A SOCIOLINGUISTIC STUDY ON THE USE OF ENGLISH
IN NIGHTCLUB BANNERS IN YOGYAKARTA
Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree
in English Language Education
Maria Fransisca Andanti Student Number: 041214070
ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION
Andanti, Maria Fransisca. 2009. A Sociolinguistic Study on the Use of English in Nightclub Banners in Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta: English Language Education Study Program, Sanata Dharma University.
Nightclubs in Yogyakarta publish banners in English to inform nightclubs' special events and products. It means that English is used as the tool for communicating with customers. This phenomenon triggers question about reasons underlying the use of English in nightclub banners.
This research discussed two main problems. They were (1) How is English used in nightclub banners in Yogyakarta? and (2) What are the reasons of using English in nightclub banners in Yogyakarta? Documents were employed as the instruments to gather the data, which were nightclub banners in Yogyakarta, to answer the first research question. An interview was conducted with banner designers whose banners were taken as the research data to answer the second research question.
To answer the first research question, the phrases and sentences in nightclub banners were analyzed according to the theory of advertising language proposed by Geis (1997. The analysis showed that there were three characteristics of advertising language in the language of nightclub banners: the use of advertising register, specifically imperatives as suggestions, generic claims, and type of offer.
To answer the second research question, the results of the interview with banner designers were compared with the theory of language choice proposed by Holmes (2001). There were three reasons why banner designers used English in their banners. First, English held high prestige in nightclub community. Second, English was able to convey the intended meaning of the messages addressed by banner designers more precisely rather than Indonesian. Third, English provided creativity for banner designers to arrange and create words that were able to grasp customer's attention. Those reasons were analyzed according the social factors of choosing certain language proposed by Holmes (2001). The social factors in question are: the participants, the setting or social context of the interaction, the topic, the function, the social distance, the social status between the people, the formality, and the function or goal of interaction.
Andanti, Maria Fransisca. 2009. A Sociolinguistic Study on the Use of English in Nightclub Banners in Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta: Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Universitas Sanata Dharma.
Klab-klab malam di Yogyakarta menerbitkan spanduk iklan dalam Bahasa Inggris untuk menginformasikan acara dan produk yang mereka sajikan. Dengan kata lain, Bahasa Inggris digunakan sebagai alat komunikasi klab malam dengan pelanggan. Hal ini memicu pertanyaan alasan-alasan apa yang mendasari penggunaan Bahasa Inggris di spanduk iklan klab.
Penelitian ini meneliti dua pokok masalah, yaitu (1) Bagaimana penggunaan Bahasa Inggris dalam spanduk iklan klab malam di Yogyakarta? (2) Alasan-alasan apa sajakah alasan pemakaian Bahasa Inggris dalam spanduk iklan klab malam di Yogyakarta? Untuk menjawab pokok masalah yang pertama, penulis menerapkan instrumen dokumen untuk mengumpulkan data, berupa gambar-gambar foto spanduk iklan klab di Yogyakarta. Untuk menjawab pokok masalah yang kedua, penulis melakukan wawancara dengan pembuat spanduk yang spanduknya diambil sebagai data penelitian.
Untuk menjawab pokok permasalahan yang pertama, frase dan kalimat di spanduk klab malam dianalisis sesuai dengan teori bahasa iklan yang dikemukakan oleh Geis (1997). Hasil analisa menunjukkan bahwa ada tiga karakter bahasa iklan dalam bahasa spanduk klab malam, yaitu penggunaan daftar ekspresi bahasa iklan , terutama penggunaan ekspresi perintah sebagai saran, klaim umum, dan penawaran.
Untuk menjawab pokok masalah yang kedua, hasil wawancara dengan pembuat spanduk dibandingkan dengan teori pemilihan bahasa yang dikemukakan oleh Holmes (2001). Ada tiga alasan mengapa pembuat spanduk menggunakan Bahasa Inggris. Pertama, Bahasa Inggris memiliki gengsi yang tinggi di kalangan klab malam. Kedua, Bahasa Inggris mampu menyampaikan pesan lebih tepat daripada Bahasa Indonesia. Ketiga, Bahasa Inggris menyediakan kreativitas bagi pembuat spanduk untuk menciptakan kata yang mampu menarik perhatian konsumen. Alasan-alasan tersebut dianalisis berdasarkan faktor-faktor sosial pemilihan bahasa. Faktor-faktor sosial itu adalah peserta, setting atau konteks sosial interaksi, topik, fungsi, jarak sosial, status sosial, formalitas, dan fungsi atau tujuan interaksi.
I would like to express my great appreciation to Bapak and Ibuk, who have been patient to wait for my graduation. Though we have not met for a long time, they still provide me a bunch of support. I thank my sister and partner-in-crime, Maria Yosefa Ami Priwardhani for being my second thesis sponsor even since the first day I developed my idea on our riding.
My deepest gratitude goes to my thesis sponsor, Made Frida Yulia, S.Pd., M.Pd., for the discussions, suggestions, ideas, guidance, and willingness to be disturbed every single time. I am sincerely indebted to Ouda Teda Ena, S.Pd., M.Pd., for lending me interesting sources. I also thank Drs. JB. Gunawan M.A., for his help in analyzing the data.
I would like to deliver my best thanks to everyone at Bosche, Liquid, Caesar, Hugo’s Cafe, and Embassy, for the interesting discussion. They welcome me as a friend to share and their sharing has helped me complete the thesis. My sincere appreciation goes to Yosepha Dede, who has accompanied me during the interviews.
I owe a great debt to Nilam Maharani, for being my garbage can, correcting my grammar formulation, and helping me build the content. I would like to thank Andrew Thren, B.A., for the time allocated to discuss the whole data.
and providing me places to stay in emergency days. I also thank Brigita Andriani for lending me the camera.
I could not thank enough Yohanes Bosco Prasetiyo, my partner in love and war. I appreciate him for making countless lunches, providing the printers, supplying energizing humors, and never complaining among the grumpy faces I mostly showed when I wrote my thesis.
I deliver my best thanks and love to my far-away sisters: Fransisca Herna Prisella Purba, Maria Ixcell Allexandra Purba, Heribertha Tessabella Purba, Demetreia Sondang Naviretra, Ignatia Elbenaya Fritzwalter, and Francisca Prasetyandaru Budiningtyas for visiting my life amazingly. Their unique “visit” has enabled me to stay here and hold on in every circumstance.
My deepest appreciation goes to Monica Kristiani, Hana Fitria, Agung “Ucok” Ismiyanto, Melania Setyorini, Gang Surya mates, Tante Tarigan and her family, and Bu Maria, Pak Yan, Danik, and Elis, for the friendship, sharing, and laughter I experienced during my study.
Finally, I thank all English Education Study Program friends for the wonderful and surprising years.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE ... i
PAGE OF APPROVAL ... ii
PAGE OF ACCEPTANCE ... iii
STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY ... iv
ABSTRACT ... v
ABSTRAK ... vi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ... vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ... ix
LIST OF APPENDICES ... xi
CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION ... 1
A. Background ... 1
B. Problem Formulation ... 6
C. Problem Limitation ... 7
D. Research Objectives ... 7
E. Research Benefits ... 7
F. Definition of Terms ... 8
CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. Theoretical Description ... 10
a. Language Choice ... 11
b. Language Functions ... 14
1) Advertising Language…... 14
B. Theoretical Framework ... 17
CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY 19
A. Research Method ... 19
B. Research Participants.. ... 20
C. Research Instruments ... 21
D. Data Gathering Technique ... 22
E. Data Analysis Technique ... 23
F. Research Procedure ... 23
CHAPTER IV. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 26
A. Use of English in Nightclub Banners in Yogyakarta .... 26
B. Reasons of Using English in Nightclub Banners in Yogyakarta ... 29
CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS ... 38
A. Conclusions ... 38
B. Suggestions ... 39
LIST OF APPENDICES
Page APPENDIX A: English Phrases and Sentences in Nightclub Banners
in Yogyakarta ... 44
APPENIDX B: Pictures of Banner 1 ... 46
APPENDIX C: Pictures of Banner 2 ... 47
APPENDIX D: Pictures of Banner 3 ... 48
APPENDIX E: Picture of Banner 4 ... 49
APPENIDX F: Pictures of Banner 5 and 6 ... 50
APPENDIX G: Picture of Banner 7 ... 51
APPENDIX H: Picture of Banner 8 ... 52
APPENDIX I: Pictures of Banner 9 ... 53
APPENDIX J: Pictures of Banner 10 ... 54
APPENDIX K: Interview Results with Banner Designers ... 55
This chapter presents the introduction of the research. It includes background of the research, problem formulation, problem limitation, research objectives, research benefits and followed by definition of terms. Background of the research deals with the reasons of choosing the topic. Problem formulation focuses on the problems to be analyzed through the research. Problem limitation describes the limitation of the problems in the research. Research objectives describe the aims of the research. Research benefits illustrate the benefits of conducting the research for readers, other researchers, and English teachers. Finally, definition of terms explain several terms that are important for the research.
English, and many other dialects. These varieties prove how English has spread widely in many parts of the world.
English, and many other dialects. These varieties prove how English has spread widely in many parts of the world.
The global use of English, however, cannot be separated from the phenomenon of globalization. Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (2003: 532) defined globalization as “the act or process of globalizing.” Furthermore, as quoted by Arnasson (1990: 220), Robertson (1987b: 23) defined globalization as “crystallization of the entire world as a single place.” The definitions describe the current situation: how people from the entire world easily communicate to each other and this condition leads them into ‘one’ new community where cultural and social barriers are erased.
As a result, it is easy to find western products in Indonesia. Indonesian young generations can easily watch MTV, a western television channel that broadcasts music. Indonesian people can also easily find western famous brands such as Gucci, The Executive, and Polo. It is also easy for Indonesian people to find western food products such as McDonalds, KFC, and Pizza Hut. Besides, people can access every piece of information and pictures from the entire world by means of the Internet. Through this tool, they can easily find western lifestyle and culture. Most obviously, people now keep contacting with those who have different way of life and thinking (Giddens, 2003: 20).
example, people like wearing jeans as western people do. Some people also color their hair into brown and even blonde since they want to be the same as western people who majorly have brown and blonde hair. Others start to leave traditional wedding ceremony and choose the western wedding style that is considered simpler and more modern. In other words, Indonesian people tend to adopt the western lifestyle into their way of life.
Consequently, English, as a part of western culture, grows rapidly in Indonesian society. The number of Indonesian people that are able to speak English increases each year. It seems that English has become the language of modernity and people feel proud of speaking this language. In fact, people add some English words into their daily language. For example, people say btw (the abbreviation of by the way) to refer to ngomong-ngomong in Indonesian. Unconsciously, people also mix some English words into their Indonesian structure. In a conversation, as an example, after long Indonesian sentences, people usually use some familiar English words such as ‘see you’, ‘bye’, and ‘take care’ to end the conversation. These examples, however, show that English brings the matter of modernity to Indonesian society.
example describes how Indonesian people are familiar with certain English words in their daily communication.
This phenomenon also happens in other parts in Indonesia, including Yogyakarta. Being widely recognized as a city of education, Yogyakarta is flooded by students from entire Indonesia. Abrar (2008) said that according to the data of Education Agency of Yogyakarta Province, in 2004 there were 127 state and private universities in Yogyakarta. With such kind of number, it is believed that there are millions university students in Yogyakarta. The students are young people who also experience the phenomenon of globalization. They are not only familiar with western products such as McDonalds, KFC, Polo, and Gucci but also speak the mixture of English and Indonesian.
Besides, English becomes the compulsory subject that is studied by all university students in all majors. Students who take Economics, Mathematics, Psychology, Architecture, or other majors outside English have to study English, even though only for two semesters. Most of the study programs, in fact, use English handbooks for the teaching-learning activities. This situation makes English familiar for young people in Yogyakarta. They know English well, though passive English at the minimal.
place, good-looking people, and delicious food and beverage become the new thing that young people are interested in. Despite their fancy appearance, nightclubs are also part of western culture in which young people are familiar with. They come from New York, London, Paris, and other big cities that represent modern world.
To bear the sense of modernity, nightclub owners mostly use English as the language in their banners. Banners are the media used to announce nightclubs’ special events and products. They are displayed in the main crossroads and streets in Yogyakarta in which people can read them clearly. Most of the nightclubs use nonstandard English in their banners. For example, they change night into ‘nite’. Unfortunately, the formulation of the phrases and sentences in the nightclub banners does not meet English rules. As an example, one of the nightclubs published a banner which informed a weekly activity named ‘Girl Idol.’ This phrase seems to be the simple translation of Gadis Idola in Indonesian.
are still influenced by Indonesian rules. As an example, ‘Join with us’. This phrase is also an incorrect translation of Bergabunglah bersama kami in Indonesian.
In addition, nightclubs use banners as the media to communicate with their customers. It means that, though the formulation in the banners does not meet English rules, they use English as the language to communicate with their customers. This phenomenon triggers a big question of why nightclub banner designers still use English and they do not use it appropriately. Is this done on purpose?
With such kind of background, it is interesting to study the use of English in nightclub banners in Yogyakarta because what society thinks about language is one piece of culture. Therefore, this study attempts to look broadly in the use of English in nightclub banners in Yogyakarta. Here, this study describes how English is used in the phrases and sentences in nightclub banners according to the theory of advertising language. Based on the description of the use of English in nightclub banners, further, this study goes beyond the reasons of the use of English in nightclub banners. In this part, this study discusses the reasons of using English in nightclub banners according to the theory of language choice.
B. Problem Formulation
To work on the topic presented before, the problem is formulated this way: 1. How is English used in nightclub banners in Yogyakarta?
C. Problem Limitation
This research focuses on the use of English and the reasons of using English in nightclub banners in Yogyakarta. In the first part, the research illustrates how English is used in nightclub banners in Yogyakarta. This process describes the use of English in the phrases and sentences in nightclub banners according to the theory of advertising language.
In the second part, the research concentrates on language choice to discover the reasons of using English in nightclub banners in Yogyakarta. Here, the researcher compares the banner designers’ reasons on the use of English in their banners with the theory of language choice.
D. Research Objectives
This research aims at investigating the use of English in nightclub banners in Yogyakarta. In the end, this research attempts to find out the reasons of using English in nightclub banners in Yogyakarta.
E. Research Benefits
This research is hoped to be beneficial for:
2. English teachers. It is hoped that this research provides the description of the use of English in society. The illustration of the phrases and sentences in nightclub banners could be the source for English teachers to teach English contextually.
F. Definition of Terms
There are three terms that are important to this study. The presence of these terms builds up the organization of the topic and they are the key words on directing the purpose of this research. They are:
1. Sociolinguistic Study
Wardaugh (2002: 12) states that sociolinguistics “is concerned with investigating the relationships between language and society with the goal being a better understanding of the structure of language and of how languages function in communication.” Furthermore, Holmes (2001: 1) states that sociolinguistics “is concerned with the relationship between language and the context in which it is used.” Those definitions show that sociolinguistics deals with how language is used by society. Therefore, sociolinguistic study is the study that observes certain topics concerning the use of language by certain society. In this research, English is used by nightclub management in banners. Thus, the use of English in nightclub banners will be observed from the sociolinguistic views.
2. Language choice
language choice proposed by Holmes (2001), language choice refers to “code or variations that are employed in certain situation.” There are certain social factors that influence somebody when choosing a certain code. In this study, the term language choice refers to the language used by nightclub community in Yogyakarta. This is about the language chosen by nightclub community in their banners. In this research, the researcher aims to know how banner designers choose certain English words, phrases, and sentences in their banners.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter consists of two main sections: theoretical description and theoretical framework. Theoretical description focuses on the theories applied in the research. Those are the theory of Sociolinguistics, Language Choice, Language Functions, and Advertising Language. Theoretical framework focuses on the summary of the theories that becomes the basis for relating the theories with the study.
A. Theoretical Description
The Theoretical Description discusses the theory of Sociolinguistics, Language Choice, Language Functions, and Advertising Language.
Sociolinguistics is “the study of the relationship between language use and the structure of society” (Radford, Atkinson, Britain, Clahsen, and Spencer, 1999: 16). Based on the definition, there are several factors that include in this field. The factors are the social backgrounds of booth the speaker and the addressee (for example age, social class, and ethnic background), the relationship between speaker and addressee (good friends or parent-child), and the contest and manner of the interaction (in church, school, loudly or whispering). These factors are important to the understanding of the structure and function of the language used.
Llmas and Stockwell (2009: 21) give more specific definition of sociolinguistics, the study of the linguistic indicators of culture and power. The definition focuses on language as well as linguistic tools (grammar, vocabulary, corpus linguistics, discourse analysis and pragmatics, and it also concerns the influences of several social factors such as ethnicity, gender, ideology, and social rank on language events. Considering this definition, sociolinguistics then primarily focuses on language use.
As it mainly concerns language use, the majority of sociolinguistic studies then presented in a form of description. The goal of sociolinguistic studies involves scientific objectivity. Most studies deal with the description of social aspects of language in real world.
Finally, Llmas and Stockwell (2009: 21) define sociolinguistics as the study of language variation and change. They argue that “societies differ from each other and change over time.” Language is part of societies and grows along with the processes. Therefore, all linguistic tools may be extended along with the process of the two dimensions: language variation and change.
a. Language Choice
may select different languages according to the situation in which they are speaking.
The selection of language itself also cannot be separated from the influence of social factors. Holmes (2001: 8) mentions four social factors that are relevant in language choice. They are the participants, the setting or social context of interaction, the topic, and the function. The participants consist of who are speaking and who are they speaking to. The setting includes where they are speaking. The topic contains what is being talked about. Finally, the function includes why they are speaking.
Related to those social factors, Holmes (2001: 21) mentions the term ‘domain’ in language use. A domain involves typical interactions between typical participants in typical settings. This is like a useful way in describing language choice in a society by putting the social factors into the points-to be-considered. For example, when imagining a typical family the typical participants are family members, the typical topics are family activities, and the setting is the home. Another example is a religion domain has priest as the addressee, church as the setting and choosing the Sunday liturgy as the topic (Holmes, 2001: 22). The next step of those two examples, then, is deciding what variety or code is going to be chosen.
enables people to draw the model of the norms of language use.” This is useful for bilingual and multilingual speech communities. Yet, Holmes adds, sometimes, the components of a domain ‘are not congruent.’ For example, people discuss a particular work or school at home using the language included in those domains rather than the language of the family domain.
his friend, he will use less formal spoken language. b. Language Functions
Holmes (2001: 88) mentions the two main language functions: affective or social function and referential or informative function. Affective function serves as establishing contact among participants. The example is greeting. Referential function is about giving and sharing information among participants.
Later, Holmes (2001: 88) mentions six different functions which language serves. They are expressive, directive, referential, metalinguistic, poetic, and phatic utterances. Expressive utterances are languages that express the speaker’s feelings. The example is I’m feeling great today. Directive utterances attempt to get someone to do something. The example is Close the door. Referential utterances provide information among speakers. The example is At the third stroke it will be three o’clock precisely. Metalinguistic utterances provide comments on language itself. The example is Hegemony is not a common word. Poetic utterances focus on aesthetic features of language, for example a poem and rhyme. Finally, phatic utterances express solidarity and empathy with others. The example is Hi, how are you, lovely day isn’t it!
1) Advertising Language
“satisfying consumer’s need and desire” (Geis, 1997: 42).
Related to the language in commercial advertising, Geis (1997: 42) mentions six characteristics of advertising language. First, it contains advertising register, in which certain types of expressions are used. The examples are elliptical comparatives (25% less tar), complex comparatives (More car for less money), imperatives as suggestions (Try it, you’ll like it), rhetorical questions (My friends, what is hamburger? Chopped ham?), adjectivalizations (meaty car), and the use of count nouns as mass nouns (more car).
Second, advertising language may contain the elements of ordinary language, yet Geiss (1997: 42) states that “it is not infrequently used differently from how ordinary speakers use it.” The example is I’ll wait for up to an hour. In ordinary conversation, the assertion illustrates that the speaker sets limits on the time he makes, that he will wait at least an hour. It means that the assertion is more like a warning than a promise. On the contrary, in advertising language, advertisers use the up to construction to state on the central promise of the commercial. For example, when advertisers say a nasal spray lasts and lasts up to 12 continuous hours, it does not mean that advertisers focus on the promise of 12 hours relief, but make the central promise of the commercial.
fact, there is no true claim that when customers buy more cars they will pay less money.
Fourth, advertisers refer to the tendency that human beings “read into what is said as much as is consistent with the literal meaning of what is said and the context which it is said” (Geis, 1997: 43). People also tend to refer to Cooperative Principle in conversation. As Geis (1997: 43) says, Grice mentions the term Cooperative Principle, the principle in which people say the things they believe to be true and have evidence for maxims. There are four maxims to be concerned: Quality Maxim (saying as much as is required), Strength Maxim (saying no more), Relation Maxim (saying only relevant things), and Manner Maxim (being orderly, brief, obscure, and the like). Advertisers tend to refer to those maxims by “encouraging us to draw inferences they are unable to defend” (Geis, 1997: 43).
Fifth, advertising language often uses generic claims. Claims like Dogs have four legs and Force equals mass times acceleration are interpreted as very strong claims because they show reality though they are not always true. Such claims used to attribute intrinsic properties to things, make law-like statements, and give definitions.
Sixth, advertisement can be regarded as a type of offer. The offer is to satisfy consumer’s need. In this case, advertisers need a strong claim in which it does not only give information but gives evidence. Therefore, generic claims play important role in this type of advertisement as it provides sincerity of the offer.
Principle, for example, they are still able to use the language in normal modes without mentioning that the language is false. Geis (1997: 44) states that the result of advertising language is “deception and customers are not in a position to defend against.”
B. Theoretical Framework
The theory of sociolinguistics is put to use to describe what it mainly deals with. By applying this theory, the researcher expects to give description to readers that sociolinguistics copes with the use of language by society in general. This description then, supports the focus of the study, which is the use of English by nightclub community.
Further, the theory of language functions is used to find out the functions of language in society. By applying this theory the researcher hopes to describe that language has a referential function as conveying information to others. Therefore, advertising language is part of language referential function as it conveying information among participants in advertisement. Then, the theory of advertising language is employed to illustrate the characteristics of advertising language in general. The illustration will be the basis for answering the first research question. In this part, the researcher attempts to describe how English is used in nightclub banners by elaborating the characteristics of the language according to the theory of advertising language.
This chapter presents the discussion of the methodology used to gain the data of the research. It contains six parts: Method, Research Subject, Research Instrument, Data Gathering Technique, Data Analysis Technique, and Research Procedure. Method describes how the research data will be observed and how the research problems will be answered. Research Subject explains the center of the research, who or what is going to be observed in the whole research. Research Instrument illustrates the tool used to gather the data. Data Gathering Technique exemplifies the process of gathering the data. Data Analysis Technique describes how the researcher analyzes the data. Finally, Research Procedure mentions and explains the steps of conducting the research.
A. Research Method
in which people find information in the form of writings. This method was applied, advertisement in which people find information in the form of writings. This method was applied, further, in order to analyze the use of English in nightclub banners and find out the description of the reasons of using English in nightclub banners.
Ary, et al. (2002: 442) also mentioned the purposes of content or document analysis in educational research. First, it was aimed at identifying bias, prejudice, or propaganda in textbooks. Second, it had purpose to analyze types of errors in students’ writings. Third, it was done to describe prevailing practices. Fourth, it was to discover the level of difficulty of material in textbooks or other publications. Finally, it was to discover the relative importance of, or interest in, certain topics. In this research, the aim of content or document analysis was to discover the interest in the use of English in nightclub banners in Yogyakarta, specifically how and why English was used in the nightclub banners.
B. Research Participants
C. Research Instruments
The instruments of this research were documents and interview. Documents were employed to answer the first research question that was ‘How is English used in nightclub banners in Yogyakarta?” Ary, et al. (2002: 435) said that documents could be personal such as diaries, official such as files, or documents of popular culture, such as books. The documents in this research were ten nightclub banners that were taken as the research data. There were English phrases and sentences contained in those ten nightclub banners. Those phrases and sentences were analyzed according to the theory of advertising language.
The second instrument, interview was used to answer the second research question that was ‘What are the reasons of using English in nightclub banners in Yogyakarta?” In this part, the research employed standardized open-ended interview. Patton (1983: 198) said that this interview mainly aims to obtain a consistent result as he described:
The standardized open-ended interview consists of a set of questions carefully worded and arranged with the intention of taking each respondent through the same sequence and asking each respondent the same questions with essentially the same words.
interview was conducted in Indonesian because this was nightclub banner designers’ daily language and most of them do not speak English in their daily conversation. It was hoped that the researcher was able to gain much information and create an interesting discussion with them by using Indonesian.
D. Data Gathering Technique
The researcher gathered the data on February 2008 until July 2008 by taking pictures of ten nightclub banners in the crossroad located between Jalan Gejayan and Jalan Condongcatur, the crossroad located in Jalan Magelang, Jalan Magelang, Jalan Gejayan, and Jalan Colombo. Two banners were pictured in the crossroad located in Jalan Magelang and between Jalan Condongcatur and Jalan Gejayan. Five banners were pictured in Jalan Colombo. Three banners were pictured in Jalan Gejayan. After that, the researcher analyzed the banners to find out how the English phrases and sentences in nightclub banners were used according to the theory of advertising language. Later, the researcher interviewed banner designers whose banners became the data of the research. They were banners designers coming from five big nightclubs in Yogyakarta: Bosche, Liquid, Caesar, Hugo’s Café, and Embassy.
researcher interviewed Hugo’s Promotion Manager at Hugo’s Café Yogyakarta. The last, the researcher interviewed Embassy Creative Team Member at Embassy Yogyakarta on December 10, 2008.
E. Data Analysis Technique
In this research, to analyze the data, the researcher did two main steps. Firstly, the researcher analyzed the English phrases and sentences in nightclub banners according to the theory of advertising language.
Secondly, the researcher analyzed the reasons of using English in nightclub banners using the theory of language choice. In this part, the researcher also used the results of the interview with banner designers as the supporting data.
F. Research Procedure
The procedures that were applied in this research were:
1. Recording the data by taking pictures of nine nightclub banners
2. Analyzing the banners to look at how English is used by banner designers
Using the details of the banners, the researcher analyzed the banners in order to look at how English is used in nightclub banners. The researcher analyzed the phrases and sentences in nightclub banners by using the theory of advertising language.
3. Interviewing banner designers in Yogyakarta
After analyzing the banners according to the theory of advertising language, the researcher interviewed banner designers in Yogyakarta regarding their reasons in using English in their banners. The banner designers were chosen based on the banners that became the data of the research.
4. Transcribing the results of the interview
In this step, the researcher transferred the recordings into written language. Later, the researcher analyzed the results of the interview to discover banner designers’ reasons in using English in their banners.
5. Analyzing the reasons of using English according to the theory of language choice
6. Writing up the report
RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
This chapter is divided into two subchapters according to the problem formulation. The first section discusses the use of English in nightclub banners in Yogyakarta. In this section, the use of English in nightclub banners is analyzed according to the theory of advertising language. The second section discusses the banner designers’ reasons in using English in their banners. Here, the discussion presents the comparison of the results of the interview with banner designers in Yogyakarta whose banners are observed in this study and the theory of language choice.
A. Use of English in Nightclub Banners in Yogyakarta
This section discussed the use of English in nightclub banners in Yogyakarta. The discussion was based on the theory of advertising language proposed by Geis (1997). As stated by Geis (1997: 42), the language of advertising contained advertising register that included certain expressions such as elliptical comparatives, complex comparatives, imperatives as suggestions, rhetorical questions, adjectivalizations, and the use of count nouns as mass nouns. In nightclub banners, the expression that was frequently used was imperatives as suggestions. This expression was in example , Get Discount 50% Off for All Beverages All Nite Long, example , Get Discount Up to 6 % Off only at Boshe VVIP Club, and example , Get Discount Up to 60% For All Beverage All Nite
Long. Off only at Boshe VVIP Club All Day All Night Long except Special Event, and example , Get Discount Up to 60% For All Beverage All Nite Long. Those phrases implied that nightclub management ordered customers to buy their beverages because there were discounts offered and the highest discounts were 50% and 60%. Yet, the order also meant as suggestion to come to the club because they would get discounts for all beverages. Perhaps, in other clubs they could drink the same beverages with higher price. Of course, customers should have paid attention to the information about the discounts, beverages, and times when the discounts were offered.
Such claims became a type of offer for customers. Geis (1997: 44) said that an offer needed the real evidence and did not only give information. The event name such as example , Addopted Sound of Zeus did not only inform the event name, DJs, dancers, or rules but also offer customers to join the event that performed certain music as packaged in the title Addopted Sound of Zeus with the whole performers. Example , Black Out Valentine also illustrated the event that was a Valentine party in black nuance and offered customers to join this new kind of Valentine party that was usually dominated by pink color.
Finally, the language in nightclub banners referred to the tendency that human beings “read into what is said as much as is consistent with the literal meaning of what is said and the context which it is said” (Geis, 1997: 43). The example was example , Locally Session. Locally Session implied that this was related to the Indonesian word, Lokalisasi. This was strengthened by Respondent 1.
“Once, we published an event named Locally Session. Actually, this is the English slang from Lokalisasi in Indonesian. Locally means lokal, and session is sesi. This is an event for local indie bands in Yogyakarta.” (Respondent 1, Interview)
Therefore, it could be concluded that there were three characteristics of advertising language in the language of nightclub banners in Yogyakarta. First, the language of nightclub banners contained the advertising register. The expression used was imperatives as suggestions. Second, the language of nightclub banners used generic claims to strengthen the message. Third, the language of nightclub banners was a type of offer.
B. Reasons of Using English in Nightclub Banners in Yogyakarta
This section discussed banner designers’ reasons in using English in their banners. Based on the results of the interview, there were three main reasons why banner designers used English. First, English held high prestige in nightclub community. Second, English conveyed message more precisely rather than Indonesian. Third, English provided creativity for banner designers to create such phrases and words that were able to grasp customers’ attention. Those reasons implied that there was a tendency to publish banners in English as they could accommodate nightclubs’ needs. Later, those reasons were analyzed according to the social factors of choosing certain language proposed by Holmes (2001).
Based on the social factors mentioned by Holmes (2001: 8), participants consisted of who are speaking and who they are speaking to. In nightclub banners, the participants of the intended language in nightclub banners were banner designers that represented nightclub management and their customers. Here, banner designers attempted to communicate with their customers in accordance with the need to inform nightclub’s events and products. The customers of nightclub mostly consisted of young people in Yogyakarta, specifically university students and young executives. Those were the group of people that learnt and were familiar with English.
Therefore, they needed such language that was not only able to communicate the message but also held high prestige in nightclub community. Customers would pay more attention to prestigious language in the banners rather than the language that was considered ordinary. Hence, nightclub management chose English. The phrase like example , Model from Netherland brought the matter of prestige rather than translating the phrase into Indonesian. It was supported by the statement of Respondent 2:
“…We use English to increase people’s curiosity on our events, get more customers, and maintain our prestige.” (Respondent 2, Interview)
Valentine. This event name was seen as representing the meaning of the message rather than translating into Indonesian. Some words could not be translated into Indonesian. This was stated by Respondent 3:
“…in some cases, we have to put English into the banner. There are some sentences and phrases that look odd and weird if translated to Indonesian. In some events, we use English because the guests are familiar with such kind of language. For example, we have an event named Bali Paradise. If we make it into Indonesian, it will be Surganya Bali. See, it will be odd to read and far away from our original concept.” (Respondent 3, Interview)
The statement showed that even though banner designers used English in their banners, they were able to address the message to customers as the language was common. Moreover, considering that young community was identical with fun, banner designers also created the language that was unique and catchy. This supported the third reason. As an example, banner designers wrote example  that was Black Out Valentine. This phrase would grasp customers’ attention rather than writing the event in Indonesian. Young people tended to read such interesting name rather than the Indonesian version of Black Out Valentine.
the customers were dominated by young people in Yogyakarta. For example, they displayed the banners in Jalan Gejayan and Jalan Colombo, close to the universities located in those streets.
Nightclub management also displayed their banners in major crossroads in Yogyakarta such as the crossroad located in Jalan Magelang and between Jalan Condongcatur and Jalan Gejayan. Those were such places in which people stopped by at traffic lights and this condition enabled them to read the banners closely. It meant that nightclub management attempted to make more and more people to come to the clubs, not only limited to their customers.
The third social factor, the topic of the language was about “what is being talked” (Holmes, 2001: 21). The topic of the language of nightclub banners included the things that were familiar in nightclub community in English. They were parties, DJs, music types, bands, singers, beverages, and models. Those were the materials that customers were interested in. Customers came to nightclubs in order to have party, drink beverages, watch the DJs and enjoy their music, and watch bands’ performance and fashion show. For example, banner designers wrote example , Model from Netherland in banner 9. This was such information that there would be a fashion show in the event and it was performed by Dutch models. The other example was example , Addopted Sound of Zeus. This event name belonged to the material to be published in nightclub banner since it illustrated the music type that was going to be performed in the event. Respondent 1 explained the meaning of Addopted Sound of Zeus.
music, so we named it Addopted Sound of Zeus.” (Respondent 1, Interview)
Next, the fourth social factor, the function of the language, was about “why they are speaking” (Holmes, 2003: 21). The function of the language of nightclub banners was such tool to communicate with customers, specifically to inform nightclubs’ events and products. Later, it was important to note that the customers mostly consisted of young people, especially university students and young executives. Therefore, the language used was such language that was high-prestigious, common, and easy to be understood. The example was example , Free Entry for Ladies. This phrase was easy to be understood by customers. Besides, such expression was common for nightclub community. It was proved through Respondent 2’s statement below:
“Sometimes, we have to write informal and nonstandard English because that should be. For example, Free for Ladies All Nite Long. This phrase is common for nightclub community.” (Respondent 2, Interview)
Therefore, it could be concluded that English held referential function in nightclub banners. Holmes (2001: 88) said that referential function was about giving and sharing information among participants. It meant, the language in nightclub banners provided information about nightclubs’ events and products for customers. Customers could find the name of the event or product, the time, the dancers, the DJs, the models and other rules to come to the clubs. The example was example , 50 % Off by Showing Student ID for All Beverages except Brandy and Cognac. The phrase informed that customers might have got a 50%-discount for all beverages except Brandy and Cognac if they showed their student ID at that event.
The fifth factor, the social distance, was about “whether the speakers are friends, strangers, brothers, or relatives” (Holmes, 2001: 25). Banner designers that represented nightclub management and customers might have not known each other. However, there was a need of selling products in the relationship. Hence, banner designers used the language that was high-prestigious and could accommodate their need to sell their products and grasp customers’ interest to come to their clubs. The choice of language, of course, concerned the fact that the customers mostly consisted of university students and young executives. Considering this fact, banner designers used English in creative and attractive style. The language was also common for customers and easy to be understood.
relationship between nightclub management and customers were seller-customer. As seller, nightclub management provided event that included DJs, dancers, models, food, and beverages. The thing to do was making people to come to the clubs so that they paid for the entry ticket and bought nightclubs’ products such as food and beverages. Therefore, nightclub management needed to inform their events and products to their customers. As the customers mostly consisted of young people in Yogyakarta, nightclub management used English that was composed simply, catchy, and easily understood. This language was high-prestigious, able to deliver the intended message, and aimed to grasp customers’ interest to come to the clubs to see what would be happening after reading the banner and later buy nightclubs’ products.
Then, the seventh social factor was the formality (Holmes, 2001: 25). As a matter of fact, nightclub was such leisure place. People came to nightclub in order to have party, watch band performance and fashion show, or drink beverages. It meant that this was entertainment community. Besides, nightclub customers mostly consisted of young people. Young people, as a matter of fact, were identical with fun. Therefore, the language used in nightclub community was informal language. The example was example , Get Discount Up to 60% for All Beverage All Nite Long. The phrase showed that banner designers changed night into nite. It proved that banner designers or nightclub management tended to use informal language in nightclub community. Respondent 1 said:
The statement above also strengthened the tendency of using informal language in nightclub community. The use of nonstandard and informal English built the sense of entertainment world that was popular as being free and creative. This was the language that could accommodate young people’s interest.
Finally, the eighth social factor was the function or goal of interaction (Holmes, 2001: 25). In nightclub banner, there were two functions or goals of interaction. Firstly, it was to inform nightclubs’ events and products. Therefore, the information conveyed in the banners was about certain nightclubs’ events and products. The banners mentioned the DJs who were going to perform their music in the events, the day, date, and time of the event, the dancers, the bands, the singers, or what products to be sold. The example was example , Maxim Girls Indonesia. This phrase informed that there would be a fashion show performed by Indonesian Maxim models. Maxim was the name of international adult magazine. The other example was example , Ages Restriction: Boys 21+, Girls 18+. This phrase explained one of the rules to enter the club that the customers should have been 21 years old minimally for male and 18 years old minimally for female. The examples illustrated that the language in the banners focused on the first function, informing nightclubs’ events and products.
used the language that was considered as high-prestigious in nightclub community so that people were interested to read the message. Banner designers also created the language creatively so that it looked catchy and interesting. As an example, example , Locally Session was taken from the Indonesian word, Lokalisasi for the name of a local band competition in a nightclub. Respondent 1 explained the meaning of Locally Session:
“…Once, we published an event named Locally Session. Actually, this is the nonstandard English from Lokalisasi in Indonesian. Locally means lokal, and session is sesi. This is an event for local indie bands in Yogyakarta.” (Respondent 1, Interview)
The phrase showed how banner designers composed English name for grasping people’s interest and attention. Banner designers tried to make people correlate Locally Session with the literal meaning of Lokalisasi in Indonesian. Banner designers’ way of composing an event name that was related to Indonesian word implied their goal of grasping readers’ attention as they spoke Indonesian.
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
This chapter consists of two sections: conclusions and suggestions. Conclusions deal with all summaries drawn in the research. This part becomes the answers of the problems formulated in the research. Suggestions, later, become the place for the researcher to share her suggestions regarding the problems discussed in the study.
This research examined the use of English and the reasons of using English in nightclub banners in Yogyakarta. The use of English in nightclub banners was analyzed according to the theory of advertising language. The analysis showed that the language of nightclub banners contained the characteristics of advertising language proposed by Geiss (1997). The results show that the language of nightclub banners used advertising register, specifically the expression of imperative as suggestion, used generic claims, and was in a type of offer.
Further, the reasons of using English in nightclub banners were analyzed according to the theory of language choice proposed by Holmes (2001). Holmes (2001) mentioned eight social factors that influenced people when choosing certain language, they are the participants, the setting or social context of the
interaction, the topic, the function, the social distance, the social status between the people, the formality, and the function or goal of interaction.
What could be concluded from this discussion? interaction, the topic, the function, the social distance, the social status between the people, the formality, and the function or goal of interaction.
What could be concluded from this discussion? First, English was used in simple form in the advertising language of nightclub banners. In the language of nightclub banners, English was used in the expression of imperative as suggestion, generic claims, and type of offer. This showed that English was only used to inform nightclubs’ products and events.
Second, English served as a tool of grasping customers’ attention and performing catchy publication. It also meant that English had referential function, as it only gave and shared information to customers. Banner designers created the language that was not only familiar for their customers, but also unique, attractive, and impressive. They composed English words and phrases in creative way in order not only to inform nightclub events but also grasp customers’ interest to come to nightclub to see what will be happening after reading their banners.
Considering the conclusions above, the researcher suggests banner designers to use English in nightclub banners in a varied form of advertisement. English can be used not only in generic claims and offer. Banner designers can use it with more expressions and style to enrich the language in nightclub banners. For example, banner designers might use rhetorical question to inform their products and events, not limited to generic claims and offer. The results of the analysis show that English holds a big role in nightclub advertising as this the language that is common and prestigious for customers. Therefore, it is important to make more varied advertisement not only limited to generic claims and offer like nightclub advertisement usually does now.
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English Phrases and Sentences
in Nightclub Banners in Yogyakarta
 50 % Off by Showing Student ID for All Beverages except Brandy and Cognac  Free Entry by Showing Student ID
 Giladisco Dancer’s  Host from all campus
 For more information and reservation please contact us at 0274 543477 at office hours
 Addopted Sound of Zeus
 Get Discount Up to 60% For All Beverage All Nite Long  Free Entry for Ladies
 Locally Session  How Dare Your Band  100 Local Band Jogja
 Get Discount 50% Off for All Beverages All Nite Long
 These things bellow are not allowed: Weapon, Pants, Sandals, Camera, Drink and Food from Outside, Jacket.
 Black Out Valentine  Start 11 PM – Drop
 Start at 10 PM
 IDR 30.000 for on spot ticket  In Bed with Maxim
 Maxim Girls Indonesia  Mystical Beat
 Australia #1 Female DJ  Model from Netherland  In House We Lust
 Free for Ladies before Midnight
 Strictly No Weapons, Drugs, Outside Drinks, Personal Bodyguards, or Bad Attitudes Allowed
 Dress-up is a must
 Ages Restriction: Boys 21+, Girls 18+
 Management has the right to refuse admission to anyone without consent  Membership does not guarantee admission if the rules above is not met
Picture of Banner 8
Interview Results with Banner
1. Respondent 1
Pertanyaan : Kapan Bosche didirikan? (Question : When was Bosche built?) Jawaban : Bulan Juli 2006.
(Answer : It was built on July 2006).
Pertanyaan : Siapa pemilik Bosche? Apakah pemiliknya orang Indonesia atau luar negeri?
(Question : Who is the owner of Bosche? Is he Indonesian or foreigner?) Jawaban : Ada empat orang, mereka orang Indonesia.
(Answer : There are four owners of Bosche and they are Indonesian).
Pertanyaan : Mengapa sebagian besar spanduk klab Anda memakai Bahasa Inggris?
(Question : Why do the most of your banners use English?)
Jawaban : Biar kelihatan lebih general jadi tidak kelihatan terlalu Indonesia. Kami percaya orang juga mengerti bahasa kami karena apa yang kami tampilkan cuma Bahasa Inggris slang dan tidak resmi.
(Answer : We want to bear the sense of generality so that it is not too Indonesian. We believe that people also understand our language, because we present informal and nonstandard English).
Pertanyaan : Bagaimana proses pemilihan kata, frase, atau kalimat di spanduk Anda?
(Question : How is the process of choosing the words, phrases, or sentences in your banners?)
Jawaban :Tim marketing dan kreatif yang bertanggung jawab membuat spanduk. Biasanya, kami melakukan semuanya bersama-sama. Kadang, tim marketing yang menciptakan sebuah konsep duluan, kadang tim kreatif yang duluan, lalu kami membiacarakan ide itu bersama-sama. Tapi kadang beberapa DJ mengirimkan konsep duluan yang berhubungan dengan aliran musik mereka.
Pertanyaan : Setelah memilih kata, frase, dan kalimat tertentu apakah Anda mengkonsultasikannya ke ahli Bahasa Inggris atau mengeceknya di kamus?
(Question : After choosing certain words, phrases, or sentences, do you always consult it to an English expert or dictionary?)
Jawaban : Tidak. Kami cuma memakai Bahasa Inggris slang, bukan Bahasa Inggris standard dan resmi karena kami pikir bahasanya harusnya begitu.
(Answer : No. We only make nonstandard English, not standard and formal English because we think that the language should be).
Pertanyaan : Darimana Anda mendapat inspirasi dari konsep-konsep di spanduk Anda?
(Question : Where do you get the inspiration of such concept on your banners?) Jawaban : Bisa dari klab luar negeri, tapi sebenarnya ini cuma persoalan
perangkaian kata dan permainan kata. Programmer item merangkai kata-kata sekreatif mungkin supaya itu kelihatan menarik. Misalnya, tiap Rabu kami punya event khusus buat cewek. Terus kami menamainya Fancy Girls. Nah, supaya lebih menarik, kami mengubahnya menjadi Fenzi Girls
(Answer : It could be from foreign pub, but actually this is only a matter of words arrangement and game. The item programmers arrange words creatively so that they look as impressive as possible. For example, every Wednesday we have a special event for girls. Then, we name the event Fancy Girls. Because we want to make it attractive, we change it into Fenzi Girls).
Pertanyaan : Mengapa? (Question : Why?)
Jawaban : Tentu saja kami ingin menarik perhatian konsumen. Dan, ini juga untuk slang. Misal, kami menerbitkan event namanya Locally Session. Sebenarnya, ini slang dari Lokalisasi di Bahasa Indonesia. Locally artinya local dan session itu sesi. Ini adalah event untuk band indie local di Yogyakarta.
(Answer : Of course we want to grasp customer’s attention. And, it is also only for slang. Once, we published an event named Locally Session. Actually, this is the English slang from Lokalisasi in Indonesian. Locally means lokal, and session is sesi. This is an event for local indie bands in Yogyakarta).
Pertanyaan : Jadi bisakah saya bilang bahwa Bahasa Inggris itu digunakan untuk mempercantik penampilan?
(Question : Can I say that English is used only to make fancy appearance?) Jawaban : Untuk keren-kerenan pastinya, prestise juga.
Pertanyaan : Apakah Anda belajar Bahasa Inggris secara mendalam? (Question : Anyway, did you learn English formally?)
Jawaban : Tidak. Kami belajar Bahasa Inggris pas sekolah dan kuliah, tapi cuma General English. Jadi, kami tidak terlalu tahu banyak tentang Bahasa Inggris.
(Answer : No. I learnt English at school but only General English. I didn’t learn English at university or another institution. So, I do not know English much).
Pertanyaan : Pernahkah Anda menerbitkan spanduk dalam Bahasa Indonesia? (Question : Have you ever published Indonesian banners?)
Jawaban : Ya, pernah. (Answer : Yes, we have).
Pertanyaan : Apakah ada perbedaan jumlah penonton yang datang atau antusiasme penonton saat Anda menerbitkan spanduk dalam Bahasa Inggris dan Bahasa Indonesia?
(Question : Is there any difference on customer’s enthusiasm when you publish Indonesian banners?)
Jawaban : Kami belum pernah bikin penelitian tentang itu, tapi kayaknya itu tidak pernah terjadi sampai sekarang.
(Answer : Well, we had no research on that, but we think that it never happens until now).
Pertanyaan : Pernahkah Anda mendapat komplain dari pelanggan bule berkaitan dengan frase dan kalimat Bahasa Inggris Anda di spanduk?
(Question : Have you ever got some complaint from your foreign customer regarding your English phrases or sentences on your banners?) Jawaban : Belum pernah.
(Answer : No).
Pertanyaan : Saya membaca spanduk Anda di bulan April dan Anda menggelar sebuah event dengan nama Addopted Sound of Zeus. Apa maksudnya?
(Question : I read your banner on April and you had an event named Addopted Sound of Zeus. What does it mean?)
Jawaban : Saat itu DJnya datang dari Bandung dan dia memainkan musik dari band Inggris yang bernama Zeus. Dia menggabungkan musiknya Zeus dengan jenis musik lain jadi kami menamainya Addopted Sound of Zeus.
2. Respondent 2
Pertanyaan : Kapan Liquid didirikan? (Question : When was Liquid built?)
Jawaban : Liquid didirikan tahun 2004 di Gejayan. Tahun 2005 kami membangun Liquid yang baru di Jalan Magelang. Tahun 2006 kami menutup yang di Gejayan dan semuanya difokuskan disini, di Jalan Magelang.
(Answer : Liquid was built in 2004 in Gejayan. In 2005, we built a new Liquid in Magelang Street. In 2006, we closed the one in Gejayan and everything was focused here, in Magelang Street).
Pertanyaan : Apakah pemiliknya orang Indonesia? (Question : Is the owner Indonesian?)
Jawaban : Orang Jogja asli. Semua orang di management orang Indonesia. (Answer : He comes from Yogyakarta. All people in the management are
Pertanyaan : Mengapa sebagian besar spanduk Anda menggunakan Bahasa Inggris?
(Question : Why do most of your banners use English?)
Jawaban : Tergantung eventnya. Kalau eventnya memakai Bahasa Inggris jadi spanduknya juga berbahasa Inggris, kalau eventnya memakai Bahasa Indonesia, spanduknya juga dalam Bahasa Indonesia, dan kalau eventnya memakai Bahasa Jawa, tentu saja spanduknya dalam Bahasa Jawa.
(Answer : It depends on the event itself I think. If the event uses English, then the banner is also in English, if the event uses Indonesian, the banner is also in Indonesian, and if the event uses Javanese, of course the banner is in Javanese).
Pertanyaan : Untuk spanduk yang menggunakan Bahasa Inggris, bagaimana proses pemilihan kata, frase, atau kalimat?
(Question : For English banner, how is the process of choosing certain words, phrases, or sentences?)
Jawaban : Biasanya, managemen mendiskusikan satu tema bersama-sama. Tapi kadang DJnya yang memberi masukan tema tertentu karena tema itu berhubungan dengan jenis musiknya.
(Answer : Usually, the management discusses the theme together. But, sometimes the DJ suggests certain theme because it is related to his or her music type).
(Question : Do you always consult your phrase on your banner to an English expert in your team or check it in dictionary?)
Jawaban : Kami punya tim kreatif yang bertanggungjawab membuat spanduk. Kadang, kami memperhatikan grammar dari bahasa kami karena kami harus membuatnya dalam bahasa resmi. Nah, di bagian ini kami mengkonsultasikan bahasa kami ke siapa saja di tim yang pinter Bahasa Inggris. Tapi kadang kami memakai Bahasa Inggris slang atau kata-kata yang berhubungan dengan film. Misalnya, saat film Transformer dirilis, kami punya event dengan DJ yang beraliran music trend. Jadi kami membuat sebuah tema dengan nama Trendsformer.
(Answer : We have creative team that is responsible for making the banner. Sometimes, we really pay attention to grammar of our language because we need to make it into formal language. In this part we consult our theme to whomever in our team who is good in English. But, sometimes we use slang English or the words related to movie. For example, when the movie Transformer was released, we had a DJ whose music type is trend. Then we made a theme, Trendsformer).
Pertanyaan : Darimana Anda mendapat inspirasi dari frase dan kalimat itu? (Question : Where do you get the inspiration of such phrase and sentence?) Jawaban : Dari banyak hal di sekitar kami pastinya. Kadang kami menulis
Bahasa Inggris slang, tapi kadang kami menggabungkan Bahasa Inggris dan Bahasa Indonesia. Ini cuma cara untuk mendapatkan lebih banyak konsumen.
(Answer : Many things surrounding us. Sometimes we write nonstandard English, but sometimes we mix English and Indonesian. It’s just a way to get more customers).
Pertanyaan : Jadi bisakah saya bilang bahwa Bahasa Inggris digunakan untuk mengkerenkan publikasi?
(Question : Can I say that English is used to make a catchy publication?)
Jawaban : Ya. Saya rasa publikasi sangat penting. Kalau publikasinya saja keren apalagi acaranya. Kami menggunakan Bahasa Inggris untuk meningkatkan ketertarikan orang akan acara itu, mendatangkan banyak pelanggan, dan meningkatkan prestise serta keren-kerenan. (Answer : I think publication is really an important matter. If the publication
is cool, so is the event. We use English to increase people’s curiosity on our events, get more customers, and maintain our prestige).
Pertanyaan : Apakah semua anggota tim kreatif belajar Inggris secara mendalam?