A STUDY ON CODE MIXING FOUND IN RANAH 3 WARNA NOVEL BY AHMAD FUADI

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A STUDY ON CODE MIXING FOUND IN RANAH 3 WARNA

NOVEL BY AHMAD FUADI

THESIS

By:

  

HASANAH

09360025

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

MAY 2016

  

A STUDY ON CODE MIXING FOUND IN RANAH 3 WARNA

NOVEL BY AHMAD FUADI

THESIS

By:

  

HASANAH

09360025

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

MAY 2016

  

A STUDY ON CODE MIXING FOUND IN RANAH 3 WARNA

NOVEL BY AHMAD FUADI

THESIS

  This thesis is submitted to meet one of the requirements to achieve Sarjana Degree in English Language Education

  

Written by:

HASANAH

09360025

UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

  

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINNING AND EDUCATION

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

MAY 2016

MOTTO AND DEDICATION

  

"Berlelah-lelahlah, maka manisnya hidup akan terasa setelah kau

berlelah-lelah" - Imam syafii Fa inna ma’al ‘usri yusra (QS. Alam Nasyrah :5) Man Jadda Wajad….

  Man Shabara Zhafir…. Man Sara ‘ala Ddarbi Washal….

  (Trylogy of Negeri 5 Menara) DEDICATION :

  I dedicated this thesis to:

   My brothers and sisters  My beloved families 

  The big Family of “DIMPA” and “IPPMAK” Malang

   All of my friends

  

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Alhamdulillahirobbil „alamin… All praises and thanks are just for ALLAH

Subhanahu wa Ta‟ala, the Almighty God and the Lord of the universe, only for

  His mercy and guidance I can finish my thesis. In this priceless occasion, I also would like to utter my sincere gratitude to:

  1. The Dean of Faculty of Teacher Training and Education University of Muhammadiyah Malang, giving approval for this thesis.

  2. The Head of English Department Program, Dr. Sudiran, M.Hum for supporting the fulfillment of this thesis.

  3. My advisors, Rina Wahyu Setyaningrum, S. Pd., M. Ed., and Drs. Taufiq Burhan, M. Pd, and all the lecturers of English Department for the priceless knowledge and precious experience.

  4. Both of My beloved parents, Talib and Syahri Bulan, and my lovely brother and sisters, Bahruddin, Saida, Sirajuddin, Misbahuddin, and Nur Asyisyah “Cico”, for your love and your support.

  5. My friends, Zuhri, Surya, Danang, Ahmar, Iing, Myga, and Lisdy, for your support, your time and your patient.

  6. Everybody for the help during the completion of my thesis.

  In the end, I truly realize that some imperfectness might occur in this thesis. Thus, I am gladly looking forward to any supporting advices and critics.

  The Writer Hasanah

  TABLE OF CONTENTS

APPROVAL......................................................................................................... i

LEGALIZATION ...............................................................................................

  ii

  

MOTTO & DEDICATION ............................................................................... iii

ORIGINALITY DECLARATION ................................................................... iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................ v

ABSTRACT ......................................................................................................... vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................... vii

  CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION

  1.1 Background of the Study ................................................................... 1

  1.2 Statement of the Problems ................................................................ 5

  1.3 Purposes of the Study ........................................................................ 5

  1.4 Significance of the Study .................................................................. 5

  1.5 Scope and Limitation ....................................................................... 6

  1.6 Definition of the Key Terms ............................................................. 6

  CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  2.1 Sociolinguistics ................................................................................ 7

  2.2 Bilingualism ..................................................................................... 8

  2.3 Code-choosing................................................................................... 9

  2.4 Code Switching ................................................................................ 11

  2.4.1 Types of Code Switching ......................................................... 12

  CHAPTER IV: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS

  38 5.2 Suggestions .......................................................................................

  CHAPTER V: CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 5.1 Conclusions .......................................................................................

  4.2 Discussion ......................................................................................... 35

  1.1.2 Reasons for Code Mixing ......................................................... 33

  1.1.1.3 Congruent Lexicalization ............................................. 32

  1.1.1.2 Alternation .................................................................... 31

  1.1.1.1 Insertion ....................................................................... 29

  4.1.1 The Patterns of Code Mixing Found in Ranah 3 Warna Novel 29

  4.1 Finding ............................................................................................. 29

  3.5 Data Analysis ................................................................................... 27

  2.5 Code Mixing ..................................................................................... 13

  3.4.2 Interview ..................................................................................... 26

  3.4.1 Document Analysis ..................................................................... 25

  3.4 Data Collection ................................................................................. 24

  3.3 Research Instrument ......................................................................... 23

  3.2 Research Object ............................................................................... 23

  3.1 Research Design ............................................................................... 22

  CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  2.6 Reasons for Code Mixing ................................................................. 19

  2.5.1 Patterns of Code Mixing .............................................................. 14

  38

  REFERENCES ...................................................................................................

  40 APPENDIX Appendix I : Interview guideline ................................................................

  42 Appendix II : Patterns of Code Mixing found in Ranah 3 Warna novel by Ahmad Fuadi ..........................................................................

  44 Appendix III : Interview transcript .................................................................

  64

  40 REFERENCES

  Appel, R. & Musyken, P. 2005. Language contact and bilingualism. London: Edward Arnold. Aprila, R. A. 2011. An analysis on the use of Indonesia-English code mixing found in the novel “de journal” by Neneng Setiasih. Unpublished.

  th

  Ary, et al. 2010. Introduction to research in education (8 edition). California: Wadsworth.

  rd Baker, C. 2001. Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism (3 edition).

  Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

  th

  Berg, B. L. 2001. Qualitative research methods for the social sciences (4 edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Bhatia, T. K. & Richie, W. C. 2006. The handbook of bilingualism.

  Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing. Cardenas-Claros, M. S. & Isharyanti, N. 2009. Code switching and code mixing in internet chatting: between „yes‟, „ya‟, and „si‟ a case study. The jaJlt Call

  Journal, 5 (3), 67-78.

  Fuadi, A. 2011. Ranah 3 warna. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

  nd

  Hamers, J. F. and Blanc, M. H. A. 2004. Bilinguality and bilingualism (2 edition). New York: Cambridge University Press. Hennink, et al. 2011. Qualitative research methods. London: Sage Publication Ltd. Jendra, M. I. I. 2012. Sociolinguistics: the study of societies language.

  Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu. Kothary, C. R. 2004. Research methodology methods and techniques. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers.

  Kurniawan, R. 2013.

  An analysis of code mixing found in “twivortaire” by Ika Natassa. Unpublished.

  Mesthrie, R., Swann, J., Deumert, A. & Leap, W. L. 2004. Introducing

  nd sociolinguistics (2 edition). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

  Musyken, P. 2000. Bilingual speech a typology of code mixing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Myers-Scotton, C. 2006. Multiple voices: an introduction to bilingualism.

  Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing.

  41

  Spolsky, B. 1998. Sociolinguistics. New York: Oxford University Press. Tagliamonte, S.A. 2006. Analysing sociolinguistic variation. New York: Cambridge University Press.

  Trisnawati, Y. I. 2013. The use of Indonesian-English code mixing in the novel “my stupid boss” by chaos@work. Unpublished.

  th Wardhaugh, R. 2006. An introduction to sociolinguistics (5 edition).

  Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing.

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter is going to discuss some topics such as background of study,

  statement of the problem, purpose of the study, significant of the study, scope and limitation, and definition of key terms.

1.1 Background of the study

  Language is a part of human life. In daily life, language is used to socialize and communicate with each other. People tend to use language to convey feeling, ideas, hopes, or many other things. ‘When two or more people communicate with each other in speech, we can call the system of communication that they employ a code. In most cases that code will be something we may also want to call a language’ (Wardhaugh, 2006:1)

  Along with the times, language in society tends to be more diverse. The diversity of languages may be one factor that affects the increasing of language contact and it makes people to adapt. People start learning other languages in addition to their own language for many reasons such as for smoothing the communication with another speaker who speaks different languages. It is not astonishing that finding people who are able to speak more than one language nowadays is not difficult because it is just usual.As stated by Wardaugh that it is just a normal requirement of daily living that people speak several languages (2006:96).

  In sociolinguistics, the ownership of at least two languages is known as bilingualism and the person who possesses two or several languages is called

  2 bilingual (Myers-Scotton, 2006:2). One of countries whose people are bilinguals is Indonesia. In Indonesia, each person at least can speak her/his mother tongue and national language or other languages. Someone may speak Javanese at home, speak Indonesian in office or in other formal situation, and use English or other languages for some purposes such as business matters, education, and job relationship in a wider society. In fact, on some occasions, people sometimes use more than one language in a conversation. It can be either by doing code switching or code mixing.

  Code switching is “the use of various linguistic units (words, phrases, clauses, and sentences) primarily two participating grammatical system across sentence boundaries within a speech event... Code mixing refers to the mixing of various linguistic units (morphemes, words, modifiers, phrases, clauses and sentences) primarily from two participating grammatical system within a sentence (Bhatia and Richie, 2006:337)." In other words, code switching refers to the use of two or more languages alternately between sentences in a conversation and code mixing refers to the insertion of various linguistic units into a sentence.

  Code mixing can be found both in oral and written text such as inradio programs, television programs, learning processes, magazines, tabloids, billboards, catalogs, novel, etc.It also can occur in different forms, types, and for different reasons or motivation. Discussing about code mixing, numerous studies havebeen carried out dealing with it as a major topic, especially the use of it in novel. In 2011, Aprilaconducted a study on Indonesian-English code mixing found in De Journal novel by NenengSetiasih. She found 3 types of code mixing

  3 and 9 factors that influenced the use of code mixing in the novel. In 2013, Trisnawatiinvestigated code mixing that occurred in My Stupid Boss novel by Chaos@work and the form of it. She revealed that 148 codes mixing were used and the forms were various such as: code mixing in word, phrase, hybrid, repetition word, and clause.

  In the same year as Trisnawati, a study also was conducted by Kurniawan (2013). He focused on analyzing form of code mixing, context of code mixingand the reason of IkaNatassa as the writer used code mixing in her novel, Twivortiare.

  He discovered that code mixing occured in word form, phrase, and clause. Furthermore, he proved that there are seven contexts of code mixing found in the novel. They are topic, quoted opinion, emphatic about something, interjection, expressing group identity, real lexical need, and softening or strengthening command. In addition, he also found that the reason of writer in using code mixing was the habit of writer in mixing languages.

  Based on the previous study, the researcher found that there is still lack of explanation about the patterns of code mixing called insertion, alternation, and congruent lexicalization and also the underlying reasons or motivation behind the use of it. So, in this study, the researcher will explore more about code mixing.

  The present study will focus on exploring the patternsof code mixing and the motivationslying behind the use of it because it is the area where the previous studies are silent on. As the object of study, the writer chooses Ranah 3 Warna novelthat was written by Ahmad Fuadi.

  4 Ahmad Fuadi is an Indonesian novelist. He is well-known as writer, public speaker, and also motivator. He was born in Banyur in 1972. He was an alumnus of both Gontor modern Islamic boarding schooland International Relation Department in the University of Padjajaran. Through scholarships, he got chances to stay and study in several countries such as Canada, Singapore, USA, and England. In his novels, Negeri 5 Menara trilogy, he uses code mixing especially in Ranah 3 Warna.

  Ranah 3 Warna is the second book of Negeri 5 Menara trilogy. It is one of

  Ahmad Fuadi’s national best-seller novels. This book focused on telling three different places; Bandung, Jordan, and Quebec. The story was about how AlifFikri as the main character chased his dreams in his life. By mantra

  “man shabarazhafira ”, he tried to solve his problems one by one. He chased his dreams

  earnestly although the inconvenience came again and again. This book was published in 2011 and contains 473 pages. Ranah 3 Warna novel is very interesting because it provides the example of code mixing not only between Indonesian and English but also other languages; for example, Indonesian-Arabic, Indonesian-Padang, Indonesian-Sundanese, Indonesian-Javanese, Indonesian- France, Indonesian-Padang-English and France-English-Indonesian.

  Although code mixing in Ranah3 Warna occurs in some languages but Indonesian-Englishseems to be the one which is used mostly. This is certainly interesting to be the object of the study. Therefore, the present study will investigate code mixing in Ranah 3 Warna novel and it will focus only on Indonesian-English code mixing.

  5

1.2 Statement of Problem

  Based on the description, the researcher formulates the problems as follows:

1. What are the patternsof code mixing found in Ranah 3 Warna novel by

  Ahmad Fuadi? 2. What are the underlying reasons behind the use of code mixing in Ranah 3

  Warna novel by Ahmad Fuadi?

1.3 Purpose of the study

  In accordance with the research questions, the study aimed at: 1. Knowing what are the patternsof code mixing found in Ranah 3 Warna novel by Ahmad Fuadi.

2. Revealing what the underlying reasons behind the use of code mixing in Ranah 3 Warna novel by Ahmad Fuadi.

1.4 Significance of the Study

  The findings of the study were expected to provide interesting information on code mixing issue. It can be used by students and lecturers as an additional information source to get broader knowledge about code mixing used in novel especially in Ranah 3 Warna because it provides information about code mixing in detail.The findings were also to enhance much more researches on this matter so as to confirm the findings of this study.

  6

  1.5 Scope and Limitation

  The present study aimed at investigating Indonesian-English code mixingfound in Ranah 3 Warna novel.It will be limited only on the patterns of code mixing and the reasons of the author, Ahmad Fuadi, in using code mixing in Ranah 3 Warna novel.

  1.6 Definition of Key Terms

  1. Bilingualism is a general term for the use of two or more languages in society (Mesthrie et al., 2004:37).

  2. Code mixing refers to the mixing of various linguistic units (morphemes, words, modifiers, phrases, clauses and sentences) primarily from two participating grammatical system within a sentence (Bhatia and Richie, 2006:337)

  3. Ahmad Fuadi is an Indonesian novelist. He is the author of Negeri 5 Menara trilogy: Negeri 5 Menara, Ranah 3 Warna and Rantau 1 Muara.

  4. Ranah 3 Warna is the second novel of Negeri 5 Menara trilogy. It is a national best-seller novel written by Ahmad Fuadi.

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