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PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI THE STUDY OF TRANSLATION METHODS IN TRANSLATING WIZARDRY TERMS IN J.K ROWLING’S HARRY POTTER AND THE CHAMBER OF SECRET AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By: YEMIMA ANGGRAENI PRIBADI Student Number: 06 4214 064 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2013 i PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI When life gives you bite them! and make a funny face. vi PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI For My beloved Dad, Mom. and Sandy. My dear Friends and Colleagues vii PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Above all, I would like to thank Jesus Christ for all blessing and guidance before, during, and until I finished this undergraduate thesis. I would also like to thank Mr. Harris Hermansyah Setiajid, S.S., M.Hum., my advisor, for his patience, guidance, and helps during the writing of this undergraduate thesis, and to Mrs. Anna Fitriati S.Pd., M.Hum, my co-advisor, for reading, correcting, and giving me essential points in order to make this undergraduate thesis better. And I also like to thank all my lecturers in English Letters Department for giving me so much knowledge. My biggest gratitude also goes to my Dad and Mom, the way they encouraged me, trusted me, and their patience made my fears easier to defeat. To one and my only brother Sandy, I thank you for your unseen support that can push me to finish this undergraduate thesis as soon as possible. I always love you with all my heart. Finally lots of gratitudes to all my friends in English Letters, for “Chatter Box” (Andry, Shin, Damay, Sela, and Pricil) and all my 2006 friends for their spirits to finish this undergraduate thesis, it is nice to be their friends. Another gratitude to Pricilla Anindyta, my partner in crime, thank you for always be there no matter what happened. Last but not least, I thank you so much Via for all the helps, I mean it. Let’s fight together! Yemima Anggraeni Pribadi viii PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE ..........................................................................................................i APPROVAL PAGE .............................................................................................. ii ACCEPTANCE PAGE ........................................................................................ iii LEMBAR PENGESAHAN PUBLIKASI ILMIAH ..............................................iv LEMBAR PERNYATAAN KEASLIAN ................................................................. v MOTTO PAGE ..................................................................................................... vi DEDICATION PAGE ........................................................................................ vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ................................................................................. viii TABLE OF CONTENTS .....................................................................................ix ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................ x ABSTRAK...............................................................................................................xi CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ......................................................................1 A. Background of the Study .........................................................................1 B. Problem Formulation ...............................................................................5 C. Objectives of the Study ...........................................................................6 D. Definition of Terms .................................................................................6 CHAPTER II: THEORETICAL REVIEW .....................................................8 A. Review of Related Studies ......................................................................8 B. Review of Related Theories ....................................................................10 1. Definition of Translation ....................................................................10 2. Theory of Translation Methods ..........................................................11 3. Translation Process .............................................................................17 C. Theoretical Framework ...........................................................................19 D. Research Framework ...............................................................................20 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY .................................................................23 A. Object of the Study .................................................................................23 B. Method of the Study ...............................................................................24 C. Research Procedure ............................................................................... 24 1. Object of Data ...................................................................................24 2. Data Collection ..................................................................................25 3. Data Analysis .....................................................................................25 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS ..............................................................................27 A. Wizardry Terms in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secret.................27 B. Methods Applied in Translating Wizardry Terms...................................30 1. Exoticism ...........................................................................................30 2. Cultural Borrowing ............................................................................34 3. Calque ................................................................................................35 4. Communicative ...................................................................................38 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION .........................................................................43 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..............................................................................................45 APPENDIX ........................................................................................................47 ix PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRACT YEMIMA ANGGRAENI PRIBADI. The Study of Translation Methods in Translating Wizardry Terms in J.K Rowling’s Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secret. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2013. Translation is not easy, never was, and never will be. There are many methods and strategies. There are many words, phrases, and sentence that cannot be directly translated. Strategies and methods are used to deliver the message or idea in order to reach an equivalent effect for the readers. This research studies the translation methods used by Listiana Srisanti in translating the wizardry terms in the novel Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secret into Indonesia version, based on Hervey and Higgins’ translation theories. The first problem is the data comparison between SL and TL, served side by side. The second problem analyzed the translation methods used to translate those terms based on Hervey and Higgins’ translation methods; they are exoticism (9 terms), cultural borrowing (3 terms), calque (4 terms), communicative translation (14 terms), and cultural transplantation (none). From the analysis, the most used method is communicative translation. It takes the highest percentage of 47% of the data. Communicative translation is the most suitable method to the translate fiction novel, because it is emphasizing more on the meaning. The form is structured in a way that it is acceptable to the reader. This method helped readers to understand more of the difficult terms in the novel, since not all terms are familiar in Indonesian culture. One method that did not used at all is cultural transplantation method. This method is the opposite end of level from exoticism, but more like adaptation. This method is not sis for suitable to use to translate work-fiction because usually adaptation is used for something real, but in foction novel mostly are unreal, only appear in imagination To be concluded, the best way to translate work-fiction is to use communicative translation, because the method works in way that people easily to understand. Moreover, this method can avoid confusion and misunderstanding the wizardry terms, especially in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secret. x PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRAK YEMIMA ANGGRAENI PRIBADI. The Study of Translation Methods in Translating Wizardry Terms in J.K Rowling’s Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secret. Yogyakarta: Jurusan Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2013. Penerjemahan tidak mudah, tidak pernah, dan tidak akan pernah. Ada banyak metode dan strategi. Banyak kata-kata, frase, dan kalimat yang tidak dapat diterjemahkan secara langsung. Strategi dan metode digunakan untuk menyampaikan pesan atau ide untuk mencapai efek yang setara bagi para pembaca. Penelitian ini mempelajari metode penerjemahan yang digunakan oleh Listiana Srisanti dalam menerjemahkan istilah-istilah yang berhubungan dengan ramuan dalam novel fiksi Harry Potter dan Kamar Rahasia dalam versi Indonesia, berdasarkan teori penerjemahan milik Hervey dan Higgins'. Masalah pertama merupakan perbandingan data yang digunakan dalam dua bahasa, Inggris dan Indonesia, dan disajikan berdampingan. Masalah kedua menganalisis metode penerjemahan yang digunakan untuk menerjemahkan istilah-istilah sihir tersebut berdasarkan metode penerjemahan milik Hervey dan Higgins’; yaitu exoticism (9 istilah), cultural borrowing (3 istilah), calque (4 istilah), communicative translation (14 istilah), dan cultural transplantation(tidakada) Dari hasil analisis, metode yang paling banyak digunakan adalah communicative translation dengan persentase tertinggi 47% dari seluruh data. Communicative translation adalah metode yang paling sesuai untuk menerjemahkan novel fiksi, karena lebih menekankan pada makna. Bentuk kalimatnya disusun sedemikian rupa sehingga dapat diterima oleh pembaca. Metode ini membantu pembaca untuk lebih memahami istilah-istilah asing dalam novel, karena tidak semua istilah tersebut sering digunakan atau akrab dalam kebudayaan Indonesia. Salah satu metode yang tidak digunakan sama sekali adalah metode cultural transplantation. Metode ini tidak cocok digunakan untuk menerjemahkan karya fiksi karena biasanya metode ini digunakan untuk sesuatu yang nyata, tetapi dalam karya fiksi sebagian besar hal adalah hal-hal hanya muncul dalam imajinasi. Sebagai kesimpulannya, cara terbaik untuk menerjemahkan karya-fiksi adalah dengan menggunakan metode communicative, karena metode ini bekerja dengan cara yang efektif untuk membuat karya terjemahan mudah dipahami pembaca. Selain itu, metode ini dapat menghindarkan kebingungan pembaca dalam mengartikan istilah sihir, terutama istilah-istilah yang ada dalam novel Harry Potter dan Kamar Rahasia. xi PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of Study In this globalization era, reading is one of the favorite things that is done by many people. By reading, people can understand many things, many topics, even many events. Reading also gives special satisfaction to identify things that they like such as specific information about particular topics or specific story about something such as literary text without any limitations. However, readers will find difficulties when they have to read texts in another language different from their mother tongue. Translation can be a bridge to connect the reader and the language which is different from the reader‟s language. Translation has taken a common yet significant role in literature world. In terms of literature, according to Peter Newmark (1988), translation is specifically defined as rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text. In terms of communication, translation can be defined as one type of communication tool that connects two or more different language and, thus, it connects people with different language. It is important to have better understanding about translation, what translation is and what methods are used in translation since nowadays many texts are translated into some different languages to make the reader understand those texts in their language. 1 PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2 When a translator translates a novel into another language, the he has to know the idea of the story and what the author wants to say through the story. The most important thing that the translator may not forget is how they deliver the idea without reducing even more, change the message of the text in the process when they have to translate it into another language. The translator have to consider the details, the accuracy, social context, and the target reader of the text. Nevertheles, producing the closest equilavent effect is not easy at all since two different languages also have different culture. As an example, the Indonesian word canting that refers to a tool in making batik will not have the equivalence in English, because batik and canting are culture-specific terms that exist only in Indonesia. Translator duty is showing what the source language wants to deliver a word in the target language as close as possible, both in the matter of message and understanding of the reader. There is an interesting issue in translating a text, especially in a fiction text that is the use of some specific terms. The use of specific terms in some texts can improve the interesting side of those texts. Specific term is used to mention a term in other word. Even though specific terms give positive effects for the text, it can also make the reader confuse because of its unfamiliarity. Sometimes, the term that is used to explain certain word have no relation with the real meaning of the word itself. It is interesting to analize why the translator translate a certain word using the specific term. By knowing the reason, confusing arguments can be avoided. PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3 Those reasons above become a major reason why translation method is conducted in this study. By knowing what kind of method that is suitable with the process of translating specific terms, readers can get more knowledge about translation proccess, that there are many ways to translate the unknown terms that appeared in a fiction. Besides, by understanding the methods which are used in a text makes readers find what the interesting side of that text is. Translation methods proposed by Hervey and Higgins are choosen by the writer because they have several methods that can be used to translate the wizardry terms in J.K Rowling‟s Harry Potter and The Chamber of Secret. In this research, the writer intends to analyse the translation methods that are applied in the famous novel “Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secret” in translating wizardry terms According to Bloomsbury Journal on July 21, 2009, Harry Potter children‟s books have been translated into over 40 languages and have sold millions of copies worldwide. As people know that J.K Rowling is a very creative author, and with no doubt her words choice are very difficult and sometime unique. She often used words adapted from many languages and cultures; she even adapted words from some myth, like Greek and Roman myth. The writer specifically chooses the second series which is “Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secret” because the writer found many new unknown terms related to „wicthcraft stuff‟. That is why the writer is interested to study about it, to see how far the translation proccess can go and how the translator used the translation strategies to achieve translation equivalent. PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 4 Translation becomes really important because it is one of the ways to make people with different mother language can easily understand and enjoy reading the text. Translation process and its result prove that language is developed from time to time. With the right method, the result of translation can be directly delivered to all people in the world without losing its essence. The writer is interested in the cultural issues that appear in the book, because Indonesian culture is not really similar with Western culture so far. There are some fundamental differences between both cultures, as the example taken from the book below; The word broomstick is translated into sapu terbang. Actually the Indonesian meaning of broomstick is batang sapu, or in English, a broom with a long handle and small thin stick at the end, or the handle of a broom. In Indonesian culture, witch stories do not involved flying broomstick as their transportation, they just disappear then reappear in other place in a blink. However, in western culture the witches are always traveling with their flying broomstick, it becomes their characteristic. The translator chooses to use more general word relating to witches story to define the meaning of broomstick. The cultural adaptation makes the meaning changed but make the translation more imaginative. The phenomena above inspires the writer to analyze the way of translating such terms in the book using translation strategies. The writer decided that this topic is worth analyzed because it is important to understand the origin of the term used in the work of translation. The analysis PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 5 supported by facts of the significant differences between Indonesian cultures with Western culture. That is why the writer analized further about translation strategies in translating wizardry terms in the book. The writer hopes that this research is usefull for those who wanted to learn about translation strategies, ecpecially for professional translator. The writer choose to analize translation strategies because producing closest equivalence in the target language is very important in translation work. Moreover, by understanding the problem and the strategies in translation, first we know how a word can mean differently and how a word can make such a significant change for a sentence or even for the text itself. Second, we can learn the strategies that are used by professional translators in translating a text, particularly a fiction novel. Finally, we can understand the text itself better and avoid misunderstanding on the message of the text. B. Problem Formulations This study focuses on two problem formulation as follows: 1. How are the wizardry terms in Harry Potter and The Chamber of Secret translated into Bahasa Indonesia? 2. What methods are applied the most in the translation of special term in Harry Potter and The Chamber of Secret? PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 6 C. Objectives of Study The first research problem is to state the translation of the wizardry terms in both language, English and Indonesia. This research obejctive is to give exact comparison between the SL and TL text. The second research problem is to find out the translation strategies applied in the Indonesian translation of Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secret. The research objective is to reveal what strategies are applied due to achieve equivalent effect in the translation proccess of Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secret from English to Indonesia. This research will give knowledge to recognize and also to determine the strategies on translation based on Hervey and Higgins. Furthermore, this research will be usefull for those who wants to conduct further studies in this field. D. Definition of Terms To avoid different understanding during reading the paper, the analysis will provide some definitions of important words used in the analysis. It will help to make same perception. They are: 1. Translation Newmark stated that translation is an act of rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text. (1988) 2. Translation Method/Strategies PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 7 Krings defines translation strategy as translator's potentially conscious plans for solving concrete translation problems in the framework of a concrete translation task (1986:18). Loescher in his book Translation Performance, Translation Process and Translation Strategies also says that translation strategy is a potentially conscious procedure for solving a problem faced in translating a text, or any segment of it. (1991:8). As it is stated in this definition, the “notion of consciousness” is very important in distinguishing strategies which are used by the learners or translator. 3. Wizardry Term according to The Free Dictionary website, wizardry terms are any term related to magic, witching, witchcraft, voodoo, enchantment, sorcery, black art, necromancy, sortilege. (www.thefreedictionary.com/wizardry) 4. Source Language Newmark in his book A Textbook of Translation said source language is the language of the text that is to be or has been translated (1988). 5. Target Language Target language is the language of the translated text (Newmark, 1988). 6. Equivalent Effect As stated by Newmark equivalent effect is the same effect (or one as close as possible) on the readership of the translation as was obtained on the readership of the original (1988) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 8 CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW A. Review of Related Studies The studies from some sources below will support the analysis especially to analize the methods used in translation. 1. A Morphological Study of Spell Words in J.K Rowling‟s Harry Potter by Weny Natalia. In her research, Weni Natalia focuses in word formation/ morphological process of the spell words in the novels. She analyzed the use of any affixes in spell words that mighy be used and especially the process of word formation. She used the of word and morphology from Andrew CarstairsMcCharty to analized the spell words, and etymology theory by Lyle Campbell. Since Weni Natalia took almost similar source, the writer find it helpful and and became more determined to analyze the novel, of course with different topics. 2. A Study on the Translation of Christian related terms in the Constitution of the Sisters of Notre Dame by Fransisca Margaretha Kuil. In her research, Fransisca Margaretha Kuil focuses on how the Christian terms in the novel is translated using Hervey and Higgins‟ method of translation. Their methods are used to find out what method and how they are applied in the translation of Christian terms. Fransisca‟s research is very helpful for the writer to analize further about translation method used in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secret, because they both are using translation method from Hervey and Higgins. 8 PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 9 In this present study, the writer analyzes something different. The writer compares the SL and TL text to find out whether the results of translation of Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secret are having equivalent effect or not. Further, the writer analysed the methods used in translating the wizardry terms and then clasify them. B. Review of Related Theories 1. Definition of Translation According to Larson (1984: 3), translation is transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor language by going from the form of the first language to the form of a second language by way of semantic structure. Nida and Taber (1974: 12) define translation as the reproduction in a receptor languageof the closest natural equivalent of the source message, first in terms of meaning, and secondly in terms of style. While Maurits D.S Simatupang, in his book, Pengantar Teori Terjemahan, stated that translating is transferring the meaning exist in the SL (source language) to the TL (target language), and make it as natural as possible along with the rules of the TL (2003: 3). To analyze what kind of method applied in translating wizardry terms in Harry Potter and The Chamber of Secret, the writer will use translation method from Sandor Hervey and Ian Higgins. According to Joanna Rek-Harrop in her journal, Cross Cultural Ambiguities , is talking about translations of cultural meaning often used some PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI terms: 'cultural equivalence,' 'cultural transposition,' 'cultural 10 transfer,' 'translational relationships,' and 'cultural adequacy.' The degree to which the original cultural perspective of the ST is translated faithfully into the TT varies depends on the method chosen by a translator. Hervey, Higgins and Haywood in their book Thinking Spanish Translation: A Course of Translation Method, Spanish to English are suggested a scale of translation techniques for culture specific concepts: a) Exoticism or cultural borrowing is when the TT retains the original cultural and linguistic features of the SL and is therefore the most faithful to the ST cultural background. The TT might be difficult to understand for public unfamiliar with the ST culture. b) Calque is a literally translated fixed expression which often either does not make logical sense in the TT or its sense is different from the one the ST author had in mind. c) Communicative translation uses communicative equivalents predominantly in terms of fixed expressions. d) Cultural transplantation is when the ST is fully adapted to the TT audience often beyond recognition of being a translation itself. (1995: 20) Proper names is one of wizardry terms features. To translate proper names there are some methods that can be applied. Based on Behnaz Sanaty Pour‟s journal about How To Translate Proper Names based on the theories from Hervey and Higgins‟ book Thinking French Translation (2002) present some strategies for translating proper names: PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 11 Exoticism: The name should remain unchanged from the SL to the TL. In this method no cultural transposition is occurred. Transliteration: The name is shifted to conform to the phonic or graphic rules of the TL. Cultural transplantation: The SL name is replaced by the TL name that has the same cultural connotation as the original one. (http://accurapid.com/journal/2009). The other features of wizardry terms are alliteration and assonance. In his journal about Problems of Rendering Linguistic Devices in Rumi's Poetry, Mahmoud Ordurari states that, Some cases of translation loss, every so often referred to as untranslatability, related to formal features of a text, seems to come about in alliteration, assonance, and ambiguous words. Hervey & Higgins (1992:76) define alliteration as "the recurrence of the same sound/ letter or sound/ letter cluster at the beginning of words (for example, 'many mighty midgets')"; however, when the recurrence of the same sound/ letter or sound/ letter cluster occurs "within words (for example, 'my crafty history master's bathtub')", this is called, according to Hervey & Higgins (1992:76), assonance (original emphasis). (http://accurapid.com/2008) 2. The Theory of Translation Methods a. Translation method of semantic and communicative translation by Peter Newmark According to Peter Newmark, there are two methods of translation, they are semantic translation and communicative translation. Most of non-literary writing, journalism, informative article and books, textbook, reports, scientific and technological writing, non-personal correspondence, propaganda, publicity notices, and popular fiction represent typical content suitable for communivative translation. Different with certain topics like philosophical, religious, political, PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 12 scientific, technical and literary, needs to be translated semantically because the original expression of the content itself (Newmark, 1988, p.44). Table 2.1. Semantic and Communicative Translation Semantic Translation Communicative Translation Attemps to render, as closely as the Attemps to produce in its readers an effect semantic and syntactic structures of the as close as possible to that obtained on the SL. readers of the original. Remains within the original culture. Adapts and makes the thought and cultural content of the original more accessible to the readers. More informative but less effective Effective in producing the same effect to the TL readers. More complex, awkward, detailed, Smoother, simpler, clearer, more direct, concentrated and pursues the thought- more conventional, more understandable, processes rather than the intention of the conforms to a particular register of translitter. language Tends to be over-translated Tends to use universal words than the original text (under-translated) Always inferior to its original, since it The translator is trying in his or her own involves loss of meaning. language to write a little better than the original. Translator has the right to correct and Translator has the right to correct or improve the logic and its structures. improve the logic, to replace clumsy with elegant, or at least functional, syntactic structures. Produces an art. Produces a craft. Reproduces the full meaning of the Give priority to message. original, not simply one of its function. The basic differences beetween communicative and semantic translation are in the stress on message and meaning, reader and author, utterances and though-process, last informative and constantive, but this is more about the matter of emphasis (Newmark, 1981). Newmark also stated that “a translation can be more or less semantic – more or less communicative – even a particular section or sentence can be trated more communicatively or less semantically” (1981, p.40). PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 13 The novel Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secret can be translated using communicative method but still cannot ignore the original one itself. b. Translation method of cultural issues by Sandor Hervey and Ian Higgins To analyze this research further, some methods from Sandor hervey and Ian Higgins will be used in this research. This following part will be about the theory of translation methods by Hervey and Higgins. Translation is involving the tranposition of thought expressed in one language by one social group into the appropriate expression of another group. In the cultural level, the translation should become an immediate effect on the reader with certain purposes. Hervey and Higgins in their book Thinking of Translation, a course of Translation Method: French-English, have explained more specific about translation methods that relate with the cultural term. Since, religion also involves in cultural term because it has certain belief and tradition. They mention some various kinds of cultural transposition which can be alternative to analize SL-biased literal translation. It means that as a translation tool, cultural transposition can suppres the cultural elements of the source text to make space for the cultural elements of the target text. They propose some degree of cultural transposition that involves the choice of features original to the TL and the target culture in preference to feature with their root in the source culture. The result is to reduce the „foreigness‟ or the specific term in the TL. In some extents, it is „naturalizing‟ into the TL and its cultural setting. The various degree of cultural transposition can be visualized as points along a scale. It starts between the extremes of exiticism which mostly based on source PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 14 culture and the other part is cultural transplantation which is mostly based on the target culture. The various degree of cultural transposition can be visualized as points along a scale. It starts between the extremes of exoticism which mostly based on source culture and the other part is cultural transplantation which is mostly based on the target culture. Figure 2.1. Hervey and Higgins‟ Translation Methods (Hervey et al, 1992:28) i. Exoticism Exoticism is a part of literal translations which has the extreme option in indicating cultural foreignness in a TL. A TL is translated in exotic manner to convey the signal of the exotic source culture and its cultural strangeness. It is a choice to import the linguistic and cultural features from SL to TL. In this process, the adaptation is rarely used to maintain the cultural foreignness (1992:30). The result here is that foreign features remained in the TL. The only possible advantage of the literal translation is its exoticism, but this advantage is cancelled by two things: the obscurity of the TL and the lack of contextual meaning. If there were good reasons for preserving the exoticism, one could diminish these advantages by indirectly signaling in the TL (1992:32). ii. Cultural borrowing PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 15 The method is particularly to transfer a SL expression faithfully into the TL. The translator will choose it when it shows impossible to find a suitable TL expression of original for translating the SL expression. A vital condition of cultural borrowing is that the textual context of the TL should make the meaning of the borrowed expression clear. Cultural borrowing will be most frequent in text on history or social or political matters, where the simplest solution is to give a definition of term like „taile‟, „department‟, or „pra-revolution‟, „parlement‟ and then to use the SL word in the TT. (1992:31). Furthermore, when the term of SL has already passed into the TL without significant change of meaning, the constituting standard conventional equivalents of the SL borrowed. In this case, the translator may use significant decision of the TL which equivalent to the SL. For example, such expression as „joie de vivre’, savoir-faire, „sauerkraut‟, „totem‟, taboo‟ can be called as standard conventional equivalents of the corresponding foreign expression. iii. Calque Calque is an expression that consists of TL words and respect TL syntax, but unidiomatic in the TL because it is copied on the structure of a SL expression. In essence, calque is a form of literal translation. A good calque manages to compromise between imitating a SL structure and not offending against the grammar of the TL. Calquing may also be called a form of cultural borrowing, although it replaces the verbatim borrowing of expression as a model of SL grammatical structures. Furthermore, some calqued expressions become standard TL cultural equivalent of the SL. For example are French „poids moucche‟, PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 16 calqued on English „flyweight‟; French-Canadian „bienvenue‟ calque in English „you‟re welcome‟. Like all forms of cultural borrowing, calque shows signs of a certain degree of exoticism, bringing into the TL the cultural foreignness and strangeness of the source cultures. (1992:33) iv. Communicative translation It is different from cultural borrowing since the translator may choose for ccommunicative translation. This is often necessary to transfer culturally conventional principle where a literal rendering would be inappropriate. For example, many proverbs, idioms and clichés have readily expressed communication equivalents in the TL. It can be assumed that communicative translation is appropriate in the context because it render the situational impact with the TL expression (1992:32). v. Cultural transplantation Cultural transplantation is the opposite end of level from exoticism which is the extreme form of all translation, but more like adaptations. The whole part in SL is transplanted into the rewritten expression of TL. The theories above are very helpful for the writer to analyze which strategies are suitable to translate the novel. Using those theories for further analysis will make the process of determining translation methode used in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secret easier. PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 17 3. Translation Process “Translation is a craft consisting in the attemp to replace a written message and or statement in one language by the same message and/or another language.” (Newmark, 1981, p.7). However, the work of translating is not as easy as it sounded. Utterance letter cannot just directly translate a text word by word. There are many considerations that have to be told of, such as the sturcture, the meaning, the cultural difference, etc. That is also one part of translation process. Much of the time is spent by the translator by thinking. In other word, the process of translation is mostly done in the mind of translator. There are 4 process of translating. They are analyse, transfer, restructuring, and evaluation. Figure 2.2. Translation Process Evaluation and Revision Original Text of Source Language Translation Text of Target Language External Process Analysis Restructuring Concept, Meaning, Message in Source, Language Internal process Transfering Concept, Meaning, Message in Target Language PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 18 In analysis process, a translator analyze understands the Source Language Text. A translator must analyze and understand the meaningful realtionship between words, gramatical relation, the meanging of its word or word combination, textual meaning, and even contextual. After having completed the process of analysis which involves both grammatical and semantic aspect of the text, it is essential for the results of the analysis to be transfered from the Source Language into the Target Language. This transfer process takes place in a translator‟s. In restructuring process, a translator finds the essential components of words, expression, and their sentence structure. Therefore, the content, meaning, and message of the Source Language can be fully transfered. After transferring the text into Target Language, the result of translation must be evaluated and revised, or rechecked of the target text in terms of correctness with the source text. If a translator feels that there is still awkwardness in the language, he or she must revise it again. This theory on translation process is useful for the writter to understand what is actually going on in the mind of a translator when he or she tries to identify the problem in the Source Language text and, then, find the strategies to be applied in the Target Language text. 3.1 Equivalence The principal purpose of any translation should be to achieve „equivalent effect‟ i.e. to produce the same effect (or one as close as possible) on the PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 19 readership of the translation as was acquired on the readership of the orgininal (Newmark, 1981). In doing translation, it is not easy to find an SL word which has a clear one-to-one equivalent in the TL because of the different cultural background in both language. Most language are likely to have equivalents for the more general verb of speech such as say and speak, but many may not have equivalents for the more specific ones. For example, be my guest, would not be equivalent if it is translated into Jadilah tamu saya. It would be equivalent if its is translated into Silahkan. It is translator‟s duty to represent what the Source Language wants to deliver in the Target Language as equal as possible, both in the matter of the message and the reader. Thus, the most important thing in translating a text is transferring the same mesage as the SL produces. Since both languages, English and Indonesian, have different cultural background, it is very essential to find the closest equivalent in the TL, although it does not pay attention on semantic or grammatical aspect. C. Theoretical Framework In this paper, the writer discussed two problems related to the theories and studies by using the translation methods and theories. The first problem formulation focuses on the comparison between TL and SL text. The aim is to identify the exact translation of Wizardry terms in Harry Potter‟s second book. While the second problems in this research focuses on application of Hervey and Higgins‟ method in translating Wizardry terms from English into Bahasa Indonesia. Theories related to the study must be used to accomplish the analysis. PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 20 The theories based on Hervey and Higgins‟s translation methods are used to explain the process of translating wizardry terms. There are 5 methods proposed by Hervey and Higgins; exoticism, cultural transplantation, cultural borrowing, communicative translation, and calque. All those methods above are applied in this undergraduate thesis in order to analized the translation process of translating wizardry terms from English into Bahasa Indonesia. D. Research Framework This research aims to analyze the translation method used to translate Wizardry terms in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secret. The research is started by collecting the Wizardry terms in the novel. From the data collection, the writer chose some sample for further analysis. The writer took random data to be analyzed further. To achieve precise analysis, the research is divided into two parts. The first section will analyze the translation of wizardry terms in both language, English and Indonesian. The results from the first analysis is used as reference for the second analysis which focuses on the translation method used by Hervey and Higgins. The results of the second analysis are useful to show what methods are used to translate the specific terms in the book, as well as the conclusion of this study. Explanation of the steps of this research will be stated in the following diagram. Description the steps of this research will be described in the following diagram. PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Figure 2.3. Research Diagram SL Text Result: the most suitable method appropriate to translate the book Wizardry terms Analysis part II Further analysis of the Wizardry terms using Hervey and Higgins theory Indonesian translation in TL Text Collecting 30 data of Wizardry terms Analysis Part I Compared the SL and TL text side by side and given brief explanation to the wizardry terms. 21 PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 22 CHAPTER III METODHOLOGY A. Object of the Study There are two works analyzed in this research. First, is Harry Potter and The Chamber of Secret by J.K Rowling. It was published by Bloomsbury Children‟s Book in July 1998 in UK and June 2, 1999 in the USA. This book received the British Book Awards 1998 Children‟s Book of the Year and was No. 1 in the adult hardback bestseller charts for a month after publication. Harry Potter and The Chamber of Secret tells about the adventure of Harry Potter in his second year in Hogwarts Magic School. There are many unique terms that are rarely used in our daily world. The second work is Harry Potter dan Kamar Rahasia, the translated version of Harry Potter and The Chamber of Secret, translated by Listiana Srisanti and published by PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama Jakarta in October 1999. The focus of this analysis is the specific terms appeared in the book. Special term could be word, phrase, sentence, or even proper name; Moaning Myrtle for an example. First part of the analysis will be about the comparison between English and Indonesian version, in order to determined the terms are correctly translated or not because they were translated into some different ways. 22 PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 23 B. Method of the Study The writer chose to do study library, because of availabity of the source data. Firstly the writer collected data from source book which is using English; Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secret, then searched for the same data from the same book only in Indonesian version; Harry Potter dan Kamar Rahasia. Next, the author divided it into several groups according to the function of those terms. The writer also use the help of the English language dictionary; Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary to compare those terms whether or not they are accurately translated into Bahasa Indonesia. To check the Indonesian translation, the writer used the dictionary by Echols and Sadily English-Indonesian Dictionary and/or Indonesian-English Dictionary. C. Research Procedure 1. Object of Data In this undergraduate paper, to analyze the terms will be used qualitative data from JK. Rowling‟s Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secret, both in English Version and Indonesian version which translated by Listiana Srisanti, and published by Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Taken from Matthew B. Miles and A Huberman‟s book Qualitative Data Analysis, the qualitative data is usually in the form of words rather than numbers (1994:1). The writer chose to focused on the meaning of the specific terms by compared the data in SL and TL text. The data of wizardry terms consist of words, phrase and some of them are proper names. The data from SL text are listed and compared with Indonesian PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 24 translation, so the data would be in pair in both language, English and Indonesia. The data captured in a sentence is stated in complete sentence and then analyzed to find out the strategies that came along with it. 2. Data collection The writer chose the data of wizardry terms in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secret as the main source. The data were taken from all pages in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secret from the whole book randomly. The main data are the unusual words used in most of chapter in the book. All the wizardry terms in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secret both SL and TL are underlined to help the writer in highlighting the data. Then, the data in the sentences that have been high-lighted will be listed in a column titled „SL‟. Another column is provided to list the page number and articles of the data. The column is divided into three, for numbering, SL data, to TL data. All the data from SL and TL would be analyzed in the next part. In this way, the data of SL will be listed in order of alphabet. Then, the TL data will follow the data of the SL in the next column. This could be useful in the analysis because the translation of those words and the differences can be seen clearly. Table 3.1. Example of Data Collection Code ST 1/9 ST He missed the castle, with its secret passageways and ghosts, his classes (though perhaps not Snape, the Potions master), ..... Code ST 1/9 TT Dia merindukan kastinya, dengan lorong-lorong rahasia dan hantu-hantunya, pelajaranpelajarannya (walaupun mungkin tidak merindukan Snape, guru pelajaran Ramuannya), .... PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 25 3. Data Analysis In analyzing the data, the writer used some steps. First of all, the writer listed all specific terms in the SL and TL text in both version to compare. Here, the writer also consulted Oxford Advance Learner‟s English – English Dictionary to find the idea that the author tried to deliver. Then, the writer matched the idea in the Indonesian version by consulting Echols and Sadily English-Indonesian dictionary, so that it would be easier to compare the idea of SL text and the TL text. The writer analyzed the SL and TL text by finding and bold the words, phrases, or sentences.. Next, the data would be analyzed further by finding the translation strategies applied on them based on Hervey and Higgins‟s theory about translation strategies. Next, the data analyzed further by finding the translation startegies applied on them based on Hervey and Higgins‟ theory about translation strategies. The analysis result was put in the table below: Table 3.2. Table for Data Comparison Code ST 2/9 ST ... ,Quidditch, the most popular sport in the wizarding world (six tall goal posts, four flying balls, and fourteen players on broomsticks) Code ST 2/10 TT Quidditch, olahraga paling populer di dunia sihir, (enam tiang gawang tinggi, empat bola terbang, dan empat belas pemain diatas sa

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