An analysis of moral values through the rewards and punishments on the script of The chronicles of Narnia : The Lion, the witch, and the wardrobe
A THESIS SYNOPSIS AN ANALYSIS OF MORAL VALUES THROUGH THE REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS ON THE SCRIPT OF
Pd Supervisor ENGLISH LETTER DEPARTMENT LETTERS AND HUMANITIES FACULTY STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH JAKARTA2010 LEGALIZATION The thesis entitled “An Analysis of Moral Values Through The Rewards and Punishments on The Script of The Chronicles of Narnia : The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe” has been defended before the Letter and Humanities Faculty’s Examination Committee on February 01, 2010. Hum (Examiner II) DECLARATION I hereby declare that this submission is my own work and that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by anotherperson nor material which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma of the university or other institute of higher learning, exceptwhere due acknowledgment has been made in the text.
CHAPTER II. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK …………………… 10 A
Lawrence Kohlberg’s Thought……………………………… 18 Reward and Punishment………………………………………… 21 1. Religion concept of reward and punishment ………………… 24 D.
CHAPTER II I. ANALYSIS ……………………………………………… 30 A. Data Description………………………………………………… 30 B. Corpus…………………………………………………………… 31 C. Data Analysis……………………………………………………
1. Analysis of Rewards………………………………………… 35 2
Analysis of Moral Messages………………………………… 47 CHAPTER IV. A glance of film…………………………………………………..
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study For most parents and certainly for society, the development of morality in
Parents want their children to adopt the rules of the society in which they live to avoid breaking rules or giving offence, and to behave “properly” when they’re away from 1 home or not being observed, and not just when their parents are standing over them. It attracts the writer to analyze the script of this story and try to break down the values of reward and punishment.
B. Focus of the Study
One of them is popularfantasy novel The Chronicles Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe that was firstly published in 1950 and was adopted for cinema in 2005. Related to the way ofstimulating child’s moral behavior, the writer will focus on the reward and punishment concept of the script The Chronicles Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe.
C. Research QuestionBased on the background and the focus of the study, the writer tries to formulate the problems to get more specific purpose. The problems are:
1. What kind of rewards and punishments are implied in The Chronicles of
Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe? How did the author deliver the moral message to children through the reward and punishment values?
D. Objectives of the Study
This research is aimed to figure out the kinds of rewards and punishments which appear on the script of The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe. The writer described and analyzed the script of The Chronicles Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and The Wardrobe and the concept of reward and punishment that are included.
2. The Unit of Analysis
She read and understood the script of The Chronicles Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe. Then, she correlated thetheory of moral development with the reward and punishment values that she has found and figure out what the moral messages inside those reward and punishment values.
CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK A. Children’s Literature Children’s literature is the written word which collectively embraces all the
features, subject matter, characters and settings, the use of vocabulary presented from an 12 angle of vision which matches the child’s perspective. It can’t be separatedfrom children’s life as Bernice Cullinan has suggested that literature can play a significant role in the children’s life and parents are responsible to provide literature for 13 their children.
1 Ibid, p. 8
CHAPTER II I ANALYSIS A. Data Description The function of fantasy is to express imaginative experiences or insights into the
Due to the function above, the human values in the fantasy story can be found through the kinds of reward and punishment that appear in the story. One of popular fantasy story that brings this message is The Chronicles of Narnia: The Witch, the Lion, and the Wardrobe that has been adapted intoth film.
After examining the script of The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The witch, and The Wardrobe, the writer has collected the data to be analyzed. Picture 3 4 Being king and Aslan: To the glistening 36 To achieve the needs queen eastern sea, I give you and dreams, one has toQueen Lucy the Valiant.
C. Data Analysis 1. Analysis of Rewards
Tumnus, the writer finds that Lucy had the criteria of the first stage of Kohlberg’s Conventional 50 level . It can motivate children to conform to the social expectations that they must treat others in theright way to gain the good social acceptance.
50 Helen Bee (1975), op. cit. 31132
b) Trust to lead the battle
He consoled Lucy, he tried to save Edmund from the White Witch, he protected his sisters when the river melted, and he killed the wolf that chased hissisters. 33Peter’s responsibility can be classified in the second stage of Kohlberg’s the law and order orientation level.
51 He was identified had the same criteria with this stage. In
It’s obviously fit with Peter’s case that he did what hismother asked to take care of his brother and sister. He had done his duty as the oldest child and it represented his respect to his mom as an authority.
c) Get life back
Aslan expected the Pevensie to help him restore the peace in Narnia. It had been told in the prophecy that two sons of Adam and two daughters of Eve will appear todefeat the White Witch and restore peace in Narnia.
d) Being king and queen of Narnia
Related to Kohlberg’s stages, the struggle of the Pevensie and Aslan is classified 53 in the Post Conventional Level. It’s fit with the criteria of this stage where people conform to both social standards and to internalized ideals to avoid self-condemnation rather than to avoid social censure.
2. Analysis of Punishments
One night, Edmund, the third child of Pevensie followed Lucyto the wardrobe and he experienced Narnia himself. This case is obviously relevant to the daily life where people are often hard to say sorry and confesstheir mistake.
54 Therefore, children will understand the rule in the society or the
The corpus above leads the writer to conclude that Edmund apologize to Lucy because Peter insisted. After examining the corpus, Edmund is classified in the first stage of Kohlberg’s Preconventional Level.
55 It indicates that Edmund apologized to Lucy just to avoid
Edmund’s attitude is fit with the criteria of this stage. 38children’s action is based on the reward or punishment they possibly get instead based on the intention inside.
b) Being arrested
They have no freedom to live with family, no freedom to play and go somewhere, and no freedom to enjoy the world. Tumnusagain Examining Edmund’s intention of the case above, it indicates that he failed to conform to the group norms where he lives.
56 Kohlberg’s Conventional level. In this stage, children usually begin to maintain good
40couldn’t conform to the rules that they should stay together with his siblings and helpNarnia. What he did wasn’t fit with the criteria of this stage, therefore he is categorized failed to reach this stage.
c) Lose in the battle
Analysis of Moral Messages a) Treat others in the right way Through the first kind of reward that Lucy got friend, the author delivered the message to treat others in the right way. b) The importance of being responsible Through the second kind of reward that Peter was trusted to lead the battle, the author spoke about the importance of being responsible.
c) The importance of sincerity
The message that is revealed by the author through the third kind of reward thatAslan got his life back is about the importance of sincerity. Back to the fundamentalprinciple that mankind is the social creature, they need to share, socialize, and maintain the good relationship with the society.
d) The values of struggle and unity
Through the fourth kind of reward that Pevensie became king and queen, the author delivered the message about the values of struggle and unity. They need to struggle for the final exam and they need to struggle to win the school competition.
e) The importance of apologizing
Through the first kind of punishment that Edmund had to apologize to Lucy, the author delivered the message about the importance of saying sorry. They need to know that the rule in group or society is they have to confess their mistake and say sorry if they make amistake.
f) The consequence of betrayal
Through the second kind of punishment that Edmund had been arrested, the author delivered the message to children about the consequence of the betrayal. When one of them faces the problem, the others feel so worry and try to help.
g) The consequence of power
Through the third kind of punishment that The White Witch lost in the battle, the author delivered the message to children about the consequence of the power. Therefore, if the power is used in the wrong way and out of the function it willbring the censure of the society.
CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION A. Conclusion From the analysis above, the writer found that there are some human values in the
It canhelp children to understand how to socialize with the society and conform to the group’s norms or social expectations. There are the importance to treat others in the right way, the importance ofbeing responsible, the importance of sincerity, and the values of struggle and unity.
B. Suggestion This research gives one alternative way of developing children’s moral behavior
Adults can use the literature both written and audiovisual as means to support the development of children’s moral behavior. They can learn about the good and bad by examiningwhy the characters get the rewards and why the characters get the punishments.