371 Head First PMP, 2nd Edition
1 Tired of facing the same old problems?
There’s a whole lot that project managers have learned over the years, and passing the 28 I n good c om pa nyIf you want something done right… better hope you’re in the right kind of organization. 26 Exam Answers 24 Exam Questions 19 A PMP certification is more than just passing a test 15 How project managers run great projects 15 … and what a project is NOT 12 What a project IS… 11 Portfolios, programs, and projects 6 Understand your company’s big picture 5 What you need to be a good project manager 4 Your problems...
2 The Boss’s
table of contents I t a ll fit s t oge t he r All of the work you do on a project is made up of processes. The process frameworkCooking up a project Once you know how all the processes in your project fit together, it’s easy to remember everything you need to know for the PMP® exam.
3 Here’s where you put all the information
for now 89 These clients are definitely not satisfied 90 The day-to-day work of a project manager 91 The six Integration Management processes 92 Start your project with the Initiating processes 95 Integration management and the process groups 96 The “Develop Project Charter” process 98 Make the case for your project 99 Use expert judgment to get an outside opinion 100 A closer look at the project charter 102Two things you’ll see over and over... 120 Sometimes you need to change your plans 121Look for changes and deal with them 122 Make only the changes that are right for your project 123Changes, defects, and corrections 124 Decide your changes in change control meetings 124How the processes interact with each other 125 Control your changes; use change control 126Preventing or correcting problems 126 Finish the work, close the project 130So why INTEGRATION management?
4 Time to book a trip
Once you have a good idea of what needs to be done, you need to track your scope as the project work is happening. As each goal is accomplished, you confirm that all of 5the work has been done and make sure that the people who asked for it are satisfiedwith the result.
6 Ge t t ing it done on t im e Time management is what most people think of when they
But no matter whether 7your project is big or small, and no matter how many resources and activities are in it, the process for figuring out the bottom line isalways the same! 356 The Earned Value Management formulas 357 Interpret CPI and SPI numbers to gauge your project 358Forecast what your project will look like when it’s done 362 $ Once you’ve got an estimate, you can calculate a variance!
8 Ge t t ing it right It’s not enough to make sure you get it done on time and under
But it’s not enough to put a good team together… If you want your project to go well, you’ve got to keep the team motivated and deal with any conflicts that happenalong the way. Human resource managementMike needs a new team 444 Get your team together and keep them moving 446Figure out who you need on your team 448 The staffing management plan 452Get the team together 454 Develop your project team 458Develop the team with your management skills 459 Your interpersonal skills can make a big difference for your team 460Lead the team with your management skills 462 Motivate your team 464Stages of team development 466 How’s the team doing?
9 Ge t t ing t he t e a m t oge t he r
Luckily, there’sCommunications Management, which is how to get everyone talking about the work that’sbeing done, so that they all stay on the same page. 510More Distribute Information tools 512 Let everyone know how the project’s going 515Take a close look at the work being done 516 Now you can get the word out 519People aren’t talking!
10 Ge t t ing t he w ord out Communications management is about keeping everybody in
When there arethree peopleon the project, there arethree lines of communication But add three more people to the project, and youadd a LOT of potential communication to the project! Don’t forget to count the project manager!
11 Pla nning for t he unk now n
quantitative analysis 564 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis 565Calculate the Expected Monetary Value of your risks 568 Decsion tree analysis uses EMV to help you make choices 570Update the risk register based on your quantitative analysis results 572 How do you respond to a risk? You can use risk planning to identify potential problems that could cause trouble for your project, analyze how likely they’ll be to occur,take action to prevent the risks you can avoid, and minimize the ones that you can’t.
12 Ge t t ing som e he lp
If you find the right seller, choose theright kind of relationship, and make sure that the goals of the contract are met, you’ll get the job done and your project will be a success. The Codehelps you with ethical decisions that aren’t really covered in the body of knowledge—and it’s a big part of the PMP® exam.
13 M a k ing good choic e s It’s not enough to just know your stuff. You need to
658 We’re not all angels 659 Exam Questions 660Exam Answers 662 I’m sorry, I can’t accept the gift. table of contents A little last-minute reviewHere’s how to do this next section 673 Integration Questions 674Scope Questions 675 Time Questions 676Cost Questions 677 Quality Questions 678Human Resource Questions 679 Communications Questions 680Risk Questions 681 Procurement Questions 682Great job!
14 Che ck your k now le dge
If you can answer “yes” to any of these: But even if you don’t have quite enough hours yet, this book can still 1 Are you completely new to project management?help you study now, so you can be (To qualify to take the PMP exam, you need to show aready when you’ve got those hours under your belt! Plus, the ideas willcertain number of hours of experience as a professional project manager.)help you on your job immediately... For example, studies show that putting words within the pictures they describe (as opposed tosomewhere else in the page, like a caption or in the body text) causes your brain to try to makes sense of how the words and picture relate, and this causes more neurons to fire.
We include content for both sides of your brain, because the more of your brain you AIMING FOR THE EXAM engage, the more likely you are to learn and remember, and the longer you can stay focused. This book talks about the practical applications of a lot of the ideas in the PMBOK®Guide, but you should have a pretty good idea of how the guide talks about the material, too.
1 Introduction Why get certified?
Common pitfalls: better avThe PMBOK® Guide has great It helps you learn how to ideas on how to estimate your It outlines techniques forplan for and protect against tasks and put them in the right planning and tracking yourdefects in your project.sequence to get your projects costs.done as quickly and efficiently as possible. This is whatyou’ll need if you’re going to take on the role of project manager: This means knowing all of the tools andKnowledge techniques in the PMBoK® Guide and how and when to use them.
A: Actually, it doesn’t claim that at all
If You might also see the word “process” you start a project to create a piece of software or build a building, instead of “operation.” A team might run a you can tell that software or that building from any other one that project to build software, but the company has been produced.might have an ongoing process for keeping the servers that run the software fromgoing down. Looking at the outputs from the All of the stuff that’sexecuting process group and comparing produced in the executingthem to the plan constantly helps you process group is monitoredmake decisions about what to do to in the next group.stay on track.
2. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a project?
An energy company is investing in a series of initiatives to look for alternative energy sources so that the company can be competitive in 10 years. The initaitives are tracked and managed together because this goal is vital to the success of the company.
4. Which of the following is NOT a responsibility of a project manager?
Managing project constraints C. Gathering product requirements D.
5. Which of the following is NOT a Process Group?
Which of the following core characteristics of a project manager are you using to find the problem? She realizes that because the software will be delivered to the QA team exactly when they have overlapping vacations, there is a serious risk of quality problems because there won’t be anyone to test the software before it goes into production.
6. Which of the following is NOT a knowledge area?
Answer: C This is a resource constraint, because the project manager’s resources – in this case, the people who will be testing the software – are not going to be available to her when she needs them. This is a good example of how a lack of personal skills can lead directly to major project problemsdown the line, and it’s why this particular project manager needs to work on his personal skills.
2 In good company
find ways to move up the deadline.quality There are lots of ways to change how long A construction project manager assumed Constraint affected: it’ll take to do your that the weather would cooperate with project, but sometimestime the plans to complete the job, but there simply isn’t thunderstorms have derailed the project.enough time. (Here’s ahere is to understand that Cost, Time, Scope, Quality, Risk, and quick example: think about another project manager who won’t Resources are all related to each other. You need to pay attention to get to use the resources he planned on because they’re taken upall of them and if you manage your project in favor of one of them, it by your project.) Change can be really hard for people to adapt to, will affect the others.
3 She manages the budget for each release and keeps the costs contained
In this kind of company, the team reports to the project manager, whoIn a functional has a lot more authority.organization, the teams working on the projectdon’t report directly to the PM. Instead, the Functional Organization Projectized Organizationteams are in departments, and the project managerneeds to “borrow” them for the project.
1. Which of the following is NOT a Project Constraint?
Quality B. Time D.
2. A project manager is running a data center installation project. He finds that his stakeholder is angry because he’s run over his budget because the staff turned out to be more expensive than planned. The stakeholder’s unhappy that when the project is over, the servers won’t have as much
drive space as he needs. Which of the following constraints was not affected by this problem?
3. Which of the following is NOT an example of operational work?
Building a purchase order system for accounts payable B. Submitting weekly purchase orders through a purchase order system C.
4. You’re managing a project to build a new accounting system. One of the accountants in another department really likes the current system and is refusing to be trained on the new one. What is the BEST way to handle this situation? A
Appeal to the accountant’s manager and ask to have him required to take training C. Get a special dispensation so that the accountant doesn’t have to go to the training D.
5. Which of the following is used for identifying people who are impacted by the project?
Resource List B. Enterprise Environmental Factors D.
6. Your manager asks you where to find a list of projects that should be managed together. What is the BEST place to find this information?
Project Plan B. Project Charter C.
7. You want to know specifically which business goal a group of projects and programs are going to accomplish. Which is the best place to look for this information?
Project Plan B. Project Charter C.
8. A project coordinator is having trouble securing programmers for her project. Every time she asks her boss to give a resource to the project he says that they are too busy to help out with her project. Which type of organization is she working in? A
Functional B. Weak Matrix C.
9. A project manager is having trouble securing programmers for her project. Every time she asks the programming manager for resources for her project, he says they’re all assigned to other work. So she is constantly having to go over his head to overrule him. Which type of organization is she working for? A
Answer: D When a stakeholder is negatively impacted by your project, you need to manage his expectations and help him to buy into your project. Answer: C A portfolio charter will give the business goal that a group of projects and programs will accomplish as part of a portfolio.
8. Answer: A
Since the project manager has to ask permission from the functional manager and can’t overrule him, she’s working in a functional organization. If it were a projectized organization, she wouldn’t have to get permission from the functionalmanager at all because she’d be the person with authority to assign resources to projects.
3 The process framework It all fits together
Once All of the work you do on a project is made up of processes.you know how all the processes in your project fit together, it’s easy to remember everything you need to know for the PMP® exam. When you cook something from a recipe for the first time, there are certain steps you always follow: My girlfriend’s gonna love coming home to myhome‑baked cookies as a birthday present!
1 Then make all your plans
2 the process frameworkCook ’em until they’re golden (around 8–10 minutes) Set the oven to a temperatureof 375˚F She’s going to love these. Tonight, I’ll bask in the warm glow of her love (and the knowledge ofa project well done).
3 Finally, you can give the cookies to a loved one
The first phase is to build Creating forums and athe main web site for a blog for the site requiredproject; when it’s online the same team, so thisand the site is up, the project has sequentialproject manager delivers phases, which means thea complete result that’s second phase can’t startready to go, and then until the first one ends.starts on the next phase. In thisNeeds Success!case, they don’t start at the same time – the firstphase’s team needs to get When the second phasestarted before the team begins, it needs to go throughfor the second phase.the Initiating process group independently, even though thefirst phase is already in the Since one team is planning one phase whileExecuting processes.executing another, this means the whole team (INCLUDING designers, testers,etc.) is usually working at the same time.
2 Develop project management plan
In the cookie project, the raw ingredients from the store arethe outputs of the planning process, but they become the inputs for the executing process, where you mix the ingredients together and bake them: Mixing ProcessYou’ll need a tray to put the cookie dough on duringthe cooking process. knowledge area magnets the process frameworkCommunications Management Getting the people to work Making sure that everybody Figuring out how to Finding contractors to help on the team and helping knows what they need to protect your project you do the work.
8. Answer: B
In a projectized organization, the project manager has the power to assign tasks, manage the budget, and release the team. They have to share a lot of responsibility with functional managers, and those functional managers have a lot of leeway to make decisions about how the teammembers are managed.
4 Project integration management Getting the job done
larry gets a clientTime to book a trip Everyone in the Midwestern Teachers’ Association has gotten together and planned a trip—a tour of Asia and Europe, startingwith Mumbai, India and ending up in Paris, France. But he’s not really planning for the results of that decision—and neitherLarry may think this are the teachers.itinerary is a plan, but it One of the keys of project management is thinking a project through beforedoesn’t detail any of thestarting the work, so problems that could arise down the line are anticipatedproblems that could arise ahead of time.
TRAVEL ITINERARY FOR MIDWESTERN TEACHERS ASSN
That’s why the process groups are project or so useful—they’re a good way to think sub-project begins about how you do the work. They’re what people usually think of as a you don’t have the authority project manager’s “core” responsibilities.to tell your team what to do and when to do it.
1 Develop Project Charter
The sponsor is the person who paysfor the project Develop Project Management 2 Develop Project Management PlanPlan The project management plan is the most important document in the entire PMBOK® Guide because it guides everything that happens onthe project. Your job is to make sure that everybody is doing what they should be doing, andthat the products or services your project creates meet the needs of the e all of stakeholders.ork gets done.
1 It turns out that one of the teachers is a vegetarian, so some of the
Charter 2 You come up with a detailed description of everything thatDevelop Project you plan to do to get the teachers where they want to be. Management Plan 3 The CEO of Acme Travel sends you a document thatDirect and Manage assigns you to the project.
4 You check in with the teachers at each destination to
First, the Develop Project Charter process tells everyone in the company why the project is needed, and gives youthe authority you need to make it happen. Identify Stakeholders is NOTin the Integration Everything you know Management knowledge about the work thatarea.needs to get done The project charter isThe Identify the output from the first Stakeholders process process and the input to theis part of the second.
Chapter 10. Now you can start
the big pictureIntegration management and the process groups Here is how the process groups all fit into this whole IntegrationManagement thing. The process groups show you the order in which these things happen, and how the processes interact.
1 Develop Develop Project Project Charter Management Plan
A project manager has to integrate the work of everyone on the team through all of thesemajor activities to keep the project on track: 1. Executing Closing 3 6 Direct and Manage Close Project or Project Execution PhaseManage the Closing out the work so it getsproject makes sure done efficiently.you get paid—and more importantly,that you have a chance to write downall the lessons you learned along the way.
4 Monitor and control project workThis is wher e youconstantly look f or anyproblems in the project. Monitoring and ControllingYou need to make sure that you make ONLYthose changes that are
5 Perform Integrated necessary and will help your project. Change Control
In any kind of company, it’s really important to know who’s in charge, This is a description of the business need, scop and what resources you have available to you when you manage a project. If the experts agree that the project’s business case, contract, and statement of work all add up to a product that’s going to do goodthings for your company, they’ll usually give the green light to write the charter.
1. Acme Travel creates a committee to review all of the Business Case Documents that have been submitted for possible projects and compare them to figure out which projects should be funded in the next quarter
A. Yes B.
2. Acme hires an outside consultant to help them figure out whether or not their current strategic goals are the right ones for the company
A. Yes B.
3. Acme asks the VP of Asia Travel to review the business case for the Midwest Teacher’s Association trip and decide whether or not the projected costs and schedule look right
Yes B. Acme installs portfolio management software to help them evaluate all of their project proposals and decide which ones are most likely to benefit the company.
5. The travel agent who is assigned to the project writes a business case for the project
The project sponsor usually writes the charter.project in the sense that they’re providing funding for And it’s always easy to tell who the project sponsor is: the sponsor isthe project team at the travel agency and cuttingthe person who pays for the project, and comes up with the project’schecks to the airlines, hotels, tour groups, etc. You can think ofthe business case as the background research that had to be done the project charter.in order to make sure the project was worth doing, and the project charter as the thing that formally announces the decision to do it.
A: PM manages the project
¢ The sponsor is the person (or people) responsible for paying for the project and is part In matrixed of all important project decisions.organizations, your ¢ Develop Project Charter is the very first process performed in a project.team doesn’t report to you, so the ¢ The project charter gives the project manager authority to do the project work, and charter gives you to assign work or take control of project resources for the duration of the project. The project management plan lets you plan ahead for problems The Planning process group is where you figure out how you’re going to do the project—because you need to come up with a plan before you bring the team into do the work.