AN ANALYSIS OF CODE MIXING USED IN STATUS UPDATE WRITING ON FACEBOOK

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AN ANALYSIS OF CODE MIXING USED IN STATUS

UPDATE WRITING ON FACEBOOK

THESIS

By:

LAILI IDA SAFARINA

  

06360183

60183

  

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

2011

  

AN ANALYSIS OF CODE MIXING USED IN STATUS

UPDATE WRITING ON FACEBOOK

THESIS

This thesis is submitted to meet one of the requirements

to achieve Sarjana Degree in English Education

  

By:

LAILI IDA SAFARINA

06360183

  

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

  This thesis written by Laili Ida Safarina was approved on January 26 th , 2011 Advisor I Advisor II Fardini Sabilah, M. Pd Riza Elfana, M.A

  This thesis was defended in front of the examiners of Faculty of Teacher Training and Education University of Muhammadiyah Malang and accepted as the partial requirement to achieve

  Sarjana Degree in English Education

  th

  on January 26 , 2011 Approved by

  Faculty of Teacher Training and Education University of Muhammadiyah Malang

  Dean, Drs. H.Fauzan, M.Pd

  Examiners: Signatures: 1. Drs. Sudiran, M. Hum. 1.....................................

  2. Rina Wahyu S, M. Ed 2. ...................................

  3. Fardini Sabilah, M. Pd 3. ...................................

  4. Riza Elfana, M.A 4 ....................................

Mot t o

  

How perfect is, all the praise is for Allah. None has the right to be

worshipped except Allah, and Allah is the greatest .

  

The world is full of science, and language is the key to open it

for the bright future.

  De dic a t ion

  • M y B el oved f at her and mot her w ho always support s me t o f inish t his M y B el oved f at her and mot her w ho always support s me t o f inish t his mi ssi on unt i l t he end school day and gi ve me everyt hi ng w i t hout mi ssi on unt i l t he end school day and gi ve me everyt hi ng w i t hout rew ard. rew ard.
  • A l l of my f ri ends w ho al w ays gi ve me spi ri t . A l l of my f ri ends w ho al w ays gi ve me spi ri t .
  • A l l my f ri ends i n my boardi ng house A l l my f ri ends i n my boardi ng house
  • M y dearest w ho al w ays gi ve me prayer c M y dearest w ho al w ays gi ve me prayer cont i nuousl y. ont i nuousl y.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

  Alhamdulillah, praise be to Allah SWT, the main source of strength Who always gives me strength and patience to finish this thesis. Shalawat and greetings may always be upon the holy prophet Muhammad SAW and his family.

  I would like to express my highest gratitude to my thesis advisor, Mrs. Fardini Sabilah, M.Pd and Mrs. Riza Elfana, M.A who have been very helpful, kind, and patient in giving advice, ideas, and valuable time during the process of this thesis writing.

  I would say thank to Muhamadiyah University of Malang and English Department (thanks for giving me a chance to study here), all the lecturers and friends at English Department, especially for my mother and father, my brother and sister, and someone who always prays for me and gives me never ending love.

  I hope Allah SWT will give them in return all of the good things that have been given to me. Finally, I hope that this thesis is useful to the reader in deeper comprehension on sociolinguistic subject.

  th

  Malang, January 26 2011 The writer

  

TABLE OF CONTENT

APROVAL .................................................................................................... i

LEGALIZATION .........................................................................................

  ii MOTTO & DEDICATION ......................................................................... iii

  

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................ iv

TABLE OF CONTENT ................................................................................ v

ABSTRACT ................................................................................................. vii

  CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of Study...........................................................................

  1 1.2 Statement of Problem..........................................................................

  7 1.3 Purpose of Study.................................................................................

  7 1.4 Significant of Study .............................................................................

  7 1.5 Scope and Limitation...........................................................................

  8 1.6 Definition of the Key Term..................................................................

  8 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LETERATUR 2.1 Language ............................................................................................

  10 2.2 Bilingualism & multilingualism ............................................................

  11 2.3 Language Choice.................................................................................

  12 2.3.1Code Switching............................................................................

  12 2.3.2 Kinds of Code Switching.............................................................

  13 2.4 Code Mixing .......................................................................................

  14 2.4.1 Kinds of Code mixing .................................................................

  15 2.4.2 Forms of code mixing .................................................................

  17 2.5 The affecting factors of the Occurrence of Code Mixing .....................

  19 2.5.1 The affecting factors based on Hymes’ theory ...........................

  20 2.6 Media facebook ...................................................................................

  22 CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Design..................................................................................

  24 3.2 Research Object ..................................................................................

  24 3.3 Research Instrument ............................................................................

  25 3.3.1 Observation................................................................................

  25 3.3.2 Documentation ...........................................................................

  26 3.4 Data Collection ...................................................................................

  26 3.5 Data Analysis ......................................................................................

  27

  CHAPTER IV: FINDING AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Research Finding ................................................................................

  28 4.1.1 Forms of Code Mixing................................................................

  28 4.1.1.1 Code Mixing in the Form of Word.....................................

  28 4.1.1.2 Code Mixing in the Form of Phrase ...................................

  30 4.1.1.3 Code Mixing in the Form of Clause ...................................

  33 4.1.1.4 Code Mixing in the Form of Hybrid ...................................

  35 4.1.1.5 Code Mixing in the Form of Reduplication ........................

  36 4.1.2 The factors affecting based on Hymes’ theory ............................

  37 4.2 Discussion .........................................................................................

  38 CHAPTER V: COCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 5.1 Conclusion .........................................................................................

  40 5.2 Suggestion .........................................................................................

  40 REFERENCES

  APPENDIX

  

REFERENCES

  Afriyanto, Irsyad. 2009. “ Alih kode dan Campur kode “. (Online) kode-dan-campur- kode.html (accessed 21 August 2010)

  Ary, Donald. 2006. Introduction to Research in Education. Sixth edition: Northern Illino University Black, James A & Dean J. Champion. 1976. Methods and Issues in Social Research.

  New York: University of Tennese Crystal, David. 2001. Language and the Internet. University Press, Cambridge.

  Hudson, R.A. 1980. Sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  Http://Www.Facebook.Com/Profile

  Jendra, Made. 2010. Sociolinguistic: The Study of Societie Languages. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu

  Longman. 1992. Dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics. Malaysia: Malaysia VVP. Malmkjaer, Kristen & Anderson, J.M. 1991. The linguistics Encyclopedia Cambridge London& New York Routledge. Marasigan, M. Elizabeth. 1983. Code-switching and code-Mixing in Multingual Societies. Singapore: Singapore University Press. Marcellino, M. in Warastuti Tri Indriyani. 2004. Penyerapan Unsur Bahasa Asing

  Dalam Pers Indonesia. Jakarta: Lembaga Bahasa Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya.

  Mesthrie, Rejend, Joan Swann, Andrea Deumert, and William L. Leap. 2000.

  Introducing sociolinguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

  Sabilah, Fardini. 2002. The introduction of sociolinguistics. Modul. Malang: UMM. Trask, R.L. 1999. Key concepts in language and linguistics London: Routlage. Trudgill, Peter. 1983. An introduction to language in society. England: Penguin

  Wardhaugh, Ronald. 2002. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. London. Basil Blackwell Ltd.

  

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

  Both of them always interact each other because language interacts with other aspects of human social behavior. Language will not exist if there is no person who communicates using that language. Language is a systematic means of communicating ideas or feeling by the use of conventionalized signs, sounds gestures or marks having understood meanings. This is related to the definition of language that is system of arbitrary verbal symbol by which member of speech community used as a means of communication to interact and express their ideas, feeling and thought (Wardhaugh, in Sabilah 2001) relates this to the definition of language that is system of arbitrary verbal symbol.

  Human being have two roles in life, namely as an individual and social creature. As social creature, people cannot live alone. They need other people to fulfill their need and help them to solve their problem. When people talk about interaction, it cannot be separated from communication. Communication will always happen in the human life interaction. To communicate with others, they need a tool of communication and interaction. Therefore, they create a language as a communication tool. They use language to avoid misunderstanding and miscommunication. In addition, language can make us have more friends. Trudgill

  2 the weather or other subjects, but also a very important means of establishing and maintaining relationship with others. The definition above shows that language has an important role in human life and it used in central to the most human activities.

  In Indonesia, people sometimes use more than one language to communicate. They are Indonesian as national language, regional language like Javanese, sundanese, madurenese and English as foreign language. In bilingual and multilingual societies, people may produce certain codes. They produce some codes because they want to communicate with others smoothly and as result, the communication can run well.

  Code is a term for any variety of language usually stressing on the linguistic roles that underpin the variety (Mesthrie, 2000). When two or more people involve in a system of communication, they employ a code. Code will be something we may want to call a language, which is accessed by the speaker. Bilingual speakers have access to two codes that can be shift as the converse, either by code switching or by code mixing.

  Gumperz in Wardhaugh (2002:103-111) distinguishes between code mixing and code switching. He says that code mixing occurs when conversant use both language together to the extent that they change from one language to the other in the course of a single utterance. On the other hand, code switching occurs in condition of change, where group boundaries are diffuse, norms and standards of evaluation vary and where speakers’ identities and social backgrounds are not matters of common agreement.

  3 leave their mother tongue. Many sciences are more presenting foreign language terms than local language terms. It is because science used local language terms growth minimally. Journal of Information Technology (1996) stated that in information technology, people can accept foreign language terms more than local language terms because foreign language growth quickly than local language.

  That situation can make people mix their local language with foreign language. In linguistics, the phenomenon of language mixed with another language called code mixing. There are some theories that underlined the process of code mixing in a speech community. According to Marasigan (1983) code mixing is often used by bilinguals, primary as solidarity. It is just a hazards mixing of two languages brought about by laziness or ignorance or some combination of these. Rather, it requires some conversant to have a sophisticated knowledge of both languages and to be accurately aware of community norms.

  Code mixing is a phenomenon in which two or more different languages are in contact situation. In a community where there are more than one language to use, mixing between two or more languages in an utterance is a common phenomenon. In other word, bilingual or multilingual individuals often engage in code mixing or languages mixing when communicating with other people. They often mix two different languages or codes since they always have alternatives to choose the languages used.

  Code mixing can take place between or even within sentences, involving

  4 occurrences, there are several forms of code mixing. Code mixing may be in the forms of words, phrases, clauses, idioms, hybrids, and reduplications (Suwito, in Made 2009). Such forms of code mixing possibly inserted in any part of a sentence.

  There are many factors influencing people to change or mix the language. There four main factors of code choice (Grosjean.1992). First is the setting (time and place) and the situations such as party, a lecture, or a date. Second is the participant in interaction, their age, sex, occupation, socioeconomic status, origin, ethnicity and their roles in relation to one another such as employer-employee, lecture-student.

  Third is the topic (work, sports, and national events), and fourth is the function of interaction such as greetings, thanks and apologies.

  In the spreading facet, code mixing is influenced by media. In using of media internet, facebook is very popular in society. People use facebook to connect and share with others in their life. Today, Facebook become people’ s daily activity, so face book is very helpful to develop code mixing in society.

  Facebook is a social networking website operated and privately owned by Facebook user. Users can add friends and send them messages, and update their personal profiles to notify friends about themselves. Additionally, users can join networks organized by workplace, school, or college. The website's name stems from the colloquial name of books given to students at the start of the academic year by university administrations in the US with the intention of helping students to get to know each other better. Facebook excels at connecting users with friends and keeping them in touch. That is a vital need for many college students, while not only they are

  5 Facebook has features setting in which users may interact with others. They include, the wall, a space on every user’ s profile page that allows friends to post messages for the users to see. The photos, a feature in which where users are can upload albums and photos. The status updates, which allows users to inform their friends about their actions. The news feed, a feature which is announced and appeared on every user’ s home page. It is including profile changes, upcoming events, birthdays of user’ s friends and conversation with other users. One of the most popular features setting in face book is instant messages that called “chat” to several networks that allows users to communicate with frien

  Code mixing occurs in any form of communication events in oral or written language. Code mixing in the form of written language, for example, occurs in the status updates writing on facebook. In status updates writing, it found the use of a foreign language word or phrase within the facebook conversation. One possibly mixes the foreign language words into status updates writing on facebook.

  There are many research related with the study of code mixing. Dwi (2005) studied on “Code Mixing Used in Empat Mata Television Program”. He described the forms of code mixing in Empat Mata television program and the factors that influence the used of code mixing in Empat Mata television program. His research was based on qualitative approach. The data collected by using the observation. He found that there were three forms of code mixing used Empat Mata television program. They were code mixing in word, phrase, and sentence.

  6 of language mixing in graffiti and the factors influencing the presence of language mixing in graffiti. Her research was based on qualitative approach. The data were collected by observation and data sampling. She found that language mixing in graffiti in Yogyakarta is influenced by some factors, they are: the objectives of creating language mixing in graffiti, the sociological factors of Yogyakarta city and the multilingualism of Yogyakarta society.

  Based on above description, the writer is interested in observing the phenomena of code mixing by doing a research that might be important to contribute to sociolinguistic science. She realized that this kind of phenomenon certainly raises a question of what the real factors affecting such use of code mixing in the status updates writing on facebook. The study of code mixing is not only related to the linguistics study, but also related to the other disciplines such social or even psychological.

  Nowadays, many sciences are more representing foreign language terms than local language terms. It can see in the information technology, people can accept foreign language terms more than local language terms that used in information technology. It makes people mix their languages. That situation underlined the writer conduct this study. Therefore, this study will be focus on the forms of code mixing and factors that affecting code mixing that is used by face book user in status updates writing on facebook.

  7

  1.2 Statement of Problem

  1. What are the forms of code mixing used by facebook user in status updates writing on facebook?

  2. What are the factors affecting the use of code mixing by facebook user in status updates writing on facebook based on Hymes’ theory?

  1.3 Purpose of the study

  1. To know the forms of code mixing used by facebook user in status updates writing on facebook.

  2. To know the factors that affecting the use of code mixing by facebook user in status updates writing on facebook based on Hymes’ theory.

  1.4 Significance of the Study

  The significance of this study is as follows:

  a. Theoretical significance

  • This study is hopefully to enrich research in the linguistic field, especially in sociolinguistic.
  • This study can give scientific knowledge about code mixing in status updates writing on facebook.

  b. Practical significance This study will be useful to:

  • The readers. This study will be useful to them in giving description of the phenomenon of code mixing in status updates writing on facebook.

  8

  • The teachers. It hoped that this study would be useful in describing the important code-mixing phenomenon of English vocabulary items that used in status updates writing on facebook.
  • The next researcher. The result of this study can give an addition and suggestions to development of language study.

  1.5 Scope and Limitation

  This study will be focused on the forms of code mixing and the factors affecting code mixing in face book based on Hymes’ theory. It is limited on the status updates writing in facebook.

  1.6 Definition of Key Terms

  1. Code Code is term for any variety of language usually stressing the linguistic roles that underpin the variety. (Mesthrie, 2000.490) Code in this study is system of words, phrases, symbols, etc that used for representing information briefly.

  2. Code mixing Code mixing is a process in which two languages used together by conversant to extend, the speaker do not change from one language to the others in the course of a simple utterance. (Wardhaugh, 1986.103-104)

  9 Code mixing in this study the use two languages between English and Indonesia used by face book user in status updates writing on facebook in the informal situation.

  3. Facebook Facebook is a social networking website that operated and privately owned by face boo

  4. Status updates Status updates also referred to simply as status which allows users to post message for all their friends to read. In turn friends can respond with their comment (Zuckerberg, 2009). Status updates is one of facebook features to share the story, activity post message.

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