INCREASING STUDENTS SPEAKING ABILITY BY USING JIGSAW AT THE THIRD GRADE OF SMA NEGERI 9 BANDAR LAMPUNG

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ABSTRACT Y USING JIGSAW AT THE THIRD GRADE OF SMA NEGERI 9 BANDAR LAMPUNG By SITI HARIDAH Speaking is one of the important skills that a learner should acquire. It is very important in order to enable them to communicate effectively through oral language because the inability of the students to speak may lead them to be unable to express their ideas even in a simple form of conversation. Therefore, the teacher should be able to provide various communicative activities that can facilitate the students to speak and to interact with each other. Therefore, the researcher trie ability. This research was conducted with the consideration that the students have serious problem in speaking. On the other hand, jigsaw is one of the techniques that enable the students to interact with each of them. The purpose of this research was to find out whether jigsaw can increase speaking ability. The aspects of speaking that are involved include fluency, grammar, pronunciation and comprehensibility. The research was conducted at SMA Negeri 9 Bandar Lampung. The subject of the research was students of twelfth grade (class XII A5) in the academic year 2011/2012. The study employed one group pretest posttest design. The students were given four treatments. To collect the data, the speaking test was administered both in pretest and posttest. There were two raters to j performance. Repeated Measures t-test was used to analyze the data and the hypothesis testing was computed using SPSS version 16.0 at the level significant of 0.05. The result showed that jigsaw is applicable to increase the student ability, especially in terms of fluency, grammar, pronunciation, and i comprehensibility. In pretes It was under the minimum score (KKM) that is 77 while in the posttest it became 84.25. The gain is 13.94. Even though the gain is only 13.94, the analysis of SPSS 16.0 shows that increase significantly. The significance was also found in aspects of speaking. St s from 13.59 to 16.94 (gain of 3.35), pronunciation increase from 14.00 to 17.75 (gain of 3.69), grammar increase from 13.28 to 16.06 (gain of 2.78) and comprehensibility increase from 15.59 to 17.44 (gain of 1.85). The gain of fluency (2.62) showed its significant value, that is 0.003 (p<0.05), gain for pronunciation (2.02) also showed its significant value, that is 0.001 (p<0.05), while gain score of grammar (2.52) showed its significant value, that is 0.002 (p<0.05), and the last, the gain of comprehensibility (3.33) also showed its significant value, that is 0.002 (p<0.05). Referring to the result of the research above, it can be concluded that jigsaw is grammar, pronunciation, and comprehensibility. Jigsaw is cooperative learning that is believed to be able to encourage the students to increase their speaking ability. ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Praise is to Allah SWT the Most Gracious and the Most Merciful, because of His blessing enables me to accomplish this little project. Shalawat and Salaam to the Prophet Muhammad SAW and his family. This was a little project but there were so many memories and efforts in each day to finish it. This script entitled bility by using Jigsaw at the Third Grade of SMA Negeri 9 Bandar Lampung is presented to fulfill one of the requirements in accomplishing the S-1 Degree at the Department of Language and Arts of Teachers Training and Education Faculty in the University of Lampung. The writer would like to take her opportunity to express her deep and sincere gratitude to the following: 1. Prof. Dr. Cucu Sutarsyah, M.A., as her first advisor who has guided the writer patiently in writing the script. The writer will not forget your advices and suggestions. 2. Dr. Muhammad Sukirlan, M.A., as her examiner who suggested and criticized to the script. It will be hard for the writer to complete the script became perfect without his contributions. 3. Her high gratitude is also extended to Drs. Deddy Supriadi, M.Pd., as her second advisor, who has given his expertise and guidance in finishing this script. 4. Budi Kadaryanto, S.Pd., M.A., 5. Again, thanks to Prof. Dr. Cucu Sutarsyah, M.A., as The Head of English Study Program. 6. Drs. Imam Rejana, M.Si., The Chairperson of Language and Arts Education Department. 7. Dr. Hi. Bujang Rahman, M.Si., The Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty. 8. All lecturers in English Department for their valuable teaching experience. 9. Drs. Hendro Suyono as the Headmaster of SMAN 9 Bandar Lampung for giving her chance to undertake the research and also to Mrs. Yayah Suratiyah, S.Pd., as the English teacher of the school in which the writer did her vii research. Her thanks also go to the students of XII Science 5 who welcomed me into their environment and so willingly involved in the research. 10. and love are also dedicated to her beloved grandma and grandpa (Pak Uwo and Mak Uwo), her beloved siblings (Idawati, M. Mahrom, and Nurheda). 11. fellows (Umi, Desi, Joko, Reni, Desti) the whole teachers at MI Mathla Ul Anwar Sinar Gading Teluk Betung, all teachers in SMAN 9 Bandar Lampung, all teachers, and staffs in Pelita Bangsa International School. Your pray and support stronger my spirit. 12. My BBQ team (Sartika, Firni, Meilani, Ria, Atika, Sella, Nely, Maya, Budi, Era, Yuri, Dewi, and Mega) you always remind me to do the right things and giving me so much support. Thank you. 13. Lazdai (Lembaga Amil Zakat Daerah Insani) Bandar Lampung. Your financial support was helpful. 14. My best pals : Mutiarani (Matow), Uul, Fita, Aldo Febryan, Nando Iswahyudi, M.Pd., Febiola, Karwanti, M.Pd., Edi Cahyono, Gita Krisnawati, Mirna Bustomi, and Afrillianti. 15. Anyone that cannot be mentioned directly or indirectly who have helped and given support in accomplishing this script. The writer does appreciate any opinion, and suggestion for the improvement of this script. Bandar Lampung, The writer, Siti Haridah viii May 2012 KEMENTRIAN PENDIDIKAN DAN KEBUDAYAAN UNIVERSITAS LAMPUNG FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN JURUSAN PENDIDIKAN BAHASA DAN SENI Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No. 1 Bandar Lampung 35245 Telepon (0721) 704624 Faximile (0721) 704624 PERMOHONAN UJIAN KOMPREHENSIVE MAKALAH ILMIAH Yang bertanda tangan dibawah ini Nama NPM Fakultas Jurusan Program Studi Alamat Tempat tanggal lahir Dengan ini mengajukan untuk ujian sarjana Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan. Untuk bahan pertimbangan Bapak, dengan ini saya mengajukan: 1. Judul Thesis/Makalah 2. Mata uji yang di tempuh : 1 Thesis/Makalah 2 Komprehensive Demikianlah untuk Bapak maklumi dan terima kasih. Bandar Lampung _________________________ NPM Catatan : KEMENTRIAN PENDIDIKAN DAN KEBUDAYAAN UNIVERSITAS LAMPUNG FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN JURUSAN PENDIDIKAN BAHASA DAN SENI Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No. 1 Bandar Lampung 35245 Telepon (0721) 704624 Faximile (0721) 704624 PANITIA UJIAN SARJANA FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN PERNYATAAN: 1. Siapa nama saudara 2. Berapa nomor pokok saudara 3. Jurusan apa 4. Fakultas apa 5. Apakah saudara siap untuk diuji Pada hari ini 6. Apakah judul makalah yang saudara ajukan ujian ini 7. Mata uji meliputi 1. Makalah 2. Komprehensive 3. Thesis 8. Apa saudara sap/bersedia untuk di uji oleh panitia pada hari ini 9. Apakah saudara akan memahami semua keputusan panitia ujian ini tentang ujian saudara 10. Apakah saudara pada hari inidalam keadaan sehat wal afiat Keterangan ini diucapkan didepan panitia ujian sarjana Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan Universitas Lampung. Tertanda Tanda tangan mahasiswa ybs, ___________________ _____________________________ KEMENTRIAN PENDIDIKAN DAN KEBUDAYAAN UNIVERSITAS LAMPUNG FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN JURUSAN PENDIDIKAN BAHASA DAN SENI Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No. 1 Bandar Lampung 35245 Telepon (0721) 704624 Faximile (0721) 704624 BERITA ACARA UJIAN SKRIPSI/KAJI TINDAK Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan Universitas Lampung, telah dilaksanakan ujian skripsi/kaji tindak terhadap mahasiswa: Nama lengkap Nomor Pokok Mahasiswa Program Studi Jurusan Fakultas : Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan Universitas Lampung Judul Tim Penguji bersepakat menyatakan : LULUS/TIDAK LULUS Indeks Prestasi Kumulatif (IPK) mahasiswa tersebut adalah jumlah hasil perkalian sks perMata kuliah dengan angka mutu dibagi dengan seluruh sks yang telah diambil, yaitu ----------------- Predikat kelulusan Tanggal Lulus Tim Penguji 1. Ketua 2. Penguji Utama 3. Penguji Pembantu KEMENTRIAN PENDIDIKAN DAN KEBUDAYAAN UNIVERSITAS LAMPUNG FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN JURUSAN PENDIDIKAN BAHASA DAN SENI Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No. 1 Bandar Lampung 35245 Telepon (0721) 704624 Faximile (0721) 704624 Nomor : /UN26/3/DT/200 Perihal : Kesediaan Menguji Skripsi Yth. Bapak/Ibu/Sdr. Tim Penguji Skripsi Program S1 Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni FKIP Universitas Lampung Diharapkan kesediaan Bapak/Ibu/Sdr : Nama Jabatan Kesediaan Ketua Penguji Utama Sekretaris Untuk menguji pada 1. Periode Ujian 2. Hari/Tanggal 3. Pukul 4. Tempat : : a. 0.8.00 10.00 b. 10.00 12.00 : Ruang ujian Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni FKIP Unila Prog. Studi Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni FKIP Universitas Lampung. Judul Atas kesediaan Bapak/Ibu untuk menguji mahasiswa tersebut, diucapkan terima kasih, dan Tidak diwakilkan. Ketua, Drs. Imam Rejana, M.Si. NIP 19480421 197803 1 004 Tembusan: 1. Dekan FKIP Unila 2. Ketua Program Studi di lingkungan FKIP Unila 3. Mahasiswa ybs. KEMENTRIAN PENDIDIKAN DAN KEBUDAYAAN UNIVERSITAS LAMPUNG FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN JURUSAN PENDIDIKAN BAHASA DAN SENI Nomor Perihal UN26/3/DT : Undangan Ujian Sarjana Tim Penguji Sarjana Pend. Bahasa dan Seni FKIP Unila Kami sampaikan undangan untuk menguji peserta ujian sarjana di Jurusan Jadwal kegiatan sebagai berikut : ===================================================== No ! Peserta Ujian/NPM ! Hari/Tanggal ! Keterangan Program Studi Pukul/Ruang ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Adapun skripsi peserta ujian terlampir. Terimakasih atas kesediaan Bapak/Ibu/Sdr. Melaksanakan tugas tepat pada waktunya. Ketua, Drs. Imam Rejana, M.Si. NIP 19480421 197803 1 004 KEMENTRIAN PENDIDIKAN DAN KEBUDAYAAN UNIVERSITAS LAMPUNG FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN JURUSAN PENDIDIKAN BAHASA DAN SENI DAFTAR HADIR PSERTA DAN PENGUJI UJIAN SARJANA JURUSAN PENDIDIKAN BAHASA DAN SENI FKIP UNILA No 1 Hari/tanggal ujian Nama Penguji/Peserta/Adm Tanda Tangan 1. 2. 5. ........................................................ 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3. KEMENTRIAN PENDIDIKAN DAN KEBUDAYAAN UNIVERSITAS LAMPUNG FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN JURUSAN PENDIDIKAN BAHASA DAN SENI Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No. 1 Bandar Lampung 35245 Telepon (0721) 704624 Faximile (0721) 704624 NILAI UJIAN SKRIPSI/MAKALAH Nama Mahasiswa Nomor Pokok Mahasiswa Jurusan/Program Studi No. ! Aspek Penelitian ! : I. ! 1. ! 2. ! 3. ! Penelitian dalam ujian lisan Peguasaan materi Penguasaan Metodologi Kemampuan Argumentasi II. ! 1. ! 2. ! Naskah Skripsi/Makalah Orsinalitas, relevan Kebakuan Nilai Angka 3. ! NILAI RATA-RATA _____________________(Tanpa dibulatkan) Dinilai oleh Pembimbing NIP KEMENTRIAN PENDIDIKAN DAN KEBUDAYAAN UNIVERSITAS LAMPUNG FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN JURUSAN PENDIDIKAN BAHASA DAN SENI Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No. 1 Bandar Lampung 35245 Telepon (0721) 704624 Faximile (0721) 704624 REKAPITULASI NILAI UJIAN SKRIPSI/KAJI TINDAK Nama Nomor Pokok Mahasiswa Jurusan/Program Studi No Nama Penguji Jabatan Nilai (N) Bobot (B) 1 Ketua 40 2 P. Utama 40 3 P. Pembantu 20 NILAI KEPUTUSAN AWAL = NB = B Nilai (NB) 100 TU TIM PENGUJI No. Nama Tanda Tangan Jabatan 1. Ketua 2. Penguji Utama 3. Penguji Pemb Ketua Tim Penguji, ___________________________ NIP KEMENTRIAN PENDIDIKAN DAN KEBUDAYAAN UNIVERSITAS LAMPUNG FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN JURUSAN PENDIDIKAN BAHASA DAN SENI Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No. 1 Bandar Lampung 35245 Telepon (0721) 704624 Faximile (0721) 704624 BIODATA MAHASISWA 1. Nama 2. NPM 3. Tempat Tanggal Lahir 4. Program Studi 5. Pembimbing Akademik 6. SKS yang ditempuh 7. Pembimbing I Pembimbing II Penguji Utama 8. Tanggal Seminar Proposal 9. Tanggal Ujian Sekripsi 10. IPK/Nilai Kumulatif 11. Lama Kuliah 12. Nilai Toefl 13. Tanggal Penyerahan Skripsi 14. Alamat 15. Judul Skripsi Foto 2x3 Mahasiswa yang bersangkutan NPM KEMENTRIAN PENDIDIKAN DAN KEBUDAYAAN UNIVERSITAS LAMPUNG FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN JURUSAN PENDIDIKAN BAHASA DAN SENI Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No. 1 Bandar Lampung 35245 Telepon (0721) 704624 Faximile (0721) 704624 REKOMENDASI CETAK ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... Ini telah diteliti/dirombak/diperbaiki oleh pembimbingnya dengan syarat/ ketentuan ilmiah yang diajukan oleh Penguji/Pembimbing No Nama Dosen Penguji/Pembimbing Tanda Tangan 1 2 3 Demikian surat rekomendasi ini saya buat agar dapat dipergunakan sebagaimana mestinya. Bandar Lampung, ............................200.. Katua Jurusan, Drs. Imam Rejana, M.Si. NIP 19480421 197803 1 004 KEMENTRIAN PENDIDIKAN DAN KEBUDAYAAN UNIVERSITAS LAMPUNG FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN JURUSAN PENDIDIKAN BAHASA DAN SENI Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No. 1 Bandar Lampung 35245 Telepon (0721) 704624 Faximile (0721) 704624 TANDA PENDAFTARAN UJIAN SARJANA Telah terdaftar dengan nomor: /J26/3.4/PP/200... sebagai peserta ujian sarjana lengkap Jurusan Pendidikan Banhasa dan Seni FKIP Universitas Lampung Nama Nomor Pokok Mahasiswa Jurusan/Program Studi Tanggal Ujian Syarat-sayarat ujian : .................................................................... : .................................................................... : .................................................................... : .................................................................... : 1. Tanda pendaftaran ujian sarjana 2. Blanko permohonan ujian 3. Blanko pernyataan ujian (1) (1) (1) 4. Tanda bebas perpustakaan 5. Tanda pembayaran SPP terakhir dilegalisir 6. Foto kopi kartu mahasiswa 7. Foto kopi piagam PPL 8. Transkrip asli dan foto kopi 9. Foto kopi STTB SMU/SMK 10. Pas foto ukuran 3 x 4 = 6 lembar 11. Pas foto ukuran 2 x 3 = 2 lembar 12. Foto kopi raport dari semester 1 s.d. akhir (1) (1) (4) (4) (4) (4) (1) Bandar Lampung, ....................................20..... Sekretaris Jurusan, Prof. Dr. Patuan Raja, M.Pd. KEMENTRIA PENDIDIKAN DAN kEBUDAYAAN UNIVERSITAS LAMPUNG FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN JURUSAN PENDIDIKAN BAHASA DAN SENI LEMBAR SARAN PERBAIKAN UJIAN CALON SARJANA PENDIDIKAN NAMA MAHASISWA NOMOR POKOK MAHASISWA JURUSAN/PROGRAM STUDI CATATAN PERBAIKAN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 NIP INCREASING SPEAKING ABILITY BY USING JIGSAW AT THE THIRD GRADE OF SMA NEGERI 9 BANDAR LAMPUNG (A Script) By SITI HARIDAH TEACHING TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY LAMPUNG UNIVERSITY BANDAR LAMPUNG 2012 CURRICULUM VITAE th, 1989. She is the first child of a couple Karim and Sumiyati. She has two sisters and one brother named Idawati, Nurheda, and M. Mahrom. She studied in SD Negeri 2 Pelita. Having graduated from the Primary School in 1998, she went to SLTP Negeri 4 Bandar Lampung and graduated in 2004. She finished her High School at SMA Negeri 1 Bandar Lampung in 2007. She was registered as an S-1 college student of Lampung University at English Education Program of Teacher Training and Education Faculty through SPMB test in 2007. She has joined Islamic organization in FKIP, that was FPPI and also journalistic organization that was Teknokra Unila. She joined not only those organizations but also she spent her spare time as private teacher. In 2011, she carried out Teaching Practice Program (PPL) at SMA Negeri 9 Bandar Lampung. Since October 2011, she has tried her teaching experience at Pelita Bangsa International School in Bandar Lampung up to now. DEDICATION This script is dedicated to My beloved parents (Karim and Sumiyati) You have sacrificed so many things for me and our family. My siblings ( Uci , Iyum , and Nur ) Let s make our parents proud of us. My grand father and my grandmother (Sukidi and Walinah) Thank you very much for your pray My soul mates ( Sartika, Mutia (Matow), Firni, and Uul) : Thanks for your love, help, and support. My beloved comrades Eng 2007 of Lampung University. Motto And your Lord says: Pray to Me, I will answer you. Those who disdain My service will surely enter hell, abased (Al Mu min : 60) "God said, 'I am to my servant as he thinks of Me. (Hadith-e Qudsi) Life is choice. Do the right things and you will be blessed. (Siti Haridah) REFERENCES Amri Sofan; & Ahmadi Iif. (2010). Konstruksi Pengembangan Pembelajaran, Pengaruhnya terhadap Mekanisme dan Praktik Kurikulum. Jakarta: Prestasi Pustaka Aronson, E., & Patnoe, S. (1997). The jigsaw classroom: Building cooperation in the classroom (2nd ed). New York: Addison Wesley Longman. Aronson, E. (2000). Nobody left to hate: Teaching compassion after Columbine. New York: W. H. Freeman. Jacob, E. Cooperative Learning in Context: An educational Innovation in Everyday Classrooms. United States of America: state University of New York Press. Cooperative Learning, Spencer Kagan, Resources for Teachers, Inc., 1992. http://www.jigsaw.org/tips.htm downloaded on December, 19th 2011 Slavin, R. E. (1980). Cooperative learning in teams: State of the art. Educational Psychologist, 15, 93-111. Slavin, R. E. (2005). Cooperative Learning: Teori, Riset dan Praktik, Bandung: Nusa Media. Setiadi, B. Ag. 2006. Metodologi Penelitian Untuk Pengajaran Bahasa Asing, Pendekatan Kuantitatif dan Kualitatif. Graha Ilmu. Yogyakarta. Setiadi, B. Ag. 2006. Teaching English as a Foreign Language. Graha Ilmu. Yogyakarta. Sudarwati, M. TH., & Grace Eudia.(2005). Look Ahead Book 3. Jakarta. Erlangga The Jigsaw classroom, Elliot Aronson, Official web site for Jigsaw Classroom method, website with instructions at: http://www.jigsaw.org Unila. 2010. Format Penulisan Karya Ilmiah Universitas Lampung. Unila Press. Bandar lampung. Yufrizal, H. 2008. An Introduction to Second Language Acquisition (A Text Book for ESL Learners and English Teachers). Pustaka Reka Cipta. Bandung. Research Title : INCREASING USING JIGSAW AT THE THIRD GRADE OF SMA NEGERI 9 BANDAR LAMPUNG : Siti Haridah : 0713042047 Department : Language and Arts Education Program : English Department Faculty : Teacher Training and Education APPROVED BY: Supervisor Committee Advisor I Advisor II Prof. Dr. Cucu Sutarsyah, M.A. NIP 195704061986031002 Drs. Dedy Supriadi, M.Pd. NIP 195805051985021001 The Chairperson of Language and Arts Department Drs. Imam Rejana, M.Si. NIP 19480421 1978031004 ADMITTED BY 1. Examination Committee Chairperson : Prof. Dr. Cucu Sutarsyah, M.A. ............................... Examiner : Dr. M. Sukirlan, M.A. Secretary : Drs. Dedy Supriadi, M.Pd. 2. The Dean of Teachers Training and Education Faculty Dr. Hi. Bujang Rahman, M.Si. NIP 19530528 198103 1 002 Graduated On : 2 May 2012 CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................... APPROVAL ..................................................................................................... ADMISSION .................................................................................................... CURRICULUM VITAE ................................................................................... DEDICATION .................................................................................................. MOTTO ............................................................................................................ ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................... TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................... LIST OF GRAPHS ............................................................................................ LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................... LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................. I. II. III. i iii iv v vi vii viii ix xi xii xiii INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Problem ............................................................... 1.2 Formulation of he Research ............................................................... 1.3 Objectives of the Research ................................................................. 1.4 Uses of the Research .......................................................................... 1.5 Scope of the Research ........................................................................ 1.6 Definition of Terms ............................................................................ 1 3 3 4 4 4 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Concept of Speaking ........................................................................... 2.2 Concept of Teaching Speaking .......................................................... 2.3 Concept of Speaking Technique ........................................................ 2.4 Concept of Cooperative Learning ....................................................... 2.5 Principles of Cooperative Learning .................................................... 2.6 Concept of Jigsaw ............................................................................... 2.7 Procedure of Jigsaw ............................................................................ 2.8 Procedure of Applying Jigsaw in the Class ........................................ 2.9 Advantages and Disadvantages of Jigsaw ........................................... 2.10 Theoretical Assumption ................................................................... 2.11 Hypothesis ......................................................................................... 6 9 9 16 18 19 20 21 22 23 23 RESEARCH METHOD 3.1 Research Design ................................................................................ 3.2 Population and Sample ...................................................................... 3.3 Data Collecting Technique ................................................................. 3.4 Research Procedure ............................................................................ 24 24 25 26 ix IV. V. 3.5 ...................................... 3.6 Reliability .......................................................................................... 3.7 Validity ............................................................................................. 3.8 Speaking Test .................................................................................... 3.9 Data Analysis .................................................................................... 3.10 Hypothesis Testing .......................................................................... 29 29 30 31 34 35 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Result .................................................................................................. 4.2 Result of Pretest .................................................................................. 4.3 Result of Posttest ............................................................................... 4.4 Increase of .............................................. 4.5 Hypothesis Test ................................................................................. 4.6 Discussion .......................................................................................... 37 38 40 41 43 44 CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 5.1 Conclusions ....................................................................................... 53 5.2 Suggestions ....................................................................................... 54 REFERENCES ................................................................................................. 55 APPENDICES .................................................................................................. 58 x LIST OF GRAPHS Graph Page 4.1 -test ................................................... 4.2 -test ................................................. 4.3 The Increase from the Pretest to Posttest ...................................................... 4.4 The Increa ....................... LIST OF FIGURES xi 38 40 63 41 Figures Page 1. Picture to discuss : Hacking Pro and Contra? ................................................ 2. Picture to discuss : Smoking, Harmful or Pleasant......................................... 3. Picture to discuss : The Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy.. 4. Picture to discuss : the Effect of National Exam, bad or good for students?.. 5. Picture to discuss : In vitro fersatilisation Baby, legal or no?......................... 6. Picture to discuss : Riding without helm, Save or no? ................................... 7. Picture to discuss : Home Schooling, is it effective to apply in Indonesia ..... 8. Picture to discuss : Smoking, Harmful or Pleasant......................................... 9. Picture to discuss : Spongebob, Should be banned? ....................................... LIST OF TABLES xii 73 74 74 74 74 75 75 75 75 Table Page 3.1 Raters Reliability ......................................................................................... 4.1 Distribution of the Pre Test Score................................................................. 4.2 Distribution of the Post Test Score ............................................................... 4.3 Paired Samples Statistics .............................................................................. 4.4 Paired Samples Test ..................................................................................... 30 39 40 44 44 APPENDICES 1. Lesson Plan 1 .................................................................................................. 58 xiii 2. Lesson Plan 2 .................................................................................................. 3. Pretest.............................................................................................................. 4. Posttest ............................................................................................................ 5. .............................................................................. 6. test ............................................................................ 7. test ................................. 8 .............................................................................. 9. test ........................................................................... 10. Frequencies Statistic Pretest ......................................................................... 11. Frequencies Statistic Posttest ....................................................................... 12. Descriptives T-Test ...................................................................................... 13. Inter Rater Reliability of Pretest Score ...................................................... 14. Inter Rater Reliability of Posttest Score..................................................... 15. T Test Fluency .......................................................................................... 16. T Test Grammar ........................................................................................ 17. T Test Vocabulary ..................................................................................... 18. T Test Pronunciation ................................................................................. 19. T Test Comprehension .............................................................................. 20. Text of Discussion Presentation ................................................................... xiv 64 69 73 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 86 88 89 90 91 92 92 1 I. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Problems Learning to speak in English means agreeing to speak in a way which is different from that one of the mother tongue in many aspects i.e. pronunciation, grammar, fluency, and vocabulary. The purpose of teaching speaking is to make the students able to speak English with the same desire to be understood to the listener. Moreover, it is known that speaking is one of oral communication in English that should be mastered by students of Junior High School. It shows how essential speaking in communication and interaction is. The success of learning process is influenced by the way the teacher chooses the learning technique that is suitable for his/her classroom situation. The suitable classroom can encourage student to participate in learning process. There are so many techniques dealing with cooperative learning, such as, jigsaw, think-pair-share, three-step interview, round robin brain storming, three-minute review, numbered heads, team pair solo, circle the sage, partners, etc (Purwati Nining: 2009). According to Arronson (2000) ESL classrooms jigsaws are a fourskill approach integrating reading, speaking, listening and writing. Therefore the researcher chooses speaking ability. Jigsaw is very simple to apply. (Isjoni:1954) explains that the jigsaw is one of the cooperative learning, the procedures are the students study in small group which 2 consist of 4-5 students who have heterogeneous ability, and every student has their own responsibility to learn a particular case from the materials given and deliver those materials to others students. Each group consists of 5-6 students from various abilities. Each origin group students meet in expert group to study material which is assigned to each group students. After discussion, they go back material completeness. Defined broadly, jigsaw is a grouping strategy in which the members of the class are organized into "jigsaw" groups. The students are then reorganized into "expert" groups containing one member from each jigsaw group. The members of the expert group work together to learn the material or solve the problem, then return to their "jigsaw" groups to share their learning. In this way, the work of the expert groups is quickly disseminated throughout the class, with each person taking responsibility for sharing a piece of the puzzle. Moreover, Slavin (2009:237) said that in jigsaw, the students study cooperatively in heterogeneity team. According to Arronson (1978), Jigsaw is an efficient way for students to become engaged in their learning, learn a lot of material quickly, share information with other groups, minimize listening time, and be individually accountable for their learning. Jigsaw forces indirectly each group students needs its members to do well in teamwork. Jigsaw maximizes interaction and establishes an atmosphere of cooperation and respects other students. Teachers who listen in the sharing of one of the jigsaw groups can quickly hear what each of the original groups has been doing. 3 According to those previous statements, the researcher thinks that it is important to apply a more interesting teaching speaking by using jigsaw. In addition, there is no study applying jigsaw technique in SMAN 9 Bandar Lampung. So, in this research, the researcher is going to focus on technique of teaching speaking ability through discussion text. Therefore, the researcher entitles this research paper Increasing S Speaking Ability by Using Jigsaw at the Third Grade of SMA Negeri 9 Bandar Lampung . 1.2 Formulation of the Problem Based on the background discussed above, the writer formulated the problems as follows: 1. Is there any significance increase of students skill after being taught through jigsaw? 1.3 Objective of the Research The objective of this research is: 1. Based on the problem above, the objective of this research is to find out whether there is a significant increase taught through jigsaw. 1.4 Uses of the Reasearch The uses of this research are: 1. Theoretically, the result of this research is expected to confirm the previous theory about teaching speaking through jigsaw. 4 2. Practically, as additional information for English teacher to increase the and share experiences in increasing speaking ability using jigsaw. 1.5 Scope of the Research This research is a quantitative research and will be conducted at SMA Negeri 9 Bandar Lampung in the second semester of 2011/2012 learning year. The research intended to find out whether there is a significant increasing ability by using jigsaw after being taught discussion text. It is focused on the speaking skill. The materials were adapted from English book for senior high school, KTSP which cover discussion text only. The researcher conducts this research in 4 meetings for 2 is found out by d posttest. 1.6 Definition of Terms 1. Speaking is one of the central elements of communication of an interactive process in which an individual alternately takes the roles of speakers and listeners used to communicate information, ideas, and emotions to others using oral language (Sister, 2004: 7). 2. Jigsaw activities are more elaborate information gap activities that can be done with several partners. In a jigsaw activity, each partner has one or a few pieces of the "puzzle," and the partners must cooperate to fit all the pieces into a whole picture. The puzzle piece may take one of several forms. With information gap and jigsaw activities, instructors need to be conscious of the language demands they place on their students. 5 3. Jigsaw technique in which teacher is involved in putting students into situations where they must depend on one another. The teams are heterogeneous with regard to ability level, sex and cast and religion. 4. Jigsaw technique is a cooperative learning technique in which students work in small groups. Jigsaw can be used in a variety of ways for a variety of goals, but it is primarily used for the acquisition and presentation of new material, review, or informed debate. In this method, each group member is assigned to become an "expert" on some aspect of a unit of study. After reading about their area of expertise, the experts from different groups meet to discuss their topic, and then return to their groups and take turns teaching their topics to their group mates (Arronson :2000). II. LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter discusses several points, i.e., literature review that deals with concept of speaking, types of classroom speaking performance, concept of teaching 6 speaking, concept of speaking technique, concept of jigsaw, procedure of teaching speaking through Jigsaw, procedure of applying Jigsaw in the class, advantages and disadvantages of jigsaw, theoretical assumption, and hypothesis. 2.1 Concept of Speaking Speaking is a productive skill in which the speaker produces and uses the language by expressing a sequence of ideas and at the time she/he tries to get ideas or the message across. In this case, there is a process of giving message which is called as the encoding process. At the same time, there is a process of understanding the message of the first speaker, which is called decoding process. Sister (2004: 7) states that speaking is one of the central elements of communication of an interactive process in which an individual alternately takes the roles of speakers and listeners used to communicate information, ideas, and emotions to others using oral language. So, the situation affects their quality of speaking, whether it is fluency or structure. The main goal of speaking is to communicate. So, to deliver the idea effectively the speaker has to understand the meaning of all things that will be delivered; she/he has to evaluate the effect of communication toward the listener: and she/he has to understand the principle that becomes the basic of communication. Scott in Johnson & Morrow (1981) typifies speaking as an activity involving two (or more) people, in which the participants both hearers and speakers have to react to what they hear and make the contributions at high speed. In other words, each participant must have an intention or set of intentions participant wants to achieve in the interaction. Each participant has to be able to interpret what is said to 7 him/her, and reply with the language he/she has which reflects his/her own intention. Speaking is the instrument of language and the primary aim of speaking is for communication (Tarigan: 1991). From this definition, it is clear that the students learn to speak is in order to be able to communicate. Language is for communication, and in communication, a speaker has a choice not only about what to say but also how to say it (Larsen, 1986: 130). Speaker and listener try to communicate with each other and use their language to make other people understand. Byrne in Rismayasari (1999: 9) says that speaking or oral communication is a two-way process between speaker and listener and involves productive and receptive skills of understanding. It means that speaker and listener try to communicate with each other and use our language to send our message to others (listeners). Meanwhile, Lado (1961: 240) describes speaking as the ability to express oneself in life situation, or the ability to report acts or situations in precise words, or the ability to converse, or to express a sequence of ideas fluently. This idea means that, speaking emphasizes more to the ability of an individual to convey something whether it is in the form of expression, report, etc with the language he has. From the definition above, it can be concluded that speaking is two-way process between speaker and listener and it involves both encoding and decoding process. The former leads to the process of giving idea or making the listener understand, 8 while the latter leads to the process of getting the idea of the speaker. Through these processes, people interact with other. According to Harris (1974) speaking must fulfill these following aspects, they are: 1. Fluency Fluency can be defined as the ability to speak fluently and accurately. Signs of fluency include a reasonable fast speed of speaking and only a small numbers of pauses. Fluency refers to the ease and speed of the flow of the speech (Harris, 1974: 81). Fluency is the smoothness or flow with which sounds, syllables, words and phrases are joined to other when speaking. It means that when a person makes a dialogue with another person, the other person can give respond well without difficulty. 2. Grammar Heaton (19 structure and to distinguish appropriate grammatical form in appropriate ones. 3. Vocabulary One cannot communicate effectively or express ideas in oral form if he or she does not have sufficient vocabulary. Therefore, vocabulary means the appropriate diction which is used in communication. 4. Pronunciation Pronunciation refers to the ability to produce easily comprehensible articulation (Syakur:1987). Meanwhile Harris (1974:81) defines pronunciation as the intonation patterns. 5. Comprehension and general meaning (Heaton, 1991: 35). This idea means that if a person can 9 answer or express well and correctly, it shows that he/she comprehends or understands well. 2.2 Concept of Teaching Speaking Teaching speaking means teaching how to use language for communication, for transferring ideas, thought or even feeling to other people. Rivers (1978:6) states that speaking is developed from the first context with the language. For this reason, in teaching speaking skill it is necessary to have clear understanding involved in discussion. The goal of teaching speaking skills is to train the students so that they are able to communicate efficiently. Learners should be able to make themselves understood, using their current proficiency to the fullest. They should try to avoid confusion in the message due to faulty pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary and to observe the social and cultural rules that apply in each communication situation. In teaching speaking teacher should know the types of spoken language that will make teaching activity easier. According to Nunan (1991b:20-21) spoken language is drawn as such: Monologues : 1. Planned 2. Unplanned Dialogue : 1. Interpersonal: familiar and unfamiliar 2. Transactional: familiar and unfamiliar In monologues when one speaker uses spoken language for any length of time, as in speeches, lectures, readings, news broadcaster, and the hearer must process long stretches of speech without interruptions-the stream of speech will go on whether or not the hearer comprehends. Monologues are divided into two kinds: 10 Planned usually manifest little redundancy and are therefore relatively difficult to comprehend. Unplanned exhibit more redundancy, which makes for ease in comprehension, but the presence of more performance variables and other hesitations, can help or hinder comprehension. Dialogues involve two or more speakers and can be exchanges that promote social relationship (interpersonal) and those for which the purpose is to convey propositional or factual information (transactional). In teaching language the teacher need to determine the focus of speaking skills in order to make the learning speaking in transactional form easier to be planned. In speaking there are some components to be considered. According to Haris (1974:84) there are five components, i.e., pronunciation, fluency, grammar, vocabulary and comprehension. Meanwhile in transactional speaking the components that can be reached is the level of linguistic accuracy that students achieve when carrying out the tasks. This is also supported by Higgs and Clifford (1990) in Richards (1984) states that transactional speaking develops accuracy and fluency. The teacher can see that if the students are able to deliver their mind, ideas, and their opinion accuracy, fluency, and the comprehension will increase. According to Richards (1990) teaching speaking with transactional types can be arranged by determining the goal of speaking skill: 11 1. Mechanics (pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary): Using the right words in the right order with the correct pronunciation 2. Functions (transaction and interaction): Knowing when clarity of message is essential (transaction/information exchange) and when precise understanding is not required (interaction/relationship building) 3. Social and cultural rules and norms (turn-taking, rate of speech, length of pauses between speakers, relative roles of participants): Understanding how to take into account who is speaking to whom, in what circumstances, about what, and for what reason. After that in teaching speaking there are some difficulties that are revealed by Brown (2000: 271) they are: 1. Clustering Fluent speech phrasal, not word by word, learners can organize their speaking both cognitively and physically (in breath groups) through such clustering. 2. Redundancy The speaker has an opportunity to make meaning clearer through the redundancy of language. Learners can capitalize on this feature of spoken language. 3. Reduced forms Contractions, elisions, reduced vowels, etc., all form special problems in teaching etimes develop a stilted bookish quality of speaking that in turn stigmatizes them. 4. Performance variables 12 One of advantages of spoken language is that the process of thinking as you speak allows you to manifest a certain number of performance hesitations, pauses, backtracking, and corrections 5. Colloquial language Make sure your students are reasonably well acquainted with the words, idioms, and phrases of colloquial language and they get practice in producing these forms. 6. Rate of delivery Another salient characteristic of fluency is rate of delivery. One of your tasks in teaching spoken English is to help learners achieve an acceptable speed along with other attributes of fluency. 7. Stress, rhythm, and intonation This is the most important characteristic of English pronunciation, as will be explained below. The stress-times rhythm of spoken English and its intonation patterns convey important messages. 8. Interaction Learning to produce waves of language in a vacuum-without interlocutors-would rob speaking skill of its richest component: the creativity of conversational negotiations. In the communicative model of language teaching, instructors help their students develop this body of knowledge by providing authentic practice that prepares students for real-life communication situations. They help their students develop the ability to produce grammatically correct, logically connected sentences that are appropriate to specific contexts, and to do so using acceptable pronunciation. 13 2.3 Concept of Speaking Technique According to Brown (2001) there are some principles for designing speaking technique: 1. Use technique that covers the spectrum of learners needs, from language-based focus on accuracy to message-based focus on interaction, meaning, and fluency. In our current real for interactive language teaching, we can easily slip into a pattern of providing zesty content-based, interactive activities that jigsaw group technique, play a game, or discuss solutions to the environmental crisis, make sure that our tasks include techniques designed to help students to our students to death with lifeless, repetition drills. As noted above, make any drilling we do as meaningful is possible. 2. Provide intrinsically motivating technique. for knowledge, for status, for achieving competence and autonomy, and for into ecstasy, help them to see how the activity will benefit them. Why we ask them to do certain things, it usually pays to tell them. 3. Encourage the use of authentic language in meaningful context. It is not easy to keep coming up with meaningful interaction. We all succumb to the temptation to do, say, disconnected little grammar exercises where we go around the room calling on students one by one to pick the right answer. It 14 takes energy and creativity to devise authentic contexts and meaningful interaction, but with the help of a storehouse of teacher resource material it can be done. Even drills can be structured to provide a sense of authenticity. 4. Provide appropriate feedback and correction. In most EFL, situations, students are totally dependent on the teacher for benefit. It is important that we take advantage for our knowledge of English to inject the kinds of corrective feedback that are appropriate for the moment. 5. Capitalize on the natural link between speaking and listening. Many interactive techniques that involve speaking will also of course include on opportunities to integrate these two skills. As we are perhaps focusing on speaking goals, listening goals may naturally coincide, and two skills can reinforce each other. Skills in producing language are often initiated through comprehension. 6. Give students opportunities to initiate oral communication. A good deal of typical classroom interaction is characterized by teacher initiation of language. We ask questions, give directions, and provide information, and students have been conditioned only to speak when spoken to. Part of oral communication competence is the ability to initiate conversations, to nominate topics, to ask questions, to control conversations, and to change the subject. As we design and use speaking techniques, ask our self we have allowed students to initiate language. 7. Encourage the development of speaking strategies. 15 The concept of strategic competence is one that few beginning language students are ware of. They simply have not thought about developing their own personal strategies for accomplishing oral communicative purposes. Our classroom can be one in which students become aware of, and have a chance to practice. From the explanation above, the researcher assumes that in designing speaking technique, teachers should have consideration to some factors that can encourage 2.4 Concept of Cooperative Learning Cooperative learning is a teaching involving children participation in small group learning activities that promote positive interaction (Lyman, Lawrence: 1988). Moreover Brown (2001:47) adds that as students work together in pairs or groups, they share infor players must work together in order to achieve goals successfully. So it can be said that through those kinds of interaction, the students try to help each other to develop their knowledge. As Nurhadi (2004: 60) says that by the existing of differences human being has, they can develop their own mind one another. The statement inferred that everyone has a tendency to educate the other. That is why cooperation needed as a means of educating each other. In the cooperative learning, the students who have higher ability may help the lower students. By cooperation, they share their idea and develop their social skill. Therefore, cooperative learning promotes them self esteem, higher achievement and greater productivity, more caring, supportive, and committed relationships. Meanwhile Johnson and Johnson (1989) define cooperative learning as the instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own learning and 16 involve students in the learning process. It can be said that, learning takes place through dialogue among students in a social setting. The knowledge is then reconstructed and expanded through new learning experiences. The indivi

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