A psttcolonial analysis of the main character in the novel the reluctant fundamentalist (2007) by Mohsin Hamid

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A POSTCOLONIAL ANALYSIS OF THE MAIN CHARACTER IN THE NOVEL THE RELUCTANT FUNDAMENTALIST (2007) BY MOHSIN HAMID A Thesis Submitted to Letters and Humanities Faculty In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for The Degree of Letters Scholar HELENDRA NIM 104026000892 ENGLISH LETTER DEPARTMENT ADAB AND HUMANITIES FACULTY STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH JAKARTA 2011 APPROVEMENT A POSTCOLONIAL ANALYSIS OF THE MAIN CHARACTER IN THE NOVEL THE RELUCTANT FUNDAMENTALIST BY MOHSIN HAMID A Thesis Submitted to Letters and Humanities Faculty in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Strata 1 Degree HELENDRA Approved by: Moh. Supardi, M.Hum Nip: 196407101993031006 ENGLISH LETTERS DEPARTMENT LETTERS AND HUMANITIES FACULTY SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY JAKARTA 2011 ii LEGALIZATION Name Nim Title : Helendra : 104026000892 : A Postcolonial Analysis of The Main Character in the Novel The Reluctant Fundamentalist by Mohsin Hamid The thesis has been defended before the Faculty Letters and Humanities’s examination committee on March 03, 2011. It has been accepted as a partial fulfillmentof the requirements for the degree of strata one. Jakarta, March 03, 2011 The Examination Committee Signature 1. Drs. Asep Saefuddin, M. Pd 19640710 199303 1 006 (Chair Person) 2. Elve Oktafiyani, M.Hum 19781003 200112 2 002 (Secretary) 3. Moh. Supardi, M.Hum (Advisor) 4. Elve Oktafiyani, M.Hum 19781003 200112 2 002 (Examiner I) 5. Maria Ulfa, M.A., M.Hum (Examiner II) iii Date DECLRATION I hereby declare that this thesis is my own work that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another person nor material which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma of the university or other institute of higher learning, except where due acknowledgment has been made in the next. Jakarta, March 03, 2011 HELENDRA iv ABSTRACT Helendra, A Postcolonial Analysis of the main character in the novel The Reluctant Fundamentalist by Mohsin Hamid, Thesis. Jakarta: Adab and Humanities Faculty, English Letters Department, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University. Strata One Degree, 2011. The objective of the research in this thesis is to get the description of Changez’s character in the novel “The Reluctant Fundamentalist” based on Hybridity Theory of postcolonial analysis and in order to find out how is Hybridity and the hybrid identity affect the character of Changez, since the writer assumes that the character has undergone the hybrid identity. In the research, the writer decided to use the qualitative method with descriptive analysis method in analyzing the Changez Character of the novel; the writer would like to find the data analysis with hybridity and the hybrid identity’s construction process of the narrator protagonist; so it would get the result by data analysis and the concept. The research used verbal data; such as texts as the basic analysis and in solving the research problems The analysis shows that the novel idealized the hybrid native’s representation. The idealization is aimed to display the greatness of hybrid identity in resistance against European/west(America) domination and against tradition. Through the narrator protagonist, hybrid identity is indicated as a reconstruction process of native identity after the experience of colonization. The process can be seen through the ways the narrator protagonist positions himself within his painful memories, in attempt to comprehend the tradition and Europe as parts of his identity. as a critique of essentialism, in the novel is in a frame of resistance against European(America) domination. i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In the name of Allah, the most Gracious, the Most Merciful All praise be to Allah, the only God who always gives the writer mercies and blessing also guidance, so this paper could be finished well. Peace be upon to dear prophet Muhammad SAW for his conveying the words of God, the light of humanism. Here, the writer would like thank to his beloved parents: father (M. A. Rody) and mother (Indrawana) and his brothers (Handersa, Higra, Hofrindi) and my beloved girl (Elly Novitrie) for their support, understanding, advices, contribution, love, moral, and financial encouragement. The writer also wants to give his gratitude to Mr. Supardi, M.Hum as the writer advisor for his time, guidance, patient, kindness, and contribution in correcting and helping him in finishing this paper. The writer would like to give his special thanks and appreciation to: 1. Prof. Dr. Komaruddin Hidayat, MA. The Rector of State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta. 2. Dr. Abd. Wahid Hasyim, M.Ag. The Dean of Faculty Adab and Humanities. 3. Drs. Asep Saefuddin, M.Pd. The Head of English Letters Department. 4. Elve Oktafiyani, M.Hum. the secretary of English letters Department. 5. Maria Ulfa, M.A, M.Hum as the examiner of the thesis v 6. The lectures and the staffs of Faculty of Adab and Humanities for teaching precious knowledge, sharing philosophy of life, and for giving wonderful study experience. 7. His beloved friends Jay(who gave the writer to choose this novel to be analyzed), Abi(the spirit of young Tan Malaka), Apen (the new reborn of the sufist), Kahfi (who gave the writer many references about postcolonial studies), Hardiansya Suteja, Mpoy, Tb. Faisal, Gogon, Rio, Norman, Mirza, Aswar, Bayu, Jawir, Bejo, Roy, Hendi, Andri, Niko, Jongkok, Ambon, Idham and other that can’t be mentioned one by one (thanks for your spirit, laziness, happiness, sadness, faces that give the writer inspiration to contemplate the true meaning of life although always in process “becoming” and “being” in exist) 8. His beloved friends in all extra organizations and institutions KM UIN, HMI, PMII, FKE (Forum Kajian Ekonomi), Wahid Institute, ICAS (Islamic College for Advance Studies) Joy, Onge, CC KM UIN Syifak, IPS(Institute Perennial Studies), Formaci, KOMPAK, thanks for giving the enlightenment “Aufklarung”. 9. To those, that the writer cannot mention one by one either directly or indirectly helping her in completing this paper. Finally, the writer hopes this paper will be useful especially for the writer and those who are interested in it. May Allah bless us. Amien. Jakarta, January 2011 The writer vi TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT . i APPROVEMENT . ii LEGALIZATION . iii DECLARATION . iv ACKNOWLEDGMENT . v TABLE OF CONTENT . vii CHAPTER I CHAPTER II INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study . 1 B. Focus of the Study . 5 C. Research Question . 5 D. Significance of the Study . 6 E. Research Methodology . 6 1. The Purpose of the Research . 6 2. Research Method . 6 3. Research Instrument . 6 4. Data Analysis Technique . 7 5. Analysis Unit . 7 6. Time and Place of the Research. 7 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK A. Character and characterization . 8 B. Postcolonial Theory . 10 vii CHAPTER III RESEARCH FINDING A. Data description . B. Postcolonial analysis in Hybridity and hybrid identities in Changez . 1. 14 20 The Distance to the Natives and Eastern stereotypes . 21 2. The Distance to Europe (here the U.S.) . 23 3. Resistance Sites . 26 3.1 Hybridization as a Strategy 4. CHAPTER IV BIBLIOGRAPHY for Indigenous Resistance . 26 3.2 The Identity Of The Liquid . 28 3.3 Critics of the tradition and religion . 30 Changez Identity Reconstruction . 33 4.1 Meeting with “The Others” . 34 4.2. In Betweenness/Third Space . 36 4.3 Memory and Novel Structure . 38 4.4 Odyssey and Nostalgia . 40 CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. Conclusion . 44 B. Suggestion . 48 . 49 viii 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study The existence of literature becomes a part of human life since the civilization and human culture appears in this world. According to Sapardi Djoko Damono, Sastra adalah lembaga sosial yang menggunakan bahasa sebagai medium; bahasa itu sendiri merupakan ciptaan sosial.1(Literature is social institution that using the languange as the media; languange is social idea). Technically, anything spoken or written is literature. There are some kinds of types of literature as the art of work, such as: poetry, prose, short story, fiction, play or and novel.2 The novel is one of the literature works. It falls into narrative categories, fiction story. The word “novel” usually means something new – novelty. Some of the earliest novel, written in the seventeenth and eighteen centuries, would have been just that. Some of the modern novels have different definition. The Oxford dictionary describes a novel as a fictitious narrative prose or tale presenting a picture of a real life, especially of the emotional crises in the life-story of the men and women being portrayed. 3 Another dictionary, Longman, describes a novel as a story in prose about imaginary people long enough to cover a book, or as an 1 Sapardi Djoko Damono, Sosiologi Sastra Sebuah Pengantar Ringkas,(Jakarta: Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa, 1984), p.1 2 C. Alton, Morris, Biron Walker, Philip, Bradshaw, Imaginative Literature Fiction, Drama, Poetry, (USA: Harcourt, Brace & Inc, 1968), p. 114 3 A S Hornby. Oxford Advance Learners’ Dictionary, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), p.792 1 2 imaginative storybook.4 Novel was a fictitious prose narrative of considerable length, portraying characters, action, and scene representative of real life in a plot of more or less intrigue.5 One thing readers need to keep in mind is that there are two main attitudes or positions that the readers can take when studying a novel. The first attitude they can hold that what important is the content or the word which the author has created. This is a world that the readers can see people, places, things, and events, to which they respond with like or dislike, pity or criticism, as the reader do to the real world. Studying from this position, the readers will discuss the characters almost as if they were being with ability to choose their actions.6 The second position is that readers can see the novel as a ‘text’, as a created work of art, and to look at it in much more detached and analytical way. Characters are devices, which the author uses and manipulates to create a particular effect. Studying with this attitude, the readers will be more likely to consider what a character’s role is in the construction of a plot, or the effect of using particular language to describe a place or person.7 Furthermore, in studying fiction, the readers will know the aspects of the fiction, such as theme, plot, character, setting, and narrative point of view. These aspects are called intrinsic elements. The intrinsic elements are very 4 Pearson Longman. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, (Great Britain: Longman Group, 1987), p.706 5 Steven Croft and Helen Cross, Literature, Criticism, and Style, (New York: Oxford, 1997), Vol.1, p.7 6 Ibid. 7 Ibid. 3 important in the fiction story, to describe a story, make a story come to life. Besides, the readers have also to understand the background of the author and the social background where the story has been created, these are called extrinsic elements. Mohsin Hamid was born in 1971 in Lahore. He attended Princeton University and Harvard Law School, and worked as a management consultant in New York and London. He now writes full-time as the author of two novels; Moth Smoke(2000) as his first novel and The Reluctant Fundamentalist(2007) as his second novel, living between Lahore where he was born and other places, including New York and London.8 Changez as a main character in The Reluctan Fundamentalis novel, a Pakistani tries to find new life and he decides to go to America to study then he graduates from Princeton University with the best grade and then he works at a financial firm in Manhattan as a consultant. He slowly becomes radicalized by America's response to the 9/11 attacks. This novel is told by monolog style. He sees an American in the district of Old Anarkali in Lahore and invites him to have tea and then dinner with him in one of the establishments there. For the rest of the afternoon and late into the evening Changez recounts how he came to be the man he now is, from graduating from Princeton and landing a great job to once again living in Lahore. The novel is briskly told in 184 pages. Hamid tells the story in first person point of view, with Changez as the narrator and the reader in the position of 8 http://www.mohsinhamid.com/shortbio.html accessed on March 9, 2011 at 05:13 am 4 the operative. "Excuse me, sir, but may I be of assistance?"(p.1) it begins. "Do not be frightened by my beard: I am a lover of America." (p.1) As his story unravels, it becomes clear that something terrible is going to happen between Changez and the American. Changez fights with his feelings to decide the difficult thing between to keep staying in America where he loves or to go back to his country although finally he opts to go back to Pakistan. We can see this is as an identity crisis and we can analyze it by using postcolonial theory which usually tries to understand the power and continued dominance of Western ways of knowing. 9 Nyoman Kutha Rama states that where there is domination, there is resistance. In the history of colonialism, the construction on non-European identity as the subordinate vis-à-vis the superiority of the European is disseminated in many mode of thought and knowledge about the other, including literature. As part of the history of decolonization, the native writers reacted in opposition to these representations, by writing themselves about their own identity and culture. Many of them were educated in the language and culture of the colonizers.10 Therefore, in this paper, the writer chose this novel entitled The Reluctant Fundamentalist written by Mohsin Hamid. Then the writer tries to analyze the causes of identity crisis which arouses in the main character who struggles with his feelings to decide whether he still stays in America or goes back to 9 Ania Loomba,1998. Colonialism/Postcolonialism. Great Britain: London and New York Routledge, pp. xvi, 16-17, 21, 34-35, 48 10 Nyoman Kutha Ratna. 2005. Sastra dan Cultural Studies: Repsentasi Fiksi dan Fakta, (Yogyakarta: PUstaka Pelajar, pp.238-240 5 his country Pakistan which he loves them both. It is important to study the novel because Pakistanis an ex-colonized country that has tried to find his own identity and in this novel it is portrayed by Changes as main character but he is trapped to the crisis identity, which one he must choose as reconstruction process of native identity after the long experience of colonization. To answer this, the writer uses postcolonial approach to understand the novel comprehensively. B. Focus of the Study Based on the background of the study above, the writer will focus on Changes as the main character of novel The Reluctant of Fundamentalist on analyzing the identity crisis by using postcolonial approach through the main character. C. Research Question Based on the focus of study above, the writer formulates the research question as follow: 1. How does the author describe the major character in the novel? 2. How does the author describe the major character’s identity crisis of the novel The Reluctant of Fundamentalist? D. Significance of the Study The result of this research is expected to give new perspective in understanding The Reluctant Fundamentalist novel, especially identity crisis seen from hybridity and identity of the hybrid in postcolonial. 6 E. Research Methodology 1. The Purpose of the Research The research aims to analyze the major character and characterization and the crisis of identity of the major character in The Reluctant of Fundamentalist novel by using hybridity and identity of the hybrid in postcolonial theory. 2. Research Method The method used in this reseach is qualitative method with the analytic-descriptive method. The writer analyses the unit of analysis by using every reference related to the study. He also tries to answer from the research questions by analysing the novel and quoting some words or sentences from the novel to support the analysis. 3. Research Instrument The instrument in this research is the writer himself by reading and analyzing the novel of The Reluctant Fundamentalist. Besides analyzing the data, the writer also puts it as the evidence in this research. 4. Data Analysis Technique In analyzing and describing the data, the writer uses the following techniques and steps, namely; first of all, reading the be high, mean while American Dollar rate and invest has positive proportioned to ward Gross Domestic Product, if the invest is raised and value of American Dollar rate strengthening of Rupiah rate, the Gross Domestic Product value will be as well. Keyword: Gross Domestic Product, Invest, certificate interest of Indonesian Bank and American Dollar rate. vii PENGARUH INVESTASI, TINGKAT SUKU BUNGA SERTIFIKAT BANK INDONESIA DAN KURS DOLLAR AMERIKA TERHADAP PENDAPATAN DOMESTIK BRUTO DI INDONESIA TAHUN 2000.1 – 2007.I2 P.HARI PRISTIAWAN ILMU EKONOMI, FAKULTAS EKONOMI, UNIVERSITAS JEMBER ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perkembangan Pendapatan Domestik Bruto di Indonesia yang dipengaruhi oleh investasi, tingkat suku bunga Sertifikat Bank Indonesia dan kurs Dollar Amerika. Metode analisis data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode analisis regresi linier berganda yang dapat digunakan untuk mengetahui pengaruh variabel bebas yaitu investasi, tingkat suku bunga Sertifikat Bank Indonesia dan kurs Dollar Amerika terhadap variabel terikat yaitu Produk Domestik Bruto. Analisis data menunjukkan bahwa 78,9% naik turunnya Produk Domestik Bruto dipengaruhi variabel dalam model penelitian sedangkan 21,1% dipengaruhi faktor lain diluar model penelitian. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa investasi, tingkat suku bunga Sertifikat Bank Indonesia dan kurs Dollar Amerika secara bersama-sama mempunyai pengaruh secara signifikan terhadap Produk Domestik Bruto di Indonesia. Secara teori hubungan tingkat suku bunga Sertifikat Bank terhadap Produk Domestik Bruto berbanding negatif, apabila tingkat suku bunga Sertifikat Bank Indonesia turun maka Produk Domestik Bruto akan naik sedangkan investasi dan kurs Dollar Amerika berbanding positif terhadap Produk Domestik Bruto, apabila investasi meningkat dan kurs Rupiah menguat terhadap Dollar Amerika maka Produk Domestik Bruto akan mengalami kenaikan. Kata Kunci: Produk Domestik Bruto, Investasi, suku bunga Sertifikat Bank Indonesia dan kurs Dollar Amerika. viii KATA PENGANTAR Dengan ucapan puji syukur kehadirat Allah SWT yang telah melimpahkan rahmat, taufiq, hidayah dan inayah-Nya sehingga penulis dapat menyelesaikan skripsi yang berjudul Pengaruh Investasi, Tingkat Suku Bunga Sertifikat Bank Indonesia dan Kurs Dollar Amerika terhadap Produk Domestik Bruto di Indonesia Tahun 2000.12007.12. Skripsi ini disusun untuk memenuhi salah satu syarat untuk memeperoleh gelar sarjana (S1) Jurusan Ilmu Ekonomi dan Studi Pembangunan Universitas Jember.Dalam penulisan skripsi ini penulis telah banyak mendapatkan bantuan dan motivasi dari berbagai pihak, maka selayaknya penulis menyampaikan ucapan terimakasih kepada yang terhormat : 1. Ibu Drs. Sri Utami,SU sebagai Dosen Pembimbing I yang telah memberikan bimbingan dan arahannya dalam menyelesaikan skripsi ini. 2. Ibu Dr. Lilis Yuliati, SE, Msi, selaku Dosen Pembimbing II yang bersedia meluangkan waktu untuk memberikan bimbingan, saran, kritik dan pengarahan dengan penuh kesabaran dalam menyelesaikan skripsi ini. 3. Bapak Dr. M Fathorrazi, SE, M.Si, selaku Ketua Jurusan Ilmu Ekonomi Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Jember. 4. Bapak Drs. P. Edi Suswandi, MP, selaku dosen wali yang telah membantu memberi pengarahan dan bimbingan kepada penulis selama studi. 5. Bapak Prof. Dr. H. Sarwedi, MM, selaku Dekan Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Jember. 6. Seluruh Bapak dan Ibu dosen beserta staf karyawan di lingkungan Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Jember serta Ruang Baca Fakultas Ekonomi dan Perpustakaan Pusat. 7. Ayahku Haryono dan Ibundaku Suryanti terima kasih atas semua kasih sayang, bimbingan dan panjatan doanya yang tak pernah berhenti mengalir. ix 8. Kakakku Riana, Neti, Dewi serta adikku Indah tersayang terima kasih untuk do’a, dukungan, kasih sayang, kerja keras, kesabarannya selama ini. 9. Seluruh teman-teman Jurusan Ilmu Ekonomi dan studi pembangunan kelas A dan kelas B yang tidak dapat disebutkan satu-persatu, terima kasih semuanya. 10. Ustadz Ainur Rofiq sebagai murobbi saya terima kasih sudah mengizinkan menempati Ma’hadnya.Bu Zahra, terima kasih sudah merawat saya dan memperhatikan makan dan minum saya dan memberi kasih sayang layaknya ibu saya sendiri. 11. Teman-teman ma’had adik Amin, mas Very, Lusi, Umyana, Rini, Qorik, Rintis, Mas Eko, Warisman, Ananta serta adik kecil Sibgo, Haqi, Meri keceriaan dan senda-guraumu membuat penulis tersenyum dan seluruh teman-teman taklim di Al-Muslimun dan Nurrahman terima kasih atas dukungannya. 12. Pak Seno, Pak Jono dan Bu Nik yang mempunyai andil dalam membimbing saya. 13. Ucapan terimakasih kepada R.Novi Eka Vitriyana, seseorang yang akan menjadi istri yang saleh yang membantu dakwa penulis, terimakasih atas segala bantuan dan perhatiannya. 14. Semua pihak yang telah membantu dalam penyelesaian skripsi ini yang tidak dapat disebutkan satu-persatu. Semoga Allah SWT selalu memberikan Hidayah dan Rahmat kepada semua pihak yang telah membantu dengan ikhlas sehingga skripsi ini dapat terselesaikan. Penulis sadar akan keterbatasan dan kurang sempurnanya penulisan skripsi ini, oleh karena itu segala saran dan kritik yang bersifat membangun akan sangat penulis harapkan. Semoga skripsi ini dapat bermanfaat dan memberikan tambahan pengetahuan bagi yang membacanya. Jember, 23 Mei 2008 Penulis x DAFTAR ISI Halaman HALAMAN JUDUL . i HALAMAN PERNYATAAN. ii HALAMAN PENGESAHAN. iii HALAMAN PERSETUJUAN . iv HALAMAN PERSEMBAHAN . v HALAMAN MOTTO . vi ABSTRACT . vii ABSTRAK . viii KATA PENGANTAR. ix DAFTAR ISI. xi DAFTAR TABEL . xiii DAFTAR GAMBAR. xiv DAFTAR LAMPIRAN . xv I. PENDAHULUAN . 1 1.1 Latar Belakang Masalah. 1 1.2 Perumusan Masalah . 7 1.3 Tujuan dan Manfaat Penelitian . 7 1.3.1 Tujuan Penelitian . 7 1.3.2 Manfaat Penelitian . 7 II. TINJAUAN PUSTAKA. 8 2.1 Landasan Teori. 8 2.1.1 Pengertian Pendapatan Domestik. 8 a. Teori Keynes . 9 b. Teori Pertumbuhan Ekonomi. 10 2.1.2 Hubungan Investasi dengan Pendapatan Domestik Bruto . 11 a. Pengertian Investasi. 11 xi b. Teori Harrod dan Domar. 11 c. Teori Keynes . 13 2.1.3 Teori Tingkat Suku Bunga. 14 a. Sintesis Klasik dan Keynesian. 14 b. Teori Mark dan Hull. 15 c. Teori Hick . . 16 2.1.4 Hubungan Nilai Tukar Terhadap Produk Domestik Bruto. 17 a. Teori Pertukaran Kurs . . 17 b. Teori Messe dan Regolf . 19 2.2 Hasil Penelitian Sebelumnya . . 20 2.3 Kerangka 10 Kota 0 Mempunyai website tetapi 10 tidak menerapkan IFLGR Kabupaten 13 Kota 3 Mempunyai website tetapi 16 tidak update Kabupaten 0 Kota 0 Tidak mempunyai website 0 Sumber: Data Sekunder yang telah diolah, 2015 Berdasarkan analisis statistik deskriptif didapat hasil: Tabel 3 Analisis Statistik Deskriptif Variabel Isi/Konten Ketepatan Waktu Teknologi User Support Total a. Kelompok Sampel Kabupaten Kota Kabupaten Kota Kabupaten Kota Kabupaten Kota Kabupaten Kota N Mean 29 9 1,72 2,11 29 0,62 9 29 9 1,11 0,45 0,67 29 1,97 9 29 29 2,33 4,76 6,22 Uji Mann Whitney Dalam penelitian ini ada satu hipotesis yang akan diuji. Pengujian hipotesis ini menggunakan Program SPSS Versi 22. Pada penelitian ini menggunakan statistik non parametik. Hipotesis akan diuji dengan menggunakan Uji Mann Whitney. Uji Mann Whitney adalah uji data nonparametik yang digunakan untuk mengetahui apakah ada perbedaan respon dari dua kelompok data yang saling independen yaitu dalam penelitian ini Kabupaten dan Kota (Mann and Whitney, 1947). Berikut hasil pengujian statistik uji Mann Mita, Analisis Komparasi Internet Financial Local Government. Whitney untuk membandingkan komponen isi/konten, ketepatan waktu, teknologi, dan user support antar kedua kelompok sampel yaitu Kabupaten dan Pemerintah kota yang kemudian ditarik kesimpulan untuk pengujian hasil hipotesis. Tingkat probabilitas signifikansi variabel independen 0,05 (5%). Hasil uji Mann Whitney untuk keempat komponen berdasarkan indeks aksesibilitas yang dikembangkan oleh Cheng et al.: Tabel 4 Ranks Conten t Kelompok _Sampel Kabupaten Kota Total Timeli ness Kabupaten Kota Total Techno logy Kabupaten Kota Total User_S upport Kabupaten Kota Total N 2 9 9 3 8 2 9 9 3 8 2 9 9 3 8 2 9 9 3 8 Mean Rank Sum of Ranks 18,10 525,00 24,00 216,00 18,36 532,50 23,17 208,50 18,52 537,00 22,67 204,00 18,81 545,50 21,72 195,50 Pembahasan Berdasarkan output rank untuk komponen isi/konten, dihasilkan nilai mean untuk Pemerintah kota lebih besar dari Kabupaten yaitu 24,00 lebih besar daripada 18,10. Pengujian Mann Whitney untuk output Test Statisticsa, nilai statistik uji Z yaitu -1,525 dan nilai Sig.2-tailed adalah 0,127 lebih besar daripada 0,05. Hal ini menunjukkan hasil uji tidak mencolok secara statistik atau dengan demikian tidak ada perbedaan pengungkapan informasi pada website yang dimiliki antara Kabupaten dengan format dan kualitas yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan Pemerintah kota untuk komponen isi/konten. Output rank untuk komponen ketepatan waktu yang dijelaskan dalam Tabel 4.4 mendapatkan hasil nilai mean Pemerintah kota lebih besar dibandingkan Kabupaten yaitu 23,17 lebih besar daripada 18,36. Pengujian Mann Whitney untuk Artikel Ilmiah Mahasiswa 2016 Test Statisticsa, nilai statistik uji Z pada komponen ketepatan waktu adalah -1,288 dan nilai Sig.2tailed adalah 0,198 lebih besar daripada 0,05. Hasil ini menunjukkan tidak ada perbedaan yang mencolok secara statistik antara Pemerintah kota dan Kabupaten untuk komponen ketepatan waktu dalam pengungkapan informasi keuangan. Berdasarkan output rank untuk komponen teknologi, nilai mean untuk Kabupaten lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan nilai mean untuk Pemerintah kota yaitu 18,52 lebih kecil daripada 22,67. Dari pengujian Mann Whitney, yaitu output Test Statisticsa, nilai statistik uji Z yang kecil yaitu -1,130 dan nilai Sig.2-tailed adalah 0,259 lebih besar daripada 0,05. Hasil ini menunjukkan tidak ada perbedaan pengungkapan informasi pada website yang dimiliki antara Pemerintah kota dan Kabupaten untuk komponen teknologi. Output rank untuk komponen user support dengan hasil nilai mean Pemerintah kota lebih besar dibandingkan Kabupaten yaitu 21,72 lebih besar daripada 18,81. Sedangkan pengujian Mann Whitney untuk output Test Statistics a, nilai statistik uji Z yaitu -0,728 dan nilai Sig.2-tailed adalah 0,467 lebih besar daripada 0,05. Hasil uji tidak mencolok secara statistik atau tidak ada perbedaan kualitas website untuk komponen user support. H0: Ada perbedaan kualitas atas komponen isi/konten, ketepatan waktu, pemanfaatan teknologi dan user support yang mencolok jika dalam mengungkapkan laporan keuangan maupun non keuangan melalui internet pada masing-masing website resmi Pemerintah kota dan Kabupaten. Berdasarkan Tabel 4.7 Test Statisticsa hasil uji terlihat bahwa besarnya Mann Whitney memberikan nilai statistik uji Z yaitu -1,525 untuk komponen isi/konten dan nilai Sig.2-tailed adalah 0,127 lebih besar daripada 0,05. Sedangkan nilai statistik uji Z pada komponen ketepatan waktu (timeliness) adalah -1,288 dan nilai Sig.2-tailed adalah 0,198 lebih besar daripada 0,05. Adapun nilai statistik uji Z yang kecil pada komponen teknologi yaitu -1,130 dan nilai Sig.2-tailed adalah 0,259 lebih besar daripada 0,05. Terakhir untuk nilai statistik uji Z pada user support yaitu -0,728 dan nilai Sig.2-tailed adalah 0,467 lebih besar daripada 0,05. Berdasarkan hasil analisis ini, dapat disimpulkan bahwa tidak ada perbedaan antara kualitas atas komponen isi/konten, ketepatan waktu, pemanfaatan teknologi dan user support yang mencolok jika dalam mengungkapkan laporan keuangan maupun non keuangan. Ini menandakan bahwa hipotesis pada penelitian ini ditolak atau H0 ditolak. Kesimpulan dan Keterbatasan Mita, Analisis Komparasi Internet Financial Local Government. Kesimpulan laporan keuangan maupun non keuangan antara Pemerintah kota dan Kabupaten di Jawa Timur. Penelitian ini berusaha membandingkan kualitas pengungkapan Internet Financial Local Keterbatasan Government Reporting (IFLGR) Pemerintah kota dan Kabupaten di Jawa Timur dengan Peneliti menyadari adanya keterbatasan dalam menggunakan indeks pengungkapan yang penelitian ini, yaitu penelitian ini mempunyai dikembangkan oleh Cheng et. al. (2000) keterbatasan hanya membandingkan tingkat berdasarkan komponen isi/konten, ketepatan waktu, pengungkapan informasi keuangan maupun non teknologi, dan user support. Alasan pemilihan keuangan pada website resmi Pemerintah kota dan kelompok sampel karena Pemerintah kota lebih Kabupaten dengan format dan kualitas berdasarkan disorot oleh masyarakat sehingga dihipotesiskan isi/konten, ketepatan waktu, teknologi, dan user akan mengungkapkan informasi yang dimilikinya support. Berdasarkan kesimpulan dan keterbatasan dengan kualitas atas komponen isi/konten, penelitian, maka saran yang dapat diberikan untuk ketepatan waktu, pemanfaatan teknologi dan user penelitian selanjutnya adalah akan diharapkan akan support yang lebih baik jika dalam mengungkapkan dianalisis determinan atau faktor penentu yang laporan keuangan maupun non keuangan mempengaruhi ketersediaan dan aksesibilitas dibandingkan dengan Kabupaten. informasi publik melalui e-government. Berdasarkan analisis data dan pembahasan yang telah dilakukan, maka dapat diambil kesimpulan DAFTAR PUSTAKA antara lain: 1. Hasil observasi menunjukkan 100% Pemerintah kota dan Kabupaten memiliki e- Cheng, A. Lawrence, S and Coy, D. 2000. Measuring the Quality of Corporate Financial Websites; A New government dan dalam status online. Namun, Zealand Study. Paper presented at the 12th Asiandari hasil observasi tersebut juga didapat Pacific Conference on International Accounting Pemerintah kota dan Kabupaten yang memiliki Issues-Beijing. website tetapi tidak update yaitu 12 Kabupaten antara lain Kabupaten Bangkalan, Kabupaten Bojonegoro, Kabupaten Lamongan, KabupatenSung Jun Do, Howard Davey, David Coy. 2014. Assessing Accountability of Organisations using the Internet Kediri, Kabupaten Nganjuk, Kabupaten to Report: South Korean Local Government. Pamekasan, Kabupaten Pasuruan, Kabupaten Journal of Finance and Management in Public Ponorogo, Kabupaten Probolinggo, Kabupaten Services. Vol. 12. No. 1. Sidoarjo, Kabupaten Situbondo, dan Kabupaten Sumenep. Sedangkan 3 Kota yang tidak update untuk Internet Financial Local Government Reporting adalah Kota Batu, Kota Pasuruan dan Kota Probolinggo. 2. Hasil observasi menunjukkan 19 Kabupaten dan 9 Kota menerapkan Internet Financial Local Government Reporting dan sisanya 10 Kabupaten tidak menerapkan laporan keuangan pemerintah daerah pada internet antara lain, Kabupaten Bangkalan, Kabupaten Pamekasan, Kabupaten Probolinggo, Kabupaten Pasuruan, Kabupaten Situbondo, Kabupaten Lamongan, Kabupaten Kediri, Kabupaten Nganjuk, Kabupaten Ponorogo, dan Kabupaten Sidoarjo. Tidak ada perbedaan atas komponen isi/konten, ketepatan waktu, pemanfaatan teknologi dan user support yang mencolok jika dalam mengungkapkan Artikel Ilmiah Mahasiswa 2016 Undang-Undang Nomor 14 Tahun Keterbukaan Informasi Publik. 2008. Verawaty. 2014. Analisa Komparasi Indeks Internet Financial Reporting Pemerintah Daerah di Indonesia. Seminar Nasional Akuntansi 17 Universitas Mataram 2014. Instruksi Presiden Nomor 6 Tahun 2001. Telematika (Telekomunikasi, Media dan Informatika). Instruksi Presiden Nomor 3 Tahun 2003. Kebijakan dan Strategi Nasional Pengembangan EGovernment.

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