AN ANALYSIS OF CODE MIXING USED IN STATUS
UPDATE WRITING ON FACEBOOK
LAILI IDA SAFARINA
FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG
AN ANALYSIS OF CODE MIXING USED IN STATUS
UPDATE WRITING ON FACEBOOK
This thesis is submitted to meet one of the requirements
to achieve Sarjana Degree in English Education
LAILI IDA SAFARINA 06360183
This thesis written by Laili Ida Safarina was approved on January 26th, 2011
Advisor I Advisor II
This thesis was defended in front of the examiners of Faculty of Teacher
Training and Education University of Muhammadiyah Malang
and accepted as the partial requirement to achieve
Sarjana Degree in English Education
on January 26th, 2011
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education
University of Muhammadiyah Malang
Drs. H.Fauzan, M.Pd
1. Drs. Sudiran, M. Hum. 1...
2. Rina Wahyu S, M. Ed 2. ...
3. Fardini Sabilah, M. Pd 3. ...
Mot t o
How perfect is, all the praise is for Allah. None has the right to be
worshipped except Allah, and Allah is the greatest .
The world is full of science, and language is the key to open it
for the bright future.
De dic a t ion
•M y B el oved f atM y B el oved f at her and mot her w ho always support s me t o f inish t hisher and mot her w ho always support s me t o f inish t his mi ssi on unt i l t he end school day and gi ve me everyt hi ng w i t hout mi ssi on unt i l t he end school day and gi ve me everyt hi ng w i t hout
rew ard. rew ard.
•A l l of my f ri ends w ho al w ays gi ve me spi ri t .A l l of my f ri ends w ho al w ays gi ve me spi ri t .
•A l l my f ri ends i n my boardi ng houseA l l my f ri ends i n my boardi ng house
Alhamdulillah, praise be to Allah SWT, the main source of strength Who
always gives me strength and patience to finish this thesis. Shalawat and greetings
may always be upon the holy prophet Muhammad SAW and his family.
I would like to express my highest gratitude to my thesis advisor, Mrs. Fardini
Sabilah, M.Pd and Mrs. Riza Elfana, M.A who have been very helpful, kind, and
patient in giving advice, ideas, and valuable time during the process of this thesis
I would say thank to Muhamadiyah University of Malang and English
Department (thanks for giving me a chance to study here), all the lecturers and friends
at English Department, especially for my mother and father, my brother and sister,
and someone who always prays for me and gives me never ending love.
I hope Allah SWT will give them in return all of the good things that have
been given to me.
Finally, I hope that this thesis is useful to the reader in deeper comprehension
on sociolinguistic subject.
Malang, January 26th 2011
TABLE OF CONTENT
MOTTO & DEDICATION ... iii
TABLE OF CONTENT... v
ABSTRACT ... vii
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of Study... 1
1.2 Statement of Problem... 7
1.3 Purpose of Study... 7
1.4 Significant of Study ... 7
1.5 Scope and Limitation... 8
1.6 Definition of the Key Term... 8
CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LETERATUR 2.1 Language ... 10
2.2 Bilingualism & multilingualism ... 11
2.3 Language Choice... 12
2.3.1Code Switching... 12
2.3.2 Kinds of Code Switching... 13
2.4 Code Mixing ... 14
2.4.1 Kinds of Code mixing ... 15
2.4.2 Forms of code mixing ... 17
2.5 The affecting factors of the Occurrence of Code Mixing ... 19
2.5.1 The affecting factors based on Hymes’ theory ... 20
2.6 Media facebook ... 22
CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Design... 24
3.2 Research Object ... 24
3.3 Research Instrument ... 25
3.3.1 Observation... 25
3.3.2 Documentation ... 26
3.4 Data Collection ... 26
CHAPTER IV: FINDING AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Research Finding ... 28
4.1.1 Forms of Code Mixing... 28
22.214.171.124 Code Mixing in the Form of Word... 28
126.96.36.199 Code Mixing in the Form of Phrase ... 30
188.8.131.52 Code Mixing in the Form of Clause ... 33
184.108.40.206 Code Mixing in the Form of Hybrid ... 35
220.127.116.11 Code Mixing in the Form of Reduplication ... 36
4.1.2 The factors affecting based on Hymes’ theory ... 37
4.2 Discussion ... 38
CHAPTER V: COCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 5.1 Conclusion ... 40
5.2 Suggestion ... 40
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1.1 Background of the Study
Language and society are two things that cannot be separated from each other.
Both of them always interact each other because language interacts with other aspects
of human social behavior. Language will not exist if there is no person who
communicates using that language. Language is a systematic means of
communicating ideas or feeling by the use of conventionalized signs, sounds gestures
or marks having understood meanings. This is related to the definition of language
that is system of arbitrary verbal symbol by which member of speech community
used as a means of communication to interact and express their ideas, feeling and
thought (Wardhaugh, in Sabilah 2001) relates this to the definition of language that is
system of arbitrary verbal symbol.
Human being have two roles in life, namely as an individual and social
creature. As social creature, people cannot live alone. They need other people to
fulfill their need and help them to solve their problem. When people talk about
interaction, it cannot be separated from communication. Communication will always
happen in the human life interaction. To communicate with others, they need a tool of
communication and interaction. Therefore, they create a language as a
communication tool. They use language to avoid misunderstanding and
miscommunication. In addition, language can make us have more friends. Trudgill
(1974) stated that language is not only a means of communicating information about
the weather or other subjects, but also a very important means of establishing and
maintaining relationship with others. The definition above shows that language has an
important role in human life and it used in central to the most human activities.
In Indonesia, people sometimes use more than one language to communicate.
They are Indonesian as national language, regional language like Javanese,
sundanese, madurenese and English as foreign language. In bilingual and multilingual
societies, people may produce certain codes. They produce some codes because they
want to communicate with others smoothly and as result, the communication can run
Code is a term for any variety of language usually stressing on the linguistic
roles that underpin the variety (Mesthrie, 2000). When two or more people involve in
a system of communication, they employ a code. Code will be something we may
want to call a language, which is accessed by the speaker. Bilingual speakers have
access to two codes that can be shift as the converse, either by code switching or by
Gumperz in Wardhaugh (2002:103-111) distinguishes between code mixing
and code switching. He says that code mixing occurs when conversant use both
language together to the extent that they change from one language to the other in the
course of a single utterance. On the other hand, code switching occurs in condition of
change, where group boundaries are diffuse, norms and standards of evaluation vary
leave their mother tongue. Many sciences are more presenting foreign language terms
than local language terms. It is because science used local language terms growth
minimally. Journal of Information Technology (1996) stated that in information
technology, people can accept foreign language terms more than local language terms
because foreign language growth quickly than local language.
That situation can make people mix their local language with foreign
language. In linguistics, the phenomenon of language mixed with another language
called code mixing. There are some theories that underlined the process of code
mixing in a speech community. According to Marasigan (1983) code mixing is often
used by bilinguals, primary as solidarity. It is just a hazards mixing of two languages
brought about by laziness or ignorance or some combination of these. Rather, it
requires some conversant to have a sophisticated knowledge of both languages and to
be accurately aware of community norms.
Code mixing is a phenomenon in which two or more different languages are
in contact situation. In a community where there are more than one language to use,
mixing between two or more languages in an utterance is a common phenomenon. In
other word, bilingual or multilingual individuals often engage in code mixing or
languages mixing when communicating with other people. They often mix two
different languages or codes since they always have alternatives to choose the
Code mixing can take place between or even within sentences, involving
occurrences, there are several forms of code mixing. Code mixing may be in the
forms of words, phrases, clauses, idioms, hybrids, and reduplications (Suwito, in
Made 2009). Such forms of code mixing possibly inserted in any part of a sentence.
There are many factors influencing people to change or mix the language.
There four main factors of code choice (Grosjean.1992). First is the setting (time and
place) and the situations such as party, a lecture, or a date. Second is the participant in
interaction, their age, sex, occupation, socioeconomic status, origin, ethnicity and
their roles in relation to one another such as employer-employee, lecture-student.
Third is the topic (work, sports, and national events), and fourth is the function of
interaction such as greetings, thanks and apologies.
In the spreading facet, code mixing is influenced by media. In using of media
internet, facebook is very popular in society. People use facebook to connect and
share with others in their life. Today, Facebook become people’ s daily activity, so
face book is very helpful to develop code mixing in society.
Facebook is a social networking website operated and privately owned by
Facebook user. Users can add friends and send them messages, and update their
personal profiles to notify friends about themselves. Additionally, users can join
networks organized by workplace, school, or college. The website's name stems from
the colloquial name of books given to students at the start of the academic year by
university administrations in the US with the intention of helping students to get to
Facebook has features setting in which users may interact with others. They
include, the wall, a space on every user’ s profile page that allows friends to post
messages for the users to see. The photos, a feature in which where users are can
upload albums and photos. The status updates, which allows users to inform their
friends about their actions. The news feed, a feature which is announced and appeared
on every user’ s home page. It is including profile changes, upcoming events,
birthdays of user’ s friends and conversation with other users. One of the most popular
features setting in face book is instant messages that called “chat” to several networks
that allows users to communicate with friends (http://www.facebook.com/profile).
Code mixing occurs in any form of communication events in oral or written
language. Code mixing in the form of written language, for example, occurs in the
status updates writing on facebook. In status updates writing, it found the use of a
foreign language word or phrase within the facebook conversation. One possibly
mixes the foreign language words into status updates writing on facebook.
There are many research related with the study of code mixing. Dwi (2005)
studied on “Code Mixing Used in Empat Mata Television Program”. He described the
forms of code mixing in Empat Mata television program and the factors that influence
the used of code mixing in Empat Mata television program. His research was based
on qualitative approach. The data collected by using the observation. He found that
there were three forms of code mixing used Empat Mata television program. They
were code mixing in word, phrase, and sentence.
of language mixing in graffiti and the factors influencing the presence of language
mixing in graffiti. Her research was based on qualitative approach. The data were
collected by observation and data sampling. She found that language mixing in
graffiti in Yogyakarta is influenced by some factors, they are: the objectives of
creating language mixing in graffiti, the sociological factors of Yogyakarta city and
the multilingualism of Yogyakarta society.
Based on above description, the writer is interested in observing the
phenomena of code mixing by doing a research that might be important to contribute
to sociolinguistic science. She realized that this kind of phenomenon certainly raises a
question of what the real factors affecting such use of code mixing in the status
updates writing on facebook. The study of code mixing is not only related to the
linguistics study, but also related to the other disciplines such social or even
Nowadays, many sciences are more representing foreign language terms than
local language terms. It can see in the information technology, people can accept
foreign language terms more than local language terms that used in information
technology. It makes people mix their languages. That situation underlined the writer
conduct this study. Therefore, this study will be focus on the forms of code mixing
and factors that affecting code mixing that is used by face book user in status updates
1.2 Statement of Problem
1. What are the forms of code mixing used by facebook user in status updates
writing on facebook?
2. What are the factors affecting the use of code mixing by facebook user in status
updates writing on facebook based on Hymes’ theory?
1.3 Purpose of the study
1. To know the forms of code mixing used by facebook user in status updates
writing on facebook.
2. To know the factors that affecting the use of code mixing by facebook user in
status updates writing on facebook based on Hymes’ theory.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The significance of this study is as follows:
a. Theoretical significance
•This study is hopefully to enrich research in the linguistic field, especially in
•This study can give scientific knowledge about code mixing in status updates
writing on facebook.
b. Practical significance
This study will be useful to:
•The readers. This study will be useful to them in giving description of the
•The teachers. It hoped that this study would be useful in describing the
important code-mixing phenomenon of English vocabulary items that used in
status updates writing on facebook.
•The next researcher. The result of this study can give an addition and
suggestions to development of language study.
1.5 Scope and Limitation
This study will be focused on the forms of code mixing and the factors
affecting code mixing in face book based on Hymes’ theory. It is limited on the status
updates writing in facebook.
1.6 Definition of Key Terms
Code is term for any variety of language usually stressing the linguistic roles that
underpin the variety. (Mesthrie, 2000.490)
Code in this study is system of words, phrases, symbols, etc that used for
representing information briefly.
2. Code mixing
Code mixing is a process in which two languages used together by conversant to
Code mixing in this study the use two languages between English and Indonesia
used by face book user in status updates writing on facebook in the informal
Facebook is a social networking website that operated and privately owned by
face book user. (http://www.facebook.com/profile)
4. Status updates
Status updates also referred to simply as status which allows users to post
message for all their friends to read. In turn friends can respond with their
comment (Zuckerberg, 2009).
Status updates is one of facebook features to share the story, activity post