent among NGOs, government and certain institutions.146 Navicula criticizes the social issues in their shows because they think that social issues must be widely heard throughout the public. “Mafia Medis” [Medical Mafia] is the first song in this analysis that becomes the evidence from Navicula to voice this issue to the public. This song is a form of Navicula's support for Prita Mulyasari. This song contains a message for the public about the medical service provider who mistreats the patient. Navicula feels concerned when Prita’s case leads to the decision charged to Prita due to her reasonable activities; complaining as a dissatisfied consumer for the bad services provided by the medical service provider.147 “Mafia Hukum” [Mafia of Law] becomes the next evidence that Navicula cares to the social issue in Indonesia. This song criticizes the corruption and its Dianty Syam, "Musik Sebagai Medium Kritik Sosial” [Music as a Medium for Social Critic]. Media Publica, 2016, http://mediapublica.co/2016/02/17/musik-sebagai-medium-kritiksosial/. Accessed 30 Nov 2018. 146 Bobbie Rendra, "Menggali Dua Sisi Robi Navicula [Digging Two Sides of Robi Navicula] Djarumcoklat.Com, 2018, https://www.djarumcoklat.com/article/menggali-dua-sisi-robinavicula?page=3. Accessed 30 Nov 2018. 147 Erick Tobing, "Navicula: Lagu untuk Prita – Semua Halaman – Hai.Grid.Id” [Navicula: Song for Prita – All Pages - Hai.Grid.ID]". Hai.Grid.Id, 2009, http://hai.grid.id/read/07565157/naviculalagu-untuk-prita?page=all. Accessed 30 Nov 2018. 145

(125) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 110 controversy in this country. Indonesia Corruption Watch (ICW), an organization who considered the foremost institution in combating corruption, cooperates with 10 indie musicians including Navicula with their song “Mafia Hukum” [Mafia of Law] in making anti-corruption compilation albums entitled Frekuensi Perangkap Tikus.148 Navicula also joined Corruption Eradication Commission’s event in the music concert and the launch of the Compilation of Fight Corruption in May, 2018.149 Navicula’s frontman, Robi, also supports the Corruption Eradication Commission or KPK by joining the competition as one of three judges in August, 2018.150 It can be understood that Navicula notices corruption as a serious problem in Indonesia. Navicula argues that music can be used as the medium to voice about the danger of corruption to young generation through their music concert. Music concert is not only used to voice the danger of corruption but also to spread the message about dehumanization cases in Indonesia. Navicula also brings dehumanization cases to their concert as one of many unresolved cases in Indonesia. “Refuse To Forget” is a song which dedicated to Munir Said Thalib’s unresolved case. This song is inspired by many social movements in Indonesia entitled “Menolak Lupa.” Navicula writes the song in English in order to spread the message all over the world. Navicula also releases another song entitled “Bekas “ICW Luncurkan Album Musik Anti Korupsi” [ICW Launch Album Compilation of Music Anti Corruption Music]. Detiknews, 2013, https://news.detik.com/berita/2189068/icw-luncurkan-albummusik-anti-korupsi. Accessed 1 Dec 2018. 149 Feri Agus, "Musisi Basmi Korupsi Lewat Album Kompilasi “Perangi Korupsi”” [Musicians Eradicate Corruption Through Album 'Compilation of Fighting Corruption’]. CNN Indonesia, 2018, https://www.cnnindonesia.com/hiburan/20180504203726-227-295848/musisi-basmi-korupsilewat-album-kompilasi-perangi-korupsi. Accessed 1 Dec 2018. 150 Dylan Rachman, "Cegah Korupsi Lewat Musik KPK Ajak Masyarakat Ikut Festival Lagu Saksi” [Prevent Corruption Through Music, KPK Invite the Society to Join "SAKSI" Music Festival]. KOMPAS.Com, 2018, https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2018/08/14/06503111/cegah-korupsilewat-musik-kpk-ajak-masyarakat-ikut-festival-lagu-saksi. Accessed 1 Dec 2018. 148

(126) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 111 Luka” [Scar] in order to continue the support to the unfinished case about Munir. Navicula brings Munir’s case in their performance in order to remind and to inform the society about Munir, Kamisan movement, and also activists. Navicula believes that music festivals can be seen as creative movements in Indonesia that will be discussed by world society.151 From the global discussion, people will seek further about the social issues like Munir’s case. Social issues in relation to the environmental destruction become other concerns of Navicula in voicing the campaign. Navicula releases a song entitled “Kartini” which dedicated to female farmers from Kendeng, Central Java. Navicula puts the footage of several actions of Kendeng female farmers from action of protests until action of cementing feet to their music video to raise people’s awareness about the problem. Navicula starts to seek information about Kendeng’s case after watching Samin vs Semen video from Watchdoc.152 Navicula feels that they want to help the social movement on the Kendeng’s struggle. Navicula tries to be involved to the movement by contributing songs that contains of ideas, time, efforts, and a little budget.153 The latest action from Navicula to Kendeng’s female farmers is joining an event namely Halal Bihalal, Brokohan Kendeng: Nandur 151 "Navicula Guncang Panggung Soundrenaline Teriak Penonton Bergemuruh” [Navicula Shakes Soundrenaline Stage, Crowd Audiences]. Viva.Co.Id, 2018, https://www.viva.co.id/showbiz/musik/1073287-navicula-guncang-panggung-soundrenalineteriak-penonton-bergemuruh. Accessed 1 Dec 2018. 152 Watchdoc is an audio-visual production house from Indonesia. Established in 2009, Watchdoc independent house has been producing 165 episode of documentaries, 715 titles feature for national television, and no less than 45 titles of cmmercial and non-commercial videos which won various awards. 153 Intan Paramitha, "Rilis Video Kartini Angkat Perjuangan Ibu Ibu Petani Pegunungan Kendeng” [Released Kartini Video, Uplifting the Struggle of Kendeng’s Female Farmers]. Naviculamusic.Com, 2016, http://www.naviculamusic.com/dev/rilis-video-kartiniangkat-perjuangan-ibu-ibu-petani-pegunungan-kendeng/. Accessed 1 Dec 2018.

(127) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 112 Kabecikan Ngayomi Paseduluran as a form of support to the female farmers at Omah Kendeng in June, 2018. Navicula is also collaborated with Erick EST as a director and Kopernik, a non-profit organization to produce a music video entitled “Terus Berjuang” [Keep Struggling] as a form of dedication to social and environmental activists who are struggling to encourage social change. The music video is highlighting the issue of the social gap in accessing the electricity in eastern Indonesia. Through the song, Navicula wants to express their criticism on their way that can attract the awareness of young generation. Navicula’s lyrics become the package of serious issues, so the listeners can still understand and enjoy the song. Navicula argues that music, audio-visual art, and show can be effective media to increase the insight that can encourage social change in the society.154 To sum up this chapter, the analyses of the songs from Navicula show that the social injustice becomes the main problem in Indonesia. Their ideology, therefore used to reveal the reality about social conditions like the unfinished corruption, the unresolved dehumanization case, until the struggling of the rights to their audience. It is this ideology that allows Navicula criticizes the problems of social injustice to amplify them to make people realize on how important the issue is. Navicula shows the reaction of some problems in the form of the song in order to raise the people’s awareness toward the problems. The result of the analyses in the song entitled “Mafia Hukum” [Mafia of Law], “Mafia Medis” [Medical Mafia] "Kolaborasi Seni dan Gerakan Sosial untuk Perubahan” [Art Collaboration and Social Movement for Change]. Balebengong, 2018, https://balebengong.id/sosial-budaya/kolaborasi-seni-dangerakan-sosial-untuk-perubahan.html. Accessed 1 Dec 2018. 154

(128) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 113 shows that Navicula wants to criticize the corruption and injustice case from the businessmen where they often conspire with state officials, law enforcement officers, and court people to run their business. The social injustice in Indonesia occurred due to the weakness of the law in Indonesia. The actions of the people who had the power to manipulate the existing law for the sake of their needs and greeds also contribute in this problem. The unresolved dehumanization case of Munir becomes the evidence that the social injustice still exists in Indonesia. Navicula had to make three songs about Munir such as “Refuse To Forget”, “Bekas Luka” [Scar], and “Biarlah Malaikat” [Let the Angel] to criticize the unresolved problem of Munir. The practice of social injustice that is related to the environment can be seen in the analysis of the song “Kartini”. This song is inspired by the environmental destruction in Kendeng to the establishment of the cement factory in the area. The effect of the destruction does not only spoil the environment, but also the people. Navicula composed the song in order to criticize the problem of the social injustice in\\toward Kendeng female farmers and also to support their struggle in discontinuing the erection of the factory. Next, Navicula considers that eradicating corruption is not enough through creating regulations. The most important step is creating people who can enforce justice and legal equality by eradicating the corruption itself. It is the reason why Navicula criticizes the death of the impartial principle in Indonesia. Social justice will occur if the impartial principle applied in Indonesia.

(129) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER V RESPOND TO EXTREMISM THREAT IN INDONESIA THROUGH NAVICULA SONG LYRICS This chapter deals with the third topic in this study: how do the song lyrics from Navicula respond to the danger of extremism in Indonesia? The answer to this question will be analysed and discussed in this chapter. This chapter will be arranged into two major topics in order to limit the study of the songs. The first topic starts from the extremism in the context of terrorism that happened in Indonesia as seen in the songs “Budi Si Berani Mati” [Budi, Dared to Die] and “Everyone Goes to Heaven.” The second topic deals with the extremism in Indonesia that affects to the religious conflict and how Navicula respond to the topic. The songs for the second topic consist of “Peace Pretenders,” and “Kill The Fireflies.” The four songs in this chapter are taken from the same album entitled Salto which released in 2009. A. Extremism in the Context of Terrorism in Indonesia Indonesia is known for its cultural, religious and language diversity from outside and inside the country. This country also has many ethnic groups and its languages as the medium for communication. This diversity comes from many factors, one of which is the large number of the foreign ethnic traders in the past. This cross border trading process has left an effect to the indigenous Indonesians’ way of life that is they must agree to take these people even though they are entirely not from Indonesian origin. 114

(130) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 115 From cultural diversity, Indonesian culture is divided into three kind of cultures such as Indonesian cultures including local ceremonies and rituals, foreign culture like western culture, and also mixed culture which stands for the assimilation between Indonesian and foreign culture. These three kind of cultures can give birth to new cultures or cause conflict in the society. To eradicate the conflict in the society, it takes tolerance between those cultures to create peace among the tree cultures. Indonesia is known for the religious diversity that consists of six authorized religions, i.e. Islam, Christianity, Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism. The religious diversity in Indonesia is based on the first principle of the country’s philosophical foundation Pancasila saying belief in the one and only God. Even though there are many differences that occur in Indonesia, it is important to pay attention to the effort and process in achieving peace and harmony among religious communities in Indonesia. Peace in this section is related to the situation where there are no riots, no hostility, and no killing of each other in the name of religion. Usually, the behavior and attitude of the majority of the religious population become the sign of peace toward the minority religious population in certain country. However, the concept above does not mean that all religious majority population can respond to others correctly among the same religion or against other religions. This misunderstanding of the respond can create a violation in religious freedom. One of the causes in the violations of religious freedom is the religious disease that is infected to the majority religious population in Indonesia. The name

(131) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 116 of the religious disease is extremism where the disease makes the patients do not have the ability to empathize with their friends or the opponents. The extrimists are people who have the same beliefs as the common people, but they digest it excessively until they have to violate the rules and laws in their own country. In addition, extremism can cause terrorism in Indonesia because their doctrine teaches things that are contrary to their own religious teachings. The phenomenon of extremism in Indonesia can be described as fire in the husks which can overflow into a blaze of uncontrollable conflict. In this study, there are some factors that can cause extremism in Indonesia, i.e. ignorance, social injustice, poverty, and misinterpretation of religious text.155 There are several factors that cause extremism in the form of terrorism that emerged in Indonesia namely (1) perception of injustice experienced by the radical groups; (2) threats to their identity; (3) bereave the meaning of life, and (4) moral justification.156 Discussing the history of extremism in Indonesia can be understood like opening the Pandora box.157 There are many musicians and also group bands that go against any form of extremism in Indonesia including Navicula. Navicula has released several songs from Salto’s album in order to go against the danger of extremism. This study will start the discussion from the first song entitled “Budi Si 155 Katherine Marshall, "Global education challenges: Exploring religious dimensions." International Journal of Educational Development 62 (2018): 184-191. 156 Ian Chalmers, "Countering Violent Extremism in Indonesia: Bringing Back the Jihadists." Asian Studies Review 41. 3 (2017): 331-351.; (2) Jonathan Weintraub, "Factors influencing the movement of Southeast Asian fighters to ISIS: A comparison of Indonesia and Malaysia." (2017).; (3) Cameron Sumpter, "Countering violent extremism in Indonesia: priorities, practice and the role of civil society." Journal for Deradicalization 11 (2017): 112-147. Emma Keizer, “The Transformation of Political Islamic Terrorism in Indonesia. The Darul Islam & Jema’ah Islamiyah through Terrorism Theory” MS thesis, (2018). 157

(132) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 117 Berani Mati” [Budi, Dared to Die] to reveal the first path of Navicula’s respond to the danger of extremism. Budi si berani mati Lama memendam sakit hati Bermodalkan iman dan taqwa Membasmi musuh-musuh agama Tlah dia mantapkan tujuan Dipilihnya satu sasaran Navicula uses the name Budi in order to simplify the whole story to the reader/listener to the song. The first line stands for the statement that Budi has some problems in his life; it creates hatred and courage to die. Budi has faith and piety to eliminate the enemy of his religion. He believes in his purpose to defend the religious values as seen in the lines “Long time to hold your heart ache… Capitalize on faith and piety… Eradicate enemies of religion…” There is no religion that teaches violence. It is the main factor why extremism is dangerous. In this part, Budi has been indoctrinated by the wrong teaching that the concept of the enemy of his religion is the foreign people.158 Budi lama jauh dari orang tua Dan seorang adik tercinta 158 Julie Chernov Hwang and Kirsten E. Schulze, "Why They Join: Pathways into Indonesian Jihadist Organizations." Terrorism and Political Violence (2018): 1-22.

(133) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 118 Yang puluhan tahun lalu merantau Sekilas info Budi, agar kau tahu Some terrorists have basically been away from their parents, in some cases they come from the middle level of society.159 Budi has left his parent and lovely brother in order to leave the negative effect from his own parent because of the difference teaching as seen in the lines “Long time Budi is far from parents… And a beloved brother...” There are some values from several deviant religious groups teach about leaving negative things even their own parents.160 Navicula potrays the background of Budi in order to help the audience get the atmosphere of the song. Di malam hari yang tlah tiba Budi masuki satu tempat pesta Dijinjingnya tas penuh petaka Dia melangkah ke pintu surganya Tapi Budi tak menyadari Adik tercintanya kerja di sini Navicula depicts the situation that night inside the night club in Bali. Budi enters carrying a bag full of explosives. Budi has prepared to eliminate the enemy of his religion and ready to enter his heaven as seen in the lines “He carried a bag 159 Robert W. Hefner, Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Indonesia. (Routledge, 2018), pp. 296306. 160 Imanuel Geovasky, "Terorisme dalam Perspektif Identitas Politik” [Terrorism in the Political Identity Perspeective]. Religious and Cross Cultural Studies Program, Gadjah Mada Postgraduate School (2018).

(134) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 119 full of disasters… He stepped into the door of his heaven…” However Budi does not recognize that his beloved brother works in the very night club. Budi’s ignorance means everything in this song. He does not visit his parents. His ignorance makes him unable to recognize that his brother also works in the night club. Nasi sudah menjadi bubur Sekali bom pesta hancur lebur Di antara para korban yang malang Adik Budi terpanggang, nyawanya tlah hilang Hey, Budi berani, budinya mati! Budi berani mati! As an Indonesian proverb says all that is destroyed will not be able to return intact as it once was. This proverb refers to the act of bombing done by Budi. The cruel action resulted in a massive destruction including people inside the night club.161 Budi does not recognize that among the victims in the club was his own brother. Budi’s beloved brother was “Among the poor victims… Budi's younger brother was roasted, his life was gone…” The courage of Budi was paid by the death of his beloved brother, and also a number of innocent people. Navicula sees 161 These extremist groups do impulsive terrors with violence in every act like the biggest one in Bali Bombings that occurred at Paddy’s and Sari’s Club in Legian street, Bali in 2002. This incident had caused 202 people killed and 300 people were injured.

(135) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 120 Budi’s courage as a disaster for other people due to his beliefs and knowledge from deviant religious groups. From the song entitled “Budi Si Berani Mati” [Budi, Dared to Die] there is a gap between the case of violence in religious context and the concept behind the action. Navicula tries to potray the relation between the perpetrator’s mindset of his teachings and the concept of the action especially in Bali, Indonesia. In Navicula’s album named Salto, there is one song entitled “Everyone Goes to Heaven” that can be one of many factors to reveal the perpetrator’s mindset as seen in the song “Budi Si Berani Mati” [Budi, Dared to Die]. “Everyone Goes to Heaven” becomes the next song to analyse to reveal the motivation of Navicula in writing the song “Budi Si Berani Mati” [Budi, Dared to Die]. The song has a strong connection with the previous song in revealing the Bali bombing and how Navicula responds to the tragedy as well as the extremists’ action. All you can see is only What you would believe What if the truth is yours to decide? Navicula potrays an interesting supposition in the early section of the song, it draws an allegory as seen in the early phase of Plato’s cave. Navicula tries to show that everything that the audiences see is the only thing that they should have believed. There is no right or wrong statement, the truth of what the audiences have seen is the audience’s decision. This section can create a confusion to common

(136) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 121 people that truth is negotiable. It also illustrates that the truth is seen through the interpretation of the people. He’s just a man Speaks the same as others can Yet he define the world And it’s end Navicula begins to give a strong statement that the man in the song is only a human. He speaks the same as other people. The way he defines the world and its end creates an inner turmoil to the common people who still find their identity and belief.162 Navicula sees this situation as a threat to people who do not understand about religion and those who are easy to be subverted. What would you do if hell Has come and hell has gone And heaven is wrong Heaven is wrong Navicula potrays an interesting supposition again in this part. Navicula wants the audience to understand that hell and heaven is just an imagination. Navicula wants the audience to think about the next step to take. What their teacher said is wrong, for which reason people who sacrifice themselves indeed die in vain. 162 Inner turmoil stands for the definition of the great source of pain and suffering, this feeling can cause the patient feel helpless. This feeling is dangerous for the people who still find their own beliefs.

(137) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 122 Faith makes a man Try to reach the holy land But in the end He is nothing In the end of the song, Navicula emphasizes another interesting result of the supposition. There are two possibilities of the interpretation of the supposition from the last section. The first interpretation refers to the faith that can make a man tries to reach the holy land which means Heaven, although in the end he died in vain. The second interpretation stands for the faith of the man whp tries to reach the holy land, in this case Bali Island and do the bombing. In the end, this man, too, died in nothingness. The message is clear that the threat of intolerance and extremism are bigger that terrorism because people cannot be sentenced due to their thought, the sentence can be applied to the action. Extremism forms a vessel of violence or terrorism seed that spreads not only old generation, but also young generation. The seed of extremism develops when someone starts to shut him/herself to receive the cultural difference even the way of thinking. It can be seen from the way he/she invites the others to have the same way of thinking through various ways from persuasion to intimidation or even social bullying. Extremism also changes someone’s mindset to family, purpose of life, and also interaction among society and state.

(138) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 123 B. Extremism as the Main Factor of the Religious Conflict in Indonesia Over the last few years, the socio-cultural situation in Indonesia has been dominated by two main factors, namely the majority and the minority. The issue between the majority and the minority is often discussed in Indonesia, including religious sentiment in it. There are almost 88 percent of Indonesian population that professing Islam, this makes Indonesia as the largest majority-Muslim society in the world.163 The other religious groups become the minority groups, i.e. Christian, Catholic, Buddhist, Hindu and some local beliefs spread throughout Indonesia. The pattern of stereotyping between the majority and minority is also maintained due to the conflict of interest of certain groups. These two-pole stereotypes become a prone and delicious issue to fry; in addition the social situation of our society is easily instigated and provoked. Irresponsible parties have repeatedly used this situation for their benefit. In this country, Pancasila goes against this two poles as seen in the foundation principal. It protects all Indonesian people without addressing the majority or the minority. The pattern of two poles also creates the intolerance and ignorance attitude on the both sides and resulting the religious conflict in Indonesia. Intolerance and ignorance are the seed of the extremism that cause religious conflicts in Indonesia. Analyzing extremism and religious conflicts are not only studying the bombing tragedy in Bali, but also discussing the complex situation about religious and political conflict in Indonesia. The world has faced a new wave of extremism 163 Hefner, Robert W., Civil Islam: Muslims and Democratization in Indonesia. Vol. 40. (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2011), pp. xviii

(139) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 124 with violence throughout Southeast Asia. In Indonesia, the number of violent conflicts related to religious conflict and intolerance kept rising over the last few years. Furthermore, the intolerant attitude toward the religious minority also increase.164 It becomes interesting to see extremism through the religious context in Indonesia considering that this country stands on diversity. Extremism in religious context emerged in the late 1990’s and still continue in 2018 in other forms of conflict like prohibition of worship, prohibition in the establishment of worship place, and prohibition of cultural events. In early 1999, the Ambon Conflict emerged in the Moluccas province between Muslims and Christians causing a massive chaos and victims from both sides. The conflict in Ambon continues to spread all over Indonesia and creating a rift between the majority and minority. Since then, a massive tension occurs between the majority and minorities as the result of the Bali bombings in 2002 where the perpetrators are from the majorities that have radical perspectives and the victims are from the foreign people. The conflict between the majority and minority continues to the east Indonesia in the district of Poso where Muslims and Christians creating conflict but the conflict can be resolved properly. Since 2008 to this day, the conflict between the majority and minority still occur. Some majorities feel that Indonesia belongs to them; they can judge anyone whoever they think is wrong, even though Indonesia is a country that based on a state law. Indonesia is a country that respects diversities between the majority and Ahmad Fuad Fanani, “Fenomena Radikalisme pada Generasi Muda” [The Phenomenon of Radicalism among Young People]. Maarif 8. 1 (2013): 4-13. 164

(140) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 125 minority as seen in country’s Pancasila Principles.165 The conflicts between majority and minority now move to smaller conflict that spread all over Indonesia. The development of mass organizations in Indonesia also play a role in creating conflict in society.166 Usually the chaos in society from mass organizations can be caused by several factors such as the change in the function of mass organization, the indecisiveness of police in taking down on the mass organizations, and the act of suppressing freedom of expression.167 The chaos from the mass organizations can be used by the sovereign or the people who have business to create a massive conflict between the majority and minority as seen in the Navicula song entitled “Peace Pretenders.” The meaning of peace is related to the equality between individuals and also groups or even communities that lived together to achieve some specific purposes in certain place. However, peace also becomes a dream that cannot be reached by some people in Indonesia. Navicula tries to show the reality by releasing this song as a medium to inform the audience about the conflict of interest in Indonesia between the majority and minority. Peace was just for show By those who want control Their greed consumes the world And we forgot what love can hold 165 The Pancasila Principles number two and five which said : (2) Just and civilized humanity (5) Social justice for the whole of the people of indonesia 166 Sometimes these people like to destroy public facilities because according to their understanding, those are not suitable with their teachings. In addition, the destruction of the worship places for the minority and even their own worship places that do not follow their teachings. 167 Rakhmat Hakim, "Bergesernya Fungsi Ormas dan Ketidaktegasan Pemerintah” [Shifting Function of Mass Organization and Government Indecision]. Kompas.com, 2017. https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2017/01/18/10585031/bergesernya.fungsi.ormas.dan.ketidaktega san.pemerintah. Accessed 22 Oct 2018.

(141) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 126 Satirical statement comes from Navicula in the first lines of the song entitled “Peace Pretenders” as a result of neverending religious conflict in Indonesia. The lines “Peace was just for show… By those who want control” create an interesting argument that peace actually created to control the world. The word peace related to the situation that contains toleration, mutual respect without violence. However, the reality does not fit to the definition of peace in Indonesia where control is used to make peace in the country. Navicula explains the situation where people are immersed in greed trying to exploit the world for their interests. People will forget that love can be the medium to unify Indonesian people. Peace will stay with me, Wherever I go… Peace will stay with me... If like in my dreams The prophets are one team They could make us see That peace is everything The hopes of Navicula as depicted in their dream is unifying all the religions in the same way. Navicula believes that peace will stay with them because they have love to create peace. Navicula also presupposes on the prophets of all religions are in the same vision to make people see that peace is the only way to unite the nations as seen in the lines “The prophets are one team… They could make us see… That peace is everything…” Navicula sees that the peace is the medium for people no matter the majority or the minority will unite to be one.

(142) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 127 We have lost Almost everything Except love It can be beautiful Peace is everything We have lost, we have lost, We have love, love, love Navicula continues to explain about the result of the religious and political conflicts that destroys almost everything in every sector except love as seen in the lines “We have lost… Almost everything… Except love…" Navicula wants to emphasize that love will cure everything and create peace because Navicula sees peace is the key to everything. Even though everything has lost due to the conflict, but Navicula believes that they still have love to unite people who have conflict as seen in the lines “Peace is everything… We have lost, we have lost… We have love, love, love…” This is just in my dreams In this world, we KILL, KILL, KILL! In the end of the song, Navicula restates the discussion that the concept of peace is only their dreams. The reality goes against their dreams because in the real world people will kill to survive as seen in the lines “In this world, we KILL, KILL, KILL! …” The meaning of the word kill in this section related to the behaviour of people who justify all means to fulfil their needs and greeds. The songs from

(143) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 128 Navicula depicts the reality that the problems being the minority in Indonesia is need to be discussed. The problems of minorities become a problem that continues to bother to be lifted in Indonesia. The motto of Bhineka Tunggal Ika or known as Unity in Diversity seems not reflecting the condition of Indonesian people and becomes a sweetener symbol. The Majorities usually tend to be more controlling and want to rule over the minorities. This behavior affecting the minorities that they always feel marginalized like stepchildren who are treated unfairly. It is not easy for a pluralistic nation like Indonesia to be separated from the problem of discrimination against minorities. Indonesia with a variety of tribes, religions and cultures looks like a sword with two blades, the diversity makes Indonesia as a cultural wealth country. However, the diversity also creates a conflict that leads to a discrimination to the minorities. In the term of discrimination among the minorities, Navicula continues to discuss the problem about the discrimination from the majority to the minority in the song entitled “Kill The Fireflies.” The song has a deep meaning about the discrimination to the minority as seen through the analysis of the song below. Orang kota semakin ramai, Sampah mereka hancurkan pantai, minoritas dibantai. Over konsumsi menjadi-jadi, Tuhan kita bicara di TV Memaksa kita jadi pembeli Navicula defines the introduction of the song from the commotion that caused by people who lived in the Capital city. The commotion can be divided into

(144) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 129 two parts, the commotion about religious and political aspects. Those two aspects become a promising commodity at least in the last ten years.168 Even though Navicula creates song about the danger of extremism, they also add the ecocriticism issue inside the discussion about extremism issue as seen in the lines “Their rubbish destroys the beach…” Navicula criticizes about the behaviour of people that still relevant until today, over consumption to everything that they believe good for them in terms of religious or political context. “Our God speaks on TV ... Forcing us to be buyers…” The lines define the latest political situation in Indonesia where Navicula published this song over nine years ago. It means that religious issue cannot be eliminated in this country due to the sensitive context and also this year includes to the political year. Orang kuat menginjak kepala, Orang-orang lemah di bawahnya, Hanya tuk menjilati sang raja, To provide a real example in the society, Navicula illustrates the phenomenon where strong people can organize weak people by providing fake promises. The representation of weak people can be described as people who easily controlled by promises. “Just to lick the king…” stands for the illustration that strong people curry favor the sovereign by organizing weak people for money and power. The phenomenon still relevant to be discussed in this era when many people 168 Noorhaidi Hasan, "Religious Diversity and Blasphemy Law: Understanding Growing Religious Conflict and Intolerance in Post-Suharto Indonesia." Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies 55. 1 (2017): 105-126.

(145) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 130 are trying to control lower class people to gain money or even authority in this country, all means will be done to get power and money. Agama halalkan senjata, Sejarah berdarah terulang lagi, Setan berjubah nabi There is no religions that teach their people to justify weapons in order to fight for their religious teachings. The perception about “religion justifies the use of weapon” is the result of excessive religious addiction. Navicula defines the example of religion that justifies the weapon in the lines “The bleeding history is repeated…” Bali bombing is the representation of the repeated bleeding history. The previous bleeding history that was caused by religious conflicts can be seen from the Moluccas conflict.169 They kill the fireflies. All we’re gonna do Is kill the fireflies Minoritas diberantas... Fireflies become an interesting issue related to the complexity of the issue in Indonesia. The meaning of the fireflies can be understood as a light in the dark. Hence, killing the fireflies means that those people shut down justice in society. The meaning of fireflies can be seen also in Agus Noor’s short story entitled “Requiem Kunang-Kunang [The Fireflies Requiem].” The story tells about Ambon’s tragedy in 2011. The story becomes additional evidence about the life of 169 Chris Wilson, "Religious Violence and Conciliation in Indonesia: Christians and Muslims in the Moluccas by Sumanto Al Qurtuby." Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International and Strategic Affairs 39. 1 (2017): 217-219.

(146) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 131 the minority as represented by fireflies in the song. The representation of the fireflies supported by the lines “Minorities are eradicated...” The lines support the statement that fireflies must be eradicated and all conflicts in Indonesia become the evidence of the lines.170 We lost everything that once was true, coz the liars needed something new And people follow them who say: “We have killed the fireflies!” In the end, people will lost everything including humanity for the sake of something new. Here, something new can be defined to several meanings, one of them is a new government system that becomes the most discussed issue at this time. The lines “And people follow them who say: “We have killed the fireflies!”” become the fact that those people want to destroy something that was originally right. Sadly enough, there are many people who follow them and become their people and ready to kill other fireflies. The conflict in this song reflects the attitude and behavior of people who do not practice Pancasila or even go against Pancasila as the philosophical foundation of Indonesia. Pancasila is worldly and hereafter synergy as reflected in the first principle. The word “Esa” meaning One in the principle describes the one that well received by all religions. But it should be noted that the concept between the ideology inside a state and inside a religion is different. When the ideology is based on the religious 170 Chang-Yau Hoon, "Putting Religion into Multiculturalism: Conceptualising Religious Multiculturalism in Indonesia." Asian Studies Review 41. 3 (2017): 476-493.

(147) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 132 values or principles will make Indonesia as a religious state. This difference proves the existence of Pancasila as the foundation of this country. The foundation values of Pancasila can create peace that still respects the values in each religion without any discrimination. C. Navicula’s Attitude and Ideology behind the Song Lyrics Navicula believes that music is a powerful medium to spread their message to the society. Navicula’s music comes from their heart and speaks about love, peace, and freedom. Navicula argues that music has chances to be brought into something bigger and deeper like revolution in social conflicts in the last twenty years to the young generation.171 Navicula does not describe many things about the extremism since their concern is to fight against the environmental destruction and social injustice on their albums. The songs for the analysis of extremism are taken from the same album entitled Salto which released in 2009. “Budi Si Berani Mati” [Budi, Dared to Die] and “Everyone Goes To Heaven” are written in order to respond Bali bombing tragedy. Navicula wants to remind the people about the danger of extremism in their way as musicians. Navicula argues that any movement threatening and destroying people’s life is wrong whoever the terrorist, legal or illegal. Navicula believes that this country has several radical groups under the name of religion. Those radical groups are strangely still allowed to evolve in our Bhinneka Tunggal Ika country. Navicula brings the song to their performance in Bali. Navicula also expresses an informal 171 Aga Depresi, "Navicula: Wahai Seniman Comfort Zone is an Art Killer!” Accessed 1 Oct 2018.

(148) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 133 apology for the Bali bombings causing many victims from Australia. The moment becomes an emotional moment for Navicula and affects the band deeply.172 “Kill the Fireflies” is the song that explains about the decreasing of firefly population in Bali due to the result of the use of pesticides in rice fields.173 However, this song is more than just the decreasing of the firefly population. It can be seen also from the religious perspectives as seen in the analysis above. “Peace Pretenders” is a song that describes about the situation in this world that peace is built for those who want to control the world. Navicula also brings the songs from this album to spread the message about love, peace, and freedom. Navicula has an important message from Salto album that can be seen as their attitude and ideology towards the extremism: “Save ourselves from ourselves.” 174It can be seen that the problem that happens in the world is our problems. The solution of the problem can only be achieved by the concern from all elements of the society. To sum up this chapter, Navicula defines the problem of extremism through two sections such as extremism in the form of terrorism and extremism in the form of religious conflict in Indonesia. Here, Navicula’s ideology is rejecting all kinds of violence that destroying people’s life in the act of extremism, Navicula also argues that love will cure the danger of extremism, it is the reason why Navicula 172 Jon Jobbagy, "Sydney Festival Live Review: Navicula - The Manning Bar (10.01.13) | The AU Review". The AU Review, 2013, http://www.theaureview.com/sydney/navicula-the-manning-bar10-01-13. Accessed 1 Dec 2018. 173 Rebekah Moore, "Navicula’s Latest Single Takes on Orangutan Conservation | Akarumput". Akarumput.Com, 2011, http://akarumput.com/en/environment/untuk-orangutan-yangakan-jadi-legenda/. Accessed 1 Dec 2018. 174 Rudolf Dethu, "Navicula – Salto: Passion Is The Religion". RUDOLF DETHU, 2010, http://rudolfdethu.com/navicula-salto-passion-is-the-religion/. Accessed 1 Dec 2018.

(149) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 134 says “Save ourselves from ourselves.” The first section tells about the illustration of the action of terrorism and also the background of the song as seen in the song “Budi Si Berani Mati” [Budi, Dared to Die]. The second song from the first section defines the ideas behind the terrorist’s acts. Navicula makes an interesting illustration that the terrorist teachings are wrong as seen in the song entitled “Everyone Goes to Heaven.” The second section deals with the extremism in the form of religious conflict in Indonesia. “Peace Pretenders” becomes the first discussion from Navicula that explains the meaning of peace and love in the religious conflict. Navicula believes that love is the only way to unite people. However, in the end Navicula tells the reality that in this world people kill to fulfil their needs and greeds. The second song defines the reality that happens in Indonesia as the form of cause and effect from the religious conflict. In the end of the song Navicula still talks about killing the fireflies. The fireflies here refer to the minority population as seen in the song “Kill The Fireflies.”

(150) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION This is the last chapter of the thesis which provides two parts to be presented. The first part stands for the summary of the discussion and analyses from the previous chapters based on the research questions that have been formulated before. The second part consists of some suggestions and recommendations for other researchers who are interested in analysing similar topic. A. Conclusion This research aims to analyse the depiction of problems on environmental destruction, unfinished social injustice case, and phenomena of extremism in Indonesia in Navicula’s song lyrics. This study used some theories from several fields such as Ecocriticism, Social Injustice, and also Extremism from various experts. Those theories are used to answer the research questions formulated in Chapter 1. The research questions are: (1) In what way do Navicula song lyrics challenge unresolved environmental destruction in Indonesia? (2) How do Navicula song lyrics criticize social injustice in Indonesia? (3) How do the song lyrics from Navicula respond to the danger of extremism in Indonesia? Navicula, the green grunge gentlements from Bali is one of many musicians who show concerns about grave issues in Indonesia. This study has answered the first research question on how unresolved environmental destruction in Indonesia is challenged by Navicula through their song lyrics. Deforestation is the first damage that need to be tackled in order to reveal other environmental problems in Indonesia. Deforestation is one of many problems that has not found an effective 135

(151) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 136 solution. Indonesian tropical rainforest becomes one of the world's largest forests in the world to reduce climate change even though the loss of the forest increases from time to time.175 Navicula cares and criticizes Indonesian tropical rain forest condition due to the number of forest destructions that occurred in Indonesia as seen in the analysis of the song “Bubur Kayu” [Wood Pulp]. Indonesian tropical rain forests have function as a part of the world’s lungs because not all countries and regions have rainforests. When the tropical rainforest is damaged due to the deforestation, this will affect to the forest ecosystem including the living organisms inside such as Sumatra Tiger and Orangutan. These two animals become the most endangered species due to the forest destruction. Navicula criticizes the massive damages of the tropical rain forest as seen in the song entitled “Harimau! Harimau! (A Tale of the Last Sumatran Tiger)” [Tiger! Tiger!] Navicula depicts the reality of the Sumatran tiger in the animal’s perspective in order to help the audience imagine of being tiger that its life threatened by humans. Orangutan also becomes the victim of the forest destruction in Indonesia, Navicula illustrates the condition through their song entitled “Orangutan” as a form of disappointment to the deforestation problems in Indonesia. Loggers are not only killing orangutan but also kidnapping the young orangutan to be sold in the big city where many people live with their problems inside. Environmental destruction is happened not only in the forest but also in the big city due to the human activities. Urban environmental problems can be 175 Svetlana Turubanova, Peter V. Potapov, Alexandra Tyukavina, and Matthew C. Hansen, "Ongoing primary forest loss in Brazil, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Indonesia." Environmental Research Letters 13. 7 (2018).

(152) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 137 categorized into three points such as tree management, waste management, and also pollution management that have been mentioned by Navicula on their songs. Navicula creates song in order to criticize the urban environmental problems that also contributing in the climate change. The discussion of the urban environmental has been divided by Navicula in several songs, those songs are accidentally related to each other problems. Navicula starts to reveal the urban environmental problems by mentioning the representation of the big city or even the capital city as seen in the song “Metropolutan.” Navicula criticizes the activities and the attitudes of people that creating the damages to the environment through pollution and emotion from the people. There are many pollutans that creating massive pollution in the capital city, transportation becomes one of the causes of pollution that causing health problems for humans due to the unfavourable environmental conditions. The discussion moves to the pollution management in the terms of water pollution problem that becomes other issues in Indonesian river. There are many factors causing water pollution in Indonesia such as natural waste, industrial waste and domestical waste. The main factor or pollutan in Indonesian river mostly comes from domestic or household waste as explained on the analysis “Kali Mati” [The Dead River]. The problems of waste become another concern for Navicula to save the environment, wastes are listed to one of the most pollutans that hard to destroy and take decades to decompose. Navicula published the song entitled “Lagu Sampah” [Waste Song] in order to criticize and show the audience about the danger of the waste. The end of the discussion focusing on the song entitled “Ibu” [Mother] in order to create concern and courage to the audience. Navicula criticizes about the

(153) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 138 environmental destruction that happened to the Earth, Navicula also warn the audience that there is no second Earth to live. The meaning of the second Earth related to the behaviour that humans must maintain the Earth because humans will disappear if the Earth is destroyed. In addition to that, Navicula not only criticizes the environmental destruction in Indonesia, but also depicts the action to save the forest from another destruction because they see forest as one of the main resources in the future. Navicula brings the new action not only criticizing but also campaigning to save the future through their song from Tatap Muka album entitled “Dead Trees.” The song shows the relation between Navicula as the activists to the nature and the environmental issue as a global concern. The song also becomes the respond from Navicula in order to show the action about saving the environment. This study has also answered the second research question that deals with the song lyrics from Navicula that criticize the social injustice in Indonesia. Indonesia is a law-based country, but the implementation of the law in the field can be regulated on the agreement. Navicula depicts the law enforcement situation is worsened by the legal mafia practices that increasingly become an epidemic in Indonesia and causing pessimism in society. Navicula released the song entitled “Mafia Hukum” [Mafia of Law] in order to criticize the problems and causes in the enforcement of law in Indonesia. Navicula shows the process of law enforcement in Indonesia is weak and helpless because of the law enforcers itself. The role of mafias in Indonesia is deeply rooted in every sector of the government such as trading sector, sports sector until health sector. The health

(154) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 139 sector becomes the area of focus for Navicula by releasing the song “Mafia Medis” [Medical Mafia]. The song is written by Navicula in order to support and inform the audience about Prita’s case and the social injustice that she had from certain hospital. Navicula writes the song about the social injustice and mafia in hospitality sector is not just nonsense because there are other songs that also criticize the business in hospitality.176 The purpose of law in Indonesia is creating a country that has several points to bring the equality for all Indonesian people as what stated in the opening of UUD 1945. If the law enforcement is no longer work as its purpose and its function then it signifies that the law need to be reformed. Navicula sees this as an impossible way to reform the law in Indonesia because the people’ representatives in the department make no difference with the mafias themselves. Navicula illustrates the situation in the song “Dagelan Penipu Rakyat” [People’s Deception Comedy] The abbreviation of DPR should be Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat, but Navicula satirize the abbreviation to Dagelan Penipu Rakyat in order to show the reality of their action and activity as seen in the analysis of the song. The reality of social injustice in Indonesia is also depicted in several songs about the unfinished human rights activists; one of them is Munir’s case. Navicula decided to choose Munir’s case as the representation abuse toward of human rights activists in Indonesia. Navicula asks the audience to refuse to forget about Munir’s 176 There are other songs about the business in hospital management sector that bother other musicians and group bands to criticize the issue. The first song comes from Iwan Fals entitled “Ambulance Zigzag” that criticizes about the discrimination in the hospitality sector in the hospital. The second song presented by Marjinal entitled “Benar Benar Rumah Sakit” [The True Hospital] is to criticize the business orientation in hospitals that is related to both Iwan Fals’ song and Navicula’s song.

(155) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 140 case through the song entitled “Refuse To Forget.”177 The analysis shows the reality that Navicula refuses to forget about Munir’s assassination. Navicula adds another song about Munir’s assassination in 2015 as a medium to criticize the unfinished case of Munir. The songs entitled “Bekas Luka” [Scar] and “Biarlah Malaikat” [Let the Angel] describe about the criticism and also the disappointment about Munir case. The analyses show that those two songs have two meanings, the first song entitled “Bekas Luka” [Scar] Navicula criticizes the unfinished case of Munir as a form of disappointment to the government and also the sovereign. The second song entitled “Biarlah Malaikat” [Let the Angel] deals with the feeling of desperation from Navicula as the final disappointment of the unfinished case from Munir. Environmental destruction can lead to the problem of social injustice in Indonesia. The environmental problems in Kendeng become another concern for Navicula to criticize the social injustice problems in Indonesia. Navicula criticize the situation in Kendeng by releasing the song entitled “Kartini” as a form of support for Kendeng’s female farmers. Finally, this study has dealt with the third research question concerning the respond of Navicula to the danger of extremism in Indonesia through their song lyrics. Navicula depicts two forms of extremism. The first form is terrorism. Navicula responds to the tragedy of terrorism in Indonesia through two songs entitled “Budi Si Berani Mati” [Budi, Dared to Die] and “Everyone Goes to Heaven.” The song entitled “Budi Si Berani Mati” [Budi, Dared to Die] tells about Efek Rumah Kaca also creates the song in order to criticize Munir’s assassination on board of the plane going to Amsterdam. The song entitled “Di Udara” [In the Air] is dedicated to Munir as a human rights activist and also the representation of the unfinished human rights activist case. 177

(156) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 141 the respond of Navicula to the Bali bombing and its innocent victims. The song also depicts the reality behinds the perpetrator’s mindset and perspective of defending the religion based on his teachings. Navicula responds the mindset and perspective of the perperator’s teachings by releasing another song entitled “Everyone Goes to Heaven.” The song tells about Navicula’s reflection to the perperator’s teachings that hurt and kill as seen in the previous song. Navicula also reflects the fact in their song by illustrating the reality to the perpetrator as a respond to the radical teachings. The second form of extremism is the religious conflict in Indonesia. Navicula depicts an interesting respond to the problems in the religious conflict by illustrating it into two songs entitled “Peace Pretenders” and “Kill The Fireflies.” The first song tells about the dream of peace in the world especially in Indonesia and the religion’s leader go to the same way. However, in reality, the majority kill the minority to fulfil their greeds and needs. Navicula responds to this reality by telling that the majority and the minority still have love to hold on as a means to unite people. The second song entitled “Kill The Fireflies” also tells about the reality in Indonesia where powerless people are mastered by the people who have power and the minorities must be eradicated as people kill the fireflies in the river. Navicula responds through the songs by saying that the problems among the majority and minority can be solved whenever people still have love deep inside their hearts. Navicula believes that love can be used to unite people by creating peace in this broken world.

(157) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 142 B. Suggestion This part presents suggestions for the future researchers who are interested to conduct a study with similar topics or songs. This study focuses on revealing several problems in Indonesia such as environmental destruction, social injustice, and extremism through analysing the song lyrics. The sources for this study are taken from several albums from Navicula such as Alkemis, Beautiful Rebel, Salto, Love Bomb, Tatap Muka and also Earthship the latest album from Navicula to limit the source and discussion. The future researchers who want to analyse the same study can use Navicula as their source to reveal the other study such as praising the nature or the meaning of love that can be seen from Navicula songs. The future researchers may focus on the following. The first suggestion is to use songs from several other bands in other genre such as Efek Rumah Kaca, Marjinal, Nosstrees, Kapital, Sungai, Naif, or even bands from abroad like Pearl Jam, The Roots and even Coldplay. The future researcher can also reveal the Earth problems as their concerns to the environment. The second suggestion deals with the problems of social injustice and also extremism in Indonesia. There are many musicians and bands who are really concerned about those issues such as Iwan Fals, Netral, Marjinal, Superman Is Dead, Efek Rumah Kaca, Sisir Tanah, Seringai, Dead Squad, God Bless, Koil and from abroad like Nirvana, The Beatles, Rage Against The Machine, Bob Marley, John Lennon, The Special and many more. The issues about social injustice and extremism have a massive field to be discussed by venturing on the works of these concerned musicians.

(158) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 143 In a nutshell, the researcher suggests the future researchers to conduct the research on the similar discussion on the environmental destruction, social injustice, and extremism. Such study can make people realize that many problems in Indonesia remain unresolved. By revealing those problems, the researcher hopes that people will be aware to support the government, not only by becoming the spectators but also activists in facing those problems.

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(177) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI APPENDICES The translation of the song lyrics is the researcher’s. Appendix 1: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Kali Mati [The Dead River]” from Alkemis Album [2005]. Kali Mati [The Dead River] Mungkinkah, sudah pada tuli buta [Could it be, already deaf and blind] Walau sekian tanda ada [Even though there are signs there] Untuk lestarikan kali [To preserve the river] Kita buang sampah [We throw waste] Mahluk sungai marah [River organisms Angry] Dan semua tahu akhirnya [And everyone knows finally] Akibatnya kita yang rasa [The result we feel] Makan jiwa korban harta [Eating soul, victim and property] Banjir bandang datang [Flash floods come] Kitapun meradang [We are also inflamed] Semua hilang [All disappear] Punah sudah [Extinct already] 162

(178) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 163 Tinggal limbah tinggal wabah [Just waste just plage] (kali mati)…semuanya…isinya…mati [[the dead river]… the contents…all…die] Anehnya, manusia tak pernah jera [Strangely, humans have never been deterred] Berulang bikin hal serupa [Repeat making similar things] Buang sampahnya di kali [Discard the garbage at times] Orang masih girang [People are still happy] Ikan sudah hilang… [Fish is gone]

(179) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 164 Appendix 2: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Lagu Sampah” [The Waste Song] from Earthship Album [2018]. “Lagu Sampah” [The Waste Song] Sampah… Sampah… [Waste… Waste…] Coba pikir sebentar kawan [Try to think for a moment, friend] Sampah darimu bisa kemana-mana [Waste from you can go everywhere] Coba rasa sebentar kawan Try to feel for a moment, friend] Sedikit saja bisa pengaruhi dunia [Just a little can affect the world] Racuni Air [Poisoning water] Kau Bunuh semua kunang-kunang [You kill all the fireflies] Cahaya di gelap malam [Light in the dark night] Sampah… Sampah… [Waste… Waste…] Satu hal yang kita mengerti [One thing we understand] Bahwa kita tidak hidup sendiri [That we don’t live alone] Tapi sering kita ingkari [But we often deny it] Hanya karena kita tidak peduli [Just because we don’t care] Racuni udara, kau buat gerah matahari [Poisoning air, you make the sun hot] Panasnya di sepanjang hari [The heat is all day long]

(180) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 165 Dahulu bumi ini pernah indah [In the past this earth was beautiful] Karena Tuhan tak menciptakan sampah [Because God doesn’t create waste] Mungkinkah bumi ini tetap indah? [Could this earth still be beautiful?] Mungkin bisa, jika kita berubah [Maybe, if we change]

(181) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 166 Appendix 3: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Ibu” [Mother] from Earthship Album [2018]. “Ibu” [Mother] Ibu, maafkan aku [Mother, forgive me] Yang telah menghisap habis darahmu [Who has consumed your blood] Ibu, maafkan aku [Mother, forgive me] Yang telah mencukur habis rambutmu [Who has shaved off your hair] Ibu, maafkan aku [Mother, forgive me] Beramai kami telah merenggut mahkotamu [We have snatched your crown] Kini aku berikrar [Now I vow] Ku kan selalu menjagamu [I will always look after you] Kubasuh kakimu [I washed your feet] Karena kutahu di sana ada surga [Because I know there is a heaven] Tak akan ada ibu Bumi kedua [There will be no second mother Earth] Bila ibu Bumi telah tiada [When the mother of Earth is gone] Kujaga dia, kujaga selamanya [Keep guarding her, keep guarding forever] Dan aku tahu dia pun jaga kita [And I know she also guards us] Ibu, maafkan aku [Mother, forgive me] Kusuntik racun di batang nadimu [I inject poison in your vein] Ibu, maafkan aku [Mother, forgive me] Yang telah merogoh isi rahimmu [Who has reached your womb]

(182) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 167 Oh ibu, maafkan aku [Oh Mother, forgive me] Beramai-ramai kami memerah keringatmu [We exploit your sweat together] Kini aku berikrar [Now I vow] Ku kan selalu menjagamu [I will always look after you] Kubasuh kakimu [I washed your feet] Karena kutahu di sana ada surga [Because I know there is a heaven] Tak akan ada ibu Bumi kedua [There will be no second mother Earth] Bila ibu Bumi telah tiada [When the mother of Earth is gone] Kujaga dia, kujaga selamanya [Keep guarding her, keep guarding forever] Dan aku tahu dia pun jaga kita [And I know she also guards us] Oh Ibu… Oh Ibuuuuuu [Oh mother… Oh motheeeeeer]

(183) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 168 Appendix 4: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Metropolutan” from Love Bomb Album [2013]. “Metropolutan” Kepalaku mau pecah [My head is going to break] Emosi mau tumpah [Emotions will spill] Kota ini parah [This city is severe] Jalan macet bikin gerah [Road jams make hot] Di kaki gedung pongah [At the foot of an arrogant building] Injak siapa yang kalah [Step on who loses] Aku terjebak di sini [I'm stuck here] Hey, aku ada di dalam kota Metropolutan [Hey, I'm in the city of Metropolutan] Slalu banjir tiap hujan [Always flood in every rain] Asap jalan jadi awan [Smoke becomes cloud] Di jantung Metropolutan [In the heart of Metropolutan] Orang-orang tak peduli [People don't care] Alam berkonspirasi [Nature conspires] Tenggelamkan kota ini [Immerse this city] Aku terjebak di sini [I'm stuck here]

(184) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 169 Hey, aku ada di dalam kota Metropolutan [Hey, I'm in the city of Metropolutan] Orang anti kata antri [People refuse to queue] Semua mau berlari [All people want to run] Berlarilah sampai mati [Run to death] Aku terjebak di sini [I'm stuck here] Hey, aku ada di dalam kota Metropolutan [Hey, I'm in the city of Metropolutan] Hey, aku ada di dalam kota yang mau tenggelam [Hey, I'm in a city that will sink]

(185) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 170 Appendix 5: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Zat Hijau Daun” [Chlorophyll] from Alkemis Album [2005]. “Zat Hijau Daun” [Chlorophyll] Ah, hijau kotaku [Ah, green of my city] Berseri wajahmu [Your face shining] Payungi diriku [Protect me] Di panas dan abu [In heat and ash] Tanpa pohon bisa kubayangkan [Without trees I can imagine] Hanya tiang besi dan bangunan [Only iron poles and buildings] Zat hijau daun, untung kau ada [Leaf’s chlorophyll, fortunately you are there] Ayo, ambil racun di udara [Let’s absorb the poison in the air] Ku ingin di kota [I want in the city] Bertambah pohonnya [The tree increasing] Disayang manusia [Loved by humans] Berdaun – berbunga [Leafy - flowering] Pohon, paru-paru jantung kota [Trees, lungs and heart for the city] Kau redam polusi yang menggila [You absorb the crazy pollution] Zat hijau daun, untung kau ada [Leaf’s chlorophyll, fortunately you are there] Segera ambil racun di udara [Immediately take poison in the air]

(186) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 171 Pohon, tebang… biasa [Tree, cut…common] Pohon, hilang… biasa [Tree, disappear…common] Coba bayangkan [Try to imagine] Usia benih tumbuh [The age of the seeds grows] Jadi pohon besar… [Become the big tree…] Andai… [If…] Dimasa depan [In the future] Nisan kuburan [Tomb] Diganti tumbuhan [Replaced by plants]

(187) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 172 Appendix 6: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Bubur Kayu” [Wood Pulp] from Love Bomb Album [2013]. “Bubur Kayu” [Wood Pulp] Bubur kayu, oh hutanku [Wood pulp, oh my forest] Kau di tebang untuk jadi bubur kayu [You are cut down to make wood pulp] Tebang lagi, jual lagi [Cut more, sell more] Tak kan henti hingga semua hutan jadi [It won’t stop until the rainforest becomes] Bubur kayu enak [Wood pulp tastes good] Bubur kayu, banjir bubur [Wood pulp, pulp floods] Banjir bubur kini jadi banjir lumpur [Pulp floods now become mud floods] Tebang lagi, jual lagi [Cut more, sell more] Tak kan henti hingga semua hutan jadi [It won’t stop until the rainforest becomes] Bubur kayu enak [Wood pulp tastes good] Bubur kayu, sarapanmu [Wood pulp is you breakfeast] Habis makan tidak lupa cuci tangan [After eating, don’t forget to wash the hands] Hutan mati, tanam lagi [The forest dies, now replanted] Tapi pohon sawit bukan pohon asli [But palm oil tress are not the true trees] Minyak sawit enak [Palm oil tastes good] Penjaga hutan, tak berdaya [Forest protectors, have no power] Karena si pencuri adalah penguasa [Because the robber is the leader]

(188) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 173 Tebang lagi, jual lagi [Cut more, sell more] Tak kan henti hingga semua hutan jadi [It won’t stop until the rainforest becomes] Bubur kayu enak [Wood pulp tastes good] Bubur kayu [Wood pulp] Hutan bikin emas bersinar [The forest makes gold shine] Tebang terus [Keep cutting] Terus tebang [Keep cutting] Hutan akan ditebang terus [The forest well be cut down]

(189) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 174 Appendix 7: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Harimau! Harimau! (A Tale of the Last Sumatran Tiger)” [Tiger! Tiger!] from Love Bomb Album [2013]. “Harimau! Harimau! (A Tale of the Last Sumatran Tiger)” [Tiger! Tiger!] Tired tones leading the way No unknown foliage falls away Claws create fear dominates Near the end nature strives to change Do you care I'm longing for home As i face the future all alone Harimau! Sumatera skies colored in red Guns to fangs fury takes today People cheer as angels cry By this bullet i have learned to fly I need someone to love As i face the future all alone Harimau! Harimau!

(190) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 175 Appendix 8: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Orangutan” from Love Bomb Album [2013]. “Orangutan” Orangutan muda, rumahnya di belantara [Young orangutan, his house in the wilderness] Dijaga papa dan mama yang kemarin masih ada [Taken care by Father and Mother which still existed yesterday] Kini tiada… [Now gone] Orangutan muda diculik perambah rimba [Young orangutans are kidnapped by the loggers] Dibawa paksa ke kota, jadi hiburan manusia [Forced to go to the city, becomes human’s entertainment] Terpenjara… [Imprisoned] Orangutan… Orangutan akan jadi legenda [Orangutans ... Orangutans will become legends] Orangutan gila karena manusia gila [Orangutan becomes crazy because humans also crazy] Tak betah tinggal di kota, dia rindu habitatnya [Feel not at home in the city, he missed his habitat] Di rimba… [In the jungle]

(191) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 176 Orangutan murka mengamuk serang manusia [Angry orangutans rage on humans] Manusia bawa senjata, orangutan tertawa [Humans carry weapons, orangutans laugh] Terbang ke surga… [Fly to the Heaven] Orangutan Orangutan akan jadi legenda [Orangutans ... Orangutans will become legends] Orangutan Orangutan akan jadi legenda [Orangutans ... Orangutans will become legends]

(192) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 177 Appendix 9: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Over konsumsi” [Over Consumption] from Salto Album [2009]. “Over konsumsi” [Over Consumption] Lautku yang biru, [My blue sea] Tubuhmu yang beku menghampiriku [Your frozen body approached me] Langitku yang biru, selimut kelabu membungkusmu [My blue sky, gray blanket wrapped around you] Matahari, cahyamu… seperti membakar hari-hariku [The sun, your light... like burning my days] Di sini, negeriku saying [Here, my beloved country] Hutannya hilang, bencana datang [The forest is gone, disaster is coming] Nelayan dan petani rugi [Fishermen and farmers lose] Karena iklim tak berteman lagi [Because the climate isn't friends anymore] Penguasa jagalah dunia [Sovereigns maintain the world] Bumi kita, rumah kita bersama [Our Earth, Our home together] Amerika, kurangi emisi gasmu [America, reduce your gas emissions] Jerman juga, hentikan agro-kimia [Germany too, stop agrochemicals] Jepang Cina, harusnya jaga Asia [Japan China, should take care of Asia] Kita semua, telah over konsumsi [We all have over consumption]

(193) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 178 Di sini, Indonesia... [ In here, Indonesia] Hutannya hilang, bancana datang [The forest is gone, disaster is coming] Penguasa, awasi dia… [Sovereign, watch him] Mafia kayu tak tahu malu [Shameless wood mafia] Yeah... Yeah... Yeah... [Yeah... Yeah... Yeah...] Selamatkan diri kita [Save ourselves] Dari diri kita sendiri [From ourselves]

(194) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 179 Appendix 10: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Dead Trees” from Tatap Muka Album [2015]. “Dead Trees” Friends from the forest are calling me I’m hearing them scream they want to be free I want to stand with them and the tall trees For it will be gone tomorrow Don’t tell me there’s nothing to say Nature is not something you can throw away It’s wrong to believe there’s time to act tomorrow Today is now tomorrow They left me a sign to help me find, cause they’re running out of time Oh, my friend, I know you are watching me… Dead trees marking my way, it all disappears, that’s why I’m here I keep finding my way, so that one day My darling we’ll walk through the green I feel something wrong is happening today People are moving so fast they’re losing their way

(195) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 180 I understand what we think and believe in today can affect tomorrow And can you find peace of mind, the end could be today You choose your way, the games you play, it’s up to you...

(196) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 181 Appendix 11: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Mafia Medis” [Medical Mafia] from Love Bomb Album [2013]. “Mafia Medis” [Medical Mafia] Terbius senyum palsumu aku pasrahkan [Drugged on your fake smile I gave up] Ikuti apa saja yang kau suntikkan [Follow whatever you inject] Tubuh ini tak terima, kau tak peduli [This body doesn't accept, you don't care] Dengan halus kau memerasku tuk terus membeli [You smoothly blackmail me to keep buying] Aku terdiam [I was silent] Aku orang awam [I'm a layman] Ada iblis yang sembunyi di jubah suci [There are demons hiding in holy robes] Aku silau dengan cahaya di ranjang neraka [I glare with the light in the bed of hell] Diagnosa yang ku tanya, ku tak mengerti [Diagnosis that I’m asking, I don't understand] Sambil menahan derita, ku pendam curiga [While holding back the pain, I was suspicious] Mafia Medis… [Medical Mafia] Kau bermain dengan nyawaku [You play with my life] Kau bermain dengan nyawaku [You play with my life]

(197) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 182 Kau bermain dengan nyawaku [You play with my life] Oh tolong ingatlah sumpahmu… [Oh please remember your oat]

(198) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 183 Appendix 12: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Mafia Hukum” [Mafia of Law] from Love Bomb Album [2013]. “Mafia Hukum” [Mafia of Law] Mafia hukum [Mafia of Law] Hukum saja [Just Punish] Karna hukum tak mengenal siapa [Because the law does not recognize who] Mafia hukum [Mafia of Law] Hukum saja [Just Punish] Karna hukum tak mengenal siapa [Because the law does not recognize who] Korupsi... Korupsi... kata ini lagi [Corruption… Corruption… This word again] Selalu menghantui negeri yang frustasi [Always haunting a frustrated country] Korupsi... Korupsi... semakin menjadi [Corruption... Corruption... is getting worse] Apapun terjadi diatas transaksi [Whatever happens above the transaction] Tertangkap bercinta dihukum penjara [Caught making love sentenced to prison] Korupsi berjuta masih berkuasa [Corruption of milllions are still in power] Prinsip imprasial tak berlaku lagi [The impartial principle does not apply anymore] Siapa punya modal takkan masuk bui [Who has capital will not enter prison]

(199) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 184 Mafia hukum [Mafia of Law] Hukum saja [Just Punish] Karna hukum tak mengenal siapa [Because the law does not recognize who] Mafia hukum [Mafia of Law] Hukum saja [Just Punish] Karna hukum tak mengenal siapa [Because the law does not recognize who] Mafia hukum [Mafia of Law] Hukum saja [Just Punish] Karna hukum tak mengenal siapa [Because the law does not recognize who] Mafia hukum [Mafia of Law] Hukum saja [Just Punish] Karna hukum tak mengenal siapa [Because the law does not recognize who] Mau lawan mereka, hati-hati saja [Want to fight them, just be careful] Karena mereka dijaga buaya [Because they are guarded by crocodile] Buaya-buaya piaraan mafia [Crocodiles mafia’s pet] Mafia-mafia isinya pengusaha [Mafias’ content are businessman]

(200) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 185 Penguasaha-pengusaha kongsi dengan penguasa [Businessmen federate with the authorities] Walau sudah kaya masih kurang juga [Even though it's already rich, it's still lacking] Hukum direkayasa hanya buat yang kaya [Law is arranged only for the rich] Yang jadi korbannya, RAKYAT JELATA [The one who became the victim, COMMONERS] Mafia hukum [Mafia of Law] Hukum saja [Just Punish] Karna hukum tak mengenal siapa [Because the law does not recognize who] Mafia hukum [Mafia of Law] Hukum saja [Just Punish] Karna hukum tak mengenal siapa [Because the law does not recognize who] Mafia hukum [Mafia of Law] Hukum saja [Just Punish] Karna hukum tak mengenal siapa [Because the law does not recognize who]

(201) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 186 Appendix 13: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Dagelan Penipu Rakyat” [People's Deception Comedy] from Earthship Album [2018]. “Dagelan Penipu Rakyat” [People's Deception Comedy] Kau gila! [You are crazy!] Bisa kau memutar logika massa [You can play the mass’ logic] Ku jadi gila [I become crazy] Karena mencoba membuat waras dunia [Because I try to make the world sane] Penguasa… [The authority] Suka manipulasi janji surga [Like to manipulate Heaven’s promise] Etika… [Ethic] Integritas adalah sesuatu yang langka [Integrity is something rare] Bila gedung rakyat dijajah pendusta [If the public building is colonized by a liar] Maka hanya ada satu kata dari kita: [Then there is only one word from us] LAWAN! [FIGHT!] Mencuri… [Steal…]

(202) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 187 Tapi penjaga hukum yang dibui [But the law guard is imprisoned] Curi lagi… [Steal again…] Ada 1000 celah yang kau miliki [There is thousand gap that you have]

(203) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 188 Appendix 14: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Refuse To Forget” from Love Bomb Album [2018]. “Refuse To Forget” I can see your bloody past Reflected on poison glass You tried to hide this in the sky But we learned how to fly History is all the same Seeds of change, laced with pain Even if i lose my voice, I still have a choice I refuse to forget Hide the truth with buried bones All that's left are broken homes Vultures eat his frozen flesh His soul will never rest Stealing, killing, spreading lies

(204) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 189 One man dies, millions rise You can't tell us where to go Or what not to know I refuse to forget

(205) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 190 Appendix 15: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Bekas Luka” [Scar] from Tatap Muka Album [2015]. “Bekas Luka” [Scar] Sakit itu masih terasa [This pain still feels] T'lah kucoba lupa tapi tak bisa [I try to forget but I can't] Ku bekap luka-luka lama [I wiped the old wounds] Waktu memang sembuhkan luka [] Tapi bekasnya takkan bisa sirna [But the scars cannot disappear] Ku cerna maaf yang kau minta [I digest the apology that you asked] Dariku [From me] Walau aku memaafkannya [Even though I forgive him] Bukan berarti ku melupakannya [Does not mean that I forget about it] Semoga… kau tau artinya [Hope ... you know the meaning] Bisa saja kau dustai dunia [You could lie to the world] Tapi ku yakin hatimu tersiksa [But I'm sure your heart is tormented] Entahlah… aku tak sanggup mengira [I don't know ... I can't expect] Walau aku memaafkannya [Even though I forgive him] Bukan berarti ku melupakannya [Does not mean that I forget about it]

(206) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 191 Pasti aku memaafkannya [Certainly, I forgive him] Semogaa… Kau tau artinya [Hope ... you know the meaning]

(207) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 192 Appendix 16: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Biarlah Malaikat” [Let the Angel] from Earthship Album [2018]. “Biarlah Malaikat” [Let the Angel] Aku heran, setelah sekian lama [I am surprised, after all this time] Tak ada tanda-tanda keadilan tiba [There is no sign of justice arriving] Aku tahu bukannya kau tak mampu [I know it's not because you can't] Semua tahu karena kau tak mau [Everyone knows because you don't want to] Bohong… [Lie…] Siapa yang bohong? [Who is lying?] Dikitari para ular, sang harimau ompong [Surrounded by snakes, the tiger becomes toothless] Haruskah kisah sandiwara tahta [Should the throne theatrical story] Didominasi penipu, bukannya para ksatria [Dominated by liars, not knights] Biarlah… Malaikat yang menjagaku [Let it be… The angel guarding me] Dan, Biarlah… Waktu yang menghakimimu [And, Let it be ... Time that judge you] Coba, kasih tau aku [Try, tell me] Cara jitu tuk membuktikan cintaku [The right way to prove my love]

(208) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 193 Aku kasih hati, kau mau jantung [I give love, you want heart] Menungguku mati, baru kau berkabung [Waiting for me to die, then you mourn] Biarlah… Malaikat yang menjagaku [Let it be… The angel guarding me] Dan, Biarlah… Waktu yang menghakimimu [And, Let it be ... Time that judge you]

(209) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 194 Appendix 17: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Kartini” from Single in order to support Kendeng’s female farmers struggle [2016]. “Kartini” Kami sebagai seorang ibu harus melestarikan bumi pertiwi [We as a mother must preserve our motherland] Supaya tetep lestari tetep utuh tetep ijo royo-royo [To stay sustainable, remain intact, still green] Panggil namaku kartini saja [Just call my name is Kartini] Itu namaku kartini saja [That's my name, Kartini] Dirimu kecil di pasung batu kakiku [You are little who rocked in my feet] Tapi suaraku menembus ruang dan waktu [But my voice penetrates space and time] Lewat duta aksara... kan ku kabarkan padamu dunia [Through the illiterate... I will tell you the world] Karnaku yakin habis gelap terbitlah terang... oh terang... [Because I am sure that after dark comes the light... the light…] Pangil namaku kartini saja [Just call my name is Kartini] Ku nyala lentera...dengan darah dan air mata [I lit a lantern ... with blood and tears]

(210) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 195 Lewat duta aksara... kan ku kabarkan padamu dunia [Through the illiterate... I will tell you the world] Karnaku yakin habis gelap terbitlah terang... TERANG... [Because I am sure that after dark comes the light... THE LIGHT…] Meski berat ku di dunia usai sudah [Although my burden in the world is over] Tapi bangsa yg besar tak pernah lupakan sejarah [But a great nation has never forgotten the history] Ku titipkan api cinta untukmu [I leave the fire of love for you] Jagalah agar tetap menyala [Keep it on] Panggil namaku kartini saja [Just call my name is Kartini]

(211) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 196 Appendix 18: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Budi Si Berani Mati” [Budi, Dared to Die] from Salto Album [2009]. “Budi Si Berani Mati” [Budi, Dared to Die] Budi si berani mati [Budi, Dared to Die] Lama memendam sakit hati [Long time to hold your heart ache] Bermodalkan iman dan taqwa [Capitalized on faith and piety] Membasmi musuh-musuh agama [Eradicate enemies of religion] Tlah dia mantapkan tujuan [He set goals] Dipilihnya satu sasaran [One target is chosen] Budi lama jauh dari orang tua [Long time Budi is far from his parents] Dan seorang adik tercinta [And a beloved brother] Yang puluhan tahun lalu merantau [Which decades ago wander] Sekilas info Budi, agar kau tahu [A brief of Budi's info, so you know] Di malam hari yang tlah tiba [At the arriving night] Budi masuki satu tempat pesta [Budi enters a party place] Dijinjingnya tas penuh petaka [He carried a bag full of disasters] Dia melangkah ke pintu surganya [He stepped into the door of his heaven] Tapi Budi tak menyadari [But Budi does not realize] Adik tercintanya kerja di sini [His younger brother works here]

(212) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 197 Nasi sudah menjadi bubur [Rice has become pulp] Sekali bom pesta hancur lebur [Once bomb a party is destroyed] Di antara para korban yang malang [Among the poor victims] Adik Budi terpanggang, nyawanya tlah hilang [Budi's younger brother was roasted, his life was gone] Hey, Budi berani, budinya mati! [Hey, Budi is brave, he’s dead!] Budi berani mati! [Budi dares to die!]

(213) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 198 Appendix 19: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Everyone Goes to Heaven” from Salto Album [2009]. “Everyone Goes to Heaven.” All you can see is only What you would believe What if the truth is yours to decide? He’s just a man Speaks the same as others can Yet he define the world And it’s end What would you do if hell Has come and hell has gone And heaven is wrong Heaven is wrong And if I knew what is Right and what is wrong Would you believe me Singing this song Faith makes a man Try to reach the holy land

(214) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 199 But in the end He is nothing

(215) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 200 Appendix 20: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Peace Pretenders” from Salto Album [2009]. “Peace Pretenders” Peace was just for show By those who want control Their greed consumes the world And we forgot what love can hold Peace will stay with me, Wherever I go Peace will stay with me... If like in my dreams The prophets are one team They could make us see That peace is everything We have lost Almost everything Except love It can be beautiful Peace is everything We have lost, we have lost,

(216) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 201 We have love, love, love This is just in my dreams In this world, we KILL, KILL, KILL!

(217) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 202 Appendix 21: Navicula Song Lyrics entitled “Kill the Fireflies” from Salto Album [2009]. “Kill the Fireflies” Orang kota semakin ramai [Urbanites are getting crowded] Sampah mereka hancurkan pantai [Their rubbish destroys the beach] Minoritas dibantai [Minorities slaughtered] Over konsumsi menjadi-jadi [Over consumption worsened] Tuhan kita bicara di TV [Our God speaks on TV] Memaksa kita jadi pembeli [Forcing us to be buyers] They kill the fireflies Orang kuat menginjak kepala [Strong people step on people’s heads] Orang-orang lemah di bawahnya [Weak people under it] Hanya tuk menjilati sang raja [Just to lick the king] Agama halalkan senjata [Religion justifies weapons] Sejarah berdarah terulang lagi [The bleeding history is repeated] Setan berjubah nabi [Satan in the robe’s prophet] They kill the fireflies. All we’re gonna do Is kill the fireflies

(218) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 203 Minoritas diberantas... [Minorities are eradicated…] We lost everything That once was true, coz The liars needed something new And people follow them who say: “We have killed the fireflies!”

(219)

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