Alhamdulillah, praise and gratitude to Almighty God, Allah SWT, for all the graces and blessings that provide health and wisdom to writer so the writer can finish this thesis can be finished well.
The title of this thesis is “ The Difference of Student’s Achievement and Problem Based Learning By Implementing Problem Based Learning (PBL) and Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) on Solubility and Solubility Product Topic ”. This research is done in MAN Binjai in academic year 2014/2015 that prepared to get Sarjana Pendidikan degree of Chemistry Education, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, State University of Medan.
In this opportunity, a million thanks are delivered to Mrs. Dra. Ani Sutiani, M.Si as thesis supervisor in written of this thesis, for big support, advice, guidance, suggestion and constructive comments from beginning until end of completing this research. Great thanks are also addressed to Mr. Dr. Zainuddin Muchtar, M.Si, Mr. Dr. Marham Sitorus, M.Si, and Mr. Agus Kembaren, S.Si., M.Si as examiner lecturer who had given advice and suggestion to completing this thesis. Thanks also goes to Dr. Wesly Hutabarat, M.Sc as academic supervisor who had motivated and guidance the writer during lecturing, Prof. Dr. Retno Dwi Suyani, M.Si as instrument and observation sheet validator, Prof. Dr. rer. nat Binari Manurung, M.Si as coordinator of Bilingual Program, Agus Kembaren, S.Si,M.Si as Head of Chemistry Department, Prof. Drs. Motlan, M.Sc., Ph.D as a dean of FMIPA UNIMED and all lecturer and staff in chemistry department.
The writer also like to say thanks to Mr. Dra. Safrimi, M.Pd as a headmaster of SMAN 2 Medan, Mr. Manarsar Manurung, S.Pd as chemistry teacher for his help and guidance when do validation instrument and also for the all teacher, staff administration, and students in SMAN 2 Medan who had given oportunity and helpful to the writer when do validation instrument test.
The special gratitude to my beloved family, special deepest gratitude and appreciation to my lovely father Nasip, my lovely mother Tunem, and my lovely sisters and brothers Nur Paras Wati, Sri Fadilah and Muhammad Ridho. A billion thanks to my parents for their caring, love, prayer, motivation, support, and education.and of course, thank you both for your constant support through the ups and downs of my academic career. It has been bumpy at times, but your confidence in me has enhanced my ability to get through it all and succeed in the end. I can’t adequately express how thankful I am. And for you my sisters and brothers, thanks for everything, we grew up together and you have colored my life, i’m really lucky to have brothers like both of you.
The writer also express thanks to my best friend, Sinta Puspita Sary and big family of CESP’11, thanks for support, help, motivation and enjoyable class ever, full of ambition but full of fun, Bayu, Haposan, Jori, Angela, Angeline, Anggun, Cholida, Debby, Desi, Evina, Fatma, Hesti, Intan, Juliani, Juwita, Lanita, Liesa, Mariani, Nova, Poppy, Rhone, Riris, Ricki, Rusdi, Ruth, Yolanda, and Yuni. Thanks for this 4 years guys and let’s go to the next ambition. Thanks to my friends of boarding house, Mega, Riska, Ria, Igen, Ulan, Rani, Risa, Nadia dan Yuli for laugh, happiness, sadness and also always support me. And thanks for all people, whose name can’t be mentioned, who always support me. I love you all.
Medan, 23 June 2015 Writer,
THE DIFFERENCES OF STUDENT’S ACHIEVEMENT AND CRITICAL THINKING BY IMPLEMENTING PROBLEM BASED LEARNING
The main objective of this research is to know the difference of problem based learning model and process oriented guided inquiry learning model toward student’s achievement and critical thinking. This research was conducted in MAN Binjai on the second semester. The sample that is used are the students in grade XI in two classes, one class as experimental class I and the other as experimental class II. The research instrument that is used in this research consist of evaluation test and observation sheet. The research instrument in this research are 20 multiple choice questions from 30 questions were validated by validator and students, with rcount > rtable 0.361, state that it was reliable with high category. The data of research had been analyzed by using normality test and homogeneity test, which is shown that data gain are normal distributed and homogenous. It is a requirement to do hypothesis test. Based on hypothesis test of hypothesis I using t-test was gotten value of significancecount (0,009) < significant level (0.05), so the Ha1 is accepted and Ho1 is rejected. It means that there is differences in student’s achievement that taught by implementing PBL with student’s achievement that is taught by implementing POGIL on solubility and solubility product topic. In hypothesis test of hypothesis II using t-test was gotten value of significancecount (0,175) > significant level (0.05), so the Ha2 is rejected and Ho2 is accepted. It means that there is no differences in student’s critical thinking that taught by implementing PBL with student’s critical thinking that is taught by implementing POGIL on solubility and solubility product topic.
Approval Sheet i
Contents List vi
Figures List x
Tables List xi
Formula List xii
Appendixs List xiii
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1
1.1. Research Background 1
1.2. Problem Identification 4
1.3. Problem Limitation 4
1.4. Problem Formulation 5
1.5. Research Objective 5
1.6. Research Benefit 6
1.7. Operational Defenition 6
CHAPTER II LITERATURE STUDY 8
2.1. Theoritical Framework 8
2.1.1. Definiton of Learning 8
2.1.2. Learning Outcomes 9
2.1.3. Factors Affecting The Learning Outcomes 12
2.1.4. Critical Thinking Skill 13
2.1.5. The Learning Model 17
2.1.6. Problem Based Learning Model (PBL) 17
126.96.36.199. The Characteristics of Problem Based Learning Model 18
188.8.131.52. Advantages and Disadvantages of Problem Based Learning
2.1.7. Guided Inquiry Learning Model 23
2.1.8. Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning Model (POGIL) 24
184.108.40.206. Parts of Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning Model (POGIL) 26
220.127.116.11. The Steps of Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning Model 27
4.2. Research Discussion 67
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 71
5.1. Conclusion 71
5.2. Suggestion 71
Table 2.1 Indicator of Critical Thinking Skills 14
Table 2.2 Steps of Problem Based Learning Model 21
Table 2.3 Steps of Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning 27
Table 3.1 Lattice of Test Instrument 44
Table 3.2 Criteria of Validation Analysis 45
Tabel 3.3 Lattice Sheet of Observations 48
Tabel 3.4 The Design of Research 49
Tabel 3.5 The Percentage of the value of students attitude 56
Table 4.1 Result Testing of Question That is Used 59
Table 4.2 Student’s Achievement Data 60
Table 4.3 Observation Sheet Data of Student’s Critical Thinking 61
Table 4.4 Normality Test of Student’s Achievement 62
Tabel 4.5 Normality Test of Student’s Critical Thinking 62
Tabel 4.6 Homogeneity Test of Student’s Achievement 63
Tabel 4.7 Homogeneity Test of Student’s Critical Thinking 63
Tabel 4.8 Normalized Gain of Student’s Achievement 64
Tabel 4.9 Hypothesis Test of Hypothesis 1 66
Formula 2.1 Solubility 29
Formula 3.1 Validity Test 45
Formula 3.2 Reliability Test 46
Formula 3.3 Difficulty Level 47
Formula 3.4 Discrimination Index 47
Formula 3.5 Normalized Gain 54
Formula 2.1 Solubility 29
Formula 3.1 Validity Test 45
Formula 3.2 Reliability Test 46
Formula 3.3 Difficulty Level 47
Formula 3.4 Discrimination Index 47
Formula 3.5 Normalized Gain 54
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1.1. Research Background
Education is a container in which there is interaction between learners and educators and is intended to achieve the life and development of the nation and the state. In addition there are other goals to be achieved from such interactions are developing students' potentials both of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor in learning.
An education is not only concerned with an end result, but the most important is the process, in which the students can understand the process and understand the purpose of learning. The role of the teacher is very important in the learning process where the teacher is requested to create an active learning situation, creative, innovative, effective, and fun in the process of learning activities.
In fact, the learning process in the classroom activities are still centered on the teacher (teacher centered), teacher only requires students to memorize concepts and memorizing formulas. Students just sit, listen, record and memorize concepts. Students are not invited to actively follow the teaching, so that learning becomes unattractive and students become bored. Teachers do not provide an opportunity for students to discover concepts, develop the ability to process thought, life skills and cooperation attitudes of students when learn.
Meanwhile, according to Jahro (2009), chemistry is an experimental science, can’t be learned only through reading, writing or listening only. Studied chemistry not only master the body of knowledge in the form of facts, concepts, principles, but also a process of discovery and mastery of procedures or the scientific method.
student will have difficulty to understand the material further. Thus resulting in lower student learning outcomes in this matter.
The writer found the same opinion when holding observation in MAN Binjai. From interviews with chemistry teachers (Mr. Surya Sudariyanto S.Pd, Mrs. Herlinawati S.Pd and Mr. Mufti Lubis S.Pd) at the school, said that many students who are less active in the learning process. It is possible that the learning process interesting and less monotonous. The above conditions have implications on the low learning achievement chemistry and attitude of students' critical thinking in the study.
It required an action that can improve the learning process and expected an increase in learning outcomes. One way that can be done to overcome the above problems is to use a learning model that centered to student (student centered learning) and also can develop critical thinking in study groups. Critical thinking is important, because it allows one to analyze, assess, explain and develop thoughts, so as to minimize the risk to adopt a false belief, and think and act by using the false belief. The learning model that can be used is the learning model of problem based learning and learning model of process-oriented Guided Inquiry Learning.
and assess performance (Richard, et.all. 2009).
POGIL approach is one of the guided-inquiry. POGIL use guided-inquiry, learning cycle of exploration, discovery and application of the concept is the basis for many of the ingredients are well designed for students and used to guide students in building new knowledge. It's importants that teacher act as facilitator, know in advance the results of the experiment (Hanson, 2006).
POGIL learning strategy has strengths in designing the team learned that the teacher as a facilitator rather than as a source of information, students are guided through exploration to build understanding, using discipline content to facilitate the development of important skills including the higher level thinking and the ability to learn and to apply knowledge in new contexts . So that students are able to develop soft skills, such as communication skills, critical thinking with less careful, responsible, and work together.
Several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of the model of Problem Based Learning and process oriented guided inquiry learning to improve learning outcomes. Results of research conducted by Mutaharoh (2006), concluded that students taught by using the model of Problem Based Learning (PBL) has an influence on the chemistry student learning outcomes when compared with conventional learning models. Based on the results of the calculation of the t-test at a significance level of α = 0.05 was obtained tcount > ttable (4.06 > 2.00).
Correspondingly, Rizqa (2013), concluded that the learning model Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning effect on student learning outcomes. The final result obtained that tcount > ttable (2,67 > 1,67). And the results of research conducted by Adnan (2014), concluded that there are differences in learning outcomes of students that learned chemistry using the model of Problem Based Learning (PBL) and Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL). The final result obtained that tcount > ttable is (2.847 > 2.002).
and Problem Based Learning lies in the problem set by the teacher. The learning model POGIL given little information is then the teacher asking questions so that students who seek and find answers that the proposed teacher independently. While the Problem Based Learning which gives teachers the existing problems in everyday life related to the subject matter. Students in demand for critical thinking in addressing the problem that is given to teachers solve the problem that is given and that allows the student is directed to solving these problems with a solution to the problem is given.
Based on this background, the authors are interested in making the study titled “The Differences of Student’s Achievement and Critical Thinking By Implementing Problem Based Learning (PBL) and Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) On Solubility and Solubility Product Topic”.
1.2. Problem Identification
Based on the above background of the study, the problems identification in the study was:
a. Students tend to be passive and monotonous in the learning process. b. In schools, teachers still use a teacher-centered learning and less variation
of learning model in the chemistry learning process .
c. Student’s achievement in learning chemistry is still low. It can be seen from the student’s score in final exam is less than 75
d. Student’s critical thinking in the learning process was still low, so that the tendency to participate in teaching-learning process is less.
1.3. Problem Limitation
The Problem Limitation of this research are:
2. The learning model used in this research is Problem Based Learning (PBL) for the experimental class I and Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) for the experimental class II.
3. The material that discuss in this research is limited to the subject of solubility and solubility product.
4. Student’s achievement in this research can be divided into two, namely the cognitive and affective. Cognitive domains measured by the Bloom's taxonomy C1 (Knowledge), C2 (Comprehension), C3 (Application), C4 (Analysis) and affective domains in this research of student’s critical thinking skills in learning groups.
1.4. Problem Formulation
Based on the background of research and the scope of research above, the Problem Formulation of this Research are:
1. Is there a significant difference between student’s achievement that is taught by using Problem Based Learning (PBL) and Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) on Solubility and Solubility Product topic?
2. Is there a significant difference between student’s critical thinking skills that is taught by using Problem Based Learning (PBL) and Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) on Solubility and Solubility Product topic?
The Research Objective of this research are:
2. To know there is a significant difference between student’s critical thinking skills that is taught by using Problem Based Learning (PBL) and Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) on Solubility and Solubility Product topic.
The Benefits expected from the results of this Research are:
1. For Researchers/Students, the results of the research will add knowledge, ability and experience to improve their competence as a teacher candidate.
2. For Chemistry Teacher, the results of research will provide input on the use of Problem Based Learning (PBL) model and Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) model in the teaching of chemistry, especially on the subject of solubility and solubility product.
3. For Students, this Research is expected to increase the knowledge and experience of student learning.
4. For Schools, this Research is expected to contribute to improving student achievement in schools so as to improve the quality of teaching chemistry at MAN Binjai
5. For the Next Researcher, this Research can be used as a reference in conducting further research.
In order to avoid different interpretations in understanding any existing variable in this study, it was necessary given the operational definition to clarify it. The operational definitions of research are:
Knowledge (C1), Comprehension (C2), Application (C3), Analysis (C4), Syntesis (C5), and Evaluation (C6). In this study, the observed learning outcome includes two aspects: cognitive domains consist of C1 through C4 and affective domain includes aspects of critical thinking skills and attitudes of students in cooperative learning groups.
2. According to Surya (2013) critical thinking is an active process that includes regular or systematic way of thinking fatherly understand more in depth information, so as to form a belief correctness of information obtained or opinions expressed. Active process was indicated a desire or motivation to find answers and reach an understanding. In this study measured students' critical thinking skills through observation sheet attitude assessment.
3. A learning method of Problem-based Learning (PBL) is one of the alternatives from the many innovative methods are applied in the process of teaching and learning activities to help students in processing the information that has been so in her mind and put together their own knowledge about the social world and beyond (Kusnadi, et.all, 2013) 4. A POGIL learning activity engages students, promotes restructuring of
information and knowledge, and helps students develop understanding by employing the learning cycle in guided inquiry activities. The learning cycle consists of three stages or phases: exploration, concept invention or formation, and application (Hanson, 2006).
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
Based on the research that have been done, can be concluded that:
1. There is a significant difference between student’s achievement that is taught by using Problem Based Learning (PBL) and Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) on Solubility and Solubility Product topic.
2. There is no significant difference between student’s critical thinking skills that is taught by using Problem Based Learning (PBL) and Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) on Solubility and Solubility Product topic.
1. For chemistry teacher, they should make innovation in teaching of chemistry, one of the ways is by apply Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning model and Problem Based Learning model because this models can improve student’s achievement and critical thinking in chemistry. 2. There is innovation to do Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning
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