Student Number: 03421 4080 ENGLISH LETTERS STT]DY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTBRS SANATA DHARMA UNTYERSITY

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(1)PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI THE CONTRIBUTION OF'THE CHARACTERS IN DEVELOPING THE CONFLICTS IN DAVID MAMET'S GLENGA.R^RT GLEN ROSS AN I.INDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjarn Sastra in English Leffers By A.R. ADI TRI BUDIANTO Student Number: 03421 4080 ENGLISH LETTERS STT]DY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTBRS SANATA DHARMA UNTYERSITY 2010

(2) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI LEMBAR PER}IYATAAN PARSETUJUAI\ PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH LINTUK KEPENTINGAI{ AKADEMIS Yang bertanda tangan di bawah im, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma : :A.R. ADI TRI BUDIANTO NomorMahasiswa : 034214080 Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang be{udul : THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE CHARACTERS IN DEVELOPING TIIE CONFLICS IN DAYID MAMET'S GLENGARRY GLEN ROSS beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikar kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, ftengalihkan dalam bentrk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendisfribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempubhkasikannya di Intemet atau media lain rurtuk kepentingan akademis rarrpa perlu meminta ijin dari saya fiuilrpnn memberikan royalti kepada saya selama tetap mencanhunkan il;rma saya sebagai penulis. Demikian penryataan ini yang saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Dibuatdi Yogyakarta Pada tanggal : 22 Apn120l0 Yang menyatakan ( A.R. Adi Tri Budianto )

(3) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI A Sarjano Sastra Undergraduate Thesis THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE CHARACTERS IN DEYELOPING TI{E CONFLICTS IN DAVID MAMET'S GLENGARRY GLEN ROSS By A.R. ADI TRI BT]DIANTO Student l.{umber: 0342 14080 Approved by March 30,2010 March 30,2010 Co-Advisor

(4) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI A Sarjana Sastra Undergraduate Thesis THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE CHARACTf,RS IN DEVELOPING THE CONFLICTS IN DAVID MAMET'S GLENGARRY GLEN ROSS By A.R. ADI TRI BTIDIANTO Student Number: A3 421 4080 Defended before the board cf examiners On March 26,2A10 And Declared Acceptable BOARD OF'EXAMINERS Name Chairman Dr. Fr. B. Alip, M.Pd., M.A. Secretary Drs. Hirmawan Wijanarka, M.Hum. Member Dewi Widyastuti, S.Pd., M.Hum Member Ni Luh Putu Rosiandani, S.S., M.Hum Member Adventina Putranti, S.S., M.Hum. April Yogyakarta" , 2010 Faculty of Letters Dharma University 3\ i Isodarus, M.Hum. nl

(5) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY This is to certifr that all ideas, phrases, and sentences, unless otherwise stated, are the thesis writer's ideas, phrases and sentences. The writer understands the full consequences including degree cancellation if she took somebody else's ideas, phrases, or sentences without proper references. Yogyakarta, 3l March 2010 Aurelius Raymundus Adi Tri Budianto tv

(6) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ..YOU MAY LEARN MUCH MORE FROM A GAME YOU LOSE THAN FROM A GAME YOU WIN!'' From Gary Kasparov' , t":;:;:ti,!:'H;2

(7) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am aware that I could never have succeeded in finishing my undergraduate thesis without the help of others. My greatest gratitude is due to Mrs. Dewi Widyastuti, S.Pd., M.Hum, who has patiently guided me throughout my study as my academic and thesis advisor. I also owe similar gratitude to Mrs. Ni Luh Putu Rosiandani, S.S., M.Hum, who as my co-advisor has kindly given invaluable suggestion I would also thank my family for their moral and financial supports I need in studying and I am thankful to them for their endless love and understanding. I will also not forget all my best friends in Teater TOEDJOEH.I thank them so much for the Glengarry Glen Ross play performance in 2008 since it has helped me to understand this drama much deeper. deepest gratitude to I would like to extend my my lecturers and the administration staff in Sanata Dharma University, particularly those in the English Letters. I also thank my friends in my KKMprogram and my friends in my hometown. Above all, I thank God for the endless help and blessings. Aurelius Raymundus Adi Tri Budianto vl

(8) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLEPAGE APPROVAL PAGE ACCEPTAI\CE PAGE STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY MOTTO PAGE DEDICATION PAGE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .... TABLE OF CONTENTS.... ........... ..... v .......... vi vll viii ...........xi INTRODUCTION .......... I ........... I ............... 3 ............4 C. Objectives ofthe Study D. Definition of Terms ...........4 II: TI{EORETICAL REVIEW ReviewonRelatedStudies B. ReviewofRelatedTheories 1. Theory on Character ..... 2. TheoryonConflict C. Theoretical Framework .... CHAPTER A. .. CHAPTER trI: METHODOLOGY A. Objectofthe Study C. .. . .. ..............x A. Background ofthe Study B. ProblemFormulation B. .............. iv . ABSTRACT..... ABSTRAK CHAPTER I: ......... i ............ ii ........ iii ...........7 ................7 ..............9 . .. . ... .... 9 ..... 16 ....... 18 .... 2A .......... 20 ........... 2l ........22 Study Study Approach of the Method of the CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS ..... ........24 A. The Characteristics of the Main Characters in Glengarry Glen Ross... 24 1. Ricky Rom4 a Salesman ..............24 2. Shelley Levene, a Salesman ....28 3. George Aaronow, a Salesman .............32 4. Dave Moss, a Salesman ........... 33 5. Mitch and Murray, the Bosses ...... 35 6. John Williamson, the Manager....... .... 37 B. TheConflictsamongtheMainCharacters ..............41 1. Salesmen versus the Bosses 2. Salesmen versus the Manager .. .. .. 3. SalesmenversusSalesmen . vll .............. 4l . .. ..... 45 ........49

(9) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI C. The Contribution of the Characters' Characteristics to the Conflicts l. ....... ....... 50 The Salesmen' Characteristics versus the Manager's ................ 50 a. Levene's Characteristics versus Williamsonos .... 50 b. Roma's Characteristics versus Williamson's ..... 51 c. Aaronow's Characteristics versus Williamson's . . ........ . .... 52 2. The Salesmen's Characteristics versus the ......... 53 a. Moss's Characteristics versus Mitch and Murray's ............ 53 b. Roma's Characteristics versus Mitch and Murrayos .... . ...... 54 c. Leveneos Characteristics versus Mitch and Murray's .. ... .... 54 d. Aaronow's Characteristics versus Mitch and Murray's ....... 55 3. A Salesman's Characteristics versus another Salesman's ........... 56 a. Moss's Characteristics versus ....... 56 b. Moss's Characteristics versus ................. 57 ..... ..... Bosses' Aaronow's Roma's CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION. BIBLIOGRAPITY...... vlll .................. s8 ..............61

(10) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ABSTRACT A. R. ADI TRI BUDIANTO. The Contribution of the Characters in developing the Conflicts in David Mamet's Glengarry Glen Ross. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2010. Glengarry Glen Rosstells us about four Chicago salesmen, Ricky Roma" Dave Moss, Shelley Levene, and George Aaronow, who are employees in Micth and Murray's company. They work together in selling an undesirable real estate at inflated prices. The play starts as the setting at the end of a month in which the bosses or employers of the company Mitch and Murray's give an order to Williamsor5 a Mitch and Murray's manager of the four salesmen, to declare a o'sales contest". The contest is to award a Cadillac to the salesman who makes the biggest sale for the leads they sell. [n addition, two salesmen on the bottom position of the contest table are to get fired. Levene, who has a sick daughter, makes a decision to rob his office because he needs money to finance the medication of his sick daughter. Unfortunately because of his sloppiness, Williamson discovers what he does. The objectives of the study are to answer three main problems. First, it is meant to identi$ the characters' characteristics depicted in the drama. The second is to find the conflicts among the main characters. The third is to discover how the characterso characteristics contribute to the conflicts. This study applies library research to collect the data related to the topic of the study. This study also applies some appropriate theories to answer the questions stated in the problems. They are the theories on character and the theories on conflict. The writer also uses the formalistic approach. The analysis results reveal the characters' characteristics, which, among others, are greed, affogance, and over-self-confidence, and also lack of confidence. This study also discovers that conflicts happen not only between the bosses and the salesmen but also among the salesmen themselves. The play depicts the unfair competition among the salesmen, the conspiration among the bosses to remove their unwanted salesmen, the conspiration among the salesmen to steal. Finally, it also discovers that the conflicts are made serious because of the characters' bad characteristics: greediness in Mitch and Murray's characteristics, unfairness in Williamson's, arrogance in Roma's, hopelessness in Levene's and lack of confidence in Aaronow's. Their negative characteristics make the atmosphere in their workplace uncomfortable and lead to no solution in dealing with their problems. 1X

(11) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ABSTRAK A. R. ADI TRI BUDIANTO. The Contribution of the Characters in developing the Conflicts in David Mamet's Glengarry Glen Ross.Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, z}rc. Glenggary Glen Ross berkisah tentang empat orang karyawan penjual, Mereka adalah Ricky Rom4 Dave Moss, Shelley Levene, George Aaronow, yang menjadi karyawan di perusahaan milik Mitch and Murray. Mereka bekerja untuk menjual produk real estate (tanah dan rumah) yang kurang laku dengan harga yang mahal. Drama ini mengambil setting di akhir bulan, ketika Mitch and Murray memberi perintah kepada Williamson, manager keempat karyawan tersebut untuk mengumumkan sayembara jual: penjual yang dapat menghasilkan penjualan paling tinggi akan mendapatkan sebuah Cadillac. Selain itu, dua penjual terbawah dari peringkat sayembara akan segera dipecat. Levene yang memiliki anak perempuan yang sakit memutuskan untuk merampok kantornya sendiri karena dia membutuhkan uang untuk pengobatan putrinya. Celakanya, karena kecerobohannya, Williamson mengetahui apa yang dilakukannya. Tujuan dari studi ini adalah untuk menjawab tiga permasalahan utama. Pertama, studi ini berusaha mengidentifikasi sifat-sifat para tokoh utama Glenggarry Glen Ross, yaitu karateristik para tenaga penjual maupun pimpinan dan pemilik perusahaan. Kedu4 studi ini berusaha menemukan konflik yang terjadi di antara tokoh utama. Yang ketiga adalah menemukan kontribusi sifatsifat para tokoh utama tersebut dalam menciptakan konflik. Studi ini menggunakan metode studi pustaka dengan cara mengambil data yang mempunyai hubungan dengan topik. Studi ini juga memakai beberapa teori untuk menjawab masalah penelitian. Teori itu adalah teori karakter dan teori konfl ik. Penulis j uga menggunakan pendekatan formalistik. Analisis studi ini menemukan sifat-sifat para karyawan dan pimpinan, yang antara lain adalah ketamakan, kesombongan, percaya diri yang keterlaluan, maupun ketiadaan percaya diri. Penelitian ini juga menemukan bahwa konflik terjadi bukan hanya antara karyawan dan pimpinan tetapi juga antar karyawan. persaingan antar karyawan. Drama ini memaparkan persaingan yang tidak sehat antar para penjual, konspirasi antar pimpinan untuk menyingkirkan karyawan dan juga konspirasi antar karyawan untuk mencuri. Terakhir, penelitian ini juga menemukan bahwa konflik diperkuat oleh sifat-sifat buruk para tokohnya. Ketamakan yang ada dalam diri Mitch dan Murray, pilih kasih yang ada dalam diri John Williamson, keangkuhan yang ada dalam diri Ricky Rom4 keputus asaan yang ada dalam diri Shelley Levene dan ketiadaan kepercayaan diri yang ada dalam diri George Aaronow. Sifat-sifat buruk mereka ini yang membuat suasana kantor menjadi tidak nyaman dan tidak memberi solusi penyelesaiannya.

(12) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background ofthe Study Drama is a type of literature works that is usually created for a play performance. The advantage given by a theahical performance, however, requires the limitations of the material it can present. A play must be able to hold the attention of a group audience. A higher demand than in prose fiction is placed for a well-defined plot, swift exposition, strong conflicts, and dramatic confrontation. Unless the play is very brief, it must usually be divided into parts separated by an intermission or intermissions, and each part must work up to its own climax or point of suspense. It must be written in such a way that its central meanings may be grasped in a single hearing (Perrine, 1974:9Il-2). In this thesis the writer analyzes a work of drama because of its wonderful aspects. Barranger (1994) in his comments about drama or a play states that a play is written as a process of unfolding and discovery. To successfully read a play is to understand ohow' the playwright generates meaning scene after scene in meaningful level patterns. The dialogue communicates feelings and ideas; the characters give social and economic contracts (Bananger, 1994: 8). Barranger also states that drama is unique among the representational arts in that it represents 'reality' by using real human beings -actors- as characters- to create its fictional universe (1994:338). It means that the reality in drama comes from the actions ofthe characters that appear in the stage.

(13) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI Drama is an imitation of life, which inhigues us because, like a photograph, it duplicates reality. This fact implies that life and literature cannot be separated. As what Barranger writes in Understanding Plays (1994: 3), it is stated that Drama's characters are images of active human beings. To be credible, their manner and dress must fit their period, place, and social class. Their speech must suit their age, sex, personality, class and circumstances. Their actions must be rooted in situation. The playwright's success depends on skill in developing characters and events together in believable and convincing pattems of choice and behavior (1994:339). Thus, we see what the playwright does with his actors - he uses them as characters, images of man in his many aspects. We pay attention to what the playwright does with the space around his characters, how he uses it and enlarges it until it comes to represent the world in which his characters live. In this undergraduate thesis, the present writer analyzes David Mamet's Glengarry Glen Ross. It is a modern American drama and an example theatre of realism which won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama in of the 1984 because of the scathing attacks on American Business practices. David Mamet, who was bom in Chicago on 30 November 1947, is one representative of dramatists whose drama drew many comparisons to Arthur Miller's classic Death (http://www.sparknotes.com/drama/glengarry/themes.html., 2I, 2A09). of accessed Salesman on January As a modern playwright, Mamet portrays everyday life of ordinary people with their sonow, joy, problems, and emotions so that it makes us easier to catch his ideas and we really feel aware of the environment around us. George Bernard Shaw (in Farlene, 1970: 129) says that Mamet through his plays gives us

(14) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI not only ourselves, but also ourselves in our situation. The settings that happen to his stage figures are things that happen to us (Farlene,1970:129). Basically, a story is learnt through its characterization (Marriot, 1951: 15). It means that the existence of the characters is a must in a literary work. Hardy (1969: 304-5) mentions that the success of characterization can arouse a trust to a story which means that the reader must feel that the characters have the same behavior in their real life. In sum, the characters are important elements in the story that cannot be missed in a literary analysis. The present writer is interested in analyzing the characters in Glengarry Glen Ross because all characters are desperate of the American business culture itself. Glengarry GIen Ross tells us about four chicago salesmen or employees, who work together in selling an undesirable real estate at inflated prices. The scene takes places at the end of a month in which the bosses or employers of the company Mitch and Murray's send williamson, the supervisor salesmen to declare a 'osales contest": the salesman who clears of the four a certain high dollar amount will win a Cadillac, and the two salesmen who perform worst will be fired. B. Problem Formulation Based on the background of the study, there are three questions emerging from the writer's curiosity that will lead to reach the points of the discussion. The problems are formulated as follows: 1. What are the characteristics of each main character in the play? 2. What are the conflicts among the main characters?

(15) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 3. How do the characters' characteristics contribute to the conflicts? C. Objectives of the Study This thesis is an effort to discover the relationship among the characters in Mamet's Drama Glengarry Glen Ross. The chief aim of this study is to solve the questions which the writer has mentioned in the problems stated above. In order to be more accurate, the objectives of the research in the paper are summarized as follows: 1. to identifu the characteristic ofeach character in the play. 2. to identif the conflicts among the main characters, and 3. to discover how the characters' characteristics contribute to the development of the conflicts. D. Definition of Terms In this section, the writer tries to describe the definition of the words which have appeared in the title and the problems of this study. The terms which are defined are as follows: 1. Characters They are some theories about characters. Abrams in A Glossary of Literaty Terms states that a character refers to a person presented in a dramatic or narrative work, '\ryho is interpreted by the reader as being endowed with moral and dispositional qualities that is expressed in what he says -the dialogue- and by what he does -the action," (1981:20). Another source says that a character is ooa figure that is relevant to every event in the story and usually the events cause some changes either in him or in the reader' affitude toward him" (Stanton, 1965:

(16) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI l7). Baldick gives another definition for the term character.In his opinion, "a character is a personage in narrative or dramatic work and also a kind of prose sketch briefly describing some recognizable type of person," (1990: 30). It can be concluded that characters are the persons which appear in the story, or, in other words, a character is a person who is presented in a literary works. Since Abrams defines characters as the person in a dramatic or narrative work, (1981:21), while the adjective main can be interpreted as the most important (Hornby, 2000: 807), a main character may then interpreted as a person in a dramatic or narrative work whose role in the work is very important or indispensable. 2. Characterization According to Webster's New Universal Unabfidged Dictionaty (1972: 304), characterization is "the delineation of character or creation of character in a play, story, etc, especially by imitating or describing actions, utterances, and gestures" (1983: 304). In addition, Sylvia Barnet notes that Characterization or personality, is defined, as in fiction, by what the character do (e.g. a stage direction tells us that "Nora dances more and mere wildll'), by what they say (e.g. she asks her husband to play piano), by what others say about them, and by the seffing in which they move. (1988: 176). Another source says that chanctefization is o'the way a writer makes characters in a book or play seem real" (Homby, 2000: 208)). Similarly, Baldick (1990: 34) defines characterization as "the representation ofpersons in narrative or dramatic works. From Holman and Harmon, we understand that "characterization is the creation of the imaginary person so that they exist for the reader as lifelike" (1986: 81).

(17) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 3. Characteristics According to Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary (2000: 208), a characteristic is a "typical feature that something/somebody has", while Longman Dictionary of contemporary English (2001: 292) defines characteristic as "a quality or feature of something or someone that is typical of them and easy to recognize". 3. Conflict Robert Stanton (1965: 16) mentions that one of the elements of the plot in the story is conflict. A conflict is defined by Perrine (1974:44) actions, ideas, desires, or as ,,a clash wills". This conflict is the core of the story's the generating center out of which the plot grows. of structure,

(18) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW Chapter II discusses the theories that are related to the study. The writer tries to give clear explanation by reviewing some theories which are relevant to the subject of this study. Based on the topic of this study, the writer divides this chapter into three parts, namely Review of Related Studies, Review of Related Theories and Theoretical Framework. A. Review of Related Studies Not many research on this play are displayed in the library. However, we can obtain some reviews on this play or its playwright in the intemet. From an internet source, (http ://www. im agi-nati on.com/moo"n slruc.l{c lsc 3l.html, accessed on January 26, 2009), we learn that the most recognized element of Mamet's style is his sparse, clipped dialogues. Mamet's dialogue is so unique that it has become known as "Mametspeak". His language "naturalisticoo as it is a poetic impression of streetwise jargon. is not Other signature elements of Mamet's style include minimalism and lack of stage direction. Noted for his strong male characterso Mamet's plays often deal with the decline of morality in a world which has become an emotional and spiritual wasteland. Most of his works are often controversial because Mamet makes realistic dialogues but lacks actions. This can be his strength but can also be his weakness. Lacking actions, his drama is monotonous and not interesting for some people. However, the realistic dialogues in his works also make some people find his works very interesting.

(19) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI Similarly, Harold Pinter (htto://www.theatre.havard.edr/archive/2001falUoleanna/mamet.html&usg, accessed on December 27, 2008), an English dramatist, says that Mamet's works lack actions but are full of dialogues which are very realistic. They are so because he always recorded some dialogues on the tape to write in his works. On the interview with Matthew Roudane (Barnet, Burto, Ferris and Rabkin, 2A0I: 1273) about the role of language in his plays, Mamet explains that its poetic language is not attempt to capture language as much as it is an attempt to create language. The language in his plays is not only realistic but also poetic. The words sometimes have a musical quality to them. It is language which is tailor-made for the stage. People do not always talk the way his characters do in real life, although they may use some of the same words. His plays do not mirror what is going on in the street. It is something different. As Oscar Wilde said, "Life imitates art. We did not have those big pea-soup fogs until somebody descibed them" (Bamet et al.,ZAA1:n73). The role of the language in Mamet's plays is not only realistic but also poetic. His plays are considered as a realism because according to Baldick (1990) realism means a mode of writing that give the impression of recording or 'reflecting' faithfully an actual way of life. It is also stated that modem criticism views realism not as a direct or simple reproduction of reality (a slice of life) but a system of conventions, producing a lifelike illusion of some real world outside the text, by processes of selectiono exclusion, description and manners of addressing the reader.

(20) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI Mamet is not primarily thought of as a political playwright, but he is surely influenced by politics. Once on an opening of his play, Mamet gave an interview in which he did not hesitate to declare that capitalism was "obviously an idea whose time has come and gone'. Further, he said that "Americans are fundamentally dishonest about our aspiration to get something for nothing, and that's why we're enslaved by the idea of "happy capitalist" instead of observing that the operative maxim is "Hurrah for me and fuck you." Familiar American pieties are always linked to criminality. That why they're American pieties." (Bamet, Burto, Ferris and Rabkin, 2001: 1252). This paper tries to reveal the hopelessness of employees, victims of American capitalism, in facing their employers, as depicted in Glengerry Glen Ross. How they are very frustrated by their unfair treatment and why they cannot solve this problem. Their bosses plan to kick out the useless employees. analysis, the present writer does not relate the background of Mamet's the work the present writer anallzes, but will ln the life with show the characterization of the characters that leads them to conflicts. The characters and the conflicts cannot be separated because they are related to each other. B. Review on Related Theories 1. Theory of Character The most important thing in creating the work is the character because the work will have no value without characters involved in the story "A character is someone who acts out in a particular time and places some kind of conflict in

(21) t0 PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI pattem of events"(Rohrberger and Woods, 1981:20). Joseph ln Writing with a Purposeo M. Trimmer gives the explanation that A literary work usually focuses on a single character. In poem, this character is often the speaker, who reveals thoughts or describes events. In fiction or drama, this character, the protagonist is often opposed by other characterso the antagonist need not be a person: might be the environment, society, or some aspect of the protagonist's personality it (1992:335). Bamet, Berman and Burto (1988: 71) state that the term characler has two meaning, the first meaning of character is a figure in a literary work, such as Hamlet, or Holden Caulfield, and the second is personality, that is, the mental and moral qualities of a figure, just like when we say that X's character is shong or weak, or immoral or whatever. Thus, in writing about a character (a figure, whether Hamlet or Holden), we write about the character's character, namely his or her personality, traits, characteristics. A character is a person presented in a novel, play, or prose (Yelland, 1950: 29). It means that a novel, play, and prose must have at least one character to revive the story because a character is the most important thing of the story. The characters can be divided into two categories based on the importance, main or major character, and minor character. A major character usually appears in a whole of the story. This character becomes the focus in the whole of the story. The events that appear in the story always involve him or her directly and indirectly. A mirnr character is often said as supporting character because "their roles are less important than the main character because they are not fully developed characters and their roles in a story are just to support the development of the major character" (Abrams, 1981:20). Apart from that, we cannot

(22) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 1l underestimate the role the minor character because it is also important to make the story more alive. An author, in writing the literary work, may present his characters other directly or indirectly. Holman and Harmon write: In direct presentation he tells us straight out, by exposition or analysis, what a character is like, or has someone else n the story tell us what he is like. In indirect presentation the author shows us the character in action, we infer what he is like from what he thinks or says or does (1986:68). Characters basically are also divided into two types on the internal complexity, namely "flat" and "round'o characters. Abrams, quoting Foster in his Aspect of the Novel, says that A flat character is built around "a single idea or quality" and is presented without much individualizing detail, and therefore can be fairly adequately described in a single phrase or sentence, on the other hand, a round character is complex in temperament and motivation and is represented with subtle particularity; thus he is as difficult to desoibe with any adequacy as a person in real life, and like most people, he is capable of surprising us (198 I :20). Furthermore, William Kenney, also quoting from Foster in Aspect of the Novel, states: A flat character is less the representation of a human personality than the embodiment of a single attitude or obsession in a character (the character is flat because we only see one side of him) while a round character is obviously more lifelike than the simple, because in life people are not simply embodiments of single attitudes (the character is round because we see all side of him) (1964:28). The character is flat if the character does not show the development and seems so straight and no changes. This character is always stable from the beginning until the end of the story. Besides that, the flat character does not have a complete set of characteristics to differentiate him or her from other characters. Minor

(23) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI t2 characters tend to be flat characters and minor characters must necessarily remain flat (Perrine, 1974:70)). Besides, a flat character only shows a little bit characteristics of herself or himself. A round character is a character which changes through the events in the story. It seems that this character is complex. It is true that a round character is not just a simple character. We can find the complete characterization of him or her and it looks so convincing. *The flat character is characterized by one or two traits; he can be summed up in a sentence and the round sentence is complex and many sided, he might require an essay for full analysis" (Perrine, 1974:69). A character may or may not develop ooMost as explained by Stanton (1965: 17): stories contain a central character, who is relevant to every event in the story; usually the events cause some change either in him or in our attitude toward him." Based on the development or change of the character, a character may be either static or dynamic. Holman and Harmon in their book .4 Handbook to Literature say that character can be divided into two: static and dynamic. A static character is one who changes little if at all. Things happen to such a character without things happening within. The pattem of action reveals the character rather than showing the character changing in response to the action. Sometimes the static character gives the appearance of changing simply because our picture of the character is revealed bit by bit. (Holman and Harmon, 1986: 83) A static character is only shown passively. He or she does not give a response toward the action that exists in the story. Things that happen do not influence them so much and he shows no changes of such as personalify and character. He or she looks so flat from the beginning until the end of the story.

(24) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI l3 On the other hand, a dynamic character is "one who is modified by actions experiences, and one objective of the work in which the character appears is to reveal the consequences of these actions" (Holman and Harmon,1986: 83). The dynamic character is a character who has a permanent change in some aspect of his or her character, personality, and outlook. He or she is an active character and gives the response to the action which appears in the story. Penine in his Literature: Structure, Sound, and Sense describes a static character and a dynamic character as follows: a) A static character he was at the is the same of sort of the person at the end of the story as beginning(1974:71) b) A dynamic character is developing change in some aspect of his character who undergoes a permanent character, personality, or outlook. The change may a large or a small one; it may be for better or for worse: but it is something important and basic; it is more than a change in condition or a minor change in opinion Q97a:7\. J.M. Trimmer also explains the changes of the character in Writing with a Purpose. According to him, "central characters who change in some significant way as a result of the conflicts they must resolve are often called dynamic. Characters staticoo who remain unchanged by experiences they encounter are called (1992:335). To make the changes more convincing, the change must meet three conditions. Firstly, makes it. The second it must be within the possibilities of the character who thing is that it must be sufficiently motivated by the circumstances in which the character finds himself or herself. Thirdly, it must be

(25) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI l4 allowed sufficient time for a change of its magnitude believably to take place (Perrine, 1974:71). Characterization is the description of the characteristics. The characterization is the act, process, or result ofcharacterizing. In fiction (the drama, the novel, the short story, and the narrative poem), the author reveal the characters of imagery person and the creation of these imagery persons so that they exist for the reader as lifelike is called charactefization (Holman and Harmon, 1 9 86 : 8 I ). Through characteization, the author describes the character clearer to the reader so the reader can imagine the character without any confusing anymore. The reader can be directly involved in the story. "Characters have particular personalities and physical attributes that distinguish them for other characters" (Rohrberger and Woods, I97 1: 20). Similarly, charactefization can be understood as the process by which an author creates a character. Joseph H. Trimmer writes, The method by which in author creates, reveals, and develops changes is called characteruation. An author may describe characters directly. Telling the reader what people look like, how they behave and what they think, or an author may reveal characters indirectly, suggesting their appearance, personality, and values through their words and deeds of other (1992:335). It seems that basically the author characterizes the characters in the two ways directly and indirectly. There are two principal ways an author can characterize the characters: 1. Direct It means that the author directly tells the reader about the characteristics of the character (face, physique, gesture, and clothing). The author describes the

(26) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI t5 character's appearance and personality within a sentence so that the reader can get the description ofthe character certainty. Direct means to describe physical appearance. He can say, for example, that Sally is 5 feet 4 inches tall, weighs 110 pounds, and has blond hair and blues eye. Or he can describe her intellectual and moral attributes or explain the degree or her sensitivity. He can say that she is a bright girl who respects her parents and feels their disapproval strongly. (Rohrberger and Woods, l97I:20) 2. Dramatic "Dramatic means that the author places the character in situation to show what she is by the way she behaves or speaks" (Rohrberger and Woods, 1971: 20). The readers conclude the character's characteristic from her speaking, her act, and her behavior. The character is shown speaking and acting. Describing a person in the story must be very careful. These points must be taken as the consideration (Barnet, Berman and Burto, 1988: 712): l. What the character says (though what he or she says need not be taken at face value, the character may be hypocritical, or self-deceived, or biased), 2. What the character does, 3. What other characters say about the character, and 4. What other characters do (their actions may help to indicate what the character could do but does not do). In a literary work, it is impossible to separate characters, characterization, and characteristic. They all have a common unit of meaning, originating from the word character. Basically, their relationship must be discovered to have a good description and create a better analysis.

(27) t6 PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI Care must be taken because the word character has two possible meanings. Firstly, the character is a person who appears in a work, while the second meaning is that the character is the explanation of what the character looks like and their behavior. When looking at the second definition of character, indirectly it will lead to the explanation of characteristic. It seems that they have similar meanings. The characteristic of the character is the result of characterization. The characteristic is 'othe forming part of the character person or thing" (Hornby, 1989: 188). of a It consists of the trait of the character. Another source states that "that which constitutes the character, that which characterizes; a distinguished trait, or quality; a peculiarity" (Webster's New Universal Unabridged Dietionary, I 983 : 304). To make the character more convincing, there should be characterization. The writer has to make good charccte{tzation so the readers can understand the characteristic of character, Characterization is the way how the author reveals the character. 2. Theory on Conflicts According to Perrine's Literature; Structure, Sound and Sense, a conflict is "a clash of actions, ideas, desireso or wills" (1976:44) . The main character may be pitted against some other person or group of persons (man against man); he may be in conflict with some external force-physical nature, society, or "fate" (man against environment); or he may be in conflict with some element in his own nature (man against himself). The conflict may be physical, mental, emotional or moral (1974:44).

(28) t7 PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI Perrine (1974: 48-49) also states that a story may have an indeterminate ending, one in which no definitive conclusion is arrived at. A conclusion of some kind there must of course be. A story, if it is to be an artistic unit, cannot simply stop. But the conclusion need not be in the terms of a resolve conflict. The story is more effective without a resolution, for an individual conflict merely symphonizes a larger social conflict that has no easy resolution. Stanton (1965: 16) mentions that one of the elements of the plot in the story is conflict. A central conflict is always between fundamental and contrasting qualities or forces, such as honesty and hypocrisy, innocence and experience, individuality and pressure to conform. This conflict is the core of the structure of a story, the generating center out of which the plot grows. A story may contains more than one conflict of forces, but only the central conflict of a story fully accounts for the events According ofthe plot. to Baldick (1991: 107-8), a conflict implies not only the struggle of a protagonist against someone else or something but also the existence of some motivation for the conflict or some goal to be achieved thereby. Here a conflict is the raw material out of which plot is constructed. Hunt (1995:31-2) says that a conflict does not always have forms in direct oneso such as frontal war, fight, raid, riot or any kind of open hostilities. A conflict does not always mean hate, hatred, or distrust. A conflict can also happen just through the limit of differences of opinion, perspectives, judgments, and opposing arguments. This type of conflict happens because a group tends to evaluate certain

(29) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI l8 matters based on its own perception or point of view, which is influenced by any aspects of its culture, values, religion, beliel and moral standards. Robert and Jacobs (1987:88) define a conflict as the opposition between two characters. It may dlso exist between larger groups of people, although in fiction conflicts between individuals are more identifiable and therefore more interesting. A conflict may also exist between an individual and larger forces, such as natural objects, ideas, and modes of behavior, public opinion, and the like. The existence of difficult choices within an individual's mind may also be presented as conflict, or dilemma. In addition, the conflict may be presented not as direct opposition, but rather as a set of comparative or contrastive ideas or values. In addition, Rohrberger and Woods state that a conflict is the struggle that occurs between the protagonist and antagonist, fate or environment, or within the protagonist or with the conflicting value system (1971: 180). C. Theoretical Framework This study is focused to reveal the questions in problem formulations by analyzing the characters. The theory of character is helpful to explain what character is. Readers recognize a certain character's personality based on his or her manners, ideas and speech. Throughout the play, readers seem to be invited to feel what kind of situation and condition experienced by a certain character. The present researcher needed to obtain the idea of characterization to discover the characters' characteristics by analyzing what they do, feel or say. A purpose or goal throughout his or her appearance can be detected. certain It is possible

(30) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI l9 that each character has their own intentions that show their differences from one another. In order to identiS the conflicts among the characters, the present writer uses the theory of conflict. Conflicts can happen among individual characters or between a group of characters and an institution, such as a company, as what is observed in this play. After discovering the characters' characteristics and the conflicts among them, a further analysis can be conducted characteristics infl uence the existing confl icts. to see how the characters'

(31) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY In this research. chapter, the present writer presents the methodology He describes the approach that he uses to conduct a good of this analysis. Besides that, he also describes the research steps so that the readers understand the way the writer answers the problems. A. Object of the Study The thesis analyzes one of Mamet's works, which is entitled Glengarry GIen Ross, a play which has received four awards: Laurence Olivier Award for Best New Play in 1983, Pulitzer Prize for drama in 1984, Drama Desk Award Outstanding Revival of a Play in 2005 and Tony Award for Best Revival of a Play in 2005. Glengarry Glen Ross is a modem American drama written premiered in London Mamet's in in 1977 that 1983 then was followed in Chicago. The story is based on job in 1969 as an office manager at a real estate sales oflice. The position is the inspiration for Williamson's job, and the other salesmen observed in the office would later serve as the basic for the play's other characters. The play shows parts of two days, first in a China Restaurant, and second in a real estate sales offtce. The play tells the lives of four desperate Chicago real estate salesmen: Richard "Rick/' Roma, the most successful salesman in the offrceo Shelley "The Machine'o Levene, an older salesman that needs money to treat his sick daughter, George Aaronow, an aging salesman who lacks confidence 20

(32) zl PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI and hope, and Dave Moss, a big mouthed salesman. They work for Mitch and Murray, the owner of the real estate agency. They set up a sales contest that makes salesmen felt under pressure to produce or to lose their job. Unfortunately, the offtce manager John Williamson treats four salesmen unfairly. Roma always gets promising sales leads but the others only get hopeless sales leads. As a result, until the end of the month, Levene, Moss and Aaronow still have difficulties to find a prospective buyer. The three salesmen hate the pressuring management. They plan to strike back at Mitch and Murray by stealing all the Glengarry leads and selling them to another real estate agency. Finally the plan is implemented, but only one of the three salesmen does it. Unfortunately, Williamson finds out the case and knows that Levene has stolen the leads because only the real thief could know the real contract and the check on Williamson's desk. This study is basically a library research. Many books, internet sources and references have been read to support the analysis for answering the problems of this thesis. The thesis studies the events in the story and anything that happens to characters. B. Approach of the Study Looking at the problems of this study and the work under study, the formalistic is the best approach in conducting the study. According to Rohrberger and Woods, the formalistic approach examines "the literary piece without references to the genre or in literary history, and without reference to its social milieu" (1971:7). The formalistic approach invites us to analyze the story by looking at the inside of the story. It leads us to explore the work by analyzing the

(33) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 22 intemal organization of the work. The definition above is supported by Guerin (1979).It is a term used to describe that type of literary criticism which has as its major concem the form of a work of art, ranging from its typography to the structure its idea builds. The interplay of these variations of form results in a total effect that forms or shapes inwardly the works and gives its parts a relevance to the whole and vice versa (Guerin,1979:32A). This thesis analyzes the play and Therefore, the formalistic approach present writer it only concentrates on the work. is appropriate to analyze the study. The is really sure that the formalistic approach could support analysis because it only the examines the literary pieces or the intrinsic elements, without adoring the extrinsic elements of the stories, such as the biography of the writer, the history of the play, and the social background. It just focuses on the conflicts, the characters' characteristics and their contribution to the conflicts. C. Method of the Study There were some steps that were taken in order to analyze the literary work. The first step was to read the work to understand the work soundly. This step was very important in making the thesis better. The second was identifring the characters' characteristics using the methods of the charccterization of the characters. The next step was to disclose the conflicts of the works by uncovering the stories. Finally, the last step was to show the contribution of the characters' characteristics to the conflicts in the play. To make the analysis better, it was important to read some books and some references about them. The writer got information from the books about the

(34) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI theories required for this study. The best description of 23 characters and characterization used in this analysis was the theories of M.H. Abrams in his book A Glossary of Literary Terms, supported by Holman and Harmon's theories in r4 Handbook to Literature, and Rohrberger and Woods' theories in Reading and Writing about Literature.

(35) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER IV AI\ALYSIS This chapter is divided into three sub-chapters in line with the problems presented in Chapter I. The first sub-chapter deals with the characteristics of each main character in the play. The second deals with the conflicts among the main characters, while the last one deals with the conhibution of the characters' characteristics to the development of the conflicts in the play. A. The Characteristics of the Main Characters in Glengarry Glen Ross Characters are always found in a story and involved in certain actions and conflicts. This play has five main characterso namely John Williamson, Ricky Romao Shelley Levene, George Aaronow and Dave Moss. By profession all of them are salesmen who work for a real estate company belonging Mitch and Murray. There are also other characters, like James Lingk as a customer and Baylen, a police officer. However, being minor characters, they are not the object of this study. Below are the characteristics of each of them based on what is shown in the play. The order of the analysis is based on the order of the appearance in the play. 1. Ricky Roma, a Salesman He is a man of 40 years old. He is considered a good, fine man by Levene, as shown in the following. LEVEIYE. John...John...John. Okay John . Look Qtause) the Glenggary Highland's leadso you're sending Roma out. Fine. Heos a good man. We know what he is. He's fine. 24

(36) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 25 (2001:1254) He is a lucky man, which makes his rivals in the office jealous because he always gets prospects to sell. His offrce manager, Williamson always has trust on him to sell prospective leads but his rivals in the office consider him a dishonest and an immoral person. He is the youngest in that office and has been the ace card for the company. His money earning is always higher than the others because he always got customers that want to sell his leads. He is a new salesman in that office and he does not get good welcome from his rivals because he has changed the life of his rivals who does not get prospective leads after his income. The clothes that he wears are more expensive than the others' because of his good money eaming. As a young employee, he has a good future to survive in that office because his position will be secure from any refreshing employment proglam. Another aspect of his characteristics is revealed in the following quotation. ROMA. All train compartment smells vaguely of shit. It gets so you don't mind it. That's that the worst thing that I can confess. You know how long it took me to get there? A long time. When you die you're going to regret the things you don't do. You think you're queer..... I'm going to tell you something we're queer. You think that you're a thief? So what? You get befuddled by a middle-class moralrty....? Get shut of it. Shut t out. You cheated on your wife...? You did it. Live with it. (trtause) so be in. there's an absolute morality? May be. And then what? If you think there is, then be that that thing. Bad people go to hell. I don't think so. If you think that, act that way. A hell exist on earth? Yes. I won't live on it. That's me. You ever take a dump made you feel you'd just slept for twelve hours. (2001:1260) ROMA. or a piss...........? a great meal fades in reflection. Everything else gains. You know why? Cause it's only food. This shit we eat, it keeps us going. But it's only food. The great fucks that you may have had. What do you remember about them?

(37) .l PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 26 (2001:1260) By reading that dialogue we can know that he is very immoral but he is very successful in controlling the customers. He is different from the other salesmen: he can speak very confidently, fluently and beautifully, before he promotes the leads. He always entertains his consumers with interesting topics that make them happy. [n addition, he can show that he is an upper class person, not different from his customers. ln fact, he is the richer salesman than others in his office; because he always achieves a good result after having some negotiation with the customers. He can hypnotize his victims by the ability of his speech. When, the robbery case happened in his offrce. Not like the others salesmen that are suspects of that crime, the Roma's position still safe because he has no reason to steal. He has ability to share his opinion. He believes his opinion is the best. And he always defends his own opinion. He does not care for other's opinion and advice. ROMA. James. I'm glad to meet you. (They shake hands.) I'm glad to meet you. James. (pause) I want to show you something. (Pause) it mean nothing to you...and it might not. I don't know. I don't know anymore. (Pause. He takes out a small map and spreads it on the table.) What is that? Florida. Glengarry Highlands, Florida. "Florida. Bullshit." And maybe that's true and that's what I said: but look here. What is this? This is a piece of land. Listen to what I'm going to tell you now. (2001:1261) On the negative side, he is a dishonest person and a hypocrite. He said that he is glad to meet James, a customer, but it is just because of his money orientation. He knows that James is a rich person so he supposes that he can sell his leads to him a good price. He said that Glengarry Highlands, Florida is bullshit, as shown in the above quotation. However, it is only his trick to make

(38) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 28 In the present writer's analysis, he has a good instinct to know how people feel. He knows that by judging the expression in their face and behavior. And he has the ability to persuade a customer who wants to cancel the leads to buy the leads. His speaking ability makes him able to counter back the argument of his customers by giving them a logical reason that makes the customers think twice in deciding to cancel the leads. His customers would trust him again because he could convince them that the decision Howevero the speaking skills and talents. to cancel the negotiation It is his personality which is wrong. can influence the people. Therefore, the present writer concludes that Ricky Roma is a charismatic man. He can influence people by his speech and his behavior. 2. Shelley Levene, a Salesman The writer finds discussing Shelley Levene particularly interesting because the stealing case that happens in the story involves him. The story becomes alive because of his appearance. Levene is neither thoroughly a good man nor a bad man but a mixture of that. He is 50 years old. He is the oldest salesman in his office. In the past, he was a successful salesman. However, now he has often failed to close a big deal for a long time. He tries to win the offrce manager's trust. Unfortunately, he is not successful because for a long time he has failed to make good sales. The following quotation shows how he fails. He realizes his failure and is quite unhappy with the missed opportunity. However, he desperately tries to convince his boss about his prospect in a long and tiring argument. LEVSNE. I can't close these lead, John. No one can. It's a joke. John. Look, just give me a hot lead. Just give me two of the premium leads. As a "test,"alright? As a "test" and I promise you..... WILLIAMSON.I can't do it Shel? Qtause)

(39) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 29 LEVENE. I will give you ten percent. Qnuse) WILLIAMSON. Of what? LEYENE. Of my ends what I close. WILLIAMSON. And what if you don't close. LEVENE. I will close. WILLIAMSON. What if you don't close. LEVENE.Iwill close. WILLIAMSON. What if you don't? Then I'm fucked. You see...? Then it's my job. That's what I'm telling you. LEVEDIE. I will close. John, John. Ten percent. I can get hot. You know that.... (2001: 1256) Levene is an optimistic man, but as seen in the above, he desperately wants to save his career by begging Williamson for some promising leads though unfortunately he is not successful. Actually, he is an optimistic man because he feels that once he has been a successful salesman and he will remain so. However, the good luck does not belong to him anymore, and the office manager does not have trust on him anymore, as shown in the following dialogue. When he was young, he rarely failed to sell the leads, but after growing old, the fortune does not belong to him. His position is not secure because his position is below Roma's and Moss' position. So he begs some two premium leads to Williamson. He does not want to be fired just because he is in the third position. And he must keep the job because he must earn money for his family. It is shown that in his old age and in his bad luck he is still optimistic that he can be successful. LEVENE. John Qtause). Listen. I want to talk to you. Permit me to do this a second. I'm older than you. A man acquires a reputation. On the street. What he does when he's up, what he does otherwise...I said "ten," you o'no" you said twenty. " I said fine," I'm going to fuck with you, how said can I beat that, you tell me?... Okay. Okay. We'11... Okay. Fine. We'11... Alright, twenty percent, and fifty bucks a lead. That's fine. A month or two we'll talk. A month from now. Next Month. After the thirtieth. Qtause) We'll talk. (2001: 1256)

(40) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI LEYENE. 30 I 'm asking to you. As a favor to me? Qtause). Jottn. (ong pause). John, my daughter.... WILLIAMSON.I can't do it Shelley. (2001: l2s6) He is a responsible father. As a father, he loves his daughter. He considers that his failure to sell the leads is because of the qualrty of the leads that makes them very difficult to sell. He thinks that he is underestimated because of his old age and finds himself in danger of getting fired. Now he is in a bad situation because he has to deal with complicated problems. First of all, he needs money to get proper medical care for his sick daughter. Second, he earns the money by the commission of the selling, so he is not secure because he does not know from month to month what his income will be. Third, he never gets good leads that are easy to sell. On the other hand, he is a responsible father, so he will do anyhing for his sick daughter. LEVEFIE. Bullshit. John, Bullshit. April, September 1981.It's me.ltisn,t fucking Moss. Due respecto he's an order taker, john, he talks, he talks a good game, look at the board. And it's me, John, it's me. . . QA0t: t254) He cannot forget his past when he was a hero in his office. He always says that to his manager to win trust from his manager. It also shows that now he has lost his own self-confidence and tries to get it back by boasting off his past. When he was young, he had a lucky destiny because, like Ricky Rom4 the youngest salesman in that office, he got prospective leads and did not have any difficulty to sell them. LEVENE ........And now Iom saying this. Do I want charity? Do I want pity? I ant sits. I want leads don't come right out of a phone book. Give me

(41) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 3l a lead hotter than that. I'll go in and close it. Give me a chance that's all I want. I'm going to get up on that fucking board and all I want is a chance. It's o streak and I'm going to turn it around. Qtause) I need your help. Qtause) (2001:1256) Actually, Levene is a hard worker, and he does not want charity or pity. He just wants a change to make him find his past glory. And hence, he able will be to fix his family life, especially to get proper medical treatment for his sick daughter. He feels that now he does not have a chance to sell a good lead like when he was young. LEVENE. Well, I want to tell you something, fell4 wasn't long I could pick up the phone, call Murray and I'd have your job. You know that? Not too long ago. For what? For nothing. o'Mur, this new kid burns my ass." Shelley, he's out. " You're gone before I'm back to lunch. I bought him a trip to Bermuda once. . . (2001:1256) As the oldest in his office, he shows his superiority by claiming that he has close relationship with his boss, Murray. [n the past, he made his bosses happy with his success and the profit that he made. Unfortunately, now he is regarded by his boss as a parasite that must be annihilated from their office. He wants to show his merits to the manager that he had given to his company when he was young. ROMA. That was a great sale, Shelly. Qtause) LEVEFIE. Ah. Fuck. Leads! Leads! Williamson! (Williamson sticks his head out of the ffice.) send me out! Send me out! (2001: 1265) When, he manages to sell the leads, he will be arrogant, especially when his friends praise him, which makes him even haughtier. It is to show that as a salesman he is not over yet and that he salesmen. still exists to challenge other younger

(42) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 32 3. George Aaronow, a Salesman To describe George Aaronow's characteristics, let us observe the dialogue between Moss, another salesman, and Aaronow. MOSS. All of 'em. They hold on to their money.... AARONOW. Where am I goingto work? MOSS. you have to cheer up. George, you aren't out yet. AARONOW.I'm not? (2001:1257) AARONOW. ...That's right..... MOSS. Eh? AARONOW. No. That's absolutely right. MOSS. And so they kill the goose....and, and a fuckin' man, worked all his life has got to... (2001:1258) From the above, it can be concluded that he lacks the sense of self- confidence. Actually, he wants to resign from his job because he thinks that he is not competent to be a salesman. Unfortunately, he is too old to get another job. Among the salesmen, he is the biggest loser. He is flustrated by his own inability to close sales recently. The reason of his failure is because, as a salesman, he is too honest and also he cannot communicate and associate easily with anyone else. He is also easily overpowered by faster talkers, like Moss. He feels hopeless and helpless. He is very worried that in the next month he will be fired. As an honest man, he thinks that his job is not suitable for him, because as a salesman he must be dishonest in order to make sales. He must say that a lead is good, although in fact it is not. MOSS. I know it's not. I'll tell you, you got, you know, you got . . what did I learn as a kid on Western? Don't sell a guy one car? Sell him/ve cars over fifteen years. AARONOW. That's right. MOSS.Eh...? AARONOW. That's right.

(43) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 33 MOSS. Goddam right, that's right. Guys come on: "Oh, the blah blah blah. / know what I'll do. I'11 go in and rob everyone blind and go to Argentina cause nobody ever thought of this before." AARONOW. . .That right. . . MOSS. Eh? AARONOW. No. That's absolutely right. MOSS. And they kill the goose . . .and, and a fuckin' man, worked all his life has got to . . AARONOW. That's right ... (2001: l2s7-1258) He is a good listener and often agrees with what people say to him. He is in fact stupid because actually he does know what someone says but still he shows agreement. When he is aware that what one says is wrong, he puts himself in a dangerous situation. As a salesman, he lacks good speaking skills to convince the customer that the leads he sells are good. AARONOW. (pause) When I talk to the police, I get nervous. (2001:1263) He is easy to fall into panic. It is because of the failure to be a salesman that makes him lack confidence and feel guilty although he has not done anything wrong. He is not a sociable man because of that he has difficulty to make a conversation with a stranger. Aaronow is one of the victims of the sales contest because of his lack of selling ability. He loses the desire when he faces the reality that he will be fired. He feels so sad and cannot believe that suffering comes to him. He falls into his great sadness. He is also the weakest among the other salesmen, and he is not strong enough to face any failure. 4. Dave Moss, a Salesman Like the characters previously mentioned, Dave Moss is also a salesman. In the play not much is explicitly said about him, except that he has an idol, a

(44) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 34 former salesman in his office. His idol is Jemy Grafl who has chosen to resign from his salesmanship job for the company and decided to start his own business. Now Graff competes with his ex-bosses, Mitch and Murray. Moss suggests that that Graffs business is more human than Mitch and Murray'so as shown in the following quotation. MOSS. Look at Jerry Graft. He's clean, he's doing business for himself, he's got his, that list of his with the nurses....see? You see? That,s thinking. Why take ten percent. A ten percent comm.....why are we giving ninety per....for nothing. For some jerk sit in the office tell you "Get out there and close," Graff. He goes out and buys. He pays top dollar for the....you see? (2001:1258) Wanting to imitate Graft's success, he once mentions to Aaronow that he wants to resign and start his own business. MOSS. to get out on the board. Yeah. How you goan'a get on the board sell'n a Polack? And I'll tell you v,rhat else. You listening? I'll tell you what else don't ever try to sell an Indian. (2001:1257) MOSS. Goddamn right. That's right. Guys come on: "Oh, the blah blah blah. I know what I'll do: I'll go in and rob everyone blind and go to Argentina cause nobody ever thought of this before." (2001:1258) Still on the negative side, Moss is a greedy man. He feels superior to Aaronow and Levene. However, he admits that he is one level below Roma's verbal ability. He cannot control his anger when he feels under prossure. Worse still, he is a racist; he hates Indians very much because of his experience in negotiating with an Indian, which has wasted his time. By his colleagues, he is called a big-mouthed person because he always has a big scheme but seldom realizes it. In the dialogue Moss tries to convince Aaronow to rob the office, but

(45) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 35 actually does not dare to do that because of his being a big mouth. He will be a victim ifthe plan is implemented. MOSS. The whole fuckin' thing. . . The pressure's just too great. You're ab . . . you're absolu . . . they're to important. All of them. You go in the door. I . . ." I got to close the fucker, or I don't eat lunch, 'o or I don't win the Cadillac. . . .oo W'e fuckin' work too hard. You work too hard. We all, I remember when we were at Platt . . .huh' Glen Ross Farms . . -didn't we sell abunch ofthat. . . (2001:1257) He is a complaining man who does not like challenges. He always complains about the hardness of his life. He does not like the contest because makes his life more difficult, and he is angry with his bosses because it of their treatment to him. He thinks that his job is too hard. He feels hopeless under that pressure. MOSS. Goddam right, that's right. Guys come on: "Oho the blah blah blah. l know what I'll do. I'll go in and rob everyone blind and go to Argentina cause nobody ever thought of this before." (2001:1258) Moss is a clever man and has many brilliant ideas but he never realizes them. He just shares his ideas to his friends. He wastes more time on thinking than doing. The only way to make his ideas real is by stirring up his friends to carry them out. Another positive characteristic is that he is able to live a hard life and always tries to find out a way to get out of the difficulties. 5. Mitch and Murray, the Bosses Rom4 Lavene, Aaronow, and Moss are salesmen who work for Mitch and Murray's real estate company. Though mentioned in the play, Mitch and Murray never appear on the stage as characters in the play. What we know from the play characters' dialogue is that they hold a "sales contest" and promise that the best

(46) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI salesman 36 of the month will win a Cadillac and the worst two will be fired. Therefore, we can say that they are mentioned in the play only as the background ofthe story. LEVENE. Fuck him. Fuck Murray, John? You know? You tell him I said so. What does he fucking know? He's going to have a'osales" contest ... you know what our sales contest used to be? Money. A fortune. Money lying on the ground, Munay? When was the last time he went out on a sit? Sales contest? It's laughable. It's cold out there now, John. It's tight. Money is tight. This ain't sixty-five. It ain't, it just ain't. See? See? Now, I'm a good man-but I need a ... (2001: 1255) ROMA. Cause I don't have to eatthis month. No Okay. Give 'em to me . . . (to himselfl Fuckng Mitch and Murray going to shit a br . . . what I am going to do all . . . (Williamson starts back into the ffice. He is accosted by Aaronow.) (2001:1262\ Murray and Mitch are stingy. They do not pay their salesmen on a regular basis, and the salesmen only get the commission whey they are successful in selling leads. In the dialogue above, it is written "I don't have to eat this month." This means that the salesmen must sell at least one lead to get the commission that is their sole income from the company. If they fail they will fail to feed their family because they have no regular monthly earning. Most of the salesmen who work at that office, consider their bosses as evils that must to be punished. Sadly, they cannot be touched by their salesmen. Their power is absolute. WILLIAMSON. If you tell me where the leads are. I don't turn you in. If you don't, I ain't going to tell the cop you stole there. Mitch and Munay will see that you go to jail. Believe me they will. Now, what did you do with the leads? I'm walking in that door-you have five seconds to tellme. Or you are going to jail. (2001: 1270)

(47) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI )t They have absolute power in their own company though they do not want their brutality to throw out the old salesmen to obviously appear. Therefore, they have the contest. They have their right hand named James Williamson to control the salesmen of their company. Therefore, they do not need to directly command their salesmen. They just give an order to Williamson to do what they want. In this way, their reputation is still clean because Williamson will be a scapegoat for them. 6. John Williamson, the Manager He is the office manager of the real estate company. As a manager, he is very arrogant. He treats the salesmen not as humans but just the assets to earn money. This is shown in his reaction to Levene, who begs him to consider his sick daughter. Mitch and Murray have given him enough power to do his job in that company. LEVENE. I'm asking you. As a favor to me? (Pause\ Joln (long pause) John: my daughter..... WILLIAMSON. I can't do it, Shelley. (2001: 1256) His job is secure because his job is only to implement orders he receives from his superiors. He is salaried by his bosses, so he does not feel wonied about money. He does not care for his salesmen. He just follows orders from the bosses. The salesmen dislike him because he is a company man who works only at the office. Therefore, he does not know the real condition of being a salesman. The salesmen also think that he does not really understand the business. Such is shown in the following quotation.

(48) 38 PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI WILLIAMSON. I called them when we had the lead....four months ago. (Pause) the people are insane. They just like talking to salesmen. (Williamson starts for door.) LEVENE. Don't. WILLIAMSON.I'm soffy. LEYENE. Why? WILLIAMSON. Because I don't ike you. (2001: l27I) As a manager, he is unfair in treating his salesmen. He evaluates his salesmen subjectively. When he thinks that a salesman does not bring any benefit to him, he will throw him out by giving him a bad lead that is impossible to sell. He will give the good leads only to the salesman that he likes. ROMA. Oh, fuck. Fuck. (I1e starts kicking the desk) FUCK. FUCK FUCK!. WILIAMSON!!! WILLIAMSON!!! (Goes to the daor Williamson went onto, tries to door; it's locked.) OPEN TIIE FUCKING....WLLIAMSON .... (2001: r 261) WILLIAMSON. I'm giving youthree leads. You.... ROMA. What the fucking point in any case-*? What's the point. I got to argue with you. I got to knock heads with the eops. I'm busting my balls, sell your dirtto fucking deadbeats money inthe mattress. I come back you can't even manage to keep the contracts safeo I have o go back and close them again..What the fuck am I wasting my time, fuck this shit. I'm going out and reclose last week's... (2001: 1263) The salesmen underestimate his ability as a manager because he only works in the offrce and has no experience in working in the real field. Although the position is higher than the salesmen's, the salesmen disrespect him and consider him as the robot experiences to sell. Because with customers. He meets of Mitch and Murray. As a salesman, he lacks of his position as a manager, he seldom negotiates a customero just when he gets some complaints. ROMA. OtU fuck. Fuck. (I/e starts kicking the desk.) FUCK FUCK FUCK! WILLIAMSOM!!! WILLIAMSON!!! (p;oes to the door

(49) 39 PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ljiitri3Jr#i,{j!:tries the door: il,s tocked.)opEN um FucKrNG. ea\: e61) Arthough w'riamson always gives Roma good reads to sell but Roma does not respect him because Roma feels to be the savior of that office. He thinks that the office will go bankrupt if he is not here. wilriamson arso treats him just like a money machine that must set the reads all the time. WILLIAMSON. Munay said. .. LEVENE. John. John. ,H"*"t#fo|il;X|]you ptease wait a second. sheuey. ptease. Murray LEVENE. . . .ah,fuckthis. . . (2001: l25s) When he is under pressure, he always uses his boss, Murrayo ?s o scapegoat to save his position' And to show that a decision is absorute and change, he claims that it is Munay,s order. WILLIANISpT f can,t do it, Shelley. (ltause) LEVENE. Why? WILLIAMSON. The leads are assigned randomly. . w'r not . Q00r:1256) He says that the reads are assigned randomly but actua'y he has a conspiracy with his bosses to throw away the order salesmen by giving them bad leads that are difficult to se'. Fortunatery, his acting is very good and the salesmen seldom know his hick. WILLIAMSON. I talked to Murray coming in, you understand they;re' and Mitch an hour ago. They,re riit ,r"it#r'*o''ing,s .. ^alit . (2001:1265) williamson always pumps out his saresmen,s motivation by mentioning Mitch and Murray's reaction ofwhat the saresmen do. w'riamson says that Mitch

(50) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI and Murray feel happy 40 if the salesmen do well. And he says that Mitch and Murray feel sad if the salesmen do badly. Such is used to make the salesmen do their best and make no more failure. And he says that he actually also expresses his feeling. However, he thinks that the salesmen do not disrespect him, so he uses Mirch and Murray's expression to express his feeling. WILLIAMSON. Where have you been, Shelly? Bruce and Harriet Nyborg. Do you want to see the memos....? They're nuts . . . they used to call in every week. When I was with Webb. And we were selling Arizona . . . they're nuts . . .did you see how they were living? How can you delude yours . . , LEVENE. I've got the check . . . WILLIAMSON. Forget it. Frame it. It'd worthless. Qtause) LEVENE. The check's no good? WILLIAMSON. You stick around I'11 pull the memo for you. (starts for the door) I'm busy now . . . LEVENE. Their check's no good? They're nuts . . .? WILLIAMSON. Call up the bank.lcalled them. LEVENE. You did? WILLIAMSON. I called them when we had the lead . . . four months ago. (ltause) the people are insane. The just like talking to salesman. ( Williamson starts for door.) LEVEIIE. Don't. WILLIAMSON.I'm sorry. LEVEltlE. I/fty? WILLIAMSON. Because I don't like you. LEVENE. John: John: . .. my daughter . . . WILLIAMSON. Fuck yau. (Roma comes out of the Detective's door. Williamson goes in.) (2001: t270-1271) Williamson knows that the leads are useless and does not worth any money. Still, Williamson does not throw them away. He uses those leads to trap Levene to be fired. Williamson does not like Levene because of his big mouth. He plans to put Levene out from his company by giving him useless leads that cannot make money. Williamson does not care about him. Although he knows that Levene has a sick daughter but he still does not show his sympathy or mercy. He

(51) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 41 just thinks of himself to make Mitch and Murray happy because he has thrown away an unproductive salesman. Williamson does not care about him because he only cares about and thinks how to make his office survive. He gives him useless leads because he wants Levene to lose in a sales contest. He cannot fire Levene without any strong reason. It can make his offrce have a bad reputation and waste money because he must give Levene some money as supporting money. Therefore, he and his bosses, Mitch and Murray, hold a brutal contest. They do not need to give salesmen who lose on that contest any money when they fire them. The salesmen will be fired because of their failure to make higher earnings. B. The Conflicts among the Main Characters 1. Salesmen versus the Bosses Robert Stanton mentions that a central conflict fundamental and contrasting qualities or forces, and of a story, the generating center out is always between it is the core of the structure of which the plot grows (1965: 16). According to Baldick (1991: 107-8), a conflict also implies the existence of some motivation for the conflict or some goal to be achieved thereby. Perrine said that a $97 : a4) conflict is a clash of actions, ideas, desires, or wills. The main character may be pitted against some other person or group of person (man against man). The conflicts may be physical, mental, emotional or moral. The conflict between the salesmen and their bosses is observed in the following quotation. MOSS. That's what I'm saying. Why? The leads. He's got the good leads... what we are we, we're sitting in the sit here. Why? We have to go to them to get them. Huh. Ninety percent our sale, we're paying to the ffice for the leads.

(52) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 42 (2001:1258) The reason of the conflict between the main characters and the bosses is the income which is based only on the commission. The salesmen feel that the salary system is very unfair because they only get below ten percent per lead that they sell. As a result, the salesmen do not know what their income will be fiom month to month. The salesmen do not dare to complain directly to their bosses, Mitch and Murray. They just share this complaint with other salesmen at the company and sometimes with the company middle-man, John Williamson. Moss feels angry because as a salesman who works for the company he must get a fixed salary, but, instead, he must give his office ninety percent of his sale income. MOSS. Look look look look, when they build your business, then you can't fucking turn around, enslave them, treat them like children, fuck them up the ass, leave them to fend for themselves . no (pause) No (pause) You're absolutely right, and I want to tell you something. AARONOW. What? MOSS. I want to tell you what somebody should do. AARONOW. What? MOSS. Someone should stand up and strike 6acfr. AARONOW. What do you mean? MOSS. Somebody... AARONOW. Yes. . .? MOSS. Should do somethingto them. AARONOW. What? MOSS. Something. To pay back. (pausef Someone, someone should hurt them. Murray and Mitch. (2001:1258) The salesmen do not like their bosses' treatment. They feel that they are treated like slaves and they plan to revenge by stealing leads and sell them to Jerry Graft, a former salesman of the company, who now has his business of his own. The conflict between salesmen and his bosses (man against institution) is

(53) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 43 emotional only because no physical contact takes place. The cause of the conflict is the different opinion, hatred and distrust between the salesmen and the bosses The unfair sales contest triggers a horrible conflict in the company. The salesmen are under pressure because two of the four salesmen will get fired if they end in the third or fourth in the sales contest board. Which is worse is that the contest is arranged unfairly because some salesmen get good and some others get bad leads. The older salesmen always get bad ones because it is the trick of Mitch and Murray to fire them with a reason and replace them with young fresh salesmen. This conflict is about individuality and pressure to conform because they must do that contest although their minds are not willing. The quotation presented before shows the plan to counter-attack Mitch and Murray. Moss invites Aaronow to join his plan to steal the premium leads and sell them to Jerry Graft. Moss says somebody must pay back. It can be Aaronow because Moss is not too brave to do the action. The risk is too big because of the intimate relationship with Jerry Graft. The case will be easily revealed when Moss steals from the company. He provokes Aaronow to steal the leads because of the condition of Aaronow himself. Aaronow feels hopeless and helpless. And because of his position in the lowest position of a sales contest board, he has a strong motive to steal the premium leads. Moss tries to push Aaronow to pay back Mitch and Murray because Mitch and Murray have created this problem. sales contest, there will If there is no a be no plan to steal the premium leads. LEVENE. The premium leads. Yes. I know what they cost. John. Because I, 1 generated the dollar revenue suffrcient to buy them. Nineteen sennynine, yov know what I made? Senny-nine?.Ninety-six thusand dollars. John? For Murray. . .For Mitch. . . look at the sheets . . .(2001, 1255)

(54) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI Levene thinks that everything he does is to make happy. Mitch 44 and Murray All his life, he is just a servant for them. He is disappointed with them because he thinks that his service does not get any praise from his bosses. He feels that his problem does not end because of Mitch and Murray's performance. ln the quotation below, Levene tells his manager that all of the problems that have happened to the company have been caused by Mitch and Murray. As the owners of the company, they do not care about their salesmen's condition. Thus, the bosses and the salesmen have different and conflicting motivation in what they do. The salesmen assume that their bosses when take care of them if they work well, but the bosses do not think that way. They just think about money and how to gather the money more and more, but they do not care for their salesmen. Instead, they will fire a salesman when the salesman cannot meet the target. That has made all salesmen in a desperate situation. They must compete with the others to meet the target. There is no time to rest because all they life they must sell their leads to make them still survive. LEVENE. It's not right. I'm sorry who's to blame is Mitch and Murray. (Roma sees something outside the window). (2001:1266) Levene thinks that the bad things that have happened in this company are Mitch and Murray's failure. They do not know the real situation to be salesmen. when they sell bad leads that are very difficult to hnd customers. Levene considers that Mitch and Murray do not know the situation that is happening. They just give the salesmen order to please themselves without looking at the reality.

(55) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 45 2. The Salesmen versus the Manager In order to analyze the conflict between the salesmen and the manager, let us observe the following quotation. WILLIAMSON. (s/icking his head out of the door). Where are you going? ROMA. To the restaurant. . .what do you fucking. . .? WILLIAMSON. Aren't you going out today? ROMA. With what? (pause) With,what, John, they took the leads. . (2001:1262) The reason for the conflict is because Williamson is not capable for being a manager. He just commands the salesmen to sell the leads and to be successful in whatever situation. In the above dialogue, he commands Roma to sell the leads although the leads are not marketable. Still, Ricky Roma accepts it because he eats by selling leads. The conflict between the manager and salesmen is a conflict between man and man. The conflict is moral and emotional, which means that the salesmen are raging by insulting their manager but there is no physical conflict. It is a conflict between an individual and a larger force, and this conflict happens because of di{Ierent of opinion, perspectives, judgment and opposing arguments. LEVENE. Lately kiss my ass lately. That isn't how you build an org. . . talk, talk to Murray: Talk to Mitch. When we were on Peterson. Who paid for his fucking car? Tou talk to him. The Seville.. .? He came in, "You bought that for me Shelley.'o Out of what? Cold catling. Nothing. Sixtyfive, when \rye were there, with Glen Ross Farms? You call'em downtown. What was that? Lucl{'lThat was "lucKo? Bullshit, John. You're buming my ass, I can't get a fucking lead. . .you think that was luck. My stats for those years? Bullshit. . . over that period of time. . .? Bullshit it wasn't luck. It was skill. You want to throw that away, John. . .? You want to throw that away? (2001: 1255)

(56) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 46 Levene feels that his work to please Mitch and Murray does not mean anything for Williamson. Levene thinks that Williamson must appreciate his work that can make Mitch and Murray happy. But unfortunatelg Williamson does not care of his service; instead, he gives Levene bad leads that are very difficult to sell. Levene wants to make Williamson remember if he has made Mitch and Murray happy by talking about his reputation at the past. But it does not work because Levene still does not get anything. LEVENE. I'11 tell you why I'm out. Iom out, you're giving me toilet paper. John, I've seen those leads. I saw them when I was at Homestead, we pitched those cocksuckers Rio Rancho nineteen sixty-nine they wouldn't buy. They couldn't buy a fucking toaster. They're broke.Iohn. They're cold. They're deadbeats. You can't judge on that. Even so. Even so. Alright. Fine. Fine. Even so I go in, FOUR FUCKING LEADS they got their money in a sock. They're fucking Polaclcs, John. Four Leads. I close two. Two. Fifty per . . . (2001:1256) Levene is angry with him because he fesls that he only receives bad leads from him. He says that he has done more service to his bosses than his manager who only sits in his office while he has to find customers in the street. He is disappointed with his manager's treatment because he feels that his manager forgets what he has done to make his office earn profit but now he just get bad leads that are called toiled paper (2001: 1255) The conflict is an emotional one because Levene shows his anger by insulting Williamson and originates from their mutual hatred. LEVENE. And. And. And, I did it. And I put a kid through school. My daughter. . . she . . .and . . .Cold calling. Fella. Door to door. But you don't know. You don't know. You never heard of a streak You never heard of "marshaling your sales force. .'o What are you, you're a secretary. John. Fuck you. That's my message to you. Fuck you and kiss my ass. You don't like it., I'll go to Jerry Graff Period. Fuck you. Put me

(57) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 47 on the board. And I want three worthwhile leads today and I don't want any bullshit about them. And I want 'em close together "cause I'm going to hit them all today. That's all I have to say to you. (2001:1266) Levene feels disappointed with his manager's performance. He feels that Williamson does not know his suffering as a father with his sick daughter and as a salesman who must find his customers door to door. But now the trouble has no end but even grows bigger when the sales contest starts, especially when he never gets good leads that are easy to sell. He is very angry with Williamson and wants him to know his suffering. Levene just sees him like a secretary who only sits in the offrce without understanding the real work of a salesman. ROMA. (to Wtlltamson) you're stupid fucking eunt. You, Williamson . . . I'm talking to you, shithead . . .You just cost me srx thousand dollars. Qtause) Six thousand dollars. And one Cadillac. That's right. What are you going to do about it. What are you going to do about it, asshole. You fucking sftff. Where did you leam your trade? You stupid fucking cunt. You idiot. Whoevertold you could work withmen. (2001:1269) Roma feels angry with Williamson when he disturbs his negotiation with a customer. Because of his words, James Lingk, his customer does not trust him anymore and calls his lawyer for help. Roma feels angry because he surely knows that he can solve his problem since James Lingk is still under conkol and he just needs little time to make Lingk trust him again. He gets angry with Williamson because he fails to get six thousand dollars and one Cadillac for his negotiation. He thinks that Williamson must pay for his failure. And he is disappointed with Williamson's performance because as a manager his performance is so bad and like that ofan uneducated person.

(58) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 48 The conflict can be seen when Roma is angry with Williamson (man against man). It is because Williamson fails in his negotiation, which means that the conflict is a clash of actions, ideas, desires, or wills. He shows his anger by expressing his hatred and by insulting his opponent with dirty words. AARONOW. I meet gestapo tactics . . . I meet gestapo tactics . . . That's not right . . .No man has the right to . . ."Call an afforney," that means you're guilt. . . you'fe under . . .sus . . . "Co . . ." he says, "cooperate" or we'll go downtown. That's not. . . as long as I've . . . WILLIAMSON. @zrrsting out of his ffice) Will you get out of here. Will you get out af here. Will you. I'm trying to turn and ffice herc. Will you go to lunch? Go to lunch. Will you go to lunch? (retreats into ffice) (2001: 1268) Aaronow feels that as manager. He goes to the office a salesman he does not get respect from his to work. But when he arrives at his office, his manager chases him away to get lunch. He feels that it is a tactic to make him thrown out of his office. He cannot control his anger after the police call him to an interrogation room. He is afraid that he will be a suspect of the crime because although he does not do the mime but he knows the plan to steal the premium leads. WILLIAMSON. Why I don't. . . LEVENE. You listen to me, someday you might say, "Hey . . ." NO fuck that. You just listen what I'm going to say: your your "partner" depends on you . . . you have to go with him and for him. . . or you're shit, you're shit, you can't exist alone . . . WILLIAMSON. (brushing, pas him) Excuse me . . . (2001: 1269) Levene is disappointed with Wiliamson because as a manager he does not care for his men. He only thinks of himself. Levene says that Williamson must take care of his subordinates. Levene says that Williamson cannot work alone because team work is needed to make all survive. Levene feels angry after

(59) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 49 Williamson makes Roma lose his customer. Levene feels disgusted with Williamson' s performance. 3. The Salesmen versus The Salesmen To see the conflicts among the salesmen, let us observe what Moss sais in the following quotation. MOSS. That's the God's truth. And it gets me desperate.I swear that it does. At MY AGE. To see a goddamn: "somebody wins the Cadillac this month. P.S. two guys get fucked." (2001:12s8) As seen in the quotation, there is no good relationship anymore among the salesmen since they become enemies to one another. They do not feel that they are friends but enemies that must be defeated to make them maintain their profession and win the prizes. In the quotation above, Levene is very angry and jealous because he sees another salesmano Ricky Roma, wins the Cadillac. However, he feels sad when he sees the other salesmen, Levene and Williamson, get fired. The conflict happens because of different of opinion, perspectives, judgment and opposing arguments. It is between man against man and the conflict is physical, moral and emotional in nature. MOSS. Fuck you, Ricky. I ain't going out today. I'm going home. I'm going home because nothing's accomplished herc. . Anyone tallcs ta this guy is . . .(2001: 1263) MOSS. "Fuck the Machne"?"Fuck the Machine:? What is this Courtesy class . . . ? You'pe rttcked, Rick-are you fucking nuts? You're hot, so you think you're the ruler of this place . ' .?! You want to . . . (2001: 1264) Moss feels very angry with Roma when he sees his position on the sales contest board go down to the third position below Levene's after Levene sells his leads. Moss feels frustrated and says that he wants to go home because there is

(60) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 50 nothing to do in the office. He feels that his carrier in that office is going to end. He feels jealous with Levene when Roma praises his performance. He feels that Roma underestimates his performance because Roma says that he must learn much from Levene. He feels angry and challenges Roma for a fight. C. The Contribution of the Characters' Characteristics to the Conflicts In this part, the write tries to analyze the conflicts in the drama that are related to the characters' characteristics. The writer has presented the conflicts revealed in the drama. Most of the characters in Glengarry Glenn ltoss analyzed in this study are involved in the conflicts in one way or another. 1. The Salesmen' Characteristics versus the Manager's a. Levene's Characteristics versus Williamsonos LEVENE. Marshall the leads . . .marshall the leads? What the fuck, what bus did you get off oe we're here to fucking sel/. Fuck the marshalling leads. What the fuck talk is that? What the fuck talk is that? Where did you learn that? ln school? Qtause) That's *talko" my friend, that's "talko" Our job is to sell. I'm the man to sell. I'm getting garbage. Qtause) You're giving it to me, and what I'm saying isit'sfucked. WILLIAMSON. You're saying that I'm fucked. (2001: 12ss) The first is the conflict between Shelley Levene and John Williamson. Shelley Levene is one of the employees who uses a criminal way to get money. It is because he faces difficulty to treat his sick daughter. He is a responsible father so he will do everything to save his daughter's life although he does a criminal way. Actually, he is an optimistic man but in his office he has an unfair manager, John Williamson, who cares about nothing but his condition. Both Levene and Williamson are very arrogant. Levene is arrogant because of his good record in his past, his seniority and his close relationship with Murray. On the other side,

(61) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI Williamson is arrogant because of his higher position in the 51 company, his superiority and his secure job. Both of them also underestimate each other because of their respective rveakness. Levene underestimates Williamson for his lacks of ability, and Williamson underestimates him for his failure at the present time and because reason. of the bosses' instruction to gives him bad leads for some personal In short, their arrogance and their mutual disrespect have led them to a lengthy conflict throughout the play. Due to his arrogance and disrespect, Levene demands Williamson for premium leads in disrespectful ways, and is responded arrogantly and disrespectfully by Williamson. b. Roma's Characteristies versus Williamsonts ROMA. (to Wtlliamson). You stupid fucking cnnt. You, Williamson . . . I'm talking to you, shthead . . .You just cost me six thousand dollars. (pause) Six thousand dollars. And one Cadillac. That's right. What are you going to do about it. What are you going to do about it, asshole. You fucking sftir. Where did you learn your nade? You stupid fucking cunt. you idiot. Whoever told you you could workwith men? (2001: 1269) The second conflict is between Ricky Roma and John Williamson. Actually, Ricky Roma does not like him because of his lack of ability to be a good manager, but because Roma is a hypocrite he can cover Howevero Roma blames it by his good acting. him when Williamson does something wrong. Surprisingly, Williamson accepts the blame because he thinks that Roma is the money machine of his company. Roma is the youngest salesman; and this has made his position secure. Williamson has the authority to control his office and once he makes Roma anry because he has disturbed his negotiation with his

(62) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 52 customer, who finally cancels to buy his leads. Instead, this customer sends his lawyer to settle his case in court. Roma becomes angrier when Williamson wants him to sell useless leads. He feels that it is only a waste of time. However, finally Roma follows his order because he needs money to eat after his customer cancels the leads. Thus, the conflict between the two is because of Roma's confidence in his ability and Williamson's fondness of his authority in his office. Both of them do not want to appreciate each other. Roma believes that he is a good and competent young salesmano while Williamson is arrogant due to his authority in the offrce (as described in the answer of problem 1). c. Aaronowts Characteristics versus Williamson's AARONOW. (simoultaneous with Levene's speech above) . . .Come in here . . . I workhere. I don't come in hereto be mistreated . . . WTLLIAMSON. Go to lunch, will you . . .. AARONOW. I want to work today, that's why I came . . . WILLIAMSON. The leads come in,I'll let. . . AARONOW. . .That's why I came in.I thought L . . WILLIAMSON. Just go to lunch. AARONOW. I don't wantto go to lunch. WILLIAMSON. Go to lunch, George. (2001:1268) The third conflict is between George Aaronow and John Williamson, Williamson feels angry with him because Aaronow easily gets panicky. Williamson, being an unfair manager, does not consider him to needed in his office, so he orders Aaronow to quit from his office. Aaronow's panic creates more confusion in his office after the robbery case. On the other side, George Aaronow feels that Williamson always respects other salesmen but does not respect him. This situation makes him lose his sense of self-confidence and feel

(63) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 53 frushated. Therefore, he feels that he must fight against his manager's arrogance by refusing his manager's order. However, Williamson still kicks him out of his offrce because he is a useless salesman, who will not give his company any benefit. Thus, the conflict here develops because of Williamson's arrogance and Aaronow's proneness to panic, lack of confidence and frustration (as described in the answer of problem 1). 2. The Salesments Characteristics versus the Bossesn a. Mossos Characteristics versus Mitch and Munay's MOSS. Something. To pay back. Qtause) Someone, someone should hurt them. Mitch and Murray. (2001:12s8) MOSS. Someone should rob the office. (2001:1269) The above quotation shows the conflict between Dave Moss versus Mitch and Murray. Dave Moss is a man who always complains the hardship of his life to his friends. He does not like Mitch and Murray's treatment to him. However, Moss is afraid to face his bosses who are stingy and greedy because he knows that he will lose his job if he tries to protest. As a result, he provokes two other salesmen, Levene and Aaronow to take revenge by robbing their own office. He also compares his bosses with Jerry Graft, a former salesman at the same office who has chosen to quit and built his own business. Mitch and Munay have absolute power in their office. As a result, their salesmen do not dare to face them and protest what they do to their salesmen. To revenge of his bosses' cruel action, Moss, who is called big-mouthed, provokes the other salesmeno Levene and

(64) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 54 Aaronowto stealthe premium leads. Thus, the conflict is because of the bosses' greed and stinginess and Moss's fear and anger with them. b. Roma's Characteristics versus Mitch and Murrayns ROMA. (to Baylen). Asshole . . .(to Levene) Guy couldn't find his fuckin' couch the living room . . .Ah, Christ . . . what a day, what a day . . .i haven't even had a cup of coffee. , . . JagoffJohn open hiss mouth his blow my Cadillac . . . .(slgfts) I swear . . . it's not a world ofmen . . .it's not a world of men, Machine . .it's a world of clock watcherso bureaucrats, office holders . . what it is, it's a fucked-up world . . .ther's no advebture to it. Q0Ar: Q7r) The above quotation reflects the conflict between Ricky Roma versus Mitch and Murray. Roma knows that Mitch and Murray only exploit his talents to earn money for his company. He knows it but he is only verbally abusive when he feels uncomfortable with Mitch and Murray's treatment. Although he seems strongo actually he is not enough strong to bear the treatment any longer. He thinks that the place that Mitch and Murray have created is not for humans but for machines. He expresses his complaints to Levene, his senior. His speaking ability succeeds in convincing him. In his daily appearance, he is like a man who has no serious problem. It is because of his good acting skill that he looks so. Thus, the conflict here is because the bosses are greedy while Roma" a confident salesman who feels to be young, potential and successful, hates being exploited. c. Leveneos Characteristics versus Mitch and Murray's LEVENE. Lately kiss my ass lately. That isn't how you build an org . . . talk, talk to Murray. Talk to Mitch. When we were on Peterson, who paid for his fucking car? (2001: 1254).

(65) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 55 The above shows the conflict between Shelley Levene versus Mitch and Murray. Levene, who is a responsible father, feels that Mitch and Murray do not care about his problem and do not consider about his past when he was the hero in his office. Mitch and Munay who are stingy do not care about him. This created an internal conflict that will has be blown up sooner or later. As a result, he shifts his hatred of Mitch and Murray to John Williamson, who also does not care about him. Mitch and Murray do not want him anymore because he is a useless old salesman. Levene is a salesman who will bring more financial damage to the company if he is not fired soon because Mitch and Murray do not have retirement plan for their employees. Thus, the conflict here happens because Mitch and Murray are stingy and greedy for financial benefits while Levene, growing old and having the responsibility to take care of his sick daughter, is frustrated with the leads he receives from the company to sell, despite his past success. Mitch and Murray knew that Leveneos golden era is over because he is getting old. Thus, the bosses do not want salesmen to reward him and force him to compete with the other in a sales contest. Levene, being sad and desperate, plans to revenge Mitch and Murray's treatment. d. Aaronow's Characteristics yelsus Mitch and Murray's AARONOW. (sending irrto a desk chai). Oh, God. I have this job. (2001: l27l) ln the above, George Aaronow shows his dissatisfaction with Mitch and Murray's treatment.'As a honest man, Aaronow feels that he is not suitable for his job because he must lie his customers. He feels that sooner or later he will be fired. This has made him not like Mitch and Murray. Aaronow has an internal

(66) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 56 conflict with his own morality. He actually does not want to deceive his customers but his bosses want him to do so. Therefore, he only keeps his problem to himself and some salesmen who want to listen to him. Mitch because he is not profitable for their company. and Murray do not like him Mitch and Murray have a plan to kick him out from their offrce with a sales contest. Thus, the conflict here is between Aaronowos sense of guilt and the bosses' orientation to company profit. 3. A Salesmants Characteristics vensus another Salesmants a. Moss's Characteristics versus Aaronow's AARONOW. What are you doing this to me, Dave. Why are you talking this way to me? I don't understand. Wht are you doing this at all . . .? MOSS. That's none of your fucking business . . . (2001: 1260) The first conflict among the salesmen is between Dave Moss and George Aaronow. Dave Moss, who is called a big-mouthed person, tries to involve Aaronow in his plan to steal the lead. However, as a honest man, Aaronow refuses it. As a result, both of them are angry with each others. Dave Moss also always complains about his diffrculty to get money. He implicitly orders Aaronow to steal the leads. Aaronow feels that it is a crime and he does not want to do this. Howevero Moss knows that Aaronow is a man who easily falls into panic, so he easily scares him by telling that Aaronow is still the part of that crime although he does not steal the leads because Aaronow knows the plan. It means that Aaronow is involved on the conspiracy to steal the leads. Aaronow feels more panicky after Moss scares him about the robbery case that he does not do. Thus, the conflict here is because Dave Moss is a greedy and tricky person, though he has brilliant and clever ideas, as described in the answer for the first problem, while Aaronow

(67) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 57 is prone to panic. Moss was angry with Aaronow because of his panic, while Aaronow was angry with Moss because he is accused to be responsible for the robbery that he did not do. b. Moss's Characteristics versus Romats MOSS. Shut the fuck up. @ause) Ricky. You have a mean streak in you . . .(to Levene) And what the fuck are you bubbling about . . .? (to Roma) Bring that shit up. Of my volume. You were on a bad one and I brought it up to you you'd harbor it. Qtause) You'd harbor it a long long while. And you'd be right. (2001: 1264) The second personal conflict is between Dave Moss and Ricky Roma. Moss, who is the oldest in this office, is very angry and jealous of Roma's wealth and also his ability in persuading his customers. Because of that, when Moss makes a successful sale, he will show his arrogance and boasts of his success to Roma. And when Roma pretends to praise him, as a senior he says that he will teach him how to be successful. Unfortunately, Moss becomes angry because he thinks that Roma underestimates his ability- Moss finally chooses to quit his office because he thinks that nobody in his office supports him. Thus, the conflict here is because Moss is a complaining person and is jealous of Roma's success, while Roma feels superior to other salesmen, as described in the answer for the first problem.

(68) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION After conducting the analysis for this study, in this part the answers for the problems in Chapter I are presented as the conclusions of this study. As for problem one, about the characteristics of the main characters it can be stated that Ricky Roma is a very confident salesman and is good at persuading his costumers. However, he is a hypocrite and dishonest person. Shelley Levene is the oldest salesman and is an optimistic man because in the past he was a successful salesman. He is a responsible father who cares for his sick daughter. He cannot forget his success in his past and always works hard. George Aaronow lacks self confidence, but he is a good listener and often agrees with what people say to him. He is the weakest among the salesmen because he is easy to fall into panic and not strong enough to face any failure. Dave Moss, who used to work for Mitch and Murray's is clever but greedy man and full of complaints. Though he has many genius ideas but he never realizes them. bosses. They have absolute power Mitch and Murray are stingy in their own company. John Williamson is a manager with a secure job and he only receives and carries out orders from his superiors. He is unfair in treating his salesman. As for the second problem, the conflicts among the main characters can be summarized as follows, the conflict between the salesmen and the company is because the income of the salesmen is based on commission which is only ten percent per lead that they sell. The manager is not capable for being a manager and he treats the salesmen unfairly, which causes disappointment. The manager 58

(69) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 59 also does not care for his salesmen. The reason of the conflicts among the salesmen themselves is the sales contest. They must be winners to get the prizes, and the losers will be fired. Each salesman feels jealous and angry with other salesmen. As for the last problem, the contribution of the characters' characteristics to the conflicts can be described as follows, for Shelly Levene and John Williamson, the manager, their arrogance and their mutual disrespect have led them to a lengthy conflict throughout the play. For Ricky Roma and John Williamson, the conflict between the two is because of Roma's confidence in his ability and Williamson's fondness of his authority in his office. For the conflict of Dave Moss versus Mitch and Murray, the bosses' greed and stinginess and Moss's fear anger with them have been a fuel. Between Ricky Roma and Mitch and Murray, the conflict has worsened because of the bosses' greed and Roma's dislike of being exploited. As for Shelley Levene versus Mitch and Murray, Mitch and Murray's greed for financial benefits and Levene's frustration has contributed to the level of the conflict. As for the conflict of George Aaronow versus Mitch and Murray, Aaronow's sense of guilt and the the bosses' orientation to company profit has also worsened the conflict. In addition to the conflict between each salesman and the company, conflicts among the salesmen have also increased because of each character's characteristics. For example, between Dave Moss and George Aaronow, Dave Moss's trickiness and Aaronowos proneness to panic have taken part in the conflict between the two, while for the conflict between Dave Moss and Ricky

(70) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI Roma, Moss' jealously 60 of Roma's success has been the main source of their mutual conflicts. As a general conclusion, this study has shown how the elements of the play have influenced each other and have been used by the playwright to develop an interesting story and to highlight his main ideas as presented in the play.

(71) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI BIBLIOGRAPI{Y Abrams, M.H.,4 Glossary of Literary Terms. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Win, 1981. Baldick, Chris. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms, New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. Barnet, Sylvan, Morton Berman and William Burton. An Introduction to Literature for Composition. London: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1988. Barnet, Sylvi4 William Burto, Lesley Ferris and Gerald Rabkin. Types of Drama Plays and Contexrs (Eighth Edition). New York: Longman, 2001. Barranger, Robert F. Understanding Plays. Boston, Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon, 1994. Farlene, James Henrik Ibsen. Penguin Critical Antologies. London: Hazel, Watson & Viney Ltd.,1970. Guerin, Wilfred L. A Handbook of Critical Approach to Literafzre. New York: Harper and Raw, 1979. Hardy, Thomas. fhe Life of Death of the Major of Carterbridge. The Story of A Man of Character. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1969. Holman, C. Hugh and William Harmon. A Handbook to Literature. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1986. Homby, A.S. Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary af Cunent English. London: Oxford University Press, 2000. Hunt, Elgin.F. Social Science: An Introduction to the Study of Society. New York: The Macmillan, 1995. and Michael W Alssid. Thelhrld of ldeas: Essaysfor Study. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1964. Kenney, Wliam Longman Dictionary of Contemporary Enghsft. Edinburgh Gate. Harlow,Essex: Pearson Education Limited, 2001. Mamet, David. 'Glengarry Glenn Ross'.1984. In Barnet, Sylvia, William Burtoo Lesley Ferris and Gerald Rabkin. Types of Drama Plays and Contexts (Eighth Edition). New York: Longman 2001, pp. 125I-1275. 6t

(72) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 62 Marriot, J.W. Short Story of To-day. London: George G. Hanap & Co. Ltd., 1951. Perrine, Laurence. Literature: Structure, Sound, and Sense. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, lnc., L974. V. and Henry F. Jacob. Fiction: An Introductian to Reading and Writing. New York Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1 987. Roberts, Edgar Rohrberger, Mary and Samuel H. Woods. Reading and Writing about Literature. New York: Random House, 1981. Stanton, Robert. An Introduction to Fiction. New York: Rine, Holt and Winston, Inc., 1965. Trimmer, M. Joseph. Writing with a Purpose. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1992. Webster's New Universal Unabridged Dictionary. New Publishers, Inc., 7972. York: William Collins Yelland, H.L., S. C. Jones, Easton Angus, and Robertson. A Handbook of Literary Terms. London: Prentice Hlall, 1972. ONLINE REFERENCES (Accessed on January zft 2009) (Accessed on December, 27th 2008)

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