AN ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH GRAMMATICAL ERRORS IN SIMPLE SENTENCE IN WRITING II MADE BY THE FOURTH SEMESTER STUDENTS OF ENGLISH DEPARTMENT IN UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

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AN ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH GRAMMATICAL ERRORS IN

SIMPLE SENTENCE IN WRITING II MADE BY THE FOURTH

SEMESTER STUDENTS OF ENGLISH DEPARTMENT IN

UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

THESIS

By:

WAHYU JUNAEDI

  

201210100311041

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

  

2016

  

AN ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH GRAMMATICAL ERRORS IN

SIMPLE SENTENCE IN WRITING II MADE BY THE FOURTH

SEMESTER STUDENTS OF ENGLISH DEPARTMENT IN

UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

This thesis is submitted to meet one of the requirements to achieve

Sarjana Degree in English Education.

  

By:

WAHYU JUNAEDI

201210100311041

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

  

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

2016

  DEDICATIONS This thesis is greatly dedicated to: My beloved parents Khusnul Yaqin and Jumaiyah

  MOTTOS

  • Your destiny can be changed by your hard work- Wahyu Junaedi

  My sister and brother in law Rahmawati and Saipul University of Muhammadiyah Malang

  

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  Allhamdulillah, Allah SWT, the God Almighty in which I am so grateful for His Merciful and Gracious blessing that I can properly finish this study. Mainly, I would like to express my gratefulness and appreciation to Mr. Dr. Masduki, M.Pd as first advisor and Mrs. Rahmawati Khadijah Maro, S.Pd., M.PEd as my second advisor for their advice, suggestion and support in guiding to finish this study well. Being patient, kind and communicative have been shown by them while guiding me.

  Moreover, I also want to express my gratefulness and appreciation to my parents, Khusnul Yaqin and Jumaiyah who always support me and pray for me all the time. Unforgettably, great appreciation, I give to my sister, Rahmawati, who also motivates me in living my life. Pivotally, I also thank to my brother in law, Saipul Arip, who sincerely entertains me in my bad days.

  Greatly, I thank to Mr. Dr. Hartono., M.Pd as my writing lecturer who shares his knowledge and experience and gives me some suggestions, motivation to be successful in dealing this life. Specially, I also thank to Miss Nina Inayati, M.A who properly supports me by giving good advice for this study. Further, I also want to thank to all English lecturers who have properly taught me in University of Muhammadiyah Malang.

  In addition, I also thank to Mukholidiyah, Fauji, Rifki, Hendro, Dwiki, Faruoq, Ido, Riski, Zeze, Itha, Fifit, Yeni, Aldo, Dimas, Nalurita, who have kindly accompanied me to study in University of Muhammadiyah Malang. Finally, all my appreciation, I also address to all English department friends who study with me together nicely.

  Malang, August 10, 2016 Wahyu Junaedi

  

TABLE OF CONTENTS

APPROVAL ......................................................................................................... iii MOTTOS AND DEDICATIONS ......................................................................... v STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY .................................................. vi ABSTRACT ......................................................................................................... vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................... viii TABLE OF CONTENTS ..................................................................................... ix LIST OF APPENDICES ..................................................................................... xi LIST OF THE TABLES ..................................................................................... xii

  2.2 Error Analysis ...................................................................................... 8

  2.4.3 Context of learning ................................................................. 13

  2.4.2 Intralingual transfer ................................................................ 13

  2.4.1 Interlingual transfer ................................................................ 13

  2.4 Cause of Errors .................................................................................... 12

  2.3.1 Surface strategy taxonomy ....................................................... 9

  2.3 Types of Errors ..................................................................................... 9

  2.1 Errors ..................................................................................................... 7

  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

  CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  1.6 Definition of the Key Terms ................................................................. 6

  1.5 Scope and Limitation ............................................................................ 5

  1.4 Significance of the Study ...................................................................... 5

  1.3 Purposes of the Study ............................................................................ 4

  1.2 Statements of the Problem..................................................................... 4

  1.1 Background of the Study ....................................................................... 1

  2.4.4 Communication strategies ...................................................... 14

  2.5 Writing ................................................................................................. 14

  3.4 Data Collection .................................................................................... 21

  5.2 Suggestions ........................................................................................... 44

  5.1 Conclusion ............................................................................................ 43

  CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

  4.2 Discussion .......................................................................................... 40

  4.1.2 The Cause of Errors in Simple Sentence ................................. 38

  4.1.1 The Types of Errors in Simple Sentence ................................. 24

  4.1 Research Findings ................................................................................ 24

  CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

  3.5 Data Analysis ...................................................................................... 22

  3.3.2 Interview Guide ......................................................................... 20

  2.6 Sentence ............................................................................................... 15

  3.3.1 Document ................................................................................... 20

  3.3 Research Instruments .......................................................................... 19

  3.2 Research Subject ................................................................................. 19

  3.1 Research Design .................................................................................. 18

  CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  2.6.4 Compound Complex sentence ................................................ 17

  2.6.3 Complex sentence .................................................................. 16

  2.6.2 Compound sentence ............................................................... 16

  2.6.1 Simple sentence ...................................................................... 15

  REFERENCES .................................................................................................... 46 APPENDICES ..................................................................................................... 47

  

LIST OF APPENDICES

  Appendix 1 The Result of Mid Test Examination ...................................................... 47 Appendix 2 The Result of Interview ........................................................................... 48

  

LIST OF TABLES

  Table 1 Missing of to be.............................................................................................. 25 Table 2 Missing of Article .......................................................................................... 25 Table 3 Missing of Punctuation .................................................................................. 26 Table 4 Missing of Subject ......................................................................................... 27 Table 5 Missing of Preposition ................................................................................... 28 Table 6 Missing of -s/es in Regular Noun .................................................................. 28 Table 7 Addition of Infinitive ..................................................................................... 30 Table 8 Addition of Article ......................................................................................... 30 Table 9 Addition of -ed in verb ................................................................................... 31 Table 10 Misformation of Tenses Use ........................................................................ 32 Table 11 Misformation of Punctuation ....................................................................... 33 Table 12 Misformation of Personal Pronoun .............................................................. 34 Table 13 Misformation of Subject-Verb Agreement .................................................. 35 Table 14 Misordering of Modifying Noun.................................................................. 36 Table 15 Misordering of Adverb................................................................................. 37

  

REFERENCES

  Ary, Donald et. al. 2010. Introduction to Research in Education (8th ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth.

  Azar, S, B. 1999. English Grammar (third edition). New York: Pearson Education.

  Brown, Douglas, H.2000. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching (fourth edition). New York: Pearson Education. Corder, S.P. 1982. Error Analysis and Interlanguage. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Dulay, H; Burt, M; Krashen, S. 1982. Language Two. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ellis, R. 1997. Second Language Acquisition. NZ: Oxford University Press.

  th

  Frankel, Wallen. 2009. How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education (7 ed.) New York: McGraw-Hill

  Gass, Mackey. 2005. Second Language Research: Methodology and Design. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

  Harmer, Jeremy. 2004. How to Teach Writing. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. th

  

Harmer, Jeremy. 2007. The Practice of English Language Teaching (4 ed). Harlow:

Pearson Education Limited.

  Hyams, N; Rodman, R; Fromkin V. 2009. An Introduction to Language (ninth edition). Boston: Wadsworth. Larseen, Diana et. al. 1991. An Introduction to Second Language Acquisition Research.

  New York: Routledge Miles and Hubberman. 1994. Qualitative Data Analysis (second edition). London: Sage Publication.

  Oshima, Alice; Hogue, Ann. 1998. Writing Academic English (third edition). New York: Addison Wesley Longman. Richard, J.1971. Error Analysis Perspectives on Second Language Acquisition. New York: Longman. Wardhaugh, Ronald. 2006. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Victoria: Blackwell Publishing.

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Regarding the inquiry on this present study, this chapter will explore how

  the researcher begins this present study. Chapter I is dealing with some prime information to be discussed. It will include background of study, statement of problem, purpose of study, significant of study, scope and limitation, and definition of key term. Each parts will be explained bellow.

1.1 Background of study

  Language is one of the pivotal aspect possessed by human in this world. By using language, people are able to express and share his opinion in a society.

  Therefore, Human and society are considered as the fundamental of language enhancement. According to Wardhaugh (2006), “Language is what the members of a particular society speak. However, as we will see, speech in almost any society can take many very different forms, and just what forms we should choose to discuss when we attempt to describe the language of a society may prove to be a contentious matter”. It means that both human and society give such a great effect in constructing their language in communicating with each other. Therefore, both of which cannot be splinted up in this life.

  Following the previous ideas, there are a lot of languages existing in this world. All of them are created to interact and to communicate each other. Out of those languages, English is the one of which becomes an international language used by people around world. Due to the fact that English becomes an international language, it makes a change in this era namely occupation and education. As the result, every country has implemented a regulation in which English must be learnt from elementary school to university. It is expected that students becomes competence generations which can properly speak English. On the other hand, the students are able to compete in looking for a job after they have finished studying English.

  When the students learn English, all of whom must understand well concerning four skills which are used to enhance their knowledge in the teaching- learning processes. According to Harmer (2007),

  “Four skills are often divided into two types. Receptive skills is a term used for reading and listening, skills where meaning is extracted from the discourse. Productive skills is the term for speaking and writing, skills where students actually have to produce language themselves”. Consequently, either receptive or productive skill must be obtained by students who study how to apply English well.

  Apart from it, writing is a difficult thing in the process of teaching-learning in which it is hard to be learnt by students due to some excuses. Students must imaginatively be able to think how to create sentences by using a correct grammar in their assignment. Further, students are demanded to master the grammar properly so that their writing sounds academic. Grammar is a rule used to construct a good sentence. On the other hand, it is used to connect each word to possess a meaning.

  Comprehending the English grammar is difficult for students. It is proved that make the errors due to some reasons, namely lack of understanding how to use the grammar in sentences well.

  In writing, there are four types of English sentences which have to be comprehended by students when they want to begin writing the sentence.

  According to Oshima, et al. (1998), “There are basically four kinds of sentences in

  English: simple, compound, complex, and compound- complex”. It means that some of those types are commonly appeared when students are writing in the class. Therefore, the students can write in the form of simple, compound, complex and compound-complex in his sentences.

  Simple sentence is the first and basic of sentence structure learnt by the students. Thus, it is the fundamental of compound, complex and compound- complex sentences. It means that the students must be able to understand about the structure of simple sentence in which it helps them develop his sentences in the proper form. Therefore, it is important for students who want to enhance his writing due to the fact that simple sentence is the development of each type of sentence.

  The explanation above suggests the reason why the researcher is interested in conducting the research entitled “An Analysis of English Grammatical Errors in

  Simple Sentence in Writing II Made by the Fourth Semester Students of English Department in University of Muhammadiyah Malang ”.

1.2 Problem of the study

  Based on the background above, the problem of this research is stated as follow:

  1. What are grammatical errors made by the fourth semester students of English Department in University of Muhammadiyah Malang in simple sentence in Writing II?

  2. What are the causes of error made by the fourth semester students of English Department in University of Muhammadiyah Malang in simple sentence in Writing II?

1.3 Purpose of the study

  Related to what has been discussed above, the purpose of this study is to answer the problem of the study. That is:

  1. To know what grammatical errors are made by the fourth semester students of English Department in University of Muhammadiyah Malang in simple sentence in Writing II.

  2. To know what the causes of error are made by the fourth semester students of English Department in University of Muhammadiyah Malang in simple sentence in Writing II.

  1.4 Significance of the study

  The result of this study is expected to be useful for the following contribution:

  1. For English lecturers, this study gives them information about what grammatical errors are made by students in simple sentence in Writing

  II. It will help the lecturers make an appropriate way to teach their students.

  2. For students, this study will give them an understanding how to write simple sentence well. Further, it makes students be careful to write English sentences by using appropriate grammar. On the other hand, students will not make any errors in writing his assignments.

  1.5 Scope and Limitation

  The scope of this study is focused on the analyzing of grammatical error in students’ writing. The limitation of this study is on the fourth semester students of English Department in University of Muhammadiyah Malang.

1.6 Definition of Key Terms

  To avoid the misunderstanding in terms and contents of the topic in this study, it is necessary for the researcher to define the key term used in this study. are the flawed side of learner speech or writing. They are those parts of

  Errors

  conversation of composition that deviate from some selected norm of mature language performance (Dulay et al: 1982).

  

Grammar is the knowledge speakers have about the units and rules of their

language (Hyams, et al: 2009).

  is one independent clause (Oshima, et al: 1998).

  Simple sentence

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