The causal factors of Otoko`s homosexuality as seen in Yasunari Kawabata`s beauty and sadness.
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Reading literary works gives knowledge, understanding and usually also
The Since the complexity of life can apparently be seen through literature, the aim of this study is to study further about the causal factor of homosexuality through acharacter of a literature novel. Hudson said in An Introduction to the Study of Literature that “literature is a vital record of what men have seen in life, what they have experienced of it, what they thought and felt about those aspects of it which have the most immediate and enduring interest of all of us.” It is thus fundamentallyan expression of life through the medium of life through the medium of language (Hudson, 1958: 10).
D. Definition of Terms
In order to help the readers in interpreting some words which are frequently used in the study, the definition of those terms are presented here:According to James C. In the broadersense, it is a sexual attraction toward individuals of the same sex even though there is no overt practices involved.
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE A. Review of Related Studies There are related studies of Yasunari Kawabata’s Beauty and Sadness to help
Unlike this thesis which focuses on the sexual pattern of the main character, the study focuses on revealing the message through the major characters and also their view of love. From all the related studies above, the writer convinced that this study is different from the others because in this study the writer uses a different novel assome of those above, and also this study will reveal the causal factors of Otoko’sHomosexuality as seen in Yasunara Kawabata’s Beauty and Sadness.
B. Review of Related Theories This part consists of explanation on the theories that are applied in this studyThey are theory of character and characterization, theory of homosexuality, theory of trauma, theory of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, theory of motivation, and alsosome explanation on the relation between literature and psychology.
1. Theory of Character and Characterization
All the theory about the characterizations that are mentioned above can be applied to facilitate the reader to analyze the characterization of the character thatplays in the story. There are three theories that is used to do the analysissuch as theory of personal description, theory of past life, theory of coversation with others, and theory of direct comment of the author.
2. Theory of Homosexuality
Theory of homosexuality is needed to help analyzing Otoko’s type of homosexuality and the causal factors of her homosexuality. Homosexuality is arelation between two persons in which they are attracted sexually to each other and their strongest feelings and affections are directed toward each other, but it may ormay not involve overtly sexual contact or intercourse.
a. Types of Homosexuals There are also various attempts have been made to categorize homosexuals
Although such labeling is crude and stereotyped at best and misleading at worst, it nevertheless does give some idea of the range of homosexual patterns and life-styles,and also of the impact of societal pressures on those who commit homosexuality. The Blatant Homosexual This type of homosexual deals with the individuals who are fit by the popular stereotype of the homosexual-the lisping, limp-wristed, swishing caricature offemininity, in the case of male.
b) Psychosocial Factor
It refers to the quality of an individual’s relationship with other people during that person’s childhood andadolescence that find out whether the person becomes homosexual or heterosexual or maybe that person will change into asexual who is not interested to all physical lovemaking. It has been proved by the findings of the study of homosexuals that has been done by the Institute for Sex research: Preliminary findings in the study of homosexuals being carried out by theInstitute for Sex Research showed that some lesbians shifted from heterosexual to homosexual behavior after disillusioned with their heterosexual partners.
c) Interactionist Factor
This factor draws upon both biological and pychosocial factors in the belief that some combination of chemistry’s body and environmental factors account for thedevelopment of homosexual behaviors. From all the theories that has been explained above, it shows that the causal factor of Otoko’s homosexuality is psychosocial factor which consists of negativeconditioning of heterosexual behavior when she is relationship with Oki and homosexual experience and its positive reinforcement when she is in relationshipwith Keiko.
3. Theory of Trauma
Since a person may learn, grow andadapt to a new situation, therefore he often uses experiences in the past life as the reference or hint to the action that will be taken in the future while facing a problem. The first stage of the efforts to minimize the impact of the illness is to deny the reality which are the nature of the illness, its seriouseness and its propableconsequences.
4. Theory of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
In Mental Hygine, there are stated that,In the nightmares of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder victims, the content is based on the difficult circumtances they experienced at the time of the trauma. Along withflashback and intrusive thoughts or memories, nightmares are one of the ways in which a trauma survivor may re-experience or relive the traumatic experience forthe months or years following the event (Caroll, 1961:93).
5. Theory of Human Needs
Motivation plays the key role in determining both the direction (the goals which are pursued) and the activation (the effort which is expended in trying to attainthe goals) of human behavior. Motive refers to any condition of the individual that initiates or directs behavior toward a specific goal, while need refers to a requirements that must be met for heallthy development and/or functioning (Coleman, 1976:96).
6. The Relation between Literature and Psychology
According to Wellek and Warren, there is a close relation between psychology and literature. Sometimes a psychological theory,held either consciously or dimly by an author, seems to fit a figure or a situation(1956: 91-92).
C. Theoretical Framework
This theory functions to determine whether Otoko is a major or minor character in the story. It is seen from the development of the character from thebeginning to the end of the story.
CHAPTER II I METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study The object of this study is a novel of Yasunari Kawabata’s Beauty and Sadness. Yasunari Kawabata is the winner of the 1968 Nobel Prize for literature. He devoted
The second step was determining the topic of the analysis and picking up the problems arose in the story to put in the problem formulation section. In answering the second question, the writer tried to find the causal factors of Otoko’s homosexuality by using four theories, theory ofHomosexuality by Colleman, theory of Trauma by Coleman and some additional byFreud, and theory of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder by Caroll, and the last is theory of Human Needs by Coleman.
CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS Based on what is stated in the problem formulation, this analysis part is devided
A. Otoko’s Sexual Patterns
It was the tragic love story of a veryyoung girl and a man himself still young but with a wife and child: only the beauty of it had been heightened, to the point that it was unmarred by any moralquestioning (Kawabata, 1996:17). Since Omiyo had been a maid at the templefor the past six years and also had spent most of her time taking care of Otoko’s needs, there was a possibility that she might know about their homosexualrelationship because Otoko and Keiko were inseparable.
B. The Causal Factors of Otoko’s Homosexuality
It After the breakup of her affair with Oki she had fled to Kyoto with her mother, and then gone back and forth several times to Tokyo, but what especiallylingered in her mind from those days were the tea fields around Shizuoka, seen from the train window (Kawabata, 1996:32). After she parted with Oki, she was insecure as if her new lover been a man the sacredvision of her love for Oki which she secretly guarded within her would be vanished at When she recalled what he had taught her, and imitated it in making love toKeiko, she feared that the sacred vision might be stained or even destroyed.
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION This is the last chapter of the study. In this chapter, a conclusion for the
It also revelas Otoko’s type of homosexual and the The second problem reveals the causal factors of Otoko’s homosexuality is psychosocial factor which includes negative conditioning of heterosexual behaviorand homosexual experience and its positive reinforcement. One of the way people survive from their stressful timewhich caused by trauma is by solving problem they are facing, and defense mechanism is one of the way of someone’s way out when she/he facing a problem.