The Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Language Learning in Teaching Past Tense to the Tenth Grade Students of SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. The Background of the Study English grammar is an important element in English. It acts as a structural

  As a result, their language In other word, the problems that cause students‘ difficulty in using past tenseare the teachers‘ wrong perception of English grammar teaching, the use ofineffective teaching technique, and the wrong of students‘ learning habit in the class, as well as the low of students‘ learning motivation. From the explanation above, the writer is then encouraged to conduct a research entitled the effectiveness of computer-assisted language learning (CALL)in teaching past tense to the tenth grade student of SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan.

B. The Identification of the Problem

Based on the background of the study, there are four things that are regarded as problems which cause students‘ difficulty in using past tense as follows:

1. The teacher‘s perception of English grammar teaching is wrong, 2

  The Limitation of the Problem Since CALL is interesting to be used in this study, the problem of this study has to be limited only on examining the effectiveness of computer-assistedlanguage learning (CALL) in teaching past tense to the tenth grade student of SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan. The Objective of the Study In other word, the objective for conducting this study is merely to find empirical evidence of whether or not computer-assisted language learning(CALL) is effective in teaching past tense to the tenth grade students of SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan.

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK A. Grammar 1. Definition of Grammar Definition of grammar is often changed. The shifting of grammar definition

  Commonly, the teaching of English grammar in Indonesia is under an assumption of traditional view point for the term of grammar. In this study, the functional view is preferred to be used to define grammar that is described as a set of rules on how language can be formed and used as anacceptable and meaningful language in context.

2. Importance of Grammar

  As a language element that is needed to develop and measure students‘ proficiency in English,grammar becomes to be a subject that has to be taught and tested in language curriculum. Laser Freeman, ―Teaching Language: From Grammar to Grammaring,‖ in Shu Yun Yu (Ed.), The Effects of Games on the Acquisition of Some Grammatical Features of L2 German onStudents’ Motivation and on Classroom Atmosphere (A Thesis Published in Australian Catholic University, October 2005), p.

3. Grammatical Aspects of Language

  To explain the grammatical aspects of language, inevitably, it has to involve the explanation of the nature of grammar itself. It is a grammar approach which describes the nature of grammar as a description of the language grammar that exists in the 10 minds of its speakers.

4. Tense Tense is included as a grammatical aspect of a language in the word level i.e

  It is one of morphological aspects which modify the form of a word, 14 particularly a verb, so that it can fit into a particular syntactic slot. In this case, it acts as a verb time which suits and relates the happening described by the verb to 15 time in the past, present, or future.

G. Leech and J. Svartvik, A Communicative Grammar of English, (Edinburgh: Pearson

  indicate that the event will occur in the future. Further, since this study wants to examine the teaching of past tense, the following is a more detailed explanation of past tense in English.

5. Past Tense

  Past tense in English grammar is divided into four kinds. They are simple past tense, past progressive tense, pas perfect tense, and past perfect progressivetense.

a. Simple Past

  Simple past tense is a verb time that indicates an activity or situation that 16 began and ended at a particular time in the past. Past Progressive Past progressive tense is a verb time that indicates two actions occurred at the same time but one action began earlier and was in progress when the other action 18 19 occurred.

c. Past Perfect

  Approaches and Methods in Grammar Teaching The shifting of language teaching approach and method, as well as the demand for pursuing the best approach and method in language teaching showsthat there is no single approach and method that can guarantee successful results 22 of language teaching. 6-7.24 Communicati ve languageteaching Emphasizing on meaningful interaction; course syllabusincludes language functions; using authentic texts andcontexts communication can result inignoring grammar; emphasizing on fluency at the expense ofaccuracy can result in many students never attaining correctgrammar The table above describes that not all methods and approaches focus or include the teaching of grammar in their concepts.

2. Stages in Grammar Teaching

  The purpose of this step is to allow students to gain controlof the form without the added pressure and distraction of trying to use the form for communication. The teacher should not proceed the next phase until most of students have mastered at least theform of the structure.

3. Aids in Grammar Teaching a. Definition of Teaching Aid The term of aid in language teaching means broader than media and tool

  Every media and tool can be said as a teaching aid if they aim to help teacher present information. The difference between media and tool is that every tool ismedia but not all media is a tool.

b. Importance of Teaching Aids

  In conducting the teaching stages, teachers are recommended to use some aids to succeed their teaching stages meeting their goal. It is because the use ofteaching aids is so important and useful in teaching and learning process.

29 According to Sukartiwi, the importance of using aid in the teaching and learning

  To make teaching and learning process more systematic If thinking more carefully, the importance of teaching aids is more than whatSukartiwi already said. 5.29 Soekartiwi, ―Rancangan Instruksional,‖ in Nuhung Ruis, et.al, Instructional Media, In short, the use of teaching aid in language teaching is so important and useful to give students motivation, clarification, retention, direct experience orreal-world application, and a chance to learn higher order thinking.

c. Types of Teaching Aids

  It is like realia, model, picture, drawing, poster, map, board, card, graph, menu, film strip, comic book,facial diagram, calendar, table, and so on2) Audio aidsThis aid involves the use of hearing sense. 3)Audio-visual aids This aid combines the use of both vision and hearing sense.

30 Ahmed Mohammed Saleh Alduais, Integration of Language Learning Theories and Aids

  Used for Language Teaching and Learning: A Psycholinguistic Perspective, (Journal of Studies in 4)Action aids This aid encourages the use of physical movement. It is like dramatization, physical response, pantomiming, charade game, party games, rumor game, role-playing, conversations, physical response, and so on.5) Multimedia aidsThis aid involves the use of many senses (vision, hearing, etc.).

31 Further, Anderson, provided another category of teaching aids. He divided

  From all of the teaching aids in each category above, the one that is considered as the most sophisticated is computer. The purpose of choosing this aid is merely to examine the effectiveness of computer in teaching past tense.

C. Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) 1. Definition of CALL

  The maindifference between the acronyms is the focus given to the computer as a part of the language learning process. It is different with the perspective of CALL as a tool which refers tothe use of computer as a means for teachers and students to enrich their work.

2. Characteristics of CALL

  In CALL, the learning material that will be presented is not in the form of a text only but it can be in the form of a video,animation, sound , and etc. In addition, itshould permit the students to use it not only in the classroom but also in their In brief, teaching learning activity by using computer can be called as CALL if it has seven characteristics of CALL such as it can present and visualize thematerial.

3. Criteria of Good CALL

  It shouldfacilitate teachers to create activities that motivate students, fit effectively to the syllabus, and give helpful support as well as feed back to the students. To summarize, the good CALL that can be used to improve stu dents‘learning progress is the one which can fulfill the six criteria of a good CALL.

4. Power Point Macro-Enabled Show

  Power point macro-enabled show is one of power point product which enables the teacher inserts macro code in the slides and also makes the powerpoint view become like a flash or slide show at the first time it is opened. It is used in this study as a CALL because it is considered as having the seven criteriaof what is called as a CALL and also has the six criteria of what is called as a good CALL.

5. Roles of CALL

  Computer-assisted assessment is the role of CALL to assess students‘ learning progress and to provide them feedback and correction during and after learning process. In assisting instruction, CALL offers four types of instructional strategies such as drill andpractice, tutorial, simulation, and instructional/educational games; while, in assisting assessment, the use of CALL is to give students feedback and correction.

6. Advantages of CALL

  Teacher–Directed Teaching of Innumeracy in Adults‖, in Ali Ahmad Al-Barakat and Ruba Fahmi Bataineh, International Journalof Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology, (IJEDICT, 43 as used to foster students‘ motivation to learn. In short, the positive effects of computer in language teaching and learning are providing students with extended practice,giving immediate feedback which can lead to the optimal use of learning time, and fostering students‘ motivation to learn.

7. Disadvantages of CALL

  It is caused by the inability of schools to buy computers and to pay computer bill for each month. Or,if schools inevitably provide students with computers, they have to force students to pay additional expense because of the use of computer which obviouslyincreases students‘ school fee for each month.

43 E. Willner and J. Willner, ―Pre-service Teachers' Perceptions about Computer Use for

  Commonly, CALL program is designed for facilitating students to learn language limited for only oneaspect because it is still difficult for specialists to design an application that can help teacher teach all language aspects using one program. In addition, there are some teachers and students who still do not know how to operate computer which then makes the use of computer is notmaximally employed.

D. Teaching Past Tense Using CALL: Power Point Macro- Enabled Show

  In this study, the teaching of grammar using CALL is divided into the 45 following stages: 1. PresentationAt the presentation stage, the role of CALL is to assist instruction.

2. Focused practice

  In practice activities, the design ofCALL is like doing exercises on computer in the form of multiple choice items and short answer items. At this stage, students will get immediate feedback fromthe computer such as they will be given their score and the explanation of the answer.

5. Practice at home as a homework assignment

  From the explanations, it can be concluded that the use of CALL in this current study is both as tutor and tool. Here, teacher is still the leader which leads and monitors students to do communicative practice activities and also provide themhomework as well as feedback and correction.

E. The Relevant Previous Study

  In this research, they found that using CALL in teaching grammar has a greater impact on the students' grammar learning than46 Hasan Iravani and Mehdi Tajik, The Effect of Software-assisted Grammar Teaching on Learning Grammar ofIranian Male Junior High School Learners (Journal of Language and Another reference is a research that is conducted by Naba'h, Hussain, Omari, 47 and Shdeifat . 435-43748 To sum up, the three related previous studies proved that the use of computer is effective in teaching grammar due to it motivates students to learn, enablesstudents to work in their individual path, provides students with immediate feedback, and gives students a chance to use many senses which can empowerfaculties of retention to them.

F. The Conceptual Framework of the Study

G. The Theoretical Hypothesis of the Study

  Thus, the teaching of grammar in this viewemphasizes language form only in which students are only required to remember and practice language pattern without considering the use of such pattern inmeaningful context. In addition, CALL can also provide students retention, extended From the explanation above, it can be hypothesized that computer-assisted language leaning (CALL) is effective in teaching past tense to the tenth gradestudents of SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan.

CHAPTER II I METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY A. The Place and Time of the Study This study was conducted to the tenth grade students of SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan whose school is located in South Tangerang. In conducting this study, the

B. The Method and Design of the Study

  The first meeting was to give students a pre-test; the second and third meetings were to give students treatments; while the fourthmeeting was to give students a post-test. Thus, the population of this study was 262 students of the seven classes In taking samples for this study, the sampling technique that was used was purposive sample or what was called as a judgment sample.

1. The Validity and Reliability of the Test Item

  In other word, the instrument had to be valid or really measurewhat the test maker wanted to measure and could produce consistent result when it was administered again. If the comparison result showed that ‘ was higher than the value of the value of ‗‘, the test item was considered as a valid test item.

3 Anas Sudijono, Pengantar Evaluasi Pendidikan, (Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada, 1996), p

  To check whether the test had appropriate difficulty level for students, the following 7 formula was used: P = Note:P = Difficulty indexB = Total number of students who answer the test correctlyJS = Total number of students who take the test The result of calculation above was then interpreted by using the following guidance to determine which test item that was too difficult, too easy, and 8 appropriate for students:67 Sudijono, op. The formula was as follow : = p-ɸ = value of p = sum value of data probabilityɸ = value of Kolmogorov table To get theɸ value, the standard score of the data (z) had to be calculated first with formula: ̅ z = z = standard scorex = students‘ score̅ = the mean score s = standard deviation After the value of was gotten, the value of normality table with significance 5% was sought.

3. Testing T-Test for Two Independent Sample

  T-test was used to examine the truth or false of the study hypotheses by comparing the value of to . To get such value, the following calculations had 13 to be done: ̅ ̅= √ = t observation= mean score of experimental class ̅= mean score of control class ̅= variance of experimental class1213 Ibid, p.

4. Testing the Effect Size of CALL(Cohen’s d)

  The Statistical Hypothesis of the Study14 Daniel Muijs, Doing Quantitatve Research in Education, (London: Sage Publications), From the result of such analysis, the value of and could be gotten and could be used to determine the truth or false of the hypotheses. If the value ofwas equal to or higher than the value of , the null hypothesis ( ) would be rejected and the alternative hypothesis ( ) would be accepted.

CHAPTER IV FINDINGS OF THE STUDY A. The Description of the Data After

  Table 4.2 Table frequency of students’ pretest in the experimental (X) and control classes (Y) Score (X) Frequency (X) Score (Y) Frequency (Y)16-25 6 21-27 526-35 8 28-34 236-45 10 35-41 446-55 6 42-48 356-65 5 49-55 966-75 1 56-62 1076-85 1 63-69 4 Total 37 Total 37 The table 4.2 gave information about the most frequent pretest score that students got in the experimental (X) and control classes (Y). Such description proved that most of students in the experimental class (X) had much more final past tenseknowledge than most of students in the control class (Y).

3. The Description of Students’ Gained Scores

  Further, table 4.1 also showed the students‘ average gained score both in theexperimental ( X) and control classes (Y). In the experimental class (X), students Further, to get information whether the use of CALL in teaching past tense was effective or not, a statistical analysis had to be done as what was explainedbelow.

B. The Analysis of the Data

  As stated in the chapter 3, the analysis of the data was to be done through four steps. In this case, testing normality and homogeneity had to be done first because the result of such analysis determined which statisticalcalculation that had to be used in this study.

1. The Analysis of the Data Normality

  98 2552 184896Further, as stated on the tables, the value of normality observation in the experimental class was 0.2142 while the value of normality observation in thecontrol class was 0.1788. In this case, if the value of normality observation was same as or lower than the value of normality table, it meant that the data had a normal distribution.

2. The Analysis of the Data Homogeneity

  Further, the homogeneity of the data had to be examined also. It was used to check whether the data had equivalent variance or not.

chapter 3. The followings were the formula and its calculation: F=1.58 F= F= Note:

  See table 4.4, the value of high variance was taken from the value of in the experimental class (X) From the above calculation, the ‗f‘ value or what was called as the value ofhomogeneity observation was gotten i.e. If the value of homogeneity observationwas same as or lower than the value of homogeneity table, it meant that the data had an equivalent variance.

3. The Analysis of t-test

  In this case, if the value of tobservation was same as or higher than the value of t table, it meant that this study rejected hypothesis observation and accepted the hypothesis alternative. Or, itcould be said that this study proved that the use of CALL in teaching past tense was effective for the tenth grade students of SMAN 5 Tangerang Selatan.

4. The Analysis of the Effect Size of CALL

  After the use of CALL was perceived to be effective in teaching past tense, the effect size of CALL itself was then examined. See table 4.5 From the above calculation, the value of the effect size of CALL was foundi.e.

C. The Hypothesis Test

  Based on the study hypothesis rule, If the value of was equal to or higher than the value of , the null hypothesis ( ) would be rejected and the alternativehypothesis ( ) would be accepted. It was cool since they had a chance to practice and played a game about past tense which couldautomatically show students‘ score and show the students whether their answers were correct or not so that the students could get immediatefeedback after practicing and playing a game about past tense.

E. The Interpretation of the Data

  From the result of data analyses above, it could be interpreted that the data of this study had a normal distribution, had an equivalent variance, accepted thealternative hypothesis of this study, and showed the strong effect of CALL as The data of this study had a normal distribution. It was proved by the value of normality observation in the experimental class, 0.2142, and the control class,0.1788, which were lower than the value of normality table, 0.218.

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. The Conclusion of the Study From the result of data analysis in the chapter IV, it could be concluded that

  In addition, the result of t-test also showed that the value of t observation was higher than the value of t table i.e. This was in line with the interview result which showed that all of the interviewees felt satisfied with theuse of CALL in learning past tense.

B. The Suggestions of the Study

  The suggestions above we re resulted from the writer‘s experience inconducting this study as well as from an interview with some students in the experimental class. all grasses for a houra.had been cutting a.he had been reviewing the previous oneb.he reviewed the previous one c.he had reviewed the previous oned.he was reviewing the previous one My lecturer had explained the le tures efore ……….

1. I ………. the task to y tea her, before she asked me to do it

14. She ………. a doll ith e yesterday

  it to the ashiera.had paid b.had been paying c.was paid d.was paying 17. Luckily, The Angel came and helped Cinderella to go to the palace.

33 N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 N7 N8 N9

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Appendix 2 : Validity, Reliability, and Item Quality Test Calculation of the Instrument 18 12 9.5 3.2 0.2 0.8 0.43 0.355 r pbi>r table Valid 13 15 9.5 3.2 0.1 0.9 0.44 0.355 r pbi>r table Valid 14 9.6 9.53.2 0.4 0.6 0.03 0.355 r pbi<r table Invali d15 8.1 9.5 3.2 0.2 0.8 -0.2 0.355 r pbi<r table Invali d 16 11 9.5 3.2 0.6 0.4 0.55 0.355 r pbi>r table Valid 17 11 9.5 3.2 0.7 0.3 0.51 0.355 r pbi>r table Valid 10 9.5 3.2 0.3 0.7 0.44 0.355 r pbi>r table Valid 9.5 3.2 0.1 0.9 0.06 0.355 r pbi<r tableInvali d 19 11 9.5 3.2 0.6 0.4 0.43 0.355 r pbi>r table Valid 20 11 9.5 3.2 0.5 0.5 0.36 0.355 r pbi>r table Valid 21 11 9.5 3.2 0.5 0.5 0.42 0.355 r pbi>r table Valid 22 7 9.5 3.2 0.1 0.9 -0.2 0.355 r pbi<r tableInvali d 23 9.8 9.5 3.2 0.4 0.6 0.08 0.355 r pbi<r tableInvali d 12 12 VALIDITY 1 5 Soal Mp Mt SDt p q r pbi r table sig. 5%Interprestasi 1 12 9.5 3.2 0.2 0.8 0.51 0.355 r pbi>r table Valid 2 11 9.5 3.2 0.5 0.5 0.43 0.355 r pbi>r table Valid 3 11 9.5 3.2 0.4 0.6 0.44 0.355 r pbi>r table Valid 4 11 9.5 3.2 0.3 0.7 0.44 0.355 r pbi>r table Valid 11 11 9.5 3.2 0.5 0.5 0.55 0.355 r pbi>r table Valid 6 8.6 9.53.2 0.2 0.8 -0.2 0.355 r pbi<r table Invali d 7 10 9.5 3.2 0.8 0.2 0.38 0.355 r pbi>r table Valid 8 13 9.5 3.2 0.2 0.8 0.47 0.355 r pbi>r table Valid 9 10 9.5 3.2 0.8 0.2 0.41 0.355 r pbi>r table Valid 10 15 9.5 3.2 0.1 0.9 0.44 0.355 r pbi>r table Valid 24 9.5 9.5 3.2 0.8 0.2 -0 0.355 r pbi<r tableInvali d Appendix 2 : Validity, Reliability, and Item Quality Test Calculation of the InstrumentRELIABILITY 1 1 25 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 12 0 0 1 1 3 30 12 10 3 30 100 9 13 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 13 0 0 0 1 1 36 5 1 3 1 10 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 10 0 1 1 1 3 10 2 6 6 4 9 11 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 11 1 1 1 1 1 5 11 13 1 2 1 3 16 4 3 12 16 9 17 0 0 0 1 1 1 4 17 0 0 0 1 1 1 17 4 1 4 16 1 1 4 16 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 14 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 6 14 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 6 14 6 6 36 36 36 15 0 0 0 0 015 0 0 0 15 16 0 0 1 1 0 1 4 1 TesteeSkor untuk butir item ganjil nomor: 2 2 6 9 4 3 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 4 3 0 1 0 1 3 2 4 2 8 16 4 4 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 4 4 0 0 0 3 2 1 1 X TesteeSkor untuk butir item genap nomor: Y TesteeSkor item bernomor XY X2 Y2 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 17 19 21 2 4 8 10 12 16 20 X Y 1 0 0 0 1 1 3 1 1 1 0 3 2 1 1 0 1 3 1 3 3 9 9 9 2 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 4 2 9 8 0 0 0 1 12 8 1 0 0 1 2 4 1 7 0 1 0 0 1 1 3 7 0 0 0 7 3 1 6 8 2 1 2 4 1 9 0 1 0 1 02 9 0 0 0 1 1 9 2 1 4 1 1 4 16 1 5 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 7 5 1 1 1 1 1 5 5 7 5 35 49 25 6 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 6 0 0 0 78 18 1 0 0 1 1 1 4 1 4 16 1 29 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 29 0 0 0 1 2 1 29 7 2 14 49 4 30 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 6 30 1 0 0 1 28 4 28 1 0 0 6 7 27 1 0 0 26 6 4 24 36 16 27 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 27 7 4 28 49 16 28 0 0 0 1 1 1 30 1 1 8 36 36 36 33 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 33 1 0 1 1 3 33 3 6 24 64 9 33 8 12 17 26 26 9 2 23 21 16 33 15 11 6 2 7 19 17 33 160 77 440 946 267 RELIABILITY 1 r 1/2 1/2 r 1 1 Interprestasi0.54675 0.70696 r 11 > 0.70 Reliable 6 32 6 31 36 1 31 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 31 0 0 0 1 1 2 7 6 2 14 49 4 32 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 32 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 2 20 7 2 14 49 4 21 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9 21 1 1 0 1 1 1 5 21 9 5 45 81 1 7 20 0 0 0 1 1 1 5 18 1 0 0 1 18 5 1 5 25 1 19 1 0 1 1 1 1 6 19 1 0 0 1 1 19 6 1 6 36 1 20 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 25 22 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 24 5 2 10 25 4 25 0 1 1 0 1 1 4 25 0 0 0 1 1 25 1 4 2 8 16 4 26 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 26 0 1 0 2 1 5 22 1 0 0 5 23 0 0 0 1 2 22 5 2 10 25 4 23 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 24 0 0 0 1 23 5 1 5 25 1 24 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 79 Appendix 2 : Validity, Reliability, and Item Quality Test Calculation of the Instrument 1 7 24 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 7 30 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 7 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 6 5 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 17 7 11 9 9 15 18 5 16 1 1 9 31 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 9 16 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 7 22 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 7 19 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 6 2 1 1 5 10 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 5 17 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 5 28 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 5 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 3 7 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 8 1 6 2 16 16 14 12 14 180 18 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 6 23 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 5 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 6 25 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 6 2 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 INDEX DIFFICULTY and DESCRIMINATION INDEX 1 1 1 1 1 13 5 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 14 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 32 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 17 19 20 21 21 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 TesteeSkor untuk butir item nomor Xt 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14 12 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 9 29 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 11 26 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 20 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 11 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 27 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 11 33 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 8 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 13 9 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 3 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 016 1 4 3 2 2 8 1 10 1 1 3 7 7 5 2 57 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 16 17 19 20 21 Xt N = 33 8 15 12 11 17 26 6 26 2 9 7 2 19 23 21 17 16 237 INDEX DIFFICULTY 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.8 0.2 0.8 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.5 INTERPRETASI S C C C C M S M S C S S C C C C CM (MUDAH) = 0.7-1.0C (CUKUP) = 0.7-0.3S (SULIT) = 0.1-0.3 DISCRIMINATI 0. . . . . . . . 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. ON INDEX 3 4 3 4 8 6 2 3 1 4 3 1 8 5 4 4 7 INTERPRESTAS I√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ X √ √ X √ √ √ √ √ D: 0, 0 -0, 2: poor D: 0, 2 -0, 4: satisfactory D: 0, 4 -0, 7: goodD: 0, 7 -1, 0: excellent D: negative: bad Appendix 2 : Validity, Reliability, and Item Quality Test Calculation of the Instrument 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 100 14 1 1 1 1 13 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13 169 15 1 1 1 1 1 1 64 1 1 1 1 1 8 64 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 1 1 1 1 1 14 196 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 64 19 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20 400 1 18 8 1 64 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 121 1 1 1 16 256 17 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 VALIDITY 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 17 289 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14 196 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 TesteeSkor untuk butir item nomor Xt Xt2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14 196 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 64 8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 100 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 100 10 1 1 1 1 6 1 1 1 11 121 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 100 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13 169 7 1 82 20 1 1 1 5 25 32 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 15 225 33 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13 169 30 1 31 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14 196 1 7 1 1 1 14 196 36 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13 169 37 1 1 1 1 1 5 25 N = 37 N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 N7 N8 N9 N10 N11 N12 N13 N14 N15 N16 N17 N18 N19 N20 N21 N22 N23 Xt Xt 2 31 20 23 9 17 25 31 26 5 14 21 22 236 24 32 16 19 5 11 30 17 3 430 5534 P 0.8 0.5 0.6 0.2 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.1 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.2 0.6 0.9 0.4 0.5 0.1 0.3 0.8 0.5 0.1 Q 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.8 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.9 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.8 0.4 0.1 0.6 0.5 0.9 0.7 0.2 0.5 0.9 1 1 49 1 34 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 15 225 35 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 29 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13 169 24 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 25 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 100 21 1 1 1 1 1 5 25 22 1 1 1 1 4 16 23 1 1 18 324 1 1 13 169 1 13 169 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 28 1 15 225 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 27 1 1 1 15 225 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 26 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 83 Appendix 2 : Validity, Reliability, and Item Quality Test Calculation of the Instrument 15 17 12 3.8 0.9 0.1 0.33436 0.334 r pbi>r t Valid 12 16 12 3.8 0.6 0.4 0.17958 0.334 r pbi<r t Invalid 12 12 3.8 0.2 0.8 -0.3413 0.334 r pbi<r t Invalid 12 3.8 0.4 0.6 0.64535 0.334 r pbi>r t Valid 8.7 14 12 3.8 0.6 0.4 0.75652 0.334 r pbi>r t Valid 14 13 12 3.8 0.6 0.4 0.78518 0.334 r pbi>r t Valid 14 18 12 12 16 23 12 3.8 0.5 0.5 0.58998 0.334 r pbi>r t Valid 14 22 12 3.8 0.8 0.2 -0.0118 0.334 r pbi<r t Invalid 21 14 12 3.8 0.3 0.7 0.35961 0.334 r pbi>r t Valid 14 20 12 3.8 0.1 0.9 -0.0022 0.334 r pbi<r t Invalid 12 19 12 3.8 0.5 0.5 0.76937 0.334 r pbi>r t Valid 14 12 3.8 0.6 0.4 0.44327 0.334 r pbi>r t Valid VALIDITY 2 12 3.8 0.5 0.5 0.57766 0.334 r pbi>r t Valid 12 3.8 0.2 0.8 -0.1587 0.334 r pbi<r t Invalid 11 4 12 3.8 0.6 0.4 0.5663 0.334 r pbi>r t Valid 13 3 14 14 2 12 3.8 0.8 0.2 0.11031 0.334 r pbi<r t Invalid 12 1 5%Interprestasi Soal Mp Mt SDt p Q r pbi r table sig. 5 12 3.8 0.5 0.5 0.67541 0.334 r pbi>r t Valid 13 9 11 12 3.8 0.4 0.6 -0.1273 0.334 r pbi<r t Invalid 11 10 12 3.8 0.1 0.9 0.4129 0.334 r pbi>r t Valid 16 12 3.8 0.7 0.3 0.40115 0.334 r pbi>r t Valid 6 13 8 12 3.8 0.8 0.2 0.45685 0.334 r pbi>r t Valid 12 7 12 3.8 0.7 0.3 0.44658 0.334 r pbi>r t Valid 13 12 3.8 0.1 0.9 0.34148 0.334 r pbi>r t Valid Appendix 2 : Validity, Reliability, and Item Quality Test Calculation of the InstrumentRELIABILITY 2 4 1 14 16 4 8 4 2 13 1 1 1 1 1 13 2 1 1 13 1 1 9 6 1 15 36 36 36 6 6 14 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14 6 1 4 6 15 9 5 1 1 1 1 1 11 4 6 1 2 3 10 2 1 1 10 3 11 1 2 1 3 12 2 1 1 12 3 1 1 1 12 16 25 20 4 5 11 4 1 1 1 1 3 1 19 9 1 3 3 1 18 1 1 1 1 18 1 1 18 16 4 1 1 4 1 49 64 56 7 8 19 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 19 8 1 1 1 8 2 1 1 1 16 6 1 1 1 1 1 16 1 9 1 3 3 1 15 3 1 1 1 17 1 4 1 1 1 1 17 2 1 17 1 49 36 42 7 6 16 7 1 1 1 1 TesteeSkor untuk butir item ganjil nomor: 1 1 1 1 3 5 1 1 1 1 1 3 49 49 49 7 7 2 7 1 1 1 3 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 6 1 1 4 36 25 30 6 5 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 2 6 8 12 16 18 20 22 Ganjil (X) Genap (Y) 5 7 9 11 13 17 23 3 XY X2 Y2 Y TesteeSkor item bernomor X TesteeSkor untuk butir item genap nomor: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 7 1 1 1 1 8 1 1 2 64 16 32 8 4 1 4 6 10 1 1 1 1 8 5 1 1 1 1 4 8 4 1 2 2 1 7 2 1 8 1 1 16 1 4 4 1 9 4 1 1 5 1 9 1 1 9 16 25 20 4 1 7 18 1 6 9 4 6 3 2 5 3 1 1 1 5 2 1 1 5 36 9 1 1 1 6 1 7 36 36 36 6 6 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 6 1 1 85 20 1 1 32 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 32 4 2 31 31 2 1 1 1 31 33 33 2 1 1 33 1 1 49 1 36 42 7 6 32 7 1 1 1 16 2 1 6 29 6 1 1 1 1 1 36 29 6 1 1 1 1 1 6 36 25 1 20 4 5 30 4 1 1 1 36 30 5 1 1 1 1 1 30 1 2 29 36 36 5 1 1 1 1 1 5 5 1 1 1 1 1 36 36 5 25 18 1 3 20 25 26 22 32 19 11 17 r 1/2 1/2 r 1 1 Interprestasi0.71033 0.83064 r 11 > 0.70 Reliable XY X2 Y2 N3 N5 N7 N9 N11 N13 N17 N23 N2 N6 N8 N12 N16 N18 N20 N2237 139 172 778 705 988 23 17 31 5 21 23 16 X Y Y172 1 X139 1 1 1 25 37 1 1 37 1 1 37 25 9 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 34 34 5 1 1 1 1 1 34 4 8 5 3 1 35 6 1 1 1 1 1 35 8 3 1 1 1 35 64 25 40 1 16 1 16 1 1 1 1 24 64 4 8 1 2 23 8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 25 64 49 56 8 7 24 1 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 24 1 1 1 1 1 1 21 16 1 4 4 20 1 4 1 1 1 1 20 1 21 1 1 22 23 2 1 1 23 1 1 1 21 1 22 22 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 36 1 6 5 27 6 1 1 1 1 25 1 27 5 1 1 1 1 30 36 27 1 24 4 6 28 4 1 1 1 28 28 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 36 1 1 36 42 7 6 25 7 1 1 26 1 1 1 1 25 6 1 1 49 1 36 1 36 6 6 26 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 26 6 1 1 1 1 86 Appendix 2 : Validity, Reliability, and Item Quality Test Calculation of the Instrument 1 4 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 36 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 17 15 N2 N3 N5 N6 N7 N8 N9 N11 N12 N13 N16 N17 N18 N20 N22 N23 9 N = 19 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 15 1 1 27 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 28 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 23 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 15 17 1 4 1 1 9 5 1 1 1 1 1 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20 5 1 1 1 5 1 12 5 1 1 1 1 1 10 1 1 16 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 30 15 6 18 16 18 18 19 15 3 9 1 1 1 1 17 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 35 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 INDEX DIFFICULTY and DESCRIMINATION INDEX 2 1 14 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 15 1 1 1 16 1 1 13 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 25 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 1 19 23 22 20 18 17 16 13 11 1 9 8 7 6 5 3 2 Xt TesteeSkor 1 1 1 15 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 24 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 29 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 26 12 1 6 1 1 1 1 34 13 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 32 13 1 1 1 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 15 6 0.5 1 0.5 INDEX DISCRIMINATION 1 INTERPRETASI C C C C M C S C C C M C C C C SM (MUDAH) = 0.7-1.0C (CUKUP) = 0.7-0.3S (SULIT) = 0.1-0.3 0.08 6 0.4 0.5 1 0.3 3 0.4 0.8 0.6 2 0.6 9 0.5 7 0.5 4 0.1 0.8 4 0.7 8 0.6 6 0.4 6 8 0.6 7 D: 0, 7 -1, 0: excellent D: 0, 4 -0, 7: good D: 0, 0 -0, 2: poor 8 INTERPRESTASI√ √ √ √ X √ X √ √ √ √ √ √ X √ √ 0.15 8 0.6 4 0.0 9 0.8 4 0.8 0.1 0.2 7 0.6 3 0.8 6 0.4 5 0.0 9 0.2 2 0.1 3 2 4 1 3 2 1 1 31 2 1 1 21 3 1 1 1 33 1 1 1 1 7 4 1 1 1 1 18 4 1 1 1 37 1 0.5 14 3 INDEX DIFFICULTY 20 23 17 25 31 26 5 21 22 23 32 16 19 11 17 2 N23 8 N2 N2 7 N1 6 N1 3 N1 2 N1 1 N1 N2 N3 N5 N6 N7 N8 N9 N1 2 N = 37 5 1 5 2 3 6 2 10 14 10 2 6 5 N2 N3 N5 N6 N7 N8 N9 N11 N12 N13 N16 N17 N18 N20 N22 N23 1 N = 18 1 22 D: negative: bad Appendix 2 : Validity, Reliability, and Item Quality Test Calculation of the Instrument 1 21 36 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 20 16 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 22 36 6 1 1 1 19 23 1 17 49 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 100 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 18 49 7 1 1 1 1 10 100 1 64 1 25 5 1 1 1 1 29 1 16 4 1 1 1 1 30 1 25 4 3 1 1 1 32 16 1 1 1 1 1 31 16 4 1 28 5 1 24 5 1 1 1 1 1 49 25 7 1 1 1 1 1 25 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 27 16 1 1 1 1 1 26 9 3 1 15 8 VALIDITY 3 1 36 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 36 6 1 1 1 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 1 49 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 49 6 1 1 10 9 8 7 5 1 4 3 2 1 Xt Xt2 TesteeSkor untuk butir item nomor 1 3 4 1 36 6 1 1 1 1 1 9 3 9 3 1 1 1 2 7 8 1 1 36 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 64 8 1 1 1 13 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14 1 1 10 100 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9 1 10 100 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 10 100 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 1 10 100 1 9

N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 N7 N8 N9 N10

  When the teacher entered the room, the students ………. When the teacher entered the room, the students ……….

NORMALITY DATA CALCULATION: CONTROL CLASS

  When it began to rain, I  If a sentence contains when and stood under a tree has the simple past in both clauses, the action in the ―whenclause‖ happens first e. When it began to rain,  If a sentence contains when and I stood under a tree has the simple past in both clauses, the action in the ―when clause‖ happens first Past e.

D. Lampiran

  When it began to rain, I  If a sentence contains when and stood under a tree has the simple past in both clauses, the action in the ―when clause‖ happens firste. While I was studying in It indicates that two actions my home, my neighbor occurred at the same time but was having a party in one action began earlier and was her homein progress when the other action h.

2. Sumber Belajar: LKS 3

  : Indikator Penilaian Mengidentifikasi jenis past tense yang tepat untuk melengkapi 20 kalimat yang diberikan Mengubah 20 kalimat past tense menjadi kalimat negative dan interrogative Soal ada di LKS halaman 12Contoh soal: 1. MM Ade Maulina Fazrin Appendix 8 : Photos of Experimental and Control Class ActivitiesPHOTOS a.

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