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  THE INFLUENCES OF FAMILY AND ENVIRONMENT CHARACTERS ON MARGARET’S PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT IN ELIZABETH GASKELL’S NORTH AND SOUTH AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS

  Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters

  By

DIAN WIDYAWATI

  Student Number: 014214073

ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2009

  YOU MUST AND

YOU CAN!

  (Widi BP)

  

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all, I would like to give my greatest gratitude to Allah SWT.

  

Without His blessing, I will not be able to finish my undergraduate thesis writing.

I also give my best gratitude to my beloved Ibu and Bapak, my sister Mba Sari,

my brother Dik Soni and Bu Puni for all their greatest support and understanding.

  My great gratitude goes to my advisor Gabriel Fajar Sasmita Aji, S.S.,

M.Hum., for all his advices, ideas, and being so patient in reading and guiding

during the process of undergraduate thesis writing. I thank my co-advisor, Drs.

Hirmawan Wijanarka, M. Hum. for his carefulness in reading and checking my

mistakes. I also thank my academic advisor, Dewi Widyastuti, S.Pd., M. Hum.,

for her support and guidance during my study.

  I would like also give many thanks to my great friends Amanda, Wulan,

Prima, Methy, Sinda, Ian, Monda, Ayu, Sandi, Ferry, Imbik, Endra, Erna, Lina

Indriani, Vera, Dwike, Shinta, Lina ‘Solo’ and Bungky for all your greatest

support.

  I give my special thank to Mas Imam who always encourages and supports

me and for giving wonderful moments in my life. Last but not least, to them who I

cannot mentioned one by one, thank you for the spirit I can learn.

  Dian Widyawati

  TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE ................................................................................................... i

APPROVAL PAGE ......................................................................................... ii

ACCEPTANCE PAGE .................................................................................... iii

STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY ................................................ iv

MOTTO PAGE ............................................................................................... v

LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA

  

ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS ......................................... vi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................. vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................. viii

ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................... x

ABSTRAK ....................................................................................................... xi

  

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ................................................................... 1

A. Background of the Study ............................................................................. 1

B. Problem Formulation ................................................................................... 3

C. Objective of the Study ................................................................................. 3

D. Definition of Terms ..................................................................................... 4

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW .................................................. 6

A. Review of Related Studies .......................................................................... 6

B. Review of Related Theories ........................................................................ 7

  

1. Literary Theories ..................................................................................... 7

  

a. Theory of Character ............................................................................ 7

  

b. Theory of Characterization ................................................................. 9

  

2. Psychological Theories ............................................................................ 11

  

a. The Factors Influencing Children Personality Development .............. 11

  

b. Stages in Social Interaction ................................................................. 13

  

c. Child Development Sequence ............................................................. 15

  

C. Theoretical Framework ............................................................................... 16

  

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY .............................................................. 18

A. Object of the Study ...................................................................................... 18

B. Approach of the Study ................................................................................. 18

C. Method of the Study .................................................................................... 19

CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS ........................................................................... 21

A. The Characteristics of Margaret Hale ......................................................... 21

B. The Characterization of the Other Member of Margaret’s Family ............. 27

  

1. The Characteristics of Mr. Hale .......................................................... 27

  

2. The Characteristics of Mrs. Hale ........................................................ 29

  

C. The Characterization of Margaret’s Environment ...................................... 30

  

1. The Characteristics of John Thornton ................................................. 31

  

2. The Characteristics of Mrs. Thornton ................................................. 34

  

D. The Influences of Margaret’s Family .......................................................... 36

  

1. The Influence of Mr. Hale .................................................................... 36

  

2. The Influence of Mrs. Hale .................................................................. 38

  E. The Influence of Margaret’s Environment to the Development

of Her Personality ....................................................................................... 40

  1. The Influence of John Thornton ........................................................... 40

  2. The Influence of Mrs. Thornton ........................................................... 42

  F. Margaret Hale’s Personality Development under the Influence

of Her Family and Environment ................................................................. 43

  

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION ...................................................................... 48

BIBLIOGRAPHY .......................................................................................... 51

APPENDIX ..................................................................................................... 53

Summary ......................................................................................................... 53

  

ABSTRACT

DIAN WIDYAWATI. The Influences of Family and Environment Characters

on Margaret’s Personality Development in Elizabeth Gaskell’s North and

South. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata

Dharma University, 2009.

  

This thesis discusses Gaskell’s novel entitled North and South. This novel tells

about the life of Margaret Hale that is full of struggle. All the struggles in her life

is caused by the treatment from people in her surrounding. Through the main

character in the novel, Margaret Hale, the writer wants to study deeply the

influences of family and environment people on Margaret’s personality

development.

  There are three questions concerning the topic of the thesis. The first

question is about the characterization of Margaret Hale. The second question is

about the characterization of other member of the Hales and environment. The

third question asks Margaret’s personality development under the influence of her

family and environment.

  There were two kinds of sources used, namely, primary and secondary

sources. The novel North and South is used as the primary source, and some

relevant references such as psychological theories, literary theories and theory of

critical approach as the secondary approach. Those theories are used to analyze

the novel. The approach applied was psychological approach because it is the

most appropriate one to observe personality.

  From the analysis it is found that family and environment have

contribution in child’s personality development. Margaret’s different conditions

influence her in developing her personality. A warm family/environment causes

her to become a kind person, while her environment causes her to become a tough

person.

  

ABSTRAK

DIAN WIDYAWATI. The Influences of Family and Environment Characters

on Margaret’s Personality Development in Elizabeth Gaskell’s North and

South. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata

Dharma University, 2009.

  .

Skripsi ini membahas novel karya Gaskell yang berjudul North and South. Novel

ini menceritakan tentang kehidupan Margaret Hale yang penuh dengan

perjuangan. Semua perjuangan di dalam hidup Margaret disebabkan oleh

perlakuan dari orang-orang di sekitarnya. Melalui tokoh utama di dalam novel

yaitu Margaret, penulis ingin mempelajari lebih jauh mengenai pengaruh keluarga

dan lingkungan dalam pembentukan kepribadiannya.

Dalam skripsi ini terdapat tiga permasalahan.yang diutarakan. Permasalahan

pertama mengenai penggambaran tokoh Margaret. Permasalahan kedua

menanyakan mengenai keluarga dan lingkungan Margaret. Permasalahan ketiga

menanyakan bagaimana perkembangan kepribadian Margaret dibawah pengaruh

keluarga dan lingkungannya.

Dalam pencarian data, skripsi ini menerapkan penelitian pustaka. Ada dua macam

sumber yang digunakan yaitu primer dan sekunder. Novel North and South

merupakan sumber primer, dan beberapa teori yang terkait seperti teori psikologi,

teori literatur dan teori pendekatan sebagai sumber sekunder. Teori-teori tersebut

digunakan untuk menganalisa novel. Pendekatan yang digunakan yaitu

pendekatan psikologis karena pendekatan inilah yang paling tepat untuk

menganalisa kepribadian.

Berdasarkan analisa, penulis menyimpulkan bahwa keluarga dan lingkungan

mempunyai andil dalam perkembangan keribadian anak. Kondisi yang berbeda di

sekitar Margaret mempengaruhinya dalam perkembangan kepribadiannya.

Keluarga yang hangat membuat dia berkembang menjadi anak yang patuh, namun

lingkungan yang sebaliknya membuat anak menjadi lebih tangguh.

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter consists of four parts. Those are the background of the study,

  

problem formulation, objective of the study, and definitions of terms. First part,

the background of the study presents, presents the writer opinions about literature

and also explains the reason in using the novel. In problem formulation The writer

present three problems to discuss and the objective of the study is presented after

this. The last part is definition of terms which presents some words that are

needed to be clarified.

A. Background of the Study

  Reading a literary work will entertain ourselves because we can get many

enjoyable things from it. Through literature also we may be introduced of new life

which has new values. This, will enrich or knowledge and experience of life. We

cannot experience every moment that exist in this life, but we can get all those

things through literature.

  Little (1981: 1-2) says that literature is the chief art of mankind because it

can effectively express one’s idea to others. He also says that by reading a work of

literature we could add our understanding about life and about people’s thought.

From his statements we can conclude that literature contains many ideas and there

are many ways to express the ideas. The ideas or even values that we get from

literature can be applied in our real life.

  There are many types of literary works, such as short story, novel, poetry

and drama. Literary work that I would like to discuss here is novel. Van De Laar

(1957: 163) and Schoonderwoerd say “ A novel is a work of art in so far as it

introduces us into a living world we live in…”. A novel itself is an amazing

product of literature. When we read a novel and try to study it, the story arouses

our feelings and emotions since what exists in a novel is derived from our real

world. It may resemble the world we live in. In a novel we can also learn how to

face and solve a problem.

  The writer encouraged herself to analyze a novel entitled North and South

by Elizabeth Gaskell. Her literature works mostly concern to social issues. This

novel, North and South is the fourth novel from her works. The writer chose this

novel because it describes the differences of Margaret’s environments clearly.

  The writer is interested in analyzing this novel because it tells about a

young child who live in two different environments – spends her life mostly in a

Southern, and then moved to Northern. The family has to move to Northern

because the father lost in faith. Meanwhile, at new place, she finds friends and

love. These two different environments have contribution in shaping her

personality. Therefore, through the character of Margaret Hale, the writer want to

study deeply (in order to understand) the influence of family and environment to

Margaret Hale’s personality development.

  Interesting point from this novel that we can learn, that is, we can see the

psychological sides of human being. As a human being, one has his or her own

personality and it is influenced by the environment. This is the point that will be

  

discussed in this thesis. Moreover, this novel is worthwhile to discuss because it

talks about a child who lives in two different environments. These two

environments have different situations and they are the factors that influence the

child in forming the personality. We can say that one’s personality develops from

childhood and the experience in childhood will influence him or her when he or

she becomes an adult. The situations of her environments will also take part in

forming her personality. She cannot avoid this because she lives in those

environments. Besides, this novel gives two different environments in which both

of them influence the child’s personality. Moreover, the novel also gives us

something to learn from, that is, children education. No matter how formal or

informal it is, education is very important to their personality development.

B. Problem Formulation

  In this part, the writer formulates three problems to discuss. They are:

1. What is the characterization of Margaret Hale?

  2. What are the characterization of family members and environment characters?

  3. How do the family members and environment characters situations influence Margaret Hale’s personality development?

C. Objectives of the Study

  Based on the formulation, the objectives of this study are: 1. To find out Margaret characterization.

  2. To find out the Hales family and environment characters characterization.

  3. To find out the influence of family members and environment characters situations to Margaret Hale’s personality development.

D. Definitions of Terms

  In analyzing a novel we may find some words that need to be clarified in

order to help understand the content of the analysis. In this thesis those words are:

  1. Influence As Hornby says, influence is defined as the power to affect somebody’s action, character or beliefs, especially by providing an example for them to follow, winning their admiration or making them afraid to disagree (1995: 611).

  2. Personality Kalish (1973: 52) states “personality is its nature and development, the way it adjust to the world, is feelings, its values, its problem, and the ways in which it deals with these problems”. From this statement we can say that personality is one’s action toward his/her life that makes him/her different from other people.

  3. Family Beebe (1996: 376) states that family is a social group having specified role and statues (e.g. husband, mother, son, and daughter) with ties of blood, marriage or adoption, which usually share a common residence and cooperate economically.

4. Environment

  Based on Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary, environment is the social and cultural conditions around us that influence our life (986: 416).

  To be more specific, in this study, environment refers to the community or people outside the house.

5. Development

  As Justin Pikunas says, development is a kind of processes of growth, maturation, learning and achievement (1976: 23). Development cannot be achieved in one step, but it is a process happening in one’s life.

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW In this chapter, Review of Related Studies, Review of Related Theories,

  

and Theoretical Framework are presented. Review of Related Studies is presented

in order to give information on the work analyzed. Review of Related Theories is

presented in order to give the theories that are used in analysis. Theoretical

Framework provides the usage of the theories presented before.

A. Review of Related Studies

  When a work of literature is published and read by public it might arise or

evoke some comments from the people. There are many people who give

comment, suggestion or even criticism of the novel. The comments, suggestions,

or criticisms considered are from an article and also from sources in the internet.

  Joseph Kestner, http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/Gaskell/charov.html

from Protest & Reform: The British Social Narrative by Women, stated that

Margaret Hale travels in North and South to resolve both social and religious

doubts. In the novel it is described about how Margaret feel toward the two

different situations (Helstone – South and Milton – North).

  A professor of English in University of Hartford, Catherine Barnes

Stevenson, says that like her author who tries to make readers see both sides of an

argument, Margaret attempts to educate each side in the labor dispute about the

others’ point of view. She cites Nicholas Higgins’ opinions to Thornton and vice

versa.

  Andrew Sanders says that North and South does not sound optimism,

however, compromise on social issues. Sanders says that as its title implies, it

contrast the snobberies, chivalries, and artificially of the country gentry of the

South of England with the distinctive energetic anti-gentlemanly world of self-

made manufactures of the North. He also adds that Margaret Hale may at first be

shocked by a market economy which works ‘as if commerce were everything and

humanity nothing’ but she is later impressed by a dinner at which Manchester men

‘talked in desperate earnest, - not in the used-up style that wearied her so in the

old London parties’ (1996: 410).

  In this undergraduate thesis, the writer wants to examine psychological

principles in detail through the main character of the novel, Margaret, her

behavior and her way of thinking. The writer will explore a specific psychological

study that is reflected by Margaret.

B. Review of Related Theories

1. Literary Theories

  In this literary theory, the writer is presenting theory of character which

gives an explanation about the type of characters and the theory of

characterization which gives explanation of how the character is developed

through a story.

a. Theory of Character

  A novel may contain many characters. These characters are presented by

the author by describing their physical or psychological appearances. The

  

characters are described through their dialogues, behavior and thought to make

them just like ordinary human beings. Abrams (1981: 21) defines characters “are

the persons presented in a dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the

readers as being endowed with moral and distortional qualities that are expressed

in what they say – the dialogue – and by what they do – the action.” A novel is written to reveal characters. This means that in a novel

characters are projected and described through the story by describing their

physical and psychological appearances. Not all characters play an important role.

  

At least one character appears to be the center of the story. Milligan (1983: 155)

divides characters based on their importance, namely main/major characters and

minor character. A major character is the center of the story and the most

important character in the story. On the other hand minor characters appear only

once or twice in the story and their roles are less important than the major

character.

  Based on their psychological behaviors, Perrine (1974: 71) divides

characters in a novel into round character and flat character. Round characters

often appear as the center of the story. They are complex, dynamic and less

predictable. They look like real human beings with their complex attributes such

as temperaments and sometimes they surprise the readers by their unexpected

behavior just like our friends whose intention we cannot predict. They are

dynamic, change during the story, and are complex. Compared with the round

character, flat character are not described as fully as the major. They are static and

simple. They do not grow or change in the story.

  Rohberger and Woods (1971: 31), present the terms protagonist and

antagonist. The protagonist is the chief character or in traditional fiction, it is the

hero or the heroine. This character is a good person and mostly becomes the

center of the story. The opponent character is called the antagonist. As readers, we

often recognize this character as a bad person and this character is the enemy of

the protagonist.

b. Theory of Characterization

  According to M.J. Murphy in his book Understanding Unseens: An

Introduction to English Poetry & Novel for Overseas Student (1972: 161-173),

there are nine ways to represent the characters.

  First, Personal description. Personal description means that the author

tries to describe the character through his physical appearances. The author can

describe a person’s appearance and clothes such as his build, his skin-colour, his

hair or his face.

  Second, Character as seen by another. Using this way means that the

author can describe the character through the eyes and opinions of another. They

will give explanations, comments or opinion about what character is like. Their

opinions can help the reader to understand a character.

  Third, Speech. The author can give the reader insight into the character of

one of the person in the book through what the character says. Whenever a person

is speaking, he is giving the reader some clue to his character (Murphy,

1972:162).

  Fourth way is Past Life. The author can give the reader a clue to events

that has helped to shape a person’s character by learning about a person’s past life.

  

This can be done by direct comment by the author, through the person’s thought,

through the conversation or through the medium of another person.

  Fifth, Conversation of others. It means that the author can give the reader

clues to a person’s character through conversations and things they say about him.

  

People talk about other people and things they say often give the reader a clue to

the character of the person spoken about.

  Sixth, Reaction. The readers will know a person’s character through seeing how he reacts to various situations or events.

  Seventh, Direct comment. The author can describe or comment on a person’s character directly.

  Eighth, Thoughts. The author give the reader direct knowledge of what a

person is thinking about. In this respect, he is able to do what we cannot do in the

real life. He can tell the reader what different people are thinking. In the novel we

accept this. The reader then is in privileged position; he has, as it were, a secret

listening device plugged in to the inmost thoughts of a person in a novel (Murphy,

1972:171).

  The last way is Mannerism. The author may describe a person’s

mannerism, habits or idiosyncrasies that may also tell the reader something about

his character.

  These are the ways used by an author to help his/her reader analyze the

characters that he/she writes in his/her novel. An author, usually, will not use all

of the ways, but only prefer some of them.

2. Psychological Theories

  There are four theories concerning about child psychological development

in this chapter. First, is theory of personality which gives an explanation about the

definition of personality by Guilford and Hurlock. Second, are the factors

influencing children personality development which explain the influence of the

family and environment to children personality development. Third, are stages in

social interaction according to Erikson that contain eight stages. Fourth, is child

developmental sequence according to Piaget.

a. The Factors Influencing Children Personality Development

  Hurlock (1974: 234-352) states that one’s personality develops under the

influence of people around him or her. Hurlock also states that family and

environment have a role in forming a child’s personality.

1. The Influence of Family

  When we talk about family, directly our mind goes to a husband, a wife,

their children and sometimes some relatives. Children will receive their first

training in their home, such as socialization, doing housework, and taking some

responsibilities. Kalish (1973: 55) states that parents and other significant figures

probably have the greatest influence on the formation of values and attitude

  

because first, parents have the authority in estimating the children’s attitudes.

They may give reward for the attitudes they like or give punishment for the

unacceptable attitudes. Second, parents provide models that their children

consciously and unconsciously copy. Third, parents live in such a way that the

children internalize their values regarding education, God, humanity, and work.

  

Since a child hears his parents’ ideas and other relatives’ even in a limited portion

in his first few years, he tends to internalize these ideas without much conflict.

  

Moreover, parents and other significant figures are the closest people who have

interaction with children and it is easier to take their values rather than other

people’s values.

  Lester D. Crow and Alice Crow (1958: 190-191), state that a child is

helped in his interaction with larger social group if he gets family cooperation. On

the contrary, parents who do not give cooperation for their children will make

their social interaction hindered.

  Furthermore, they say that the pattern of personality is composed of traits

which show the individual’s uniqueness as shown in his behavior and thought.

  

The development of human’s personality is the most remarkable during the

childhood years and is determined largely by the parent – child relationship.

  It is also true that parents are regarded as the most influential figures in the

personality development of a child. This is because the child’s first social

environments is the home in which he lives. The home and the family will

determine his first attitudes toward people and social activities. Therefore, parents

lay the dominant role in shaping the children’s personality patterns.

2. The Influence of Environment

  Besides the influence of family, one’s personality is also shaped and influenced by their environment in which the individual lives.

  Social attitudes and behavior of children may be influenced by people they

associate. Carver and Scheier (1996: 146) state, “Peers are important influences

on growing children”. The differences in peer group may cause people to become

different. If that happens, it is an environmental influence, that is not shared by

siblings. They also state adults outside the home may also influence young

children’s social attitudes and behavior when children associate with them. They

will strive to keep up with them, and by doing so, they develop more mature

patterns of behavior than their mates of their age.

b. Stages in Social Interaction

  Erikson as quoted by Worchel, Stephen, and Shebilske (1989: 341-342)

emphasizes the importance of individual’s interaction with social environment in

shaping personality. He divides the devilment into eight stages as follows: (1) Stage I (0 – 1 years old)

  During this year a baby spends most of the time eating, sleeping, and depending on his or her mother. The ability to do all these things may develop a sense of basic trust.

  (2) Stage II (2 – 3 years old) During these years of life, the crisis of autonomy against a tendency to feel ashamed and doubtful of one’s own power occurs. The child learns to control himself. If he succeeds, he will feel proud but if he fails, he will feel ashamed and doubtful, which lead the child to leave this stage with a sense of insecurity.

  (3) Stage II (4 – 5 years old) The ego quality of initiatives enables the child to plan and set about tasks. He begins to master skills and tries hard to perform well. The danger of this stage is development of guilt. The child has already begun to learn what is forbidden. However, his ambitions are unlimited and he may become aggressive and manipulative in trying to achieve his goal.

  (4) Stage IV (6 – 12 years old) Child interest in laying is surpassed by a concern to produce and to learn how to use the tools of work. The danger in this stage is that if the child fails to master the tasks of school and home, this may develop a lasting sense of inferiority. (5) Stage V (13 – 19 years old) This stage is just the beginning to form an identity. Adolescent begin to sense their individuality. They become aware that they have the strength to control their own destiny and to define themselves and their goals.

  (6) Stage VI (20 – 30 years old) Young adults are ready and eager to unite their identities with those of others.

  They seek relationship of intimacy – friendship and work relationship as well as loving. They are ready to develop the strengths. They will need to fulfill commitments to others even though commitment needs some sacrifice and compromise.

  (7) Stage VII ( 31 – 65 years old) This is the stage of the development of generativist. It concerns with establishing and guiding the next generation. In general, this means that adults want to have children to whom they can transmit their values. More broadly, generativist, one risks stagnation, in which personality becomes impoverished and regresses into self concern.

  (8) Stage VIII (66 years – on) People in this stage perceive that others have lived differently and they are prepared to defend the dignity of their own life styles. One creates one’s own life style within the culture or civilization in which one lives.

c. Child Development Sequence

  According to Piaget in Worchel, Stephen and Shebilske’s book

Psychology: Principles and Application (1989: 317-320), there are four major stages of intelligence and thought progress, namely: (1) Sensorimotor Stage (0 to two years). This stage is the coordination of motoric activities with sensory inputs (perceptions). During this period, babies are able to grasp and walk. They learn that their hands or foot are parts of themselves, whereas their toys are not.

  (2) Preoperational Stage (from two to seven years). Children recognize the world through the use of symbols. Children form a mental image about food when they can eat it and unable to form it when the object is absent. (3) Stage of Concrete Operations (during elementary school; seven to eleven years old). During these years, children may solve the conservation problems. It is the recognition of a quantity of something in different positions.

  (4) Stage of Formal Operations (from age eleven on). It is the highest level in the development of intelligence from infancy to adulthood. In this stage, children or adolescent are able to face complex problems and capable in imagining various situations.

  Those four stages of intelligence and thought progress, or we may call

them as cognitive process, are used in order to know how human beings get

information from their environment and how they make decision about what to

say and do.

C. Theoretical Framework

  Theory of character and characterization are used to give explanation of

how the character is developed through a story. Theory of character by Perrine

(1974: 71) may help the writer to understand the characters of Margaret Hale and

people around her. Meanwhile, the theory of characterization proposed by

  

Murphy (1972: 161-173) is used to get better understanding about the characters’

personality and may help the writer in understanding those characters in a novel.

  

Blair’s and Holman and Harmon’s theory of setting is used to understand

Margaret Hale’s environment in this case means the place where she lives at and

the condition of the environment means the society.

  In understanding Margaret Hale’s personality development, the writer

applies some psychological theories. To analyze family and environment

influence to Margaret Hale’s personality, the writer applies Hurlock’s theory of

factors that influence one’s personality (1974: 234-352). Hurlock’s theory shows

that family and environment have the great influence in shaping one’s personality.

  Piaget’s (1989: 167-169) theory in Worchel, Stephen and Shebilske’s

book Psychology: Principles and Application of intelligence and thought process

is used in order to understand the character’s deed when they have to make

decisions.

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study The type of literary work in this study is a novel by Elizabeth Gaskell. This novel published by Wordsworth Editions Limited in 1994, but firstly published in 1855. This novel used in this thesis is the fourth literary works of Elizabeth Gaskell. The novel consists of 417 pages and is divided into fifty two chapters. Chapter One until Chapter Six describes Margaret Hale and the family when they

  

were still live at Helstone. In these chapters we can see Margaret Hale’s life in her

house. These chapters also describe the attitude of the family toward toward.

  

Chapter Seven until Chapter Thirteen describe how Margaret Hale adaptations in

new environment, and also feel under pressure of her mother’s illness. These

chapters describe Margaret Hale’s effort to make her family enjoy and

comfortable. In these chapters, for the first time Margaret Hale meets John

Thornton the owner of a local mill who also his father’s friend. Chapter Fourteen

until Chapter Thirty describe Margaret Hale’s day-to-day living in the new

environment and also when her mother died. Chapter Thirty one until Fifty two

describe her romance with John Thornton.

B. Approach of the Study

  Considering on the topic of this thesis, I employed the Psychological

Approach. Psychology is knowledge about man and the condition of his psyche.

  

This approach will be used to analyze Margaret Hale’s personality development,

the main character of Gaskell’s North and South, which is influenced by her

family and environment.

  In analyzing an individual’s personality development, it is necessary to

deal with a psychological aspect. Thus it will be proper to apply the psychological

approach because a better understanding of a human’s personality can be

achieved. Moreover, personality is one of the subjects of Psychology. It involves

patterns of behaviors, thoughts and feelings. The Psychological Approach,

therefore, will help me to reveal the issue of this study because it views a literary

work based on psychological interpretation.

C. Method of the Study

  In this thesis, the writer has two problem formulations to discuss. Before

analyzing each problem of this thesis, some theories have to be presented first.

  

These theories are divided into two parts. The first part is the literary theories

which contain theory of characterization. The second part is the psychological

theories which contain theory of personality, the factors influencing children

personality development, stages in social interaction, factors forming one’s

values, and child development sequence. There is also theory of critical approach

to get the best approach to analyze the novel.

  In analyzing data, the characters representing Margaret Hale’s family were

taken into consideration first. The characters consist of Mr. Hale, and Mrs. Hale.

  

The writer continued with the characters representing Margaret Hale’s

  

environment that is new environment where she lives, Milton. In the new

environment, she meets with the characters of John Thornton, Mrs. Thornton, and

Bessy Higgins. The next discussion of the analysis was the influence of Margaret

Hale’s family and environment to the development of Margaret Hale’s

personality. The last discussion was to find out the influence of these situations

toward Margaret Hale’s personality development.

  In collecting the data and some theories, the writer did some library

research such as choosing some books and visiting library. The primary and

secondary data came from some books which deal with literature and psychology.

Literary theories are taken from A Glossary of Literary Terms; The Novel in

English, Literature: Structure, Sound and Sense ; Reading and Writing about

Literature and Unseens: An Introduction to English Poetry and English Novel for

Overseas Students . The psychological theories are taken from Personality;

Personality Development ; The Handbook of Psychological Terms; Child

Psychology ; Perspective on Personality; and Psychology: Principles and

Application .

  In order to get better understanding about the novel, the writer tried to get

some data from the Internet and some magazines. In the analysis of the problems

of this study, incidents and dialogues from Gaskell’s North and South were used

as proofs or evidence.

CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS This chapter will be divided into six parts. In the first part, the writer will

  analyze the characterization of Margaret Hale and continued by the analysis of the characterization of other members of Margaret’s family. In the third part, the writer will analyze the characterization of Margaret’s environment. In the fourth and fifth part, the writer will find out the influence that they give, directly or indirectly, and that contribute to the change of Margaret Hale personality. Sixth, the analysis will find out the influence of family and environment condition on Margaret Hale’s personality.

A. The Characteristics of Margaret Hale

  A novel is written to reveal characters. This means that in a novel characters are projected and described through the story by describing their physical and psychological appearances. Not all characters play an important role. At least one character appears to be the center of the story.

  The main character that will be discussed in this undergraduate thesis is Margaret Hale. Margaret Hale is the daughter of Richard Hale and Maria Hale.

  Margaret grew up in a place named Helstone, in south of England, with her parents and her brother. When she entered adolescence, Margaret was sent to live in London

  Milton when her father decided to become a private tutor. She is the youngest child of The Hales. Margaret has a brother named Frederick. Among Mr. Hale’s children, Margaret is favorite daughter for Mr. Hale, her father.

  Physically, Margaret is described as a little girl who has large soft eyes (p. 12). Her beautiful eyes are admitted by Mr. Thornton. It is mentioned in chapter ten that her eyes are full of light, half-laughter, and half-love (p. 75). Margaret is also a beautiful girl (p. 80).

  She sat facing him and facing the light; her full beauty met his eye; her round white flexile throat rising out of the full, yet lithe figure; her lips, moving so slightly as she spoke, not breaking the cold serene look of her face with any variation from the one lovely haughty curve; her eyes, with their soft gloom, meeting his with quiet maiden freedom (p. 59). In this novel, Margaret is described as an introvert person. According to Mr. Lennox, he said that Margaret will not tell anything except will only tell whether she is not going to do this or that (p. 12).

  One of Margaret’s first difficult moments in life is when she must break the news to her mother of their remove to Milton. Her father has doubts which have forced him to give up his ministry and move to a place where he is a stranger and can start life a new as a private tutor without any reminders of his beloved Helstone. Mr.

  Hale can not face his wife with the news, and he asks Margaret if she would very much dislike the job.

  Margaret did dislike it, did shrink from it more than from anything she had ever had to do in her life before...'It is a painful thing, but it must be done, and I will do it as well as ever I can. You must have many painful things to do'(35).

  In chapter six, the narrator shows that part of the responsibility that Margaret takes on is being strong for everyone else and keeping her own feelings inside.

  Margaret's mother is upset that her husband did not come to her as a confidant when he was first experiencing his "doubts" and is not involved much in the practicalities of moving house. Mr. Hale is not much help either, so "Margaret's admirable sense enabled her to see what was best and to direct how it should be done" (46). To the servants it appears that Margaret does not care that she is leaving Helstone, the place where she were grown up before moving to Milton.

  They could not understand how her heart was aching all the time, with a heavy pressure that no sighs could lift off or relieve, and how constant exertion for her perceptive faculties was the only way to keep herself from crying out with pain. Moreover if she gave way who could act? (p. 50).

  Margaret is known as a helpful person. When someone seems to look for an assist, she kindly offers her help.

  “Edith is asleep, Aunt Shaw. Is it anything I can do?”(p. 7). In a situation, when the Hales just moved to the new house, Margaret offers herself to prepare and make sure that the room for her mother is clean enough for

  Mrs. Hale to go to bed while then she will bring her a cup of coffee (p. 62).

  Margaret also described as a child who loves her parents very much. She will do everything to make them pleasant. She is rather to choose ironing or any kind of work for her mother and father than being punished because of her careless speech (p. 71).

  Margaret’s love for her parents can be seen when Margaret knew that her mother has a serious ill, she wants to be her mother nurse. She is willing to learn anything that Dixon, their servant, can teach her to. Margaret considers that as her mother’s child, she has right to do everything for her mother. Although Mrs. Hale just considers Margaret as a little child, Margaret is showing her insistence to look after her mother. No matter how hard it will be Margaret still wants to try it. She tries to give a comfortable situation and condition or her mother (p. 120).

  Looking at the explanation of the narrator, Margaret’s behaviors, it can be concluded that Margaret shows her kindness because she lives and grown up by loving parents like Mr. Hale and Mrs. Hale. Since Margaret’s brother, Frederick, joined the navy, she becomes the only child in the home. That condition makes Margaret has a very close relationship with her parents. That is why Margaret is willing to do everything for her parents, especially when Margaret’s mother diagnosed with a serious disease. She does not want lose her mother. Margaret tries as hard as possible to take care her mother and make her happy.

  When Margaret was nine years old when she, she lived with her aunt, Mrs. Shaw, and her cousin, the only child of Mrs. Shaw, Edith.

  Oh! Well did the tall stately girl of eighteen remember the tears shed with such wild passion of grief by the little girl of nine, as she hid her face under nurse, because it would disturb Miss Edith; and how she had cried as bitterly, but more quietly, till her newly-seen, grand pretty aunt had come softly upstairs with Mr Hale to show him his little sleeping daughter. (p. 8).

  Margaret is flexible enough to adapt in different situation.

  ..Margaret saw she was no more wanted as shawl-bearer, and devoted herself to the amusement of the other visitors…(p. 9) The narrator emphasizes Margaret’s obedient in chapter one.

  Her aunt asked her to stand as sort of lay figure on which to display them, as Edith was still asleep. (p. 9). Margaret is less confident.

  “But I won’t try and describe it any more. You would only laugh at me if I told you what I think of it – what it really is.” (p. 11-12).

  In the relationship with the others, Margaret is enthusiastic and easy to make friends with anyone. She can interact and talk with anyone even strangers without being afraid. Margaret is able to talk and discuss anything with Mr. John Thornton (her father’s pupil), Nicholas Higgins (an industrial worker) and his daughters, Bessy and Mary. She has capability to interact with them and they welcome her very well.

  Margaret went home, wondering at her new friends, and smiling at the man’s insight into what had been passing in her mind. From that day Milton became a brighter place to her. (p. 69). Margaret shows her cleverness when she involved in some discussion with

  Mr. John Thornton, a pupil of her father, several times. The narrator characterizes Margaret’s effort to show her cleverness from the beginning of the novel. It can be

  76-77). Margaret is able to utter her opinion and discuss about the quotation her father mentioned. Margaret always tries to involve herself in discussing with somebody else. It means that Maggie is known as a confident girl who dares to utter her opinion. She is not timid to share what she thinks.

  In her love life, Margaret is depicted as a person who is willing to sacrifice her own happiness in order to show the love especially for her own family. She is willing to sacrifice anything for the person she loves. When Margaret and her family moved to Milton, her father has a pupil named Mr. John Thornton. He is one the wealthy manufacturer (p. 61). Mr. Thornton’s mother, Mrs. Thornton, dislikes Margaret. Although Margaret knows that Mr. Thornton’s mother dislikes her, she is still willing to help and protect Mr. Thornton when there was a strike in Mr.

  Thornton’s factory. She was injured. She sacrificed herself to show her love to the person she loves.

  In sum, in the novel, Margaret is depicted as an obedient and clever girl. Sometimes, she is also depicted as a confident girl. In other parts of the novel, she is often described as a person who acts without thinking herself. From the explanation above, it can be concluded that most of the characterization of Margaret Hale can be found through the description given by the narrator, reaction (the characters show her personality from their action), and opinion of the others. In this part, problem formulation number one has been answered.

B. The Characterization of the Other Member of Margaret’s Family 1. The Characteristics of Mr. Hale

  Mr. Hale is Margaret’s father. He is a kind and warm person although he feels terrible because he had begun to question his faith. When asked to renew his vows, Mr. Hale could not. Quitting his profession, Mr. Hale moved his wife and daughter to Milton, in the north of England, where he took up work as a tutor.

  Mr. Hale’s physical appearance is described as the following. His blue-black hair was grey now, and lay thinly over his brows. The bones of his face were plainly to be seen – too plainly for beauty, if his features had been less finely cut; as it was, they had a grace if not comeliness of their own. (p. 15).

  Mr. Hale was of slight figure, which made him appear taller than he really was, when not concentrated, as at this time, with the tall massive frame of another.

  The lines in her father’s face were soft and waving with a frequent undulating kind of trembling movement passing over them, showing every fluctuating emotion; the eyelids were large and arched, giving to the eyes a peculiar languid beauty which was almost feminine. The brows were finely arched, but were, by the very size of the dreamy lids, raised to a considerable distance from the eyes (p. 75).

  He is described as a good father, not typically temperamental person. Mr. Hale in a situation asked his daughter Margaret to bring him some pears as a dessert for them.

  “Margaret, my child, you might have gathered us some pears for our dessert,” said Mr. Hale, as the hospitable luxury of a freshly-decanted bottle of wine was placed on the table. (p. 25) Mr. Hale also loves his wife very much. His wife’s health is his main concern.

  As he feels something happened with his wife’s health, he cannot hide that he is so worry about her. He blamed himself for the decision to bring his family moved to Milton.

  “Do you think she has any hidden complaint? Do you think she is really ill? Has Dixon said anything? Oh, Margaret! I am haunted by the fear that our coming to Milton has killed her. My poor Maria!” (p. 104).

  Mr. Hale is described as the wise person as well. In a situation, Mr. Hale confessed that he does not pay attention to the workers in Milton as much as Margaret does, but he realizes that the relation between the employer and the employed in Milton does not work well. Even he has not been there to watch the situation himself, he knew it by the story told by his daughter Margaret.

  “I must confess that, although I have not become so intimately acquainted with any workmen as Margaret has, I am very much struck by the antagonism between the employer and the employed, on the very surface of things. I even gather this impression from what you yourself have from time to time said.” (p. 112).

2. The Characteristics of Mrs. Hale

  Mrs. Hale, Margaret’s mother, is a patient housewife. Even she is less happy to be in Milton than Margaret and is dying, she does not want anyone know that she is ill. She wants to see Frederick one last time, so Margaret secretly writes to him in Spain, where he has been living. Frederick comes to visit the Hales in Milton, and manages to stay hidden before she dies.

  Mrs. Hales loves to live in Helstone. She cannot hold her feelings when his husband plans to move from Helstone. She does not believe why her husband make such decision while she thinks that everything is fine (p. 41). She thinks that is it still possible for the bishop to set his husband right (p. 42).

  “Mamma! Papa is going to leave Helstone!” she blurted forth. “What makes you say so?” asked Mrs. Hale in a surprised incredulous voice. “Who has been telling you such nonsense?” “Papa himself”, said Margaret, longing to say something gentle and consoling, but literally not knowing how. They were close to a garden-bench.

  Mrs. Hale sat down, and began to cry. (p. 41) Besides, Mrs. Hale also an expressive woman.

  It was long since Mrs. Hale had been in London; and she roused up, almost like a child, to look about her at the different streets, and to go gaze after and exclaim at the shops and carriages. “Oh, there’s Harrison’s, where I bought so many of my wedding things. Dear! How altered! They’ve got immense plate-glass windows, larger than Crawford’s in Southampton. Oh, and there, I declare – no, it is not – yes, it is

  • – Margaret, we have just passed Mr. Lennox. Where can he be going, among all these shops?” (p.53) On the situation described below, Mrs. Hale can turn into a serious person.

  …She could hardly speak when she sat down at last, and told her mother that she was no longer Peggy the laundry-maid, but Margaret Hale the lady. She meant this speech for a little joke, and was vexed enough with her busy tongue when she found her mother taking it seriously. “Yes! If anyone had told me, when I was Miss Beresford and one of the belles of the county, that a child of mine would have to stand half a day, in a little poky kitchen, working away like any servant, that we might prepare properly for the reception of a tradesman, and that this tradesman should be the only” – (p. 71) In conclusion, Margaret’s family treats Margaret well. They often give positives comments about Margaret. They accept Margaret because they love her.

  Moreover, they always put Margaret in “only child” condition. In front of them, Margaret is obedient daughter. She always be counted on.

  According to M.J. Murphy in his book Understanding Unseens: An

  

Introduction to English Poetry & Novel for Overseas Student (1972: 161-173), there

  are nine ways to represent the characters. They are Personal description, Character

  

as seen by another, Speech, Past Life, Conversation of others, Reaction, Direct

comment, Thoughts, Mannerism.

C. The Characterization of Margaret Hale’s Environment

  In the previous part, problem formulation number one has been answered. All in once, those part explains and answer the question ‘what’ that is mentioned in the theories in chapter two. The question what refers to the characteristics of the person has explained.

  This part will answer the second question (what) that is needed to study individual intensively. The question ‘what’ will refers to the characteristics of Margaret’s environment. This part will examine the environmental characteristics of Margaret. Those determinants cover people in the society represented by the character of Mr. John Thornton and Mrs. Thornton that will be explained further below.

  The environment where Margaret spends most of her childhood here is at Helstone. When she entered adolescence, Margaret was sent to live in London with her aunt, Mrs. Shaw, and cousin, Edith Shaw. Edith and Margaret were the same age, and became fast friends. Soonest after her father lost faith in religion, she and her family move to another town, Milton-Northern. There she will meet John Thornton who later they will fall in love often each other, and also makes friend with Bessy Higgins, a dying young woman.

  People in upper class society are very respectable. A family in the upper class society has a power to control over the family in middle class society. Margaret’s family does not come from upper class society. They are in middle class society. Margaret is also not like a girl in upper class society such as Edith, her cousin.

1. The Characteristics of John Thornton

  One of Mr. Hale's pupils is a local mill owner, John Thornton. He is young and handsome. The first, Mr. Thornton, sees Margaret with an unknown man "with After an encounter with a group of strikers, in which Margaret attempts to protect Thornton from the violence, he proposes to her, telling her that he is in love with her; she rejects his proposal of marriage.

  Physically, Mr. Thornton is a tall, broad-shouldered man, and about thirty years old (p. 60). In his face, the straight brows fell low over the clear, deep-set earnest eyes, which without being unpleasantly sharp, seemed intent enough to penetrate into the very heart and core of what he was looking at. The lines in the face were few but firm, as if they were carved in marble, and lay principally about the lips, which were slightly compressed over a set of teeth so faultless and beautiful as to give the effect of sudden sunlight when the rare bright smile, coming in an instant and shining out of the eyes (p. 75).

  John Thornton’s kindness can be seen when he told her mother to offer help to the Hales.

  “Mother! I need hardly say, that if there is any little thing that could serve Mrs. Hale as an invalid, you will over it, I’m sure”.(p. 89) In the early, Mr. Thornton grew up in poor family. When he was a child, his father died. He was taken from the school and started to live in a small country town as a employee in a draper’s shop. He struggled to keep savings little by little.

  “I am not speaking without book. Sixteen years ago, my father died under very miserable circumstances. I was taken from school, and had to become a man (as well as I could) in a few days. I had such a mother as few are blest with; a woman of strong power, and firm resolve. We went into a small country town, where living was cheaper than in Milton, and where I got knowledge of goods). Week by week, our income came to fifteen shillings, out of which three people had to be kept. (p. 79). His struggle when he was a child makes John is also known as an arrogant person. He is success because of his struggle. In a situation, John underestimates

  Margaret for not having to go to school and shows his proud for being well educated in Milton.

  “You never found of schools, Margaret, or you would have seen and known before this, how much is being done for education in Milton.” (p. 112). Although sometimes John described as an arrogant person, he shows his tender to other people. He brought some fruits for Mrs. Hale as his sympathy of Mrs.

  Hale’s ill.

  “Oh! It is so delicious!” said Mrs Hale in, in feeble voice. “How kind of him to think of me! Margaret, love, only taste these grapes! Was it not good of him” (p. 199).

  John loves Margaret very much. “Oh, my Margaret – my Margaret! No one can tell what you are to me! Dead

  • – cold as you lie there, you are the only woman I ever loved! Oh, Margaret – Margaret!” (p. 168). In chapter twenty six, the narrator emphasizes John’s feelings toward Margaret.

  “Mother!” said he, hurriedly, “I cannot hear a word against her. Spare me, - spare me! I am very weak in my sore heart; - I love her yet; I love her more than ever.” (p. 195).

2. The Characteristics of Mrs. Thornton

  Mrs. Thornton’s physical appearance is described as a large-boned lady, long past middle age…Her features, like her frame, were strong and massive rather than heavy (p. 71-72).

  Mrs. Thornton, who dislikes Margaret, and her son's affection for her, surmises that Margaret acted as she did out of love for Mr. Thornton.

  “John! Is that you?” Her son opened the door, and showed himself. “What has brought you home so early? I thought you were going to tea with that friend of Mr. Bell’s; that Mr. Hale.” “So I am, mother, I am come home to dress!” “Dress! Humph! When I was a girl, young men were satisfied with the dressing once in a day. Why should you dress to go and take a cup of tea with an old parson?” “Mr. Hale is a gentleman, and his wife and daughter are ladies.” “Wife and daughter! Do they teach too? What do they do? You have never mentioned them.” “No! mother, because I have never seen Mrs. Hale; I have only seen Miss Hale for half an hour.” “Take care you don’t get caught by a penniless girl, John.” (p. 72) In chapter eighteen and thirty eight, the narrator emphasizes Mrs. Thornton’s dislikeness toward Margaret. She forbids John to stop talking about Margaret if his son wants her to be kind to Margaret. Mrs. Thornton herself does not know whether she will like or dislike Margaret when she is with her, but she admits that she hates Margaret when she is thinking of her or hears his son talking of her (p. 134).

  Before Margaret’s mother die, she wants Mrs. Thornton to be someone that can give loves to Margaret. But Mrs. Thornton herself seems began to forget about that promise.

  You promised Mrs Hale to be that woman! “No!” said Mrs Thornton. “I am happy to say, I did not promise kindness and gentleness, for I felt at the time that it might be out of my power to render these to one of Miss Hale’s character and disposition. I promised counsel and advice, such as I would give to my own daughter…(p. 290).

  Mrs. Thornton overprotected on her son very much. She does not allow her son has close relationship with Margaret. She thinks that such a girl like Margaret is only amazed because of his son’s rich. She hates Margaret very much (p. 73).

  Mrs. Thornton overprotected on her son because she is jealous with Margaret. “My son is not the one to tell of his own doings. May I again ask you Miss Hale, from whose account you formed your favourable opinion of him? A mother is curious and greedy of commendation of her children you know.” (p. 107).

  Mrs. Thornton also forbids her daughter Fanny to make friendship with Margaret. She thinks that Margaret will do no good for her daughter Fanny.

  “Fanny!” said her mother, as they drove away, “we will be civil to these Hales: but don’t form one of your hasty friendships with the daughter. She will do you no good, I see. The mother looks very ill, and seems a nice, quiet person.” (p. 93).

  Mrs. Thornton also underestimates Margaret indirectly. “South country people are often frightened by what our Darkshire men and women only call living and struggling. But when you’ve been ten years among a people who are always owing their betters a grudge, and only waiting for an opportunity to pay it off, you’ll know whether you are a coward or not, take my word for it.” (p. 109). The theory of characterization proposed by Murphy (1972: 161-173) is used to get better understanding about the characters’ personality and may help the writer

  From the explanation above, it can be concluded that Mr. John Thornton can accept Margaret very well with her social status. He did not give negative opinion on Margaret’s social status. Mrs. Thornton has different opinion. She cannot accept Margaret because she comes from middle class society. Furthermore, she forbids her son, John Thornton, and her daughter, Fanny, to have a close relationship with Margaret.

D. The Influences of Margaret’s Family

  In the previous part, problem formulation number two has been answered. All in once, those part explains and answers the question “what” that is mentioned in the theories in chapter two. The questions “what” that refers to the characterization of the person, family, and environment have been explained.

  According to Hurlock, family takes part in developing one’s personality. Family is the closest environment for children in their early years and will determine their first attitude. Children also get their first values and social activities from their family. Kalish also states that parents and other significant figures probably have the greatest influence on the formation of values and attitudes. Margaret Hale, as a child, also gets the same situation. She gets her first values from her family, and is influenced by their attitudes.

  The characters that represent Margaret’s family are Mr. Hale, and Mrs. Hale. Margaret lives with them and builds a relationship with them.

1. The Influence of Mr. Hale

  Margaret lives with her parents, Mr. Hale and Mrs. Hale. She was like the only children since her brother, Frederick, join the Navy. Her father is a tutor. This condition made Margaret becomes a critic person.

  In a chance of discussion between Mr. Hale, Margaret, and John Thornton, Margaret debates on Mr. Thornton’s explanation. She is not afraid in uttering her thinking toward the quotation that they’ve been discussing and to disagree with other’s opinion.

  “You are mistaken,” said Margaret, roused by the aspersion on her beloved South to a found vehemence of defence, that brought the colour into her cheeks and the angry tears into her eyes. “You do not know anything about the South. If there is less adventure or less progress – I suppose I must not say less excitement – from the gambling spirit of trade, which seems requisite to force out these wonderful inventions, there is less suffering also…You do not know the South, Mr. Thornton,” she concluded, collapsing into a determined silence, and angry with herself for having said so much. (p. 77-78) The narrator emphasizes Mr. Hale’s kindness that gives Margaret secure and comfortable situation for her when she is close with her father.

  Margaret hesitated before she replied. She did not like this authoritative questioning. Mr. Hale came in, as he thought, to the rescue (p. 107).

  Margaret imitates her father’s spirit as she lives and has a close relationship with him. The narrator shows how Margaret admiring his father’s spirit in a following situation.

  But the idea of a change took root and germinated in Margaret’s heart, consider how desirable something of the kind would be to her father, whose spirits, always feeble, now became too frequently depressed, and whose health, though he never complained, had been seriously affected by his wife’s illness and death (p. 316).

2. The Influence of Mrs. Hale

  In previous explanation, Margaret’s relationship with Mrs. Hale, her mother, is very close. She prefers to do any kind of work than being punished because of her careless speech.

  “Oh, mamma!” said Margaret, lifting herself up, “don’t punish me so for a careless speech. I don’t mind ironing, or any kind of work, for you and papa. I am myself a born and bred lady through it all, even though it comes to sourcing a floor, or washing dishes. I am tired now, just for a little while, but in half an hour I shall be ready to do the same over again. And as to Mr. Thornton’s being in trade, why, he can’t help that now, poor fellow. I don’t suppose his education would fit him for much else.” Margaret lifted herself slowly up, and went to her own room, for just now she could not bear much more. (p. 71)

  Margaret’s generosity affected by her mother. In a situation, when she visited her friend’s house, Bessy Higgins, she offers her some of money and some food for Bessy’s family. She does not want anyone know what she did.

  “Let me bring you what money I can spare, - let me bring you a little food for that poor man’s children. Don’t let them know it comes from anyone but your father. It will be but little.” (p. 145).

  In chapter thirty, a difficult moment for the Hales, the death of Mrs. Hale, shows how close Mrs. Hale’s relationship with the other members of family. Since Margaret was a child, she lives as the only child for the Hales. She received good treatment from her parents. It is shocking to lose a figure like her mother (p. 157).

  Before the night of that day, Dr. Donaldson’s opinion was proved to be too well founded. Convulsions came on; and when they ceased, Mrs Hale was unconscious. Her husband might lie by her shaking the bed with his sobs; her son’s strong arms might lift her tenderly up into a comfortable position; her daughter’s hands might bathe her face; but she knew them not. She would never recognize them again, till they met in Heaven. (p. 231).

  Although Mrs. Hale’s death makes Margaret very upset, she realizes that from that on she must be strong for her father and brother.

  Then Margaret rose from her trembling and despondency, and became as a strong angel to comfort to her father and brother. (p. 231).

  From the explanation above, the writer conclude that Margaret received good treatment from her parents. As stated in the chapter two, the writer use theory from Harlock. Harlock states that one’s personality develops under the influence of people around him or her, and that family and environment have a role in forming a child’s personality (1974: 234-352).

  Kalish (1973: 55) states that parents and other significant figures probably have the greatest influence on the formation of values and attitude because first, parents have the authority in estimating the children’s attitudes. They may give reward for the attitudes they like or give punishment for the unacceptable attitudes. Second, parents provide models that their children consciously and unconsciously copy. Third, parents live in such a way that the children internalize their values regarding education, God, humanity, and work. Since a child hears his parents’ ideas and other relatives’ even in a limited portion in his first few years, he tends to internalize these ideas without much conflict. Moreover, parents and other significant figures are the closest people who have interaction with children and it is easier to take their values rather than other people’s values.

  In this case Margaret’s personality influenced by her parents. Good treatment from her parents forms her personality into an obedient girl. Sometimes there are struggles inside herself, which sometimes disagree with what the other family meant, but she is keeping that own feelings inside her. Theories which are applied on this undergraduate thesis are proved.

  

E. The Influence of Margaret’s Environment to the Development of Her

Personality

  In his book, Hurlock explains that there is one more factor that influences children personality development. This factor is environment in which the individual lives. The environment where Margaret lives is at Milton-Northern, and interacts mostly with John Thornton, and Mrs. Thornton.

1. The Influence of John Thornton

  John Thornton’s kindness can be seen when he told her mother to offer help to the Hales.

  “Mother! I need hardly say, that if there is any little thing that could serve Mrs. Hale as an invalid, you will over it, I’m sure”.(p. 89) In the previous part, it is explained that one of John’s characteristics is arrogant. This arrogance seems has something in relation with his childhood. His family starts from a simplicity family. Then John and his family worked harder and harder. Until they finally can have their own manufacture.

  “I am not speaking without book. Sixteen years ago, my father died under very miserable circumstances. I was taken from school, and had to become a man (as well as I could) in a few days… We went into a small country town, where living was cheaper than in Milton, and where I got employment in a draper’s shop (a capital place, by the way, for obtaining a knowledge of goods). Week by week, our income came to fifteen shillings, out of which three people had to be kept. My mother managed so that I put by three out of these fifteen shillings regularly…I believe that this suffering, which Miss Hale says is impressed on the countenances of the people of Milton, is but the natural punishment of dishonestly-enjoyed pleasure, at some former period of their lives. I do not look on self-indulgent, sensual people as worthy of my hatred; I simply look upon them with contempt for their poorness of character.” (p. 79-80) From the explanation above, John’s characteristic raise Margaret’s bravely.

  She cannot stand being accused and underestimated by people in her environment. In a conversation, she utters her feelings toward John’s act.

  “No, I see you do not. You are unfair and unjust.” Margaret compressed her lips. She would not speak in answer to such accusations. But, for all that – for all his savage words, he could have thrown himself at her feet, and kissed the hem of her garment. She did not speak, she did not move. The tears of wounded pride fell hot and fast. (p. 182).

2. The Influence of Mrs. Thornton

  Besides the influence of family, one’s personality is also shaped and influenced by their environment in which the individual lives.

  In the previous part, Mrs. Thornton is described as an arrogant person and she forbids her daughter to make friends with Margaret.

  “Very probably,” said Mrs. Thornton, in a short displeased manner. “I merely thought, that as strangers newly come to reside in a town which has risen to eminence in the country, from the character and progress of its peculiar business, you might have cared to visit some of the places where it is carried on; places unique in the kingdom, I am informed. If Miss Hale changes her mind and condescends to be curious as to the manufactures of Milton, I can only say I shall be glad to procure her admission to print-works, or reed- making, or the more simple operations of pining carried on in my son’s mill. Every improvement of machinery is, I believe, to be seen there, in its highest perfection.” (p.92) In a night before Mrs. Hale’s funeral, Mrs. Thornton sent a note saying that at her son’s desire, their carriage should attend the funeral, if it would not be disagreeable to the family. Margaret refused Mrs. Thornton’s statement.

  “Oh, don’t let us have these forms, ‘said she. ‘Let us go alone – you and me, papa. They don’t care for us, or else he would have offered to go himself, and not have proposed this sending an empty carriage.” (p. 247). Social attitudes and behavior of children may be influenced by people they associate. Carver and Scheier (1996: 146) state, “Peers are important influences on growing children”. The differences in peer group may cause people to become different. If that happens, it is an environmental influence that is not shared by siblings. They also state adults outside the home may also influence young children’s social attitudes and behavior when children associate with them. They will strive to keep up with them, and by doing so, they develop more mature patterns of behavior than their mates of their age.

  In a situation, Mrs. Thornton treated Margaret as a deaf person. She intended to spoke loudly and distinctly.

  “Here is Mr. Lowe come to see you.” Mrs. Thornton spoke loudly and distinctly, as to a deaf person. (p. 171).

  In this case, Margaret received bad treatment from her environment. Mrs. Thornton always underestimates Margaret. She even hates Margaret since before they met each other yet. She forbids her daughter, Fanny, and son, John, to make friends with Margaret. Mrs. Thornton considers that girl from middle class like Margaret does not need to make friends with those from upper class like her and family. In other part, John Thornton also underestimates Margaret. He thinks that Margaret does not found of school and should try for being educated in Milton like himself.

  

F. Margaret Hale’s Personality Development under the Influence of Her Family

and Environment

  If we study individuals intensively, we want to know what they are like, how they became that way and why they behave as they do (Pervin and John, 1996: 4). In question “what” refers to the characteristics of person. Part B and C answer the question “what” refers to the characteristics of family and environment. This part will explain how people in Margaret’s surrounding (family, and people in upper class) influence Margaret’s personality development. All at once, this part will answer problem formulation number three.

  Margaret Hale lives in two different environments. When living at Helstone with her family, everything seems just be fine. She becomes the only child – since her brother Frederick join in a Navy – at home. The change of lifestyle shocks Margaret, who sympathizes deeply with the poverty of the workers and comes into conflict with John Thornton, the owner of a local mill, also a friend of her father. After an encounter with a group of strikers, in which Margaret attempts to protect Thornton from the violence, he proposes to her, telling her that he is in love with her; she rejects his proposal of marriage, mainly because she sees it as if it were out of obligation for what she had done. Later, he sees her with her fugitive brother, whom he mistakes for another suitor, and this creates further unresolved conflict. Margaret, once she believes she has lost his affection, begins to see him in another light, and eventually they are reunited. Walks on city streets engage Margaret in the industrial city's life. Although it is at first "a trial" for her to share streets with throngs of millworkers, she meets Nicholas and Bessy Higgins while out on a walk; she enters their working class neighborhood, not once but many times.

  Margaret's goal is complete control over herself. She is at her weakest when within, she must appear cool on the outside. This is perhaps a defense mechanism that was developed during her time living in London when she was often in the shadows cast by Edith. Margaret receives a letter from Edith and wishes that she could have just one day of the carefree life her cousin enjoys, because she feels so old now, much older than her years.

  All the people’s and environment’s treatment that is received by Margaret in her childhood make Margaret feel inferior and always has desire to be loved. In addition, Margaret cannot accept herself. She compares herself with Fanny like what people in her surrounding do. Margaret also cannot dependent.

  Margaret learns to be independent since she was a child. Mr. and Mrs. Hale who become her idol influence all her decision. Margaret cannot make a decision for her own life. Margaret allows Mr. and Mrs. Hale to lead her way. They decide all the things for Margaret’s life. It makes Margaret cannot build her own life and feels her own happiness. Margaret is not able to know that she is a unique person who has many capabilities. She is very passive when she was a child. Margaret always does what people in her surrounding ask her to do. She cannot refuse their request. But, when she comes to adolescence, Margaret begins to realize her willing. She starts to think about her own life and feels her own happiness.

  In previous part, the characteristic of Margaret, she is depicted as an active girl. She has enthusiasm in doing many things although people in her surrounding often act that she is only a child. But treatments and evaluation that she receives her life. She does not have a bravery to show disagreement or to show her own feelings. She is keeping her own feelings inside.

  In understanding Margaret Hale’s personality development, the writer applies some psychological theories. To analyze family and environment influence to Margaret Hale’s personality, the writer applies Hurlock’s theory of factors that influence one’s personality (1974: 234-352). Hurlock’s theory shows that family and environment have the great influence in shaping one’s personality.

  In sum, Margaret’s bad treatment from her environment becomes the important point in her personality development. She faces difficult situation, beside the industrial environment, people who underestimates her. Margaret begins to show her disagreement bravely. She cannot accept being underestimates.

  Carver and Scheier state, “Peers are important influences on growing children”. The differences in peer group may cause people to become different. If that happens, it is an environmental influence that is not shared by siblings. They also state adults outside the home may also influence young children’s social attitudes and behavior when children associate with them. They will strive to keep up with them, and by doing so, they develop more mature patterns of behavior than their mates of their age. (1996: 146).

  Erikson’s stage five quotation by Worchel, Stephen, and Shebilske (1989: 74- 75) states that in this stage adolescent begin to sense their individuality and become aware that they have to control their own destiny and to define themselves and their

  Analyzing people and environment’s treatment to Margaret, the writer concludes that all those treatments give influence to Margaret personality in the present. In this case, Margaret does not feel comfortable with herself.

  From the Carver and Scheier’s statement, it can be concluded that Margaret’s environment becomes the most influencing factor in influence her personality.

  Margaret who is considered as an obedient girl, in later personality she becomes different girl. All the treatments that come especially from her environment make Margaret become a tough and brave girl. She can face her problem more bravely.

  All in once, the problem formulation number three is answered. Margaret’s environment, in this case Mr. John Thornton and Mrs. Thornton, gives bigger influence than her family for her personality development.

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION In this chapter, the writer concludes the analysis that has been discussed in

  

the previous chapter. The writer also would like to answer the problem

formulation stated in the first chapter.

  Family and environment are the factors that influence a child on his or her

personality development. The novel North and South reveals this. Margaret lives

with her family in Helstone – Southern, and then move to Milton – Northern. In

Milton, she just lives with her mother and father in a short period because both of

them then died. These different situations have contribution in shaping Margaret’s

personality.

  In relationship with the others, Margaret is friendly. It is easy for Margaret

to talk and make friends with anyone. She is not selfish. Margaret’s friend also

says that Margaret is tender. She is charitable person who has a distinctive

personality. Margaret has her own tenet or principle and she dares to show it.

  

Although Margaret can be counted as a charitable person, she can do bad thing to

show her disagreement. Sometimes, Margaret also shows that she often act

without thinking.

  The situation of living with her family develops her into a kind and warm

child. The different environment she moves at and also lost her parents because

they died turns her into “powerful” and stubborn child. She involves in some

  

conflict with John Thornton though finally she admit that she fall in love with

him.

  Margaret Hale’s personality starts develops into different character when

she moved to the new town, Milton. She faced uncomfortable situations.

  

Unhealthy environment of industrial town, her parents’ death, leave her by herself

in the new town, and included the dislikeness of John Thornton’s mother toward

her are some of them.

  In addition of having many positive characteristics people in Margaret’s

surrounding such as Mrs. Hale (her mother), and Mrs. Thornton (her father’s

pupil’s mother) think that Margaret is (still) a child. Margaret’s mother and aunt

consider Margaret as a child who should obey all of what they have asked to her.

  Margaret’s father (Mr. Hale), and Mr. Thornton treat Margaret well. They

can accept Margaret with her characteristics that is considered as miserable. They

love Margaret.

  All the treatment above will be the environment determinant of Margaret’s

personality. Actually, the determinant covers two things. They are family and

environment. From her family, Margaret receives good treatments from her father

and mother. It seems that they give Margaret unconditional love. They never

evaluate Margaret’s appearance. While people in her environment, in this case

Mrs. Thornton and John Thornton, put Margaret under their control. Mrs.

  Thornton especially dislikes Margaret since she never met with Margaret yet.

  Analyzing people and environment’s treatment to Margaret, the writer

concludes that all those treatments give influence to Margaret personality in the

  

present. Negative comments and evaluation that is given by people in Margaret

surrounding make Margaret feels inferior and dependent. Margaret does not feel

comfortable with herself. Margaret is not accepted as she is. People in Margaret’s

environment do not give her encouragement so that Margaret believes that she can

do nothing.

  Learning from Margaret’s life, in general, the highlight is there are some

determinants that will influence one’s personality. Those determinants include

influences from the family and environment. Moreover, the way they treat

somebody will give influence in her or his personality. Treatments from the

closest person that is received during childhood will give more a big influence in

building one’s personality. A person will learn to evaluate and look at himself

from people in his surrounding. What people say to him about himself will be kept

in his mind. Then, it will determine how he evaluates himself. If people give bad

or negative evaluations about him, he will also give bad judgments to himself and

he will be led to inferiority. On the contrary, if people in one’s surrounding have

positive evaluations and able to give encouragement to him, he will also evaluate

or look at himself in positive way. Someone will be confident with himself. To

conclude, a person personality is influenced of what people say about him or her.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY

  Abrams, M. H. A Glossary of Literary Terms. New York: Holt, Rineheart and Winston Inc., 1981. Beebe, Steven A. Interpersonal Communication Relating to Others. Boston: Allyn and Bacon Inc., 1996. Brooks, Nelson. Language and Language Learning: Theory and Practice. Second Edition. New York: Harcout, Brace and World, Inc., 1964. Carver, Charles S. and Michael F.Scheier. Perspective on Personality. Third Edition.

  Boston: Allyn and Bacon Inc., 1996. Crow, Lester D. and Alice Crow. Child Psychology. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1958.

  Freud, Sigmund. A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1920. Gaskell, Elizabeth. North and South. Wordsworth Limited Editions. Cumberland House, 1994. Graham, Little. Approach to Literature: An Introduction to Critical Study of Content and Method in Writing. Marricaville, Maryland: Science Press, 1981. Guilford, J. B. Personality. New York: Mc. Graw-Hill, 1959. Hall, Elizabeth. Psychology Today: An Introduction. Fifth edition. New York: Random House, 1983. Harriman, Phillip L., Littlefield. Handbook of Psychological Terms. Little Field, New Jersey: Adams and Co., 1959. Holman, C.H. and Harmon. W. A Handbook To Literature (5

  th

  . Ed). New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1989. Hornby, A. S. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Fifth Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Hurlock, Elizabeth. Personality Development. New York: Mc Grow-Hill Company, Kalish, Richard A. The Psychology of Human Behavior. Third edition. San Fransisco: Wadsworth Publishing Company Inc., 1973. Martin, William B. and Stendler, Clia Burn. Child Behavior and Development. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World Inc., 1959. Milligan, Ian. The Novel in English: An Introduction. London: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1983. Murphy, M. J. Understanding Unseens: An Introduction to English Poetry and the

  English Novel for Overseas Students. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd., 1972.

  NN,Characterization.<http://www.victorianweb.org/author/gaskell/charov.htm>.(acce ssed on October 5, 2007). NN,Characters.< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Hale>. (accessed on April 30, 2008) NN,NorthandSouth.<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_and_South_(1854_novel> (accessed on May 2, 2008). Perrine, Lawrence. Literature: Structure, Sound and Sense. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1974. Pikunas, Justin. Human Development. Tokyo: Mc Graw-Hill Kogakusha Ltd., 1976. Rohrberger, Mary and Woods, Samuel H. Jr. Reading and Writing about Literature.

  New York: Random House Inc., 1971. Sanders, Andrew. The Short Oxford History of English Literature. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.

  Van de Laar and Schonderwoerd N. An Approach to English Literature. Rotterdam: L. G. C. Malmberg, 1957.

  

Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary. Springfield, Massachusettes: Merriam-

Webster Inc., 1986.

  Wellek, Rene and Warren, Austin. Theory of Literature. Third Edition. New York: A

  Worchel, Stephen and Shebilske. Psychology: Principles and Application.

  Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1989.

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