A THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education

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PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

A THESIS

  Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education

  By Fidelis Windiawan Adhi Purnomo

  Student Number: 051214031

  

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM

DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION

FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY

YOGYAKARTA

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

A THESIS

  Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education

  By Fidelis Windiawan Adhi Purnomo

  Student Number: 051214031

  

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM

DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION

FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY

YOGYAKARTA

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY

  I honestly declare that this thesis, which I have written, does not contain the work or parts of the work of other people, except those cited in the quotations and the references, as a scientific paper should.

  Yogyakarta, 23 June 2009 The Writer

  Fidelis Windiawan Adhi Purnomo 051214031

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN

PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS

  Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma: Nama : Fidelis Windiawan Adhi Purnomo Nomor Mahasiswa : 051214031

  Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universita Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul

  

English Code-switching in Indonesian Sport Tabloids

  Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di Internet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin dari saya maupun memberikan royalty kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai penulis. Demikian pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sebenarnya.

  Dibuat di Yogyakarta Pada tanggal: 22 Juni 2009 Yang menyatakan (Fidelis Windiawan Adhi Purnomo)

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

  I would like to thank Jesus Christ for giving me strength and guiding me all the time in my life. I thank Him for making me free of the fears and the pains during this exhausting process. He is such a zephyr that keeps whispering me the meaningful reasons why I have to finish my study well. In addition, I also would like to express my gratitude to those who have supported me.

  First, I would like to thank F.X Ouda Teda Ena, S.Pd., M.Pd., my sponsor, especially for his guidance, suggestions, corrections, support, and patience in the process of completing my thesis. May God always be with him ever after.

  Second, I would like to thank all the lecturers and staff of English Education Study Program, Sanata Dharma University, who have patiently taught and given the best to me from the beginning till the end of my study. I thank them for giving me a lot of knowledge and experiences for my brighter future.

  Furthermore, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my beloved parents, FX. Trihadi & Fr. Sri Purwanti Wahyuningsih, for all their prayer, support, understanding, encouragement and anything that I got so far. My special gratitude also goes to my dearest sister, Yosephine Eri Kusumastuti, who gives me another reason to finish my study. I love her so much.

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  My sincerely gratitude is addressed to my thesis-mates, Vinsensia Tyas

  

Maharsi, Desideria Araya, Emanuella Swastika Datu, Roomawardi, Koko

Adityanto, and Anastasia Permata Liska for their togetherness and sharing to finish

  the thesis.

  Last but not least, I would like to thank all my best friends inside or outside English Education Study Program, especially Agustinus Wahyu Wasono Putro,

  

Andreas Jeffry Okavianto, Bondan R. Subagya, Ezra Anggara Y., Agatha Pepy

Y., Esti Dewanti, Fillomena Tunjung, Daniel Ari W., Pius Rahardian Putranto,

Yosaphat Dwi Santo N., SEC members, UKMK members, and PENDOPO mass

media members. I thank them for their care, support, encouragement, and being with

  me all the time. Remember that life is beautiful! I specially would like to thank Gendis Naskoshi & Paulus Yanu Armanto for loving me all the time. Both of them are so special in my life.

  Fidelis Windiawan Adhi Purnomo

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

  Page

  

TITLE PAGE ………………………………………………………………… i

PAGES OF APPROVAL………………………………………………………

  ii

  

STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY ……………………………… iv

LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH v

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS……………………………………………………

  vi

  

TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………… viii

LIST OF TABLES ……………………………………………………………. x

LIST OF APPENDICES ………………………………………………………

  xii

  

ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………... xiv

ABSTRAK …………………………………………………………………….. xvi

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION A.

  1 Research Background ……………………………………………………… B.

  2 Problem Formulation ………………………………………………………..

  C.

  3 Problem Limitation ………………………………………………………… D.

  3 Research Objectives ……………………………………….........................

  E.

  3 Research Benefits ………………………………………………………… F.

  4 Definitions of Terms ………………………………………………………

CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A.

  6 Theoretical Description …………………………………………………….

  1.

  6 Linguistics ………………………………………………………………….

  2.

  7 Sociolinguistics…………………………………………………………… 3.

  8 The Nature of Code-switching …………………………………………… a.

  8 Definitions of Code-switching ………………………………………….

  b.

  8 The Types of Code-switching ………………………………………… c.

  12 The Possible Reasons for Code-switching ……………………………...

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  46

  25

  30

  35

  39

  43

  44

  44

  48

  Code-switching and Language Learning ………………………….

  49

  51

  52

  54 1. Single-word Code-switching ……………………………………… 2.

  Phrase Code-switching …………………………………………….

  3. Whole-sentence Code-switching ………………………………….

  4. Integrated Loanwords Code-switching …………………………….

  24

  d.

  21

  20

  B.

  Theoretical Framework ………………………………………………….

  CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY A. Research Method …………………………………………....................... B. Source of Data …………………………………………………………. C. Research Instruments ……………………………………………………. D. Data Gathering Technique ………………………………………………. E. Data Analysis Technique ……………………………………………….. F. Research Procedure …………………………………………………… CHAPTER IV: RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS A. Types of Code-switching ………………………………………………..

  5. Diglossic Code-switching ………………………………………….

  6. Clause Code-switching ……………………………………………..

  B.

  The Possible Reasons for Code-switching …………………………….

  C.

  Implications …………………………………………………………….

  D.

  Other Findings …………………………………………………………

  14

  15

  17

  18

  19

  22

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS A. Conclusions …………………………………………………………… B. Suggestions ……………………………………………………………… REFERENCES …………………………………………………………… APPENDICES ………………………………………………………………

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  LIST OF TABLES

  Page Table 4.1: The Number of Single-word Code-switching Cases

  25 in Indonesian Sport Tabloids Table 4.2: The Most Frequent Single-word Code-switching

  26 in News Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids Table 4.3: The Most Frequent Single-word Code-switching

  27 in Opinion Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids Table 4.4: The Most Frequent Single-word Code-switching

  28 in Feature Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids Table 4.5: The Most Frequent Single-word Code-switching

  29 in Advertisement Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids Table 4.6: The Number of Phrase Code-switching Cases

  30 in Indonesian Sport Tabloids Table 4.7: The Most Frequent Phrase Code-switching

  31 in News Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids Table 4.8: The Most Frequent Phrase Code-switching

  32 in Opinion Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids Table 4.9: The Most Frequent Phrase Code-switching

  33 in Feature Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids Table 4.10: The Most Frequent Phrase Code-switching

  34 in Advertisement Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids Table 4.11: The Number of Whole-sentence Code-switching Cases

  35 in Indonesian Sport Tabloids Table 4.12: The Most Frequent Whole-sentence Code-switching

  36 in News Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids

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  Table 4.13: The Most Frequent Whole-sentence Code-switching

  37 in Opinion Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids Table 4.14: The Most Frequent Whole-sentence Code-switching

  38 in Feature Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids Table 4.15: The Most Frequent Whole-sentence Code-switching in 38-39

  Advertisement Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids Table 4.16: The Number of Integrated Loanwords Code-switching Cases in Indonesian Sport Tabloids

  39 Table 4.17: The Most Frequent Integrated Loanwords Code-switching

  40 in News Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids Table 4.18: The Most Frequent Integrated Loanwords Code-switching

  41 in Opinion Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids Table 4.19: The Most Frequent Integrated Loanwords Code-switching

  42 in Feature Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids Table 4.20: The Number of Diglossic Code-switching Cases

  43 in Indonesian Sport Tabloids Table 4.21: Misspelling Words in the Target tabloids 47 Table 4.22: Misspelling Phrases in the Target Tabloids

  47 Table 4.23: Both Written Double Verbs and Nouns in the Target Tabloids

  48

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  Page Appendix 1: The Example of Checklist of Types of Code-switching

  55 Appendix 2: The Example of Checklist of Types of Code-switching

  56 in News Category of BOLA Tabloid No. 1909/March/2009 Appendix 3: The Example of Checklist of Types of Code-switching

  57 in Opinion Category of BOLA Tabloid No. 1909/March/2009 Appendix 4: The Example of Checklist of Types of Code-switching

  58 in Feature Category of BOLA Tabloid No. 1909/March/2009 Appendix 5: The Example of Checklist of Types of Code-switching

  59 in Advertisement Category of BOLA Tabloid No. 1909/March/2009 Appendix 6: The Example of Checklist of Types of Code-switching

  60 in News Category of SOCCER Tabloid Edition 35/IX/March/2009 Appendix 7: The Example of Checklist of Types of Code-switching

  61 in Opinion Category of SOCCER Tabloid Edition 35/IX/March/2009 Appendix 8: The Example of Checklist of Types of Code-switching

  62 in Feature Category of SOCCER Tabloid Edition 35/IX/March/2009 Appendix 9: The Example of Checklist of Types of Code-switching

  63 in Advertisement Category of SOCCER Tabloid Edition 35/IX/March/2009

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  Appendix 10: The Example of Checklist of Types of Code-switching

  64 in News Category of MOTOR Plus Tabloid Edition 523/March/2009 Appendix 11: The Example of Checklist of Types of Code-switching

  65 in Opinion Category of MOTOR Plus Tabloid Edition 523/March/2009

  Appendix 12: The Example of Checklist of Types of Code-switching

  66 in Feature Category of MOTOR Plus Tabloid Edition 523/March/2009 Appendix 13: The Example of Checklist of Types of Code-switching

  67 in Advertisement Category of MOTOR Plus Tabloid Edition 523/March/2009 Appendix 14: Sample of Single-word, Phrase, and Integrated Loanwords

  68 Code-switching in BOLA Tabloid No. 1909/March/2009 p. 12

  Appendix 15: Sample of Whole-sentence Code-switching

  69 in SOCCER Tabloid Edition 35/IX/March/2009 p. 32 Appendix 16: Sample of Diglossic Code-switching

  70 in MOTOR Plus Tabloid Edition 523/March/2009 p. 2

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ABSTRACT

  Purnomo, Fidelis Windiawan Adhi. 2009. English Code-switching in Indonesian Sport Tabloids. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University.

  As a means of communication, a language works like a bridge which bridges people to build a good relationship in the society, in this case, how language is used in giving information accurately is by using printed mass media, tabloids. There is a language phenomenon where some English language elements are juxtaposed with the Indonesian utterance, in which sociolinguistics defines it as code-switching.

  This study was conducted to analyze the types of code-switching in BOLA tabloid, SOCCER tabloid, and MOTOR Plus tabloid, as the samples of Indonesian sport tabloids, to identify the possible reasons for code-switching in the target tabloids and to find out the possible implications of code-switching toward English education in Indonesia. Those three sport tabloids were chosen due to they had the same target readers, which was both teenagers and adults.

  To accomplish the research objectives, the writer decided himself as the instrument to analyze the types of code-switching in the Indonesian sport tabloids. Besides, the writer applied both a checklist and a library study to ease the process of gathering and analyzing data. First of all, the writer organized the data on the observation form and perused the entire data. As a result, there were five types of code-switching in those three sport tabloids. They were diglossic code-switching, whole-sentence code-switching, phrase code-switching, single-word code-switching and integrated loanwords. This process came up with the findings that the most frequent code-switching cases in occurrence was single-word code-switching.

  Afterward, to answer the second and third research questions, the writer employed a library study. There were two possible reasons for code-switching in those three sport tabloids. First, code-switching was employed because of the specific terms related to the topic under discussion that were sometimes difficult to be translated into Indonesian language. Second, it was employed to build the intimate relationship with the readers. Meanwhile, based on the findings, the writer found two implications of code-switching toward English education. The most of code- switching cases in the sport tabloids might support the English education whereas some of them obstruct the English education.

  Finally, since there were still some errors in spelling or writing of code- switching cases found in those three sport tabloids, the readers should not reserve it categorically. The use of dictionary would be better to help identify the correctness of code-switching cases. As a result, code-switching cases in sport tabloids could

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  support the readers’ learning process, especially English vocabulary development. Meanwhile, the other researchers might observe further research on tabloids with more samples or on other types of written text.

  Key words: sociolinguistics, code-switching, Indonesian sport tabloids

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  ABSTRAK

  Purnomo, Fidelis Windiawan Adhi. 2009. English Code-switching in Indonesian Sport Tabloids. Yogyakarta: Universitas Sanata Dharma.

  Sebagai sebuah alat komunikasi, bahasa berperan sebagai layaknya sebuah jembatan yang menjembatani orang-orang untuk membangun hubungan yang baik di dalam masyarakat, dalam hal ini adalah bagaimana bahasa digunakan dalam memberikan informasi secara akurat melalui media cetak, tabloid. Ada sebuah fenomena bahasa di mana beberapa istilah bahasa Inggris di masukkan ke dalam ungkapan bahasa Indonesia, di mana sosiolinguistik mendefinisikannya sebagai alih kode.

  Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisa tipe-tipe alih kode yang terdapat di dalam tabloid BOLA, tabloid SOCCER, dan tabloid MOTOR Plus, sebagai contoh dari tabloid-tabloid olahraga di Indonesia, untuk mengidentifikasi alasan-alasan yang mungkin dari alih kode di dalam tabloid-tabloid tersebut, dan juga untuk mencari implikasi-implikasi yang mungkin dari alih kode terhadap pendidikan bahasa Inggris di Indonesia. Tabloid-tabloid tersebut dipilih karena memiliki kesamaan sasaran pembaca, yaitu remaja dan dewasa.

  Untuk mencapai tujuan penelitian, penulis memutuskan dirinya sendiri sebagai alat untuk menganalisa tipe-tipe alih kode yang ada di dalam tabloid-tabloid olahraga di Indonesia tersebut. Di samping itu, penulis juga menggunakan checklist dan library study untuk memudahkan proses perolehan dan penganalisaan data. Pertama, penulis menyusun data di dalam lembar observasi dan mengkaji keselurahan data. Sebagai hasilnya, terdapat lima tipe alih kode di dalam tiga tabloid olahraga tersebut. Tipe-tipe tersebut adalah diglossic code-switching, whole-sentence code-

  

switching, phrase code-switching, single-word code-switching, dan integrated

loanwords code-switching . Berdasarkan proses tersebut ditemukan bahwa kasus alih

  kode terbanyak yang terjadi adalah single-word code-switching.

  Kemudian, untuk menjawab rumusan masalah kedua dan ketiga, penulis menggunakan library study. Ada dua kemungkinan alasan alih kode di dalam tiga tabloid olah raga tersebut. Pertama, alih kode digunakan karena istilah-istilah khusus dalam topik yang sedang dibahas kadang-kadang sulit untuk diterjemahkan ke bahasa Indonesia. Kedua, alih kode digunakan untuk membangun hubungan yang akrab dengan pembaca. Sementara itu, berdasarkan hasil selanjutnya, penulis menemukan dua kemungkinan implikasi alih kode terhadap pendidikan bahasa Inggris. Kebanyakan dari kasus alih kode di dalam tiga tabloid olahraga tersebut dapat

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  menunjang pendidikan bahasa Inggris sedangkan ada beberapa di antaranya menghambat pendidikan bahasa Inggris.

  Akhirnya, selama masih ada beberapa kesalahan dalam pengejaan maupun penulisan kasus alih kode di dalam tiga tabloid tersebut, para pembaca hendaknya tidak menyerap semua itu secara mentah-mentah. Penggunaan kamus akan lebih baik untuk membantu mengidentifikasi kebenaran dari kasus-kasus alih kode tersebut. Hasilnya, alih kode pun dapat mendukung proses pembelajaran bagi pembaca, khususnya pengembangan kosa kata bahasa Inggris. Sementara itu, peneliti-peneliti yang lain dapat melakukan penelitian lebih jauh pada tabloid-tabloid dengan contoh- contoh yang lebih banyak atau pada jenis-jenis teks tertulis lainnya.

  Kata kunci: sosiolinguistik, alih kode, tabloid-tabloid olah raga di Indonesia

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In this chapter, the writer describes six underlying issues namely background

  of the study, problem formulation, problem limitation, research objectives, research benefits, and definition of terms.

A. Background of the Study

  As a means of communication, language works like a bridge which bridges people to do anything that they want to do in their society, in this case, how language is used in giving information accurately is by using printed mass media, such as, newspapers, magazines, or tabloids. On the other hand, the ways of using language reflect people’s personal aspects of visual and intellectual. Thus, language that is used must be well-arranged in order to be easily understood.

  McCormick (1994: 581) explains that “the term ‘code-switching’ refers to the juxtaposition of elements from two (or more) language or dialects.” So, someone may switch the language from one language to another. In addition, she or he can produce the language utterances that consist of language elements from two or more different languages. The statement above is also supported by Valdes – Fallis (1977), as cited by Duran, code-switching means the use of two languages concurrently or interchangeably. It shows the degree of competence in the languages.

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  2 There are a number of reasons for code-switching. One of them can be the influence of certain meanings. Sometimes, people feel that it is monotonous when they only use their own native language all the time to communicate to others, in this case in giving information by using printed mass media. They need something new and different taste in order to have stylish language utterances without changing its meaning. As a result, they switch their own native language elements with foreign language elements. In addition, those statements above are going to be explored whether or not code-switching exists and it is appropriate in use to the prevailing rules.

  Finally, based on the phenomenon above, the writer would like to focus on code-switching that exist in sport tabloids. He would try to investigate the types of code-switching, the possible reasons for code-switching and the implications of code- switching toward English education as long as there are a lot of English code- switching cases may be discovered in Indonesian sport tabloids.

B. Problem Formulation

   In this study the writer would like to address three questions related to the use of English code-switching in Indonesian sport tabloid.

1. What are the types of code-switching in Indonesian sport tabloids? 2.

  What are the possible reasons for code-switching in Indonesian sport tabloids?

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  3 3. What are the possible implications of code-switching in Indonesian sport tabloids toward English education in Indonesia?

  C. Problem Limitation This study focuses on the use of English code-switching in Indonesian sport

  tabloids that might often be discovered recently. Therefore, the writer is going to analyze three of the most popular weekly sport tabloids in Indonesia as the target tabloids, starting from the beginning of March till the end of March 2009. They are BOLA tabloid, SOCCER tabloid, and MOTOR Plus tabloid. BOLA tabloid is published twice a week whereas both SOCCER tabloid and MOTOR tabloid are published once a week. Therefore, the writer takes eight editions for BOLA tabloid, four editions for SOCCER tabloid and four editions for MOTOR Plus tabloid. As a result, there are 16 editions of those three sport tabloids.

  D. Research Objectives The objectives of this study are: 1. to analyze the types of code-switching in Indonesian sport tabloids.

  2. to identify the possible reasons for code-switching in Indonesian sport tabloids. 3. to find out the possible implications of code-switching in Indonesian sport tabloids toward English education in Indonesia.

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  4 E.

   Research Benefits 1. The Benefits for Readers They will have broader knowledge of code-switching, especially about the

  types of code-switching, some possible reasons for code-switching, and implications of code-switching that exist in printed mass media, which is tabloid. They can use it to support language learning. Besides, based on those findings, they can add their English vocabularies with a strong base to distinguish the correct or incorrect items.

  As a result, they will more understand the language phenomenon that happens in printed mass media, especially sport tabloids.

2. The Benefits for Other Researchers

  This study will hopefully encourage other researchers to conduct further study on code-switching by using more samples or on other types of written texts. Then, they will enrich the existing body of data and use the research result to do the certain objectives.

F. Definition of Terms

  Code-switching refers to the juxtaposition of elements from two (or more) language or dialects (McCormick, 1994: 581). Meanwhile, according to Valdes – Fallis (1977), as cited by Duran in The Journal in Educational Issues of Language

  

Minority Student, code-switching means the use of two languages concurrently or

interchangeably. It shows the degree of competence in the languages.

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  5 In this study, code-switching refers to the language phenomenon where two different languages are juxtaposed in one context, in this case, English code- switching in Indonesian sport tabloids. They are BOLA tabloid, SOCCER tabloid, and MOTOR Plus tabloid. According to Hornby (2005), a tabloid is a newspaper with small pages usually has the size of those in larger papers; newspaper of this size which short articles and a lot of pictures and stories about famous people.

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter mainly concerns with two main parts namely theoretical

  description and theoretical framework. In the theoretical description, the writer discusses some related theories from some linguists to provide basic principles of this study. The theoretical framework attempts to draw a framework based on the theoretical description.

A. Theoretical Description

  In this section, the related theories that will be reviewed are the nature of code-switching which explains the general understanding of code-switching, the types of code-switching, the reasons for code-switching as well as the implications of code-switching toward English education.

1. Linguistics

  According to Finegan (2004: 24), linguistics can be defined as “the systematic inquiry into human language – into its structure and the relationship between them, as well as into the development and acquisition of language”. He also states that “language is often defined as an arbitrary vocal system used by human beings to communicate with one another” (Finegan, 2004: 25). All aspects of language are

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  directed to create meaning. As a result, there is an important fact that language is more than communication. “It is social action, with work to perform” (Finegan, 2004: 25). Therefore, linguistics is specified to create the relationship between language and society.

2. Sociolinguistics

  Sociolinguistics is a part of linguistics. According to Radford (1999: 16), sociolinguistics can be defined as “the study of relationship between language use and the structure of society”. As Radford stated, it considers with some factors which maintain that they are essential to an understanding of both structure and function of the language used in a certain situation. Those factors are social backgrounds of both speaker and listener, the relationship between speaker and addressee and the context and manner of the interaction (Radford, 1999: 16). Therefore, people have to modify their language used in communication to build good communication with others in the society, in which this phenomenon is commonly known as code-switching.

  The relationship between sociolinguistics and code-switching cannot be separated each other as long as there is a different variety of languages and conversation contexts in the society.

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3. The Nature of Code-switching

  The nature of code-switching provides some theories in understanding the definitions of code-switching as well as in what situations code-switching happen according to some linguists.

  a. Definitions of Code-switching

  According to Gal (1988: 247), the term ‘code-switching refers to a conversational strategy used to establish, cross or destroy group boundaries; to create, evoke or change interpersonal relations with their right and obligations’. The statement above is also supported by Wardhaugh (1992: 103) who states that ‘code- switching’ refers to a conversational strategy used to establish, cross or destroy group boundaries; to create, evoke or change interpersonal relations with their right and obligations. He asserts that a person may use more than one code in her or his speech instead of just employing a single code. People may switch or mix the codes or languages that they use. In addition, the term of ‘code-switching’ is used to name this a conversational strategy. It is unusual for a speaker to have command of, or use, only one such code. In addition, people, then, are usually required to select a particular code whenever they choose to speak, and they may also decide to switch from one code to another or to mix codes.

  b. The Types of Code-switching

  Every linguist has their own point of view in classifying the types of code- switching.

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  According to McCormick (1994) as cited in The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics Vol. 10 by Asher, based on the length of juxtaposed utterances, there are six types of code-switching. Those are diglossic code-switching, situational code- switching, metaphoric code-switching, conversational code-switching, single-word code-switching and integrated loanwords code-switching.

  Diglossia is a feature of speech community rather than individuals (Holmes, 2001: 30). In diglossic situation, two languages are used for different functions in a speech community. In addition, one language is used for H or high function and the other is for L or low function. H variety refers to the high class situations, whereas L variety is the lower ones. It means that H variety is used in formal discourse which illustrates there is a prestige indeed between the speakers in the situations, such as in the office, classroom, or in other formal situations. Meanwhile, L variety is used in informal discourse due to lack of prestige indeed. People may use L variety when they have conversation with their close friends, family or in other informal situations.

  In this case, code-switching may happen from H variety to L variety or just on the other hand. However, not all people can employ code-switching in both discourses.

  Most of people who tend to be able to employ code-switching better are they who learn in formal education.

  The second type is called situational code-switching. It is “the codes may be perceived as different but be equally valued, and similarity the situations may be differentiated on grounds other than prestige” (McCormick, 1994: 582). Based on the

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  statement, it could be seen that the language change depends on the circumstance faced by a speaker since the certain circumstance may encourage the speaker to exchange the language which is used. However, situational code-switching happens without any change of topic. As a result, the change happens for the whole part of one’s speech in one context. For example, when the students do not understand the teacher’s explanation using English language for the whole context, the teacher should re-explain her or his explanation to the students using Indonesian language in order to be more understandable.

  The third type is metaphoric code-switching. In metaphorical code-switching, there is a difference from the previous one where a language change may happen under discussion. It occurs in “whole conversation, each within one role relationship” (McCormick, 1994: 581). On the other word, the role of relationship between the speakers in a conversation may change.

  The fourth type is conversational code-switching, in which “its occurrence is not dependant on a change of interlocutors’ topic or situation” (McCormick, 1994: 583). It can also be called style shifting or code mixing. It allows the speaker to juxtapose various lengths of foreign elements within her or his speech. In this case, there are three smaller types of conversational code-switching. They are phrase code- switching, whole-sentence code-switching, and clause code-switching. For the first type of conversational code-switching is phrase code-switching. According to Collins Essential English Dictionary, a phrase is “a group of words forming a unit of meaning

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  in a sentence” (Sinclair, 2001). Then, the second type is whole sentence code- switching. According to Collins Essential English Dictionary, whole sentence is “a sequence of words constituting a statement, question, or a command that begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop when written down” (Sinclair, 2001). Hence, these code-switching cases occur in the form of a full sentence. The last type of conversational code-switching is clause code-switching, in which happened within a sentence in form of a clause. According to Collins Essential English Dictionary, clause is “a group of words, consisting of a subject and a predicate including a finite verb, that does not necessarily constitute a sentence” (Sinclair, 2001). Clause “may be either a sentence (independent clause) or a sentence-like construction included within another sentence (dependent clause)” (Nordquist, 2009).

  The fifth type is called single-word code-switching. It can also be called as lexical borrowing, in which it permits the speaker to borrow a single word from another language or dialect and place it within her or his native language utterances (McCormick, 1994: 581).

  The last type of code-switching is integrated loanwords code-switching. The juxtaposition in this type happens in a morpheme level (McCormick, 1994: 581).

  Morpheme is a minimal functional element of a word. Here, someone may integrate a word from foreign language with affixes of her or his native language to form a certain language expression.

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  Ronald Wardhaugh (1992) classifies three kinds of code-switching that may happen in a society, which are situational code-switching, metaphorical code- switching, and conversational code-switching.

  The first type of code-switching is situational code-switching. Wardhaugh (1992: 106) explains that situational code-switching happens when the language which is used by a speaker changes according to the situation which is faced by the speaker. She or he may speak one language in one situation and another language in the different one.

  The second type is metaphorical code-switching. One thing that enables people to identify metaphorical code-switching is that it has an affective dimension; formal to informal, official to personal, serious to humorous, etc.

  The last type is conversational code-mixing. The difference between code- switching and code-mixing can be seen through the context of the occurrence in which code-mixing occurs within a single utterance of someone’s speech as what Wardhaugh (1992: 106) says that “Code-mixing occurs when conversances use both languages together to the extent that they change from one language to the other in the course of a single utterance.” c.

   The Possible Reasons for Code-switching

  According to Crystal (1987) as cited by Skiba (1997) in Code-switching as a

  

Countenance of Language Interference , there were three kinds of the reasons for

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  code-switching. First, the code-switching was employed because of the special terms related to the topic under discussion that should be used. It happened because every topic might have some specific terms that were sometimes so difficult to be translated in Indonesian language. The second possible reason was presented by Crystal (1987) was to build the intimate relationship with the readers. Code-switching may occur when individuals wishes to express solidarity with a particular social group. Then, the third possible reason, Crystal (1987) stated that code-switching occurs when the speaker wishes to convey his/her attitude to the listener. Where monolingual speakers can communicate these attitudes by means of variation in the level of formality in their speech, bilingual speakers can convey the same by code switching.

  According to Hoffmann (1991) in her book An Introduction to Bilingualism, she writes that “the reasons for code-switching are manifold” (1991: 115). It means that reasons are contextual, situational and personal class. She describes that switching usually happens when the speaker is quoting someone else. It is called by Holmes as “referentially oriented code switch” (2001: 37), in which it is employed to emphasize particular message content. The second reason presented by Hoffmann (1991) was code-switching may occur when the speaker is being emphatic about something. In addition, for the last reason, Hoffmann (1991) stated that it may occur when the speaker repeats their utterance for clarification.

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d. Code-switching and Language Learning

  Cook as cited by Skiba (1997) in Code-switching as a Countenance of

  

Language Interference agrees that code-switching can be used to help the process of

  language learning. In addition, as stated by Ellis on his book Second Language (1997), the learners’ communication engage in and through this rate and

  Acquisition

  possibly the route of inter-language development is indirectly influenced by social factors. One of the external factors to explain why learners acquire an L2 in certain ways is input or “the samples of language to which a learner is exposed” (Ellis, 1997: 5) that they receive.

  In addition, since code-switching occurrences in Indonesian sport tabloid may bring both positive and negative effect as well, the writer tries to relate those phenomena to a theory called foreigner talk, “the language that native speakers use when addressing non-native speakers” (Ellis, 1997: 45). In this case, there are two kinds of foreigner talk that can be identified. First, it is called grammatical foreign talk. In this case, there is available variety of modification of different native speakers’ talk. As the first modification, it is conveyed at slower rate. Then, the input is simplified by using shorter sentences, avoiding the use of subordinate clauses, and omitting complex grammatical forms. Third, it uses the basic forms by using a full forms rather than the contracted one. The last modification is that it sometimes involves the lengthening of phrases to make the meaning clearer. Afterward, the

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  second type of foreigner talk is called ungrammatical foreign talk, in which it implies the lack of respect from the native speaker and it may bring about an insult for the learners. Ungrammatical foreign talk is characterized by both the deletion of certain grammatical features such as copula be, modal verbs, as well as articles, and the use of basic form of verbs rather than the past tense form as well as the special constructions such as ‘no + verb’ (Ellis, 1997: 45).

  Finally, as long as L2 learners receive acceptable input of the target language, they would be able to produce the correct utterances. On the other hand, if L2 learners receive the incorrect one, so they cannot produce the correct utterance as well. It is supported by Krashen’s input hypothesis as cited in Ellis’ that second language acquisition happens when a learner understands input which contains grammatical forms.

B. Theoretical Framework

   The investigation of this study was on the written form, so in order to conduct

  the systematic study dealing with the phenomena of code-switching happen in the society, the writer employed the theory of McCormick (1994) in defining types of code-switching. They are diglossic code-switching, conversational code-switching, single-word code-switching, and integrated loanwords code-switching. In addition, both situational and metaphorical code-switching were eliminated because they only occur in oral communication. Meanwhile, conversational code-switching itself is

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  divided into three smaller parts, based on the length of juxtaposed utterances. They are phrase code-switching, whole-sentence code-switching, and clause code- switching.

  Then, in order to identify the possible reasons for code-switching, the writer conducted a library study. He employed two possible reasons for code-switching based on the theory of Crystal (1987) as cited by Skiba in Code-switching as a

  

Countenance of Language Interference . First, every topic may have some specific

  terms that are sometimes so difficult to be translated in Indonesian language. Second, it is used to build the intimate relationship with the readers.

  At last, in order to answer the third research question, the writer also conducted a library study. He employed Rod Ellis’ theory about foreigner talk, “the language that native speakers use when addressing non-native speakers” (1997: 45), in which there are two modifications of foreigner talk. Those are grammatical talk and ungrammatical talk. In this case, the grammatical talk is a modification of foreigner talk which can support the second language acquisition, whereas the ungrammatical talk is a modification of foreigner talk which can obstruct the second language acquisition. It is supported by Krashen’s input hypothesis as cited in Ellis’ that second language acquisition happens when a learner understands input which contains grammatical forms.

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CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY This chapter describes the process in gathering and analyzing the data. It

  

describes research method, source of data, research instrument, data gathering

technique, data analysis technique, and research procedure.

A. Research Method

  This study was such a qualitative research. As stated by Leedy and

Ormrod (2005: 133), a qualitative research focuses on understanding social

phenomena in their natural setting. In order to conduct and organize the steps or

procedures of this study well, the writer needed an appropriate methodology.

  

Since this study was conducted to comprehend a language phenomenon which

existed in printed mass media, in this case English code-switching in Indonesian

sport tabloids, a document analysis was considered as the most appropriate

method. Leedy and Ormrod ( 2005: 142) explained that a document analysis is “a

detailed and systematic examination of the contents of a particular body of

material for the purpose of identifying patterns, themes, or biases. It is typically

performed on form of human communication, including books, newspapers, films,

television, art, music, videotapes of human interactions, and transcripts of

conversations.” Therefore, based on the statements above, the writer conducted to

analyze the resources in the form of Indonesian sport tabloids BOLA, SOCCER,

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  18 MOTOR PLUS tabloids which have social phenomena in language use since

discovered a lot of the use of English code-switching in their articles prominently.

B. Source of Data The writer chose three Indonesian sport tabloids as the object of the study.

  

They were BOLA tabloid, SOCCER tabloid, MOTOR Plus tabloid as the main

source of data dealing with the use of code-switching. Since those three sport

tabloids were weekly tabloids, the writer employed 8 editions of BOLA tabloid, 4

editions of SOCCER tabloid, and 4 editions of MOTOR Plus tabloid. Thus, those

three sport tabloids totally consisted of 16 editions that were published during a

month. Ary, et al (2002: 386) stated that “the more material analyzed, the more

valid the conclusions from the study”. Those sport tabloids observed were as

follows: BOLA tabloid from No. 1909 to 1916/March/2009, SOCCER tabloids

from edition 35 to 38/IX/March/2009, and MOTOR Plus tabloid from edition 523

to 526/March/2009.

  In order to make well-organized data and reduce the mistakes in

understanding it, the data were grouped into five categories. Those were news,

opinion, feature, advertisement, and fiction. Based on Oxford Advanced Learner’s

Dictionary of Current English Seventh Edition (Hornby, 2005), news is an article

which contains a report of events, or recent issues and or recent information about

sports, games, and gadgets. Opinion is an article which shows the writer’s feeling

or thought. Feature is special article and regular article which always appear in

sport tabloids. It could be soccer quiz or players’ profile in a game. Advertisement

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  19

is an article of picture or a notice which tells the readers about product, job, place,

or service. The last is fiction. It is a story which exists in sport tabloids.

C. Research Instrument

  Since the study was a qualitative research, the researcher was considered

as the research instrument of the study. Ary, et al (2002: 447) explained that in

qualitative studies, the investigator is the data gathering instrument (Human

Instrument). He or she talks with people in the setting, observes their activities,

reads their documents and written records, and records this information in field

notes and journals. They also added that the qualitative inquirer deals with data in

the form of words, rather than numbers and statistics; but from time to time he or

she may also collect data in numerical form. Managing the large volume of data

that is generated from interviews, observations, and the collection of documents is

an important consideration in qualitative studies.

  The other instruments were a checklist and a library study. A checklist was

used to distinguish the types of code-switching found in the sport tabloids. It was

developed based on the McCormick’s (1994) theory, in which he classified code-

switching into six classifications. They were diglossic code-switching, whole

sentence, phrase code-switching, clause code-switching, single- word code-

switching (WS), and integrated loanwords code-switching. According to Oxford

Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English Seventh Edition (Hornby,

2005), phrase is a group of words which do not have finite verb; one word

explains another word. Clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb

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  20

whereas sentence is a group of words containing a subject, verb, and object and or

other adverbs which usually uses punctuation, such as full stop (.), question mark

(?), and or exclamation mark (!).

  To observe the reasons for code-switching the writer employed a library

study, which was the theory of Crystal (1987). Meanwhile, to observe the

implications of code-switching phenomenon toward English education, the writer

employed a library study, which was the theory of Language Interference in

Second Language Acquisition by Rod Ellis (1997). Based on the theory, the

implications of code-switching would be found whether code-switching support

the English education or obstruct the English education.

D. Data Gathering Technique

  There were three steps in gathering the data of this research done by the

writer. First, the writer constructed the observation form as the media in listing the

code-switching cases of the target tabloids. The observation forms consisted of

page number, headline, and types of code-switching of the target tabloids. Second,

the identification of code-switching cases was conducted. The process of

identification of code-switching cases of the target tabloids was done by using a

reading method, scanning, included the single word, phrase or even complete

sentence that were italicized. Finally, after finishing the two steps above, the

identified code-switching cases were listed on the observation forms by using a

set of computer as help.

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  21 E.

   Data Analysis Technique Data analysis was very important in this qualitative study, so an

appropriate method in analyzing the data was necessary. In order to gain qualified

findings, the writer followed the organized steps in organizing and analyzing the

data of qualitative which were constructed by Creswell (1998) as cited by Leedy

and Ormrod (2005: 150-151). He created a data analysis spiral which was

implemented within the following steps:

  1. Organizing the Data The large bodies of text should be broken down into the smaller units, in

the form of single word, phrase, or complete sentence. Then, by conducting

scanning reading, the writer was to identify the language utterances that might

contain code-switching. Finally, the code-switching results were listed on the

observation forms.

  2. Perusing the Data Perusing the data helped to recheck whether or not there were some

missing language elements of code-switching that probably were not included yet.

  3. Identifying General Categories and Classifying Each Piece of Data

Every code-switching case which had already been listed on the

observation forms should be identified for its type to make it clearer.

  4. Integrating and Summarizing the Data After identification process of code-switching types that existed in

Indonesian sport tabloids BOLA, SOCCER, MOTOR Plus had already finished,

the findings should be summarized.

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  22 F.

   Research Procedure This section illustrated the procedures of this study which were organized

and done to obtain in-depth comprehension of the phenomenon being studied.

  There were six steps conducted to accomplish the research.

  1. Selecting the Target Tabloids There were 16 editions of three sport tabloids, those were BOLA tabloid,

SOCCER tabloid and MOTOR Plus tabloid as the target tabloids of this study

dealing with the employment of code-switching in their entire contents. The writer

chose the editions that were published during March 2009.

  2. Designing the Observation Forms In order to ease in categorizing or accommodating the data of code-

switching cases discovered in the target tabloids, designing the observation forms

was needed.

  3. Listing the Code-switching Cases on the Observation Forms After designing the observation forms, the code-switching cases that had

been already discovered were listed so that it would be well-arranged and easy to

understand.

  4. Analyzing the Types of Code-switching There were a number of the types of code-switching. The more data that

has already been discovered and listed on the observation forms, the more types of

code-switching that were employed.

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  23 5.

   Identifying the Possible Reasons for Code-switching Based on the identified code-switching cases, the writer conducted a

library study to identify the possible reasons for code-switching in Indonesian

sport tabloids.

  6. Finding out the Possible Implications of Code-switching toward English Education The writer conducted a library study to find out the possible implications

of code-switching toward English education. The implications were whether code-

switching cases found in the target tabloids support or obstruct the English

education.

  7. Making Conclusions Based on the Findings After selecting the target tabloids, the writer designed the observation

forms as a means to list the code-switching cases. Then, the writer tried to analyze

the types of code-switching and identify the possible reasons according to some

theories of some linguists. Finally, as the last step, the writer made conclusions

based on the previous steps as the answers on the research questions presented in

the problem formulation.

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  24

CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS This chapter is aimed at answering three questions as it has been

  

elaborated in the problem formulations. The first question was about types of

code-switching in Indonesian sport tabloids. Then, the second question was the

reasons for code-switching in Indonesian sport tabloids whereas the last question

was the implications of code-switching in Indonesian sport tabloids toward the

English education in Indonesia. It comprised the discussion of the result on the

cases of code-switching in Indonesian sport tabloids and the implications of the

readers’ learning process, as well as other findings.

A. The Types of Code-switching

  The writer employed the theory of McCormick (1994) in defining types of

code-switching. Those were single-word code-switching, phrase code-switching,

whole-sentence code-switching, integrated loanwords code-switching, diglossic

code-switching, and the last was clause code-switching. Based on those six types

of code-switching, the writer identified both the total number of code-switching

cases and the most frequent code-switching for each type of code-switching of the

three sport tabloids based on the five categories; news, opinion, feature,

advertisement, and fiction.

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1. Single-word Code-switching

  A word is the smallest free from in a language. In addition, the English

words in the single-word code-switching were mostly content words such as

nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. So, the results of single-word code-

switching cases could be seen in Table 4.1

  Table 4.1: The Number of Single-word Code-switching Cases in Indonesian Sport Tabloids

  Sport Categories Tabloids

  News Opinion Feature Advertisement BOLA 520 433 134

  18 SOCCER 210 114

  88

  3 MOTOR Plus 432 149

  17

  11 a.

   News News is an article which contains a report of events, or recent issues and

or recent information about sports, games, and gadgets. From the data, it could be

seen that there were three different results of single-word code-switching cases

found more than 100 items in news category.

  

First, BOLA tabloid was in the first place with 520 single-word code-switching

cases and it was the highest result compared with two other tabloids. Then,

MOTOR Plus tabloid was in the second place with 432 cases of single-word code-

switching cases. The last, there were 210 single-word code-switching cases found

in SOCCER tabloid.

  After identifying the total number of single-word code-switching cases,

the writer identified the most frequent single-word code-switching which were

found in news category of the three sport tabloids.

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  11

  The most frequent single-word code-switching which were found in

  Opinion is an article which shows the writer’s feeling or thought. Based on Table 4.1, the results on the single-word code-switching cases in opinion category were still more than 100 items for each tabloid. There were 433 single-word code-switching cases found in BOLA tabloid, then 114 single-word code-switching cases in SOCCER tabloid and the last was MOTOR Plus tabloid with 149 single-word code-switching cases. As a result, BOLA tabloid was the highest one.

  10 In addition, it could be seen from Table 4.2 that the part of speech which was found in the three sport tabloids was mostly as a noun.

  5. Flow Noun and Verb

  11

  4. Race Noun

  12

  3. Event Noun

  14

  2. Crosser Noun

  16

  1. Power Noun

  7 MOTOR Plus tabloid

  5. Versus Preposition

  Table 4.2: The Most Frequent Single-word Code-switching in News Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids

  BOLA tabloid No Single-word Part of Speech Total

  13

  1. Final Adjective and Noun 29

  2. Striker Noun

  25

  3. Well Adverbial

  16

  4. Play-off Noun

  15

  5. Assist Noun

  13 SOCCER tabloid

  1. Leg Noun

  16

  2. Defender Noun

  14

  3. Striker Noun

  4. Fans Noun

b. Opinion

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  4

  3 MOTOR Plus tabloid

  1. So Adverbial

  6

  2. Part Noun

  4

  3. Bikers Noun

  4. Dome Noun

  BOLA tabloid No Single-word Part of Speech Total

  3

  5. Handicap Noun

  3 It was similar to the news category, in which the part of speech in opinion category of the three sport tabloids was still as a noun.

  Feature is special article and regular article which always appear in sport tabloids. Here, there was a salient distinction of the single-word code-switching cases found in the three sport tabloids. The difference was more than 50 items from one tabloid into another.

  It could be seen from the data in Table 4.1 that there were 134 single-word code- switching cases found in BOLA tabloid and it became the highest result.

  It was followed by SOCCER tabloid, in which there were 88 single-word code- switching cases found. The last was MOTOR Plus tabloid. There were only 17

  5. Leg Noun

  Table 4.3: The Most Frequent Single-word Code-switching in Opinion Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids

  4. Final Noun

  3

  1. Final Adjective and Noun 34

  2. Leg Noun

  23

  3. Striker Noun

  19

  4. Duel Noun

  16

  5. Well Adverbial

  14 SOCCER tabloid

  1. Preview Noun

  50

  2. Line-up Noun

  17

  3. Striker Noun

  3

c. Feature

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  1

  3

  5. Pub Noun

  3 MOTOR Plus tabloid

  1. Bikers Noun

  2

  2. Modern Noun

  3. Fashion Noun

  7

  1

  4. Digital Noun

  1

  5. Image Noun

  1 Based on Table 4.4, the writer found nouns as the most parts of speech which existed in the three sport tabloids.

  Advertisement is an article of picture or a notice which tells the readers about product, job, place, or service. Based on the results, the writer did not find a lot of single-word code-switching cases in advertisement category of those three tabloids.

  4. Overlap Verb

  single-word code-switching cases found and it became the least result that was found in opinion category.

Table 4.4 showed the most frequent single-word code-switching which were found in feature category of the three sport tabloids.

  3. Scrimmage Noun

  Table 4.4: The Most Frequent Single-word Code-switching in Feature Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids

  BOLA tabloid No Single-word Part of Speech Total

  1. Striker Noun

  11

  2. Event Noun

  6

  6

  9

  4. Deadline Noun

  5

  5. Well Adverbial

  4 SOCCER tabloid

  1. Jersey Noun

  18

  2. Passing Noun

  3. Dribble Verb

d. Advertisement

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  1

  

Based on the entire data on table 4.1, it could be concluded that the single-

word code-switching cases in every single category of the three sport tabloids had

  1 From the data, the words of the three sport tabloids had nouns as the most parts of speech found.

  5. Bumper Noun

  1

  4. Global Noun

  1

  3. Windshield Noun

  1

  2. Visor Noun

  4

  1. Helmet Noun

  MOTOR Plus tabloid

  1 4. - - - 5. - - -

  3. Jersey Noun

  The highest result was BOLA tabloid with 18 single-word code-switching cases found. The second place was MOTOR Plus tabloid with 11 single-word code-switching cases and the last was SOCCER tabloid as the lowest place with only 3 single-word code-switching cases found.

  

Based on Table 4.1, the writer also identified the most frequent single-

word code-switching which were found in advertisement category of the three sport tabloids. It could be seen in Table 4.5

  1

  1. Gathering Noun

  1 SOCCER tabloid

  5. Member Noun

  1

  4. Full Adjective

  1

  3. Installment Noun

  1

  2. Speaker Noun

  2

  1. Subwoofer Noun

  BOLA tabloid No Single-word Part of Speech Total

  Table 4.5: The Most Frequent Single-word Code-switching in Advertisement Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids

  2. T-shirt Noun

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

a significant difference, in which the more the article of a category the more

possibility would be found cases of single-word code-switching. In addition, the part of speech of the most frequent single-word code-switching was mostly as a

noun. The data showed that BOLA tabloid was a sport tabloid which had the

highest result of single-word code-switching cases compared to SOCCER and

MOTOR Plus tabloids.

2. Phrase Code-switching

  

The second type of code-switching was phrase code-switching. The

juxtaposed element is between two or more than one word, in which it could be

found a group of words as noun phrases, verb phrases, adjective phrases,

adverbial phrases, as well as prepositional phrases. There were two identifications in both total number of phrase code-switching and the most frequent phrase code- switching in the three sport tabloids.

  Table 4.6: The Number of Phrase Code-switching Cases in Indonesian Sport Tabloids

  Sport Categories Tabloids News Opinion Feature Advertisement

  BOLA 265 250

  72

  34 SOCCER 87

  32

  77

  1 MOTOR Plus 206

  70

  29

  15 a.

   News Based on Table 4.6, it showed that BOLA tabloid had the highest result of

phrase code-switching cases in news category with 265 cases. It was different

from the previous result on the single-word code-switching cases, in which its

total number was almost twice higher. Then, it was followed by MOTOR Plus

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  8

  3

  5. Mind games Noun phrase

  3 MOTOR Plus tabloid

  1. Safety riding Noun phrase

  10

  2. Road race Noun phrase

  3. Wild card Noun phrase

  The writer also identified the most frequent phrase code-switching in news category of those three sport tabloid. It could be seen in Table 4.7

Table 4.7: The Most Frequent Phrase Code-switching in News Category

of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids

  7

  4. Neck brace Noun phrase

  5

  5. Spine protection Noun phrase

  3 It could be seen from the Table 4.7, in which the part of speech of the three sport tabloids was mostly noun phrase.

  There was a salient distinction among the three sport tabloids, especially

the comparison result between BOLA tabloid and the two other tabloids. It was so

different from the previous data, in which the results on the single-word code-

switching showed a smooth comparison among them. In this case, the writer

  4. Goal getter Noun phrase

  

tabloid with 206 cases of phrase code-switching. The last was SOCCER tabloid,

with only found 140 cases of phrase code-switching in news category.

  3. Big match Noun phrase

  10

  BOLA tabloid No Phrase Part of Speech Total

  1. Final four Noun Phrase

  19

  2. Man of the match Noun Phrase

  13

  3. Grand final Noun Phrase

  10

  4. Injury time Noun Phrase

  7

  5. Salary cap Noun Phrase

  7 SOCCER tabloid

  1. The worst team Noun Phrase

  10

  2. The best team Noun Phrase

  4

b. Opinion

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  2

  2 It could be seen from the Table 4.8, in which the part of speech of the three sport tabloids was mostly noun phrase.

  5. Electric starter Noun phrase

  2

  4. Intake manifold Noun phrase

  3

  3. Swing arm Noun phrase

  6

  2. Safety riding Noun phrase

  7

  1. Oil cooler Noun phrase

  2 MOTOR Plus tabloid

  5. Clean sheet Noun phrase

  2

  4. Coaching clinic Noun phrase

  

found 250 cases of phrase code-switching in opinion category of BOLA tabloid. It

was followed by MOTOR Plus, in which there were 70 cases of phrase code-

switching found in opinion category. In addition, the last was in SOCCER tabloid.

In SOCCER tabloid, the writer only found 32 cases of phrase code-switching in

opinion category.

  The writer identified the most frequent phrase code-switching, in which the explanation could be seen in Table 4.8

Table 4.8: The Most Frequent Phrase Code-switching in Opinion Category

of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids

  7

  BOLA tabloid No Phrase Part of Speech Total

  1. Technical Area Noun phrase

  36

  2. Final four Noun phrase

  18

  3. Clean sheet Noun phrase

  4. Top scorer Noun phrase

  3

  5

  5. Target man Noun phrase

  4 SOCCER tabloid

  1. Hot players Noun phrase

  8

  2. Loudest voice Noun phrase

  3. Second striker Noun phrase

c. Feature

  4

  1 PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  5. Cutting sticker Noun phrase

  1

  4. Photo contest Noun phrase

  1

  3. Disc brake Noun phrase

  1

  2. High speed test Noun phrase

  2

  1. Road race Noun phrase

  2 MOTOR Plus tabloid

  5. Keeper skills Noun phrase

  2

  4. Junk food Noun phrase

  From the data on Table 4.6, the total numbers of phrase code-switching

cases which were found in feature category of the three sport tabloids were less

than 100 cases. In BOLA tabloid, the writer found 72 cases of phrase code-

switching in feature category. There were 77 cases of phrase code-switching

found in feature category of SOCCER tabloid. It meant that it was higher than the

previous result on BOLA tabloid. In addition, the writer found 29 cases of phrase

code-switching in feature category of MOTOR Plus tabloid. It was the least result

compared to the other ones.

  The most frequent phrase code-switching in feature category could be seen in Table 4.9

Table 4.9: The Most Frequent Phrase Code-switching in Feature Category

of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids

  3

  BOLA tabloid No Phrase Part of Speech Total

  1. Copy chief Noun phrase

  5

  2. Laws of the game Noun phrase

  3

  3. On schedule Adverbial phrase

  4. Lifetime achievement award Noun phrase

  14

  3

  5. Top scorer Noun phrase

  2 SOCCER tabloid

  1. Shin guard Noun phrase

  20

  2. Coaching clinic Noun phrase

  3. Body balance Noun phrase

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  Based on Table 4.9, it showed that the part of speech of the three sport tabloids was mostly a noun phrase as well.

d. Advertisement

  From the data on Table 4.6, it could be seen that SOCCER tabloid had the least result among the three sport tabloids on phrase code-switching cases. There were 34 cases of phrase code-switching found in advertisement category of BOLA tabloid. In MOTOR Plus tabloid, there were 15 cases of phrase code- switching found in advertisement category whereas there was only 1 case of phrase code-switching in SOCCER tabloid.

  In addition, the writer presented Table 4.10 to show the words as the most frequent phrase code-switching.

  Table 4.10: The Most Frequent Phrase Code-switching in Advertisement Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids

  BOLA tabloid No Phrase Part of Speech Total

  1. Best offer Noun phrase

  3

  2. Moving forward Verb phrase

  2

  3. Connecting people Verb phrase

  1

  4. Axe effect Noun phrase

  1

  5. Water filter Noun phrase

  1 SOCCER tabloid

  1. Connecting people Verb phrase

  1

  • 2. -
  • 3. - 4. - - -
  • 5. - MOTOR Plus tabloid

  1. Motorcycle specialist Noun phrase

  1

  2. The winning spirit Noun phrase

  1

  3. Road fighter Noun phrase

  1

  4. Black chrome Noun phrase

  1

  5. Soul of speed Noun phrase

  1

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

In advertisement category, it could be seen that a noun phrase still dominated as

the part of speech among the three sport tabloids.

  Based on the entirely data on Table 4.6, the phrase code-switching cases

that were found in every category of those three sports tabloids were not too

many.

3. Whole-sentence Code-switching The third type of code-switching was whole-sentence code-switching.

  

A sentence has to contain a subject, verb, and object and or adverb which usually

use punctuation, such as full stop (.), question mark (?), and or exclamation mark

(!). The whole-sentence code-switching cases which were found in the three sport

tabloids, it could be seen in Table 4.11

  Table 4.11: The Number of Whole-sentence Code-switching Cases in Indonesian Sport Tabloids

  Sport Categories Tabloids News Opinion Feature Advertisement Fiction

  BOLA 8 13 5

  11 SOCCER 3 2

  8 MOTOR Plus

  4

  7

  2 From Table 4.11, it showed that the whole-sentence code-switching cases which were found in the three sport tabloids were limited.

a. News

  In BOLA tabloid, there were only 8 cases of whole-sentence code-

switching found in news category. It was followed by 4 cases of whole-sentence

code-switching that were found in MOTOR Plus tabloid. In addition, the writer

only found 3 cases of whole-sentence code-switching in SOCCER tabloid.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  1 3. The gunner is back.

   Opinion It was similar to the news category, in which the whole-sentence code-

switching cases were limited. In BOLA tabloid, the writer found 13 cases of

whole-sentence code-switching in the opinion category. In the second place, was

MOTOR Plus tabloid, in which there were 7 cases of whole-sentence code-

switching found in opinion category. The last, the whole-sentence code-switching

cases were found as many as 2 cases in SOCCER tabloid.

  1 5. - b.

  4. Safety!

  1

  2. I am Vario what about you? 1 3. Having fun.

  1

  1. Salute!

  MOTOR Plus tabloid

  1 4. - - 5. - -

  

Overall, the total number of whole-sentence code-switching cases of those three

tabloids was not more than 20 cases.

  The most frequent whole-sentence code-switching in news category of the three sport tabloids were presented on Table 4.12

Table 4.12: The Most Frequent Whole-sentence Code-switching

in News Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids

  1

  1. I’m a lady!

  1 SOCCER tabloid

  1 5. Indonesia races to the top.

  1 4. It’s a basket ball game.

  1 3. I’ll be back.

  2. He is the warrior!

  1

  BOLA tabloid No Whole-sentence Total 1. That’s all.

  2. Just go!

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  1 3. - - 4. - - 5. - -

   Feature Based on the data on Table 4.11, it could be seen that from the three sport

tabloids, the whole-sentence code-switching cases were only found in BOLA

tabloid with 5 cases. In addition, the writer presented Table 4.14 of the most

frequent whole-sentence code-switching that were found in the three sport

tabloids.

  1 c.

  5. Ride with care!

  1

  1 4. is always boys.

  3. Happy birthday to

  1

  2. So, ride with care!

  2

  MOTOR Plus tabloid 1. Thanks.

Table 4.13 showed the most frequent whole-sentence code-switching in opinion category of the three sport tabloids.

  

Table 4.13: The Most Frequent Whole-sentence Code-switching

in Opinion Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids

  1 SOCCER tabloid 1. Thanks.

  5. Dreams come true!

  1

  4. Go ahead!

  1

  3. Talk less do more

  1

  2. Go international

  1

  1. Take you to arena

  BOLA tabloid No Whole-sentence Total

  1 2. Goodbye.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

Table 4.14: The Most Frequent Whole-sentence Code-switching

in Feature Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids

  BOLA tabloid No Whole-sentence Total

  1. Sorry dude!

  1

  2. She loves me…not!

  2

  3. Who am I?

  1

  4. Animal when the helmet is

  1 on.

  • 5. - SOCCER tabloid None of Whole-sentence

  Code-switching Cases MOTOR Plus tabloid d.

   Advertisement Based on Table 4.11, it could be seen that there were 11 cases of whole-

sentence code-switching in advertisement category of BOLA tabloids. It was the

highest result. It was followed by SOCCER tabloid with 8 cases of whole-

sentence code-switching in this category. In addition, for the last place, there was

MOTOR Plus tabloid, in which the writer only found 2 cases of whole-sentence

code-switching.

  The most frequent whole-sentence code-switching in advertisement category of those three tabloids could be seen in Table 4.15.

  

Table 4.15: The Most Frequent Whole-sentence Code-switching in

Advertisement Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids

  BOLA tabloid No Whole-sentence Total

  1. Be groovy!

  2

  2. Get the spirit!

  2

  3. Best product that you can

  2 trust

  4. Get it on!

  1

  5. Kick start your day!

  1 Continued to page 39

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  Continued from page 38

  SOCCER tabloid

  1. You can be expert with us

  2 2. We race you win.

  1

  3. We are sport!

  1

  4. Ride with pride!

  1

  5. Be groovy!

  1 MOTOR Plus tabloid

  1. Free your soul!

  1

  2. Real racers wear real

  1 racing helmet on track.

  • 3. -
  • 4. -
  • 5. -

  

Both opinion and advertisement category dominated the most frequent

whole-sentence code-switching of the three sport tabloids. In this case, BOLA

tabloid was a tabloid with the highest result on whole-sentence code-switching

cases compared to two other tabloids.

4. Integrated Loanwords Code-switching

  The juxtaposed element of integrated loanwords code-switching consists

of morphemes of English and Indonesian language which are integrated to form a

single expression. The integrated loanword code-switching cases of the three sport

tabloids could be seen in Table 4.16.

  Table 4.16: The Number of Integrated Loanwords Code-switching Cases in

Indonesian Sport Tabloids

  Sport Categories Tabloids News Opinion Feature Advertisement Fiction

  BOLA 8 14 9

  1 SOCCER 4 2

  5 MOTOR Plus

  28

  10

  1

a. News

  1

  1 PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  5. Dilaunching

  1

  4. Finishing-nya

  1

  3. Mendisplay

  1

  2. Dicopy

  1

  1. Diexplore

  MOTOR Plus tabloid

  1 4. - - 5. - -

  3. Skill-nya

  From BOLA tabloid, the integrated loanwords code-switching cases were

found as many as 8 cases in news category. It was followed by SOCCER tabloid,

in which there only 4 cases of integrated loanwords code-switching. The

integrated loanwords code-switching cases were found as many as 24 cases in

news category of MOTOR Plus tabloid. It was the highest result among the three

sport tabloids.

  The most frequent integrated loanwords code-switching of the three sport tabloids could be seen in Table 4.17

Table 4.17: The Most Frequent Integrated Loanwords Code-switching

in News Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids

  2

  1. Meng-update

  1 SOCCER tabloid

  5. Free kick-nya

  1

  4. Chip-nya

  1

  3. Recovery-nya

  1

  2. Ending-nya

  2

  1. Comeback-nya

  BOLA tabloid No Integrated Loanwords Total

  2. Meng-upload

b. Opinion

  MOTOR Plus tabloid

  1 PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  5. Disharing

  1

  4. Output-nya

  1

  3. Dikeep

  1

  2. Jumpingan

  2

  1. Ngetrend

  Based on Table 4.16, it was similar to the previous result on the news

category, in which the integrated loanwords code-switching cases were not too

many. In BOLA tabloid, there were 14 cases of integrated loanwords code-

switching found in opinion category. It was a little bit more than the result on the

news category. The writer only found 2 cases of integrated loanwords in opinion

category of SOCCER tabloid. In MOTOR Plus tabloid, the cases of integrated

loanwords code-switching were found as many as 10 cases.

The most frequent integrated loanwords code-switching in opinion

category of the three sport tabloids could be seen in Table 4.18

  

Table 4.18: The Most Frequent Integrated Loanwords Code-switching

in Opinion Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids

  2. Diplaymaker-kan

  1

  1. Playmaker-kan

  1 SOCCER tabloid

  1 5. ditransfer

  1 4. di-black list

  1 3. di-stop

  2. Ngetop

  2

  1. Layout-nya

  BOLA tabloid No Integrated Loanwords Total

  1 3. - - 4. - - 5. - -

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

c. Feature

  1. Finishing-nya

  1 2. - - 3. - - 4. - - 5. - -

  MOTOR Plus tabloid 1. dicoaching

  1 5. - -

  4. Passing-nya

  1

  3. Response-nya

  1

  2. Jump power-nya

  2

  From the data on Table 4.16, it could be seen that the result on the

integrated loanwords code-switching cases in feature category was less than the

previous results on both news category and opinion category. In BOLA tabloid,

there were 9 cases of integrated loanwords code-switching found. It was followed

by SOCCER tabloid, in which there were 5 cases of integrated loanwords code-

switching. There was only 1 case of integrated loanwords code-switching found in

MOTOR Plus tabloid.

  The most frequent integrated loanwords code-switching in feature category of those three tabloids could be seen in Table 4.19

Table 4.19: The Most Frequent Integrated Loanwords Code-switching

in Feature Category of the Indonesian Sport Tabloids

  5. Berpose

  1

  4. Meng-update

  1

  3. Di-approve

  1

  2. Dribbling-nya

  3

  1. Ngetop

  BOLA tabloid No Integrated Loanwords Total

  1 SOCCER tabloid

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

d. Advertisement

  There was only 1 case of code-switching found in advertisement category

among those three sport tabloid. It was in BOLA tabloid. The most frequent

integrated code-switching case was found on the word ‘finishing-nya’.

  Based on the entirely data on table 4.16, it could be concluded that from 5

categories above, the integrated loanwords code-switching cases were found in

news, opinion as well as feature category of the three sport tabloids.

5. Diglossic Code-switching

  Diglossic code-switching is a type of code-switching which has the longest juxtaposed utterance, which is a whole discourse. The number of diglossic code-

switching cases that were found in the three sport tabloids could be seen in table

  4.20 Table 4.20: The Number of Diglossic Code-switching Cases in Indonesian Sport Tabloids

  Sport Categories Tabloids

  News Opinion Feature Advertisement Fiction

  • BOLA - - - -
  • SOCCER
  • 128 - - - MOTOR Plus

  Based on Table 4.20, it could be seen that there were 128 cases of

diglossic code-switching that only found in advertisement category of MOTOR

Plus tabloid. In addition, there was only one example as the most frequent

diglossic code-switching existed in MOTOR Plus tabloid, which was ‘ride with

care safety riding campaign’ . That example emerged in every single page of

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

6. Clause Code-switching

  Clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb. None of clause code-switching cases was found in the three sport tabloids.

B. The Possible Reasons for Code-switching

  Since this study was a qualitative research, it was important to give

interpretations of the existing phenomenon. The main focus of the interpretive

process in this study was to obtain the profound understanding toward the

phenomenon through the identification of its possible reasons for code-switching.

  

The writer could find a number of possible reasons for the use of English code-

switching cases which were found in the three sport tabloids.

  First, the code-switching was employed because of the special terms

related to the topic under discussion that should be used. It happened because

every topic might have some specific terms that were sometimes so difficult to be

translated in another language. Like the word dealer in the following example that

was found in MOTOR Plus tabloid.

  

Harga stop lamp ini Rp. 250 ribu dan hanya tersedia di dealer Bajaj. (MP/523,

p.5)

In this case, there was no an exact term of the term dealer when it had to be

translated into Indonesian sentence.

  The second possible reason was to build the intimate relationship with the

readers, in which code-switching may occur when individuals wishes to express

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

solidarity with a particular social group. Therefore, dealing with the Indonesian

sport tabloids as the target tabloids in this study, in which the three sport tabloids

were for teenagers and adults, so the writers had to choose words or terms which

were very familiar with both teenagers and adults.

  

The relationship between the writers and the readers were getting warmer and

warmer because as if they were having direct conversation in a particular

situation. These were some examples for the use of familiar terms dealt with the

three sport tabloids:

1. Thanks buat brothers yang tetap setia mendampingi MOTOR Plus hingga

  tahun ke sepuluh. (MP/524, p.11) 2.

  Craig Bellamy membuat lega tujuh menit berselang dengan gol keduanya

sebelum Martin Vingaard menutup laga di injury time. (BOLA/1909, p.2)

3.

  Tidak hanya meraih treble winners lewat Piala UEFA, Piala FA, dan Piala Liga, The Reds juga sukses mengalahkan Red Devils dalam dua pertemuan di liga. (SOCCER-36/IX, p. 4)

  Based on the examples above, it could be seen that the writers of the

articles tried to get closer with the readers by expressing some terms that were

really familiar with the readers in their society. In the first example, the word

brother was used to say as if that the writers gave much respect to the readers as

their own brothers though they did not know each other. In Indonesian language,

brother means ‘saudara’. The same as the other examples, in which both the

terms injury time and treble winner were more familiar with the readers as the

common terms in football match.

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  C.

  

The Possible Implications of Code-switching toward English Education

Since the English code-switching phenomena were proven existed in

Indonesian sport tabloids, it might bring about implications of the readers in

learning English language. In this case, there are two kinds of implications,

whether the English code-switching in Indonesian sport tabloids supports the

readers’ learning process or obstructs the readers’ learning process.

  Based on the Krashen’s input hypothesis as cited in Ellis’ (1997), the

writer found two kinds of input in this study. They were grammatical input and

ungrammatical input. A grammatical input could support the readers’ learning

process.

1. Best product that you can trust 2.

  Animal when the helmet is on

The examples above at a glance might be understood. However, if it was dealt

with the grammatical input, it should be written as: 1.

  It is the best product that you can trust 2. He becomes like an animal when the helmet is on

In grammatical input, the existence of a subject or verb is important to make a

sentence clearer.

  Another input that was quite often found in the target tabloids was an

ungrammatical input, in which it could obstruct the reader’s learning process. In

this case, the writer classified them into two groups, the first were misspelling

words and the second were grammatical errors.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  The misspelling group, although there were not too many cases found or it was not done on purpose, it could indirectly obstruct the reader’s learning process.

  The misspelling words were presented on table 4.21.

  Table 4.21: Misspelling Words in the Target tabloids

  Mistyping Words The Correct Typing Enlighment Enlightenment Teckle Tackle Ridiable Rid able Manuver Maneuver

  The second group is grammatical errors. The following cases showed some misspelling phrases that were found in the tabloids, in which they should be written separately but they were written as a single-word.

  Table 4.22: Misspelling Phrases in the Target Tabloids

  Incorrect Grammar Correct Grammar Hotspot Hot spot Tagline Tag line Matchday Match day Liverbird Liver bird Bigman Big man Playmaker Play maker Spieltag Spiel tag Gearbox Gear box Come back Comeback Stake holder Stakeholder Motorguides Motor guides Streetfighter Street fighter Spesial tools Special tools Roadracer Road racer Grasstrack Grass track Undertail Under tail Flowbench Flow bench Outbound Out bound Freekick Free kick Midfielder Mid fielder Impossible is nothing Nothing is impossible Fairplay Fair play

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

Table 4.22 showed the grammatical errors, in which nouns in a form of plural were written without using ‘-s’ in the end of the word.

  Table 4.23: Both Written Double Verbs and Nouns in the Target Tabloids

  Incorrect Grammar Correct Grammar Crossing-crossing Crossings Assist-assist Assists Duel-duel Duels Event-event Events Agenda-agenda Agenda Striker-striker Strikers Brand-brand Brands Manuver-manuver Maneuvers D.

   Other Findings

The writer found some English words in the three sport tabloids that had

been adopted as Indonesian words such as: final, target, versus, duel, global and striker. Those words were frequently used by the writer of the articles of those three sport tabloids. It implied that those words already became familiar with both the writer of the articles and the readers. Hence, those words were not written italicized since people had already known that they belonged to Indonesian language.

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS This chapter presented the final results of this study and the suggestions. The

  final results were the answers to the research questions of this study, those were what types of code-switching in Indonesian sport tabloids are, what the reasons for code- switching in Indonesian sport tabloids are, and what the implications of code- switching in Indonesian sport tabloids towards English education in Indonesia are.

  The suggestions were presented to the English teachers as well as the other future researchers.

A. Conclusions 1. The Types of Code-switching in Indonesian Sport Tabloids

   Based on the McCormick’s (1994) theory that stated there were 6 types of

  code-switching, the writer only found 5 types of code-switching in Indonesian sport tabloids. First was single-word code-switching, in which the juxtaposed element is a single-word. It is also called as lexical borrowing. Second is phrase code-switching, in which the juxtaposed element is between two or more than one word. It can be a noun, verb, adjective, or adverb. Third was whole-sentence code-switching, in which the juxtaposed element is a sentence. The fourth type was integrated loanwords, in which the juxtaposed element consists of morphemes of English and Indonesian

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  50 language which are integrated to form a single word. For the last type was diglossic code-switching. It is a type of code-switching which has the longest utterance, which is a whole discourse. The highest result on code-switching cases was found in single- word code-switching.

  2. The Possible Reasons for Code-switching in Indonesian Sport Tabloids

  The first reason that code-switching was used was because of the special terms related to the topic under discussion that should be used. It happened because every topic might have some specific terms that were sometimes so difficult to be translated in another language.

  The second reason was to build the intimate relationship with the readers. Since the target tabloids in this study were for teenagers and adults, so the writer should consider the exact choice of words to create such a warmer situation between the writers and the readers.

  3. The Possible Implications of Code-switching in Indonesian Sport Tabloids toward English Education

  There are two possible implications of code-switching in Indonesian sport tabloids toward English education. The first is that code-switching cases of those three sport tabloids may support the English education. Meanwhile, the second

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  51 possible implication is that code-switching cases of those three sport tabloids may obstruct the English education.

  Based on the findings, it shows that code-switching cases as the grammatical input are more than code-switching cases as the ungrammatical input. Hence, the writer concludes that the most of code-switching cases in those three sport tabloids support the English education whereas some of them obstruct the English education.

B. Suggestions

  In this case, the writer tries to give suggestions to both the readers and the other researchers of English language who may be interested in code-switching.

  1. Since there are still some errors in spelling or writing of code-switching cases found in those three sport tabloids, the readers should not reserve it categorically.

  The use of dictionary would be better to help identify the correctness of code- switching cases. As a result, code-switching cases in the sport tabloids can support the readers’ learning process, especially English vocabulary development.

  2. The other researchers may observe the further research on tabloids with more samples or on other types of written text.

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REFERENCES

  Ary, D, Jacobs, L.C, Razavieh, A. 2002. Introduction to Research in Education Fourth Edition . Florida: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. Crystal, D. 1987. The Reasons for Code Switching. As in R. Skiba. 1997.Code Switching as a Countenance of Language Interference .

  (http://iteslj.org/Articles/Skiba-Code-switching.html accessed on 17 March 2009). Cook, V. 1991. Code Switching in Language Examination. As in R. Skiba. 1997.

  Code Switching as a Countenance of Language Interference .

  (http://iteslj.org/Articles/Skiba-Code-switching.html accessed on 17 March 2009). Cresswell, J. W. 1998. ‘Organizing and Analyzing the Data from Qualitative

  Studies.’ in Leedy, Paul D. and Ormrod, Jeanne Ellis. (ed), Practical

  

th

Research: Planning and Design . 8 edition. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. Pp. 150-151.

  Ellis, R. 1997. Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  th

  Finegan, E. 2004. Language: Its Structure and Use. 4 ed. Wadsworth: Thomson Corporation. Hoffmann, C. 1991. An Introduction to Bilingualism. London: Longman.

  nd Holmes, J. 2001. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. 2 Ed. London: Longman. th

  Hornby, A.S. 2005. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary for Current English-7 Edition . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Krashen, S. 1993. The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications. Laredo Publishing

  Company. As in Rod Ellis. 1997. Second Language Acquisition. Hongkong: Oxford University Press.

  th

  Leedy, P.D. and Ormrod, J.E. 2005. Practical Research: Planning and Design. 8 edition. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  53 McCormick, K.M. 1994. Code-Switching and Mixing. As in R.E. Asher. 1994. The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Vol.10. Oxford: Pergamonn Press.

  Nordquist, R. 2009. Grammar and Composition Guide, (http://grammar.about.com/od/term.htm, accessed on June 9, 2009). Radford, A., M. Atkinson, D. Britain, H. Clahsen, A. Spencer. 1999. Linguistics: An Introduction . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  rd Sinclair, J. 2001. Collins Cobuild English Dictionary for Advanced Learners. 3 Ed.

  Glasgow: Harper Collins Publishers. Skiba, R. Code-switching as a Countenance of Language Interference. The Internet

  TESL Journal, Vol. III. No. 10, October 1997. (http://iteslj.org/Articles/Skiba- CodeSwitching.html, accessed on 17 March 2009). Valdes-Fallis, G. 1977. Code Switching among Billingual People. As in L. Duran.

  Toward a Better Understanding of Code Switching and Interlanguage in Bilinguality: Impications for Bilingual Instruction.

  (http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/pubs/jeilms/vol14/duran.htm accessed on 17 March 2009).

  nd

  Wardhaugh, R. 1992. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. 2 Ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

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