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The Intrinsic Analysis in Ahmad Fuadi’s Novel Ranah 3 Warna.

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THE INTRINSIC ANALYSIS IN AHMAD FUADI’S NOVEL RANAH 3 WARNA A PAPER BY R A LAOLI REG. NO. 082202056 UNIVERSITY OF NORTH SUMATERA FACULTY OF CULTURE STUDIES DIPLOMA III ENGLISH STUDY PROGRAM MEDAN JUNE 2011 Universitas Sumatera Utara It has been proved by Supervisor, Drs. Parlindungan Purba, M.Hum. NIP. 19630216198903 1 003 Submitted to Faculty of Culture Studies, University of North Sumatera in partial fulfillment of the requirements for DIPLOMA (D-III) in English Approved by Head of Diploma III English Study Program, Dr. Matius C.A. Sembiring, M.A. NIP. 19521126198112 1 001 Approved by the Diploma III English Study Program Faculty of Culture Studies, University of North Sumatra as a Paper for the Diploma (D-III) Examination Universitas Sumatera Utara Accepted by the Board of Examiners in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the D-III Examination of the Diploma III English Study Program, Faculty of Culture Studies, University of North Sumatera. The examination is held on June 2011 Faculty of Culture Studies, University of North Sumatera Dean, Dr. Syahron Lubis, M.A. NIP. 19511013197603 1 001 Board of Examiners Signature 1. Dr. Matius C.A. Sembiring, M.A. (Head of ESP) 2. Drs. Parlindungan Purba, M.Hum. (Supervisor) 3. . (Reader) Universitas Sumatera Utara AUTHOR'S DECLARATION I, R A LAOLI, declare that I am the sole author of this paper. Except where the reference is made in the text of this paper, this paper contains no material published elsewhere or extracted in whole or in part from a paper by which I have qualified for or awarded another degree. No other person’s work has been used without due acknowledgement in the main text of this paper. This paper has not been submitted for the award of another degree in any tertiary education. Signed : . . Date : 2011 Universitas Sumatera Utara COPYRIGHT DECLARATION Name : R A LAOLI Title of Paper : The Intrinsic Analysis in Ahmad Fuadi’s Novel Ranah 3 Warna Qualification : D-III / Ahli Madya Study Program : English I am willing that my paper should be available for reproduction at the discretion of the Librarian of the Diploma III English Department Faculty of Letters USU on the understanding that users are made aware of their obligation under law of the Republic of Indonesia. Signed : . . Date : 2011 Universitas Sumatera Utara ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Bismillahirrahmaanirrahiim. First of all, I would like to thank and praise to the Almighty God, Allah SWT for blessing and giving me health, strength and ease to accomplish this paper as one of the requirements to get Diploma III certificate from English Department Faculty of Letters, University of Sumatera Utara. Then, I would like to express a deep gratitude, love, and appreciation to: My beloved parents, Rasyad Laoli and Salmiah. Thank you for all your motivations, advices, prays, loves and financial for me. I present this paper for you. Dr. Matius C.A. Sembiring, M.A. as the Head of English Diploma Study Program, who gives me a lot of knowledge. Drs. Parlindungan Purba, M. Hum. as my supervisor. Thank you for the valuable time in giving the correction and constructive critics in completing this paper. Dr. Syahron Lubis, M.A. as the Dean of Faculty of Letters, University of Sumatera Utara. All lecturers in English Diploma Study Program for giving me advices and knowledge. My lovely Siblings, Sri Dedek Eka Wati, Apriyani Syahfitri, Aprizul Khoir and Sevilla Az-zahra . Universitas Sumatera Utara Special thanks to my beloved girl Yurisa Ismi Rangkuti for your support, cares, spirit and other things that help me to complete this paper. My entire friends in Pemerintahan Mahasiswa (PEMA), UKM Teater ‘O’, Himpunan Mahasiswa Islam (HMI), BTM Al-Iqbal, UBK SaHIVa, TNB, the Original and Gemapala. Thank you for the nice friendship during us together. I will never forget your kindness to me. My best friends: Zainul, Aseng, Arus, Oki, Ibnu, Sutan, Zuhri, Amman. Naffy, Ferry, Maryadi, Agung and Rizky. Thank you for the nice friendship during our study. I will be missing the days we spent together. Finally, I do realize that this paper is still far from being perfect. Therefore, I welcome any constructive critics and suggestions towards this paper. I hope this paper will be a worthwhile for the readers. Medan, June 2011 The writer, R A Laoli Reg. No. 082202056 Universitas Sumatera Utara ABSTRAK Novel merupakan salah satu hasil karya sastra manusia yang tidak hanya berisi cerita yang menarik, tetapi juga mengandung pesan moral bagi pembacanya. Kertas karya yang berjudul “The Intrinsic Analysis in Ahmad Fuadi’s Novel Ranah 3 warna” ini membahas tentang unsur-unsur intrinsik dalam suatu karya sastra yang terdiri dari tema, alur, karakter, gaya, latar dan sudut pandang. Ranah 3 warna merupakan novel lanjutan dari trilogy negeri 5 menara yang ditulis oleh Ahmad Fuadi, yang merupakan salah satu novelis berbakat Indonesia. Di novel yang merupakan hasil dari kisah nyata sang penulis ini banyak terjadi lika-liku kehidupan yang menuntut Alif, sang tokoh utama untuk selalu sabar dan tabah dalam menghadapi cobaan yang menerpa dalam perantauannya menuntut ilmu. Novel ini mengisahkan tentang perjalanan alif mulai semenjak dia lulus dari pesantren, mengikuti ujian kesetaraan SMA, menempuh ujian UMPTN hingga akhirnya dia berhasil masuk Universitas Padjajaran jurusan Hubungan Internasional, Bandung. Beberapa tokoh yang terlibat dalam perjalanan alif menghadapi badai kehidupan dalam novel ini adalah : Randai, Raisa, Ayah, Amak, Bang Togar, Franc, Ferdinand, Mado, serta Rusdi. Kertas karya ini menggunakan metode tahap demi tahap, yaitu membaca sumber data utama yang mmerupakan Novel Ranah 3 Warna itu sendiri, lalu menginterpretasikan dan menganalisis unsur-unsur intrinsiknya sehingga dapat menyimpulkan teks-teks yang relevan untuk dapat membuat kertas karya ini. Novel ini mendeskripsikan bagaimana setiap unsur – unsur intrinsik dalam sebuah karya sastra saling berkaitan satu sama lain, karena tanpa adanya saling keterkaitan itu, tak akan mungkin sebuah karya sastra akan tercipta. Universitas Sumatera Utara ABSTRACT Novel is one of the literary not only contains an interesting story, but it also contains a moral message for the readers. The paper entitled “The Intrinsic Analysis in Ahmad Fuadi’s novel Ranah 3 Warna” is about the intrinsic elements in a literary work consist of theme, plot, character, style, setting and point of view. Ranah 3 Warna is a second novel in trilogy of Negeri 5 Menara that written by Ahmad Fuadi who is one of talented novelist in Indonesia. This novel which is result of the author’s true story describes a lot happening twist of life that demands Alif, as the main character to always be patient and steadfast in the face of trials start since he graduated from boarding school, senior high school equivalence text, exams UMPTN until he finally success enter in International Relation department of Padjajaran University, Bandung. Some of characters involved in Alif trip to face the storms of life in this novel are Randai, Raisa, Ayah, Amak, Bang Togar, Franc, Ferdinand, Mado and Rusdi. This paper use the method is step by step. Reading until finish the main source data that is Ranah 3 Warna novel, then interpret and analyze the intrinsic elements in the novel so that can conclude the relevant text to make this paper. This paper describes how each intrinsic element in a literary work is related; because without the absence of interconnections, it would not perhaps a work of literature will be crafted. Universitas Sumatera Utara TABLE OF CONTENTS AUTHOR’S DECLARATION COPYRIGHT DECLARATION ABSTRAK ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS i ii iii iv v vii 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study 1.2 Scope of the Study 1.3 Purpose of the Study 1.4 Significance of the Study 1.5 The Method of Research 1 3 3 3 4 . . 2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 The Definition of Novel 2.2 The Intrinsic Elements of Novel 2.2.1 The Theme . 2.2.2 The Plot . 2.2.3 The Characters . 2.2.4 The Setting . 2.2.5 Point of View . 5 7 8 9 11 12 13 3. THE ANALYSIS OF RANAH 3 WARNA NOVEL 3.1 The Theme . 3.2 The Plot . 3.3 The Character . 3.3.1 Main Character . 3.3.2 Peripheral Character . 3.4 The Setting . 3.4.1 Setting of Place . 3.4.2 Setting of Time . 3.1.5 Point of View . 16 18 20 20 23 28 28 29 29 4. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 4.1 Conclusions 31 4.2 Suggestions . . 32 REFERENCES APPENDICES 33 34 Universitas Sumatera Utara ABSTRAK Novel merupakan salah satu hasil karya sastra manusia yang tidak hanya berisi cerita yang menarik, tetapi juga mengandung pesan moral bagi pembacanya. Kertas karya yang berjudul “The Intrinsic Analysis in Ahmad Fuadi’s Novel Ranah 3 warna” ini membahas tentang unsur-unsur intrinsik dalam suatu karya sastra yang terdiri dari tema, alur, karakter, gaya, latar dan sudut pandang. Ranah 3 warna merupakan novel lanjutan dari trilogy negeri 5 menara yang ditulis oleh Ahmad Fuadi, yang merupakan salah satu novelis berbakat Indonesia. Di novel yang merupakan hasil dari kisah nyata sang penulis ini banyak terjadi lika-liku kehidupan yang menuntut Alif, sang tokoh utama untuk selalu sabar dan tabah dalam menghadapi cobaan yang menerpa dalam perantauannya menuntut ilmu. Novel ini mengisahkan tentang perjalanan alif mulai semenjak dia lulus dari pesantren, mengikuti ujian kesetaraan SMA, menempuh ujian UMPTN hingga akhirnya dia berhasil masuk Universitas Padjajaran jurusan Hubungan Internasional, Bandung. Beberapa tokoh yang terlibat dalam perjalanan alif menghadapi badai kehidupan dalam novel ini adalah : Randai, Raisa, Ayah, Amak, Bang Togar, Franc, Ferdinand, Mado, serta Rusdi. Kertas karya ini menggunakan metode tahap demi tahap, yaitu membaca sumber data utama yang mmerupakan Novel Ranah 3 Warna itu sendiri, lalu menginterpretasikan dan menganalisis unsur-unsur intrinsiknya sehingga dapat menyimpulkan teks-teks yang relevan untuk dapat membuat kertas karya ini. Novel ini mendeskripsikan bagaimana setiap unsur – unsur intrinsik dalam sebuah karya sastra saling berkaitan satu sama lain, karena tanpa adanya saling keterkaitan itu, tak akan mungkin sebuah karya sastra akan tercipta. Universitas Sumatera Utara ABSTRACT Novel is one of the literary not only contains an interesting story, but it also contains a moral message for the readers. The paper entitled “The Intrinsic Analysis in Ahmad Fuadi’s novel Ranah 3 Warna” is about the intrinsic elements in a literary work consist of theme, plot, character, style, setting and point of view. Ranah 3 Warna is a second novel in trilogy of Negeri 5 Menara that written by Ahmad Fuadi who is one of talented novelist in Indonesia. This novel which is result of the author’s true story describes a lot happening twist of life that demands Alif, as the main character to always be patient and steadfast in the face of trials start since he graduated from boarding school, senior high school equivalence text, exams UMPTN until he finally success enter in International Relation department of Padjajaran University, Bandung. Some of characters involved in Alif trip to face the storms of life in this novel are Randai, Raisa, Ayah, Amak, Bang Togar, Franc, Ferdinand, Mado and Rusdi. This paper use the method is step by step. Reading until finish the main source data that is Ranah 3 Warna novel, then interpret and analyze the intrinsic elements in the novel so that can conclude the relevant text to make this paper. This paper describes how each intrinsic element in a literary work is related; because without the absence of interconnections, it would not perhaps a work of literature will be crafted. Universitas Sumatera Utara 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study Literature is creative expression of human imagination or wishes that it is almost impossible to create an exact definition of it. Wellek & Warren (1971:3) state that literature is the mirror of human life that portrays ‘human feeling, thought, imagination and perception which can be viewed based on personal judgment. Literature can be divided into three genres, such as prose fiction, poetry and drama. In the sense of literary, prose also called fiction, narrative text, or narrative discourse. Fiction is a narrative work that tells something that is imaginary, something that does not exist and happen in the real world. As a work of imaginary, fiction directs various problems of man and humanity, life and living. Fiction tells the various problems of human life in the interactions with the environment and others. Fiction is the result of dialogue, contemplation, and reactions to the environment and the life of the author. Novel is fictional prose narrative of considerable length, typically having a plot that is unfolded by the actions, speech and thoughts of the characters. Novel, nearly always an extended fictional prose narrative, although some novel are very short, some are non fictional, some have been written in verse and some not even tell a story, novel is fictitious kind of writing. Novel is a world specially made in words by an author. A novel exists in the way it does because an author has chosen to put it together in that particularly Universitas Sumatera Utara way. This means that novels are not real life. Like all works of art poems, plays, pots or pieces of music – they have been constructed or crafted. (Gill, 1985:77). There are two important elements in fiction, intrinsic and extrinsic elements. Extrinsic elements include: religion, education, custom, etc. while intrinsic elements include: theme, plot, character, setting, and point of view. Ranah 3 Warna is secondly novel in Negeri 5 Menara trilogy. It has made by Ahmad Fuadi, one of the young novelists in Indonesia who has a great talent in literature. The story in Ranah 3 Warna novel is inspired by his life story. This novel narrates how dreams and ideals must be fought all-out. I am interested in analyzing the intrinsic elements in Ranah 3 Warna novel, because it has an attractive theme, plot, character, setting and point of view. And also I want to understand a work of literature with all the elements that each other be related, including theme which is underlying the story, the plot is a series of events that can also lead to conflict, then the character which describes how the characters play a role in the literature, the setting indicates when and where any incident took place, until those elements were packed in a view point of the author is called point of view. Ranah 3 Warna describes how all the elements of literature created so beautifully. How does the author give the basic story that rarely made by other authors, how the author create unexpected conflict occurs in the novel, then how make the characters that can inspire many people, and expertise of the author in choosing some of place that well known, such as ITB or Institute of Technology Bandung which is the most popular college in Indonesia, as well as how the Universitas Sumatera Utara author combines all these elements in the point of view so that the novel is more interesting and useful to the readers. 1.2 Scope of Study Analyzing literature especially novel is not easy. The scope or limitation of this analysis is to analyze only five intrinsic elements in Ahmad Fuadi’s novel Ranah 3 Warna. There are theme, plot, character, setting, and point of view. It is important to limit the writing in order avoid the readers from confusion. 1.3 Purpose of Study The purpose of this study to analyze the intrinsic elements in Ranah 3 Warna novel, so that the writer can understand how the elements of literature works include theme, plot, character, setting, and point of view made. So the story ideas, conflict in the story, the characters in the story, the setting of place and setting of time, until the point of view that created by the author can be analyzed carefully. The writer hopes this analysis could help the readers who want to know more about the messages in the novel. 1.4 Significance of Study The significance of this paper is to enrich literary study especially in literature of novel. The writer hope this analysis could become references for further study of literary works whatever forms they will be. 1.5 Method of Research Method of research conducted in this paper is the step by step method. The first step is reading the main source data until finish; it is Ranah 3 Warna novel. After reading to the end, the writer select the text, interpret it, and then analyze the Universitas Sumatera Utara texts in order to decide which ones of the text are relevant to the elements of literature contained in the novel so that it can be conclude to this paper. The writer also searches some data from books and internet that related with elements of literature as material to support the completeness of this paper. Universitas Sumatera Utara 2. REVIEW AND RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 Definition of Novel Novel is the name of a literary kind and there is a story to tell about how, over the centuries, its substance has widened and its conventions changed. Henry James (Watson,1978: xi) in an excited moment, called the novel ‘independent, elastic prodigious, and its story is as untidy as some of its masterpieces. If Aristotle had ever read any novels, he would have needed a far wider canvas than he allowed to tragedy in that surviving fragment of analysis known as juga beragam, ada pelajar tulen, ada lawyer, pegawai perusahaan iklan , bahkan ada seorang ibu yang sudah berumur paling tidak di atas 50 tahun. (Chap. 25) 10) Dia pernah bekerja beberapa bulan di cruise yang berlayar ke Amerika dan Karibia. (Chap. 26) 11) “Maaf saya sedang chatting dengan seorang peneliti di Jakarta.” (Chap.27) 12) Mama jagoan diplomasi dan bisa bikin semua orang happy. (Chap. 28) 13) “Apaan tuh. Nggak ngerti, jangan roaming ya,” protes Dinara. (Chap.31) 14) Sekarang menganggur dan hanya dapat uang dari abang. Rasanya helpless. (Chap. 32) 15) Melalui Dinara, aku kerap meminjam buku-buku referensi terbaru untuk paper-ku. (Chap. 34) 16) Sepertinya Mas Garuda sedang mood untuk curhat berlama-lama. (Chap.35) Universitas Sumatera Utara 17) Tom juga mendukung kami untuk mengambil kursus professional untuk menambah skill kami. (Chap. 36) 18) Pernah sabtu shubuh, begitu kepala kami muncul dari balik converter yang hangat, aku dikejutkan oleh Dinara yang tiba-tiba langsung duduk. (Chap. 37) 19) “Sudah waktunya, saya benar-benar akan pulang Lif. Tiket untuk flight bulan depan sudah di tangan. Legaaaaa .,” tulis Mas Garuda di kolom chatting. (Chap. 38) 20) “Bang, jangan ngebut-ngebut. Jangan sampai kita malah kecelakaan atau malah kena tilang karena speeding,”katanya. (Chap. 39) 21) “Bayangkan foto ini jadi cover CD atau poster film, jadi kenangkenangan kita buat anak cucu ” (Chap. 43) 22) Aku bolak-balik booklet yang disertakan di dalam amplop. (Chap. 45) 23) Bahkan Tom saja sampai membawa sepiring cookies yang masih hangat hasil panggangan istrinya. (Chap. 46) Analysis: From the utterances above, some bold utterances from the novel above is found as a word of English which show code mixing in English Indonesia language. The utterances such as; laminating, meeting, angle, headphone, draft, deal, deadline, newsroom, bumper, lawyer, cruise, chatting, happy, roaming, helpless, paper, mood, skill, converter, flight, speeding, cover, booklet, and cookies are the code mixing of word because these twenty four Universitas Sumatera Utara utterances are the word taken from English mixing in Indonesia language as Tom juga mendukung kami untuk mengambil kursus professional untuk menambah kami, Pernah sabtu shubuh, begitu kepala kami muncul dari balik .yang hangat, aku dikejutkan oleh Dinara yang tiba-tiba langsung duduk. 2) Code Mixing of Phrase 1) Baru menghadapi debt collector kemarin saja aku sudah pucat, (Chap. 7) 2) Ini dia yang namanya top secret. (Chap. 10) 3) Tidak ada ladies first, apalagi pak bos duluan. (Chap.12) 4) Menjadi wartawan adalah pilihan hatinya, karena sebenarnya dia sudah mendapat job offer untuk bekerja menjadi staf PR di perusahaan multinasional. (Chap. 16) 5) Tuition fee yang mencapai puluhan ribu dolar pertahun jelas tidak akan bisa aku jangkau (Chap. 18) 6) Bola lambung itu disambut dengan tendangan first time yang lemah oleh Ryan gigs. (Chap. 21) 7) Dari balik pintu kaca ruang check in, aku melambai-lambaikan tangan kepada rombongan seheboh grup sirkus India. (Chap. 23) 8) Sore itu, aku check out dari hotel dan memindahkan semua koperku ke mobil boks Mas Garuda yang datang menjemputku. (Chap.24) 9) “Maaf Lif, boleh tolong bawa nasi ke meja makan di sana,” katanya menunjuk rice cooker. (Chap. 25) Universitas Sumatera Utara 10) Di pertemuan muara anak sungai Rock Creek dan Sungai Potomac berdiri Thompson Boat Center, boat house yang menyewakan kano untuk umum. (Chap. 26) 11) Untuk urusan mampu menghidupi, aku yakin kalau aku bekerja part time, maka pendapatan dan beasiswaku akan cukup untuk makan berdua. (chap. 27) 12) Lagipula aku sudah menyiapkan calling card terbaik di Chinatown dengan pulsa terbanyak. (Chap. 28) 13) “Bang, biar masak rendang dagingnya cepat lembut, sama biar cepat bikin sop buntut, kita perlu beli pressure cook. Dinara sudah cek harganya di internet. Nih,” katanya memperlihatkan website di Wal-Mart. (Chap. 31) 14) Dinara sudah bekerja di radio kampus , jadi liaison officer, jadi punya uang sendiri. (Chap. 32) 15) Dan dalam hitungan hari saja dia sudah diterima bekerja sebagai book seller di salah satu took buku terbesar di dunia, Borders. (Chap. 340 16) Dinara langsung ditawari posisi full time. (Chap. 35) 17) Sebagai pemegang media pass, aku dan Dinara bebas memilih tempat duduk di Media Section bahkan boleh menempati lokasi di pinggir garis lapangan. (Chap. 36) 18) Mungkin dia diberkati photographic memory seperti yang dipunyai Baso. (Chap. 37) Universitas Sumatera Utara 19) “Awas jangan langsung pulang aja ya, kita bikin dulu farewell party di DC, Mas.” (Chap. 38) 20) Diana akhirnya melengos karena tidak bisa juga menghalangi kami dan dia kembali sibuk mengecek sound system. (Chap. 46) Analysis: The utterances above is found as phrase of English in bold. The utterances such as, debt collector, top secret, ladies first, job offer, tuition fee, first time, check in, check out, rice cooker, boat house, part time, calling card, pressure cook, liaison officer, book seller, full time, media pass, photographic memory, farewell party, and sound system are the code mixing of phrase because these utterances are the phrase taken from English mixing in Indonesia language as, Mungkin dia diberkati .seperti yang dipunyai Baso, “Awas jangan langsung pulang aja ya, kita bikin dulu . di DC, Mas.” 3) Code Mixing of Clause 1) “Hei, why so serious!” tiba-tiba Mas Malaka yang dari tadi diam berteriak nyaring . (Chap. 7) 2) “Nggak apa-apa, I am happy for you. Begitu abang lulus nanti juga bisa full time. Kita bisa kerja bareng,” balasku untuk menenangkannya, walau dihatiku terselip sekilas rasa iri. (Chap. 35) Analysis: Universitas Sumatera Utara From the utterances above, the statement started in Indonesia, than continues in English or started in English and continues in Indonesia. The utterances such as why so serious and I am happy for you are the code mixing of clause because these utterances are taken from English mixing in Indonesia language as, “Nggak apaapa Begitu abang lulus nanti juga bisa full time. Kita bisa kerja bareng,” balasku untuk menenangkannya, walau dihatiku terselip sekilas rasa iri. 4) Code Mixing of Sentence 1) Suatu kali aku ditelpon Belle. “Hey, let’s get together at Menteng Tavern this Thursday. Ngobrol-ngobrol sama jurnalis asing lain.”. (Chap. 12) 2) “percaya atau tidak, ini pertanyaan gue setiap pagi ketika bangun tidur. What is the purpose of my life .” (Chap. 16) 3) Tapi aku paksakan menyelesaikan satu bab latihan TOEFL lagi. I have to go the extra mile. (Chap. 18) 4) Aku tetap harus menanyakan ini dengan jelas. I am not a mind reader. (Chap. 23) 5) “Mas terima kassih sudah mengurus aku yang sakit. I owe you,” kataku ketika dia akhirnya berangkat kerja kesiangan. (Chap. 28) 6) “hadiahnya: we are going home for good.” (Chap. 43) 7) I know you have made your mind. Tapi kenapa tidak mencoba dulu. (Chap. 45) 8) “I appreciate your decision. Tapi cobalah Anda pikirkan lagi. Sleep on it .” (Chap. 45) Universitas Sumatera Utara Analysis: From the utterances above, the statement started in Indonesia, than continues in English or started in English and continues in Indonesia. Some bold utterances are English, the utterances such as, Hey, let’s get together at Menteng Tavern this Thursday, What is the purpose of my life, I have to go the extra mile, I am not a mind reader, I owe you, we are going home for good, I know you have made your mind, and I appreciate your decision are the code mixing of sentence because those utterances are taken from English and Indonesia language. 4.2 Finding The data were analyzed based on components of language which consist of Word, Phrase, Clause, and Sentence. From the research , the percentages of code mixing from chapters of novel shown on tables are: Table 4.2.1 Chapter 7 NO COMPONENTS OF NUMBER OF CODE PERCENTAGE LANGUAGE MIXING 1 Word 2 Phrase 3 Clause 4 Sentence TOTAL 6 50 % 5 41,7 % 1 8,3 % 0 0% 12 100 % Universitas Sumatera Utara Table 4.2.2 chapter 10 NO COMPONENTS OF LANGUAGE 1 Word 2 Phrase 3 Clause 4 Sentence TOTAL NUMBER OF CODE MIXING 8 2 0 0 10 PERCENTAGE 80 % 20 % 0% 0% 100 % Table 4.2.3 chapter 12 NO COMPONENTS OF LANGUAGE 1 Word 2 Phrase 3 Clause 4 Sentence TOTAL NUMBER OF CODE MIXING 13 6 1 2 22 PERCENTAGE 59,1 % 27,3 % 4,5 % 9,1 % 100 % Table 4.2.4 Chapter 16 NO COMPONENTS OF LANGUAGE 1 Word 2 Phrase 3 Clause 4 Sentence TOTAL NUMBER OF CODE MIXING 12 7 0 1 20 PERCENTAGE 60 % 35 % 0% 5% 100 % Universitas Sumatera Utara Table 4.2.5 chapter 18 NO COMPONENTS OF LANGUAGE 1 Word 2 Phrase 3 Clause 4 Sentence TOTAL NUMBER OF CODE MIXING 7 3 0 4 14 PERCENTAGE 50 % 21,4 % 0% 28,6 % 100 % Table 4.2.6 chapter 21 NO COMPONENTS OF LANGUAGE 1 Word 2 Phrase 3 Clause Sentence TOTAL NUMBER OF CODE MIXING 8 9 0 0 17 PERCENTAGE 47,1% 52,9% 0% 0% 100 % Table 4.2.7 Chapter 23 fundamental components of fiction, especially in literary work. b. The writer recommends reading this incredible novel as well as seeing the movie after. Stockett is a wonderful new writer who she hopes will continue to write. She would love to read more of her work. In pitch-perfect voices, Kathryn Stockett creates three extraordinary women whose determination to start a movement of their own forever changes a town, and the way women-mothers, daughters, caregivers, friends-view one another. A deeply moving novel filled with poignancy, humor, and hope, The Help is a timeless and universal story about the lines we abide by, and the ones we don't. Universitas Sumatera Utara REFERENCES Aminuddin. 2000. Pengantar Apresiasi Karya Sastra. Jakarta: Sinar Baru Algesindo. Foster, E.M. 1970. Aspect of the Novel. Arnold: Penguin Gwyn, R.S.2002. Fiction: A Pocket Anthology Third Edition. New York: Penguin Academics Hamalian, Leo and Frederick R. Karl. 1967. The Shape of Fiction ‘British and American Short Stories’. United States of America: Mc Graw-Hill, Inc. Hudson, William Henry. 1958. An Introduction to the Study of the Literature. London: George G. Harrap & Co., Ltd. Kenedy, X.J. 1991. Literature an Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. London: Harper Collins Publisher. Kennedy, William. 1966. How to Analyze Fiction. New York: Monarch Press. Nazir, Moh.1983. Metode Penelitian. Jakarta Timur: Ghalia Indonesia. Nurgiyantoro, Burhan. 1995. Teori Pengkajian Fiksi. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press. Peck, John. 1983. How to Study a Novel. Great Britain: The Camelot Press Ltd. Stanford, Judieth. 2003. Responding to Literature ‘Stories, Poems, Plays, and Essays’. United States of America: McGraw-Hill Inc. Stanton, Robert. 1965. An Introduction to Fiction. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Stockett, Kathryn. 2009. The Help. United States of America: Penguin Books. Taylor, Richard. 1981. Understanding the Elements of Literature. London and Basingstoke: The Macmillan Press Ltd. Taylor, Robert. 2007. Teori Fiksi. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar. Watson, George. 1979. The Story of the Novel. London and Basingstoke: The Macmillan Press Ltd. Wellek, Rene and Warren, Austin. 1982. Theory Literary. Hardmond Sworth, Middlesex: England, Penguin Book Ltd. Universitas Sumatera Utara APPENDICES Biography of Kathryn Stockett Born in 1969 in Jackson, Mississippi, writer and editor Kathryn Stockett earned her undergraduate degree in English and creative writing from the University of Alabama, then headed to New York City with plans to work in publishing. She spent nine years there, working both in magazine publishing and in marketing, before moving to Atlanta, Georgia, where she lives with her husband and daughter. Since moving back to the South, Stockett has been focusing on writing for herself, having shifted her attention to fiction. Her debut novel, The Help, was published by Amy Einhorn Books in 2009, and proved to be one of the hit books of the summer season. The Help garnered instant attention due to its unusual and rarely addressed subject matter: the relationship in the South between white families and the domestic servants, who were primarily black, whom they employed in their homes during the 1960s. Having grown up during this period in Mississippi, Stockett was familiar with the dynamic, but nervous about addressing it in a novel, understanding that it was a controversial subject and could result in criticism from both reviewers and from general readers. In an interview with a writer for Bookreporter Web site, Stockett explained her attitude as a child: Universitas Sumatera Utara “Growing up in Mississippi, almost every family I knew had a black woman working in their house—cooking, cleaning, and taking care of the white children. That was life in Mississippi. I was young and asszumed that’s how most of America lived.” Only after she moved north did Stockett realize that she had grown up in a microcosm, and that her memories of her childhood were not of a universal experience. She found herself reminiscing with other Southerners she met in New York, trading stories about growing up with black domestic help. Gradually, those memories began to spark an idea and she decided to write a story about her relationship with her family’s maid when she was a child. Early on in the writing process, Stockett chose to frame her narrative from the point of view of a black maid. It seemed logical, and she had no qualms abouther choice because at the time she did not believe anyone else would ever read the story. Only when she reached the stage of getting friends to look at her work did she start to get nervous about how she had portrayed the characters and whether their voices rang true. Stockett told the interviewer for Bookreporter Web site: “I’ll never know what it really felt like to be in the shoes of those black women who worked in the white homes of the South during the 1960s and I hope that no one thinks I presume to know that.” Universitas Sumatera Utara Summary of the Novel The Help By Kathryn Stockett Book Summary The Help, Kathryn Stockett's debut novel, tells the story of black maids working in white Southern homes in the early 1960s in Jackson, Mississippi, and of Miss Eugenia "Skeeter" Phelan, a 22-year-old graduate from Ole Miss, who returns to her family's cotton plantation, Longleaf, to find that her beloved maid and nanny, Constantine, has left and no one will tell her why. Skeeter tries to behave as a proper Southern lady: She plays bridge with the young married women; edits the newsletter for the Junior League; and endures her mother's constant advice on how to find a man and start a family. However, Skeeter's real dream is to be a writer, but the only job she can find is with the Jackson Journal writing a housekeeping advice column called "Miss Myrna." Skeeter knows little about housekeeping, so she turns to her friend's maid, Aibileen, for answers and finds a lot more. Aibileen works tirelessly raising her employer's child (Aibileen's seventh one) and keeps a tidy house, yet none of this distracts her from the recent loss of her own son who died in an accident at work while his white bosses turned away. Two events bring Skeeter and Aibileen even closer: Skeeter is haunted by a copy of Jim Crow laws she found in the library, and she receives a letter from a publisher in New York interested in Skeeter's idea of writing the true stories of domestic servants. Universitas Sumatera Utara Skeeter approaches Aibileen with the idea to write narratives from the point of view of 12 black maids. Aibileen reluctantly agrees, but soon finds herself as engrossed in the project as Skeeter. They meet clandestinely in the evenings at Aibileen's house to write the book together as the town's struggles with race heat up all around them. Aibileen brings in her best friend, Minny, a sassy maid who is repeatedly fired for speaking her mind, to tell her story, too. Hearing their stories changes Skeeter as her eyes open to the true prejudices of her upbringing. Aibileen and Minny also develop a friendship and understanding with Skeeter that neither believed possible. Along the way, Skeeter learns the truth of what happened to her beloved maid, Constantine. Constantine had given birth, out of wedlock, to Lulabelle who turned out to look white even though both parents were black. Neither the black nor the white community would accept Lulabelle, so Constantine gave her up for adoption when she was four years old. When the little girl grew up, she and Constantine were reunited. While Skeeter was away at college, Lulabelle came to visit her mother in Jackson and showed up at a party being held in Skeeter's mother's living room. When Charlotte Phelan discovered who Lulabelle was, she kicked her out and fired Constantine. Constantine had nowhere else to go, so she moved with her daughter to Chicago and an even worse fate. Skeeter never saw Constantine again. Skeeter's book is set in the fictional town of Niceville and published anonymously. It becomes a national bestseller and, soon, the white women of Jackson begin recognizing themselves in the book's characters. Hilly Holbrook, in Universitas Sumatera Utara particular, is set on vengeance due to the details in the book. Hilly and Skeeter grew up best friends, but they now have very different views on race and the future of integration in Mississippi. Hilly, who leads the Junior League and bosses around the other white women in the town, reveals to Stuart, Skeeter's boyfriend, that she found a copy of the Jim Crow laws in Skeeter's purse, which further ostracizes Skeeter from their community. In the end, it is a secret about Hilly that Minny reveals in Skeeter's book that silences Hilly. The book becomes a powerful force in giving a voice to the black maids and causes the community of Jackson to reconsider the carefully drawn lines between white and black. Universitas Sumatera Utara
The Intrinsic Analysis in Ahmad Fuadi’s Novel Ranah 3 Warna. Background of the Study Character Setting The Instrinsic Elements of Novel Definition of Novel REVIEW AND RELATED LITERATURE Dr. Matius C.A. Sembiring, M.A. Head of ESP Drs. Parlindungan Purba, M.Hum. Supervisor Plot THE ANALYSIS OF RANAH 3 WARNA NOVEL Plot The Instrinsic Elements of Novel Point of View The Instrinsic Elements of Novel The Theme THE ANALYSIS OF RANAH 3 WARNA NOVEL The Theme The Instrinsic Elements of Novel
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