Enriching students vocabulary by using word cards ( a classroom action research at second grade of marketing program class XI.2 SMK Nusantara, Ciputat South Tangerang

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ENRICHING STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY BY USING WORD CARDS ( A Classroom Action Research at Second Grade of Marketing Program Class XI.2 SMK Nusantara, Ciputat, South Tangerang ) A “ Skripsi” Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers‟ Training In Partial Fulfilment of Requirements for the Degree of Strata 1 ( Bachelor of Art ) in English Education Department Universitas Islam Negeri SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH JAKARTA By: Aqidatul Husnah 106014000369 DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHERS’ TRAINING STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY OF SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH JAKARTA 2011 ABSTRACT Aqidatul Husnah: “Enriching Students’ vocabulary by Using Word Cards ( A Classroom Action Research at Second Grade of Marketing Program Class XI.2, SMK Nusantara, Ciputat, South Tangerang)”. Skripsi, English Education Department, Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers‟ Training, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University. KeyWords: Enriching Vocabulary, Word Cards. This research was conducted to enrich students‟ vocabulary by using word cards at second grade of marketing program SMK Nusantara Class XI.2, SMK Nusntara, Ciputat, South Tangerang. In conducting this research, the writers used classroom action research as a method. She presented the students new vocabularies by using word cards. The research consisted of two cycles, each cycle consisted three meetings ( the test was not included as meeting). This research was carried out for one month. In collecting the data, the writer conducting interview, observation, and tests ( pre test and post test ). From this research, the students could enrich their vocabulary by using word cards, it was improved by the scores of pre test and post test. In pre test, the mean of students‟ score was 54.4,there was only one student passing KKM, while the percentage of students passing KKM was 3.44%, the score improved in post test 1, it was in the first cycle, the mean was 74, there were 15 students passing KKM, the percentage of students passing KKM was 51.72, it improved again in the second cycle, the mean was 84, there were 25 students passing KKM and the percentage was 86.20%. From the result of the whole tests the writer concludes that using word cards for enriching vocabulary of students SMK Nusantara class XI.2 marketing program is successful, since the criteria of action success is 75%. iii ABSTRAK Aqidatul Husnah: “Enriching Students’ Vocabulary by Using Word Cards ( A Classroom Action Research at Second Grade of Marketing Program Class XI.2 SMK Nusantara, Ciputat, South Tangerang )”. Skripsi, Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Ilmu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan, Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta. Kata Kunci: pengayaan kosa kata, word card. Penelitian ini dilakukan to memperkaya kosa kata siswa dengan menggunakan word cards kelas XI.2 program pemasaran SMK Nusantara, Ciputat, Tangerang Selatan. Dalam melaksanakan penelitian ini, peneliti menggunakan penelitian tindakan kelas. Dia memberikan siswa kosa kata baru dengan mengunakan teknik word card. Penelitian ini terdiri dari dua siklus, tiap siklus terdiri dari tiga pertemuan ( test tidak termasuk dalam pertemuan ). Penelitian ini dilaksanakan selama satu bulan. Dalam mengumpulkan data, penulis melakukan wawancara, pengamatan, dan test ( pre test dan post test ). Dari penelitian ini, para siswa dapat memperkaya kosa kata mereka dengan menggunakan word card, hal itu dibuktikan dari nilai hasil pre test dan post test. Pada pre test, nilai rata-rata dari seluruh siswa adalah 54.4, hanya ada satu siswa yang lulus KKM, sementara persentase dari seluruh siswa yang lulus KKM adalah 3.44%, kemudian nilai tersebut naik pada post test 1, yakni pada penelitian siklus 1, nilai rata-rata dari seluruh siswa adalah 74, ada 15 siswa yang lulus KKM, dengan persentase 51.72%, nilai tersebut naik lagi pada post test 2, nilai rata-rata siswa menjadi 84, dengan siswa yang lulus KKM berjumlah 25 orang, adapun persentasenya naik menjadi 86.20%. Dari hasil keseluruhan test tersebut, bisa disimpulkan bahwa, penggunaan word card untuk memperkaya kosa kata siswa telah berhasil, karena persentase kriteria dari keberhasilan tindakan ini adalah 75%. iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. Praise be to Allah, The Lord of the worlds, who gives the writer guidance and strength to complete this skripsi. Peace and blessing be upon to our prophet Mohammed (PBUH), his family, companions, and followers. This skripsi is presented to English Education Department of Tarbiya and Teachers‟ Training Faculty, State Islamic University of syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, as a partial fulfillment of the requirement for strata 1 (S1). This skripsi would not be able to be completed without a great deal of help from many people especially, the writer‟s mother (Akasa), father (Muanam), sister (Zuhrofiyah), brother (Prihatin), and the entire of her family members, thanks for help financially and spiritually, the writer‟s gratitude also toward her cousin (Mabrul) thanks for the laptop, her close friend Luthfiyah and Annisa, beloved roommates (Iir, Ilya, Ika and Saida), thanks for help, support, and prayers, then my classmate class B 2006, she thanks also to Drs. H. Bahrul Hasibuan, M.Ed, who has patienly given the advice to complete this skripsi. The writer‟s gratitude also goes to those who helped her in finishing her work, among others: 1. Prof. Dr. H. Dede Rosyada, MA, the dean of Tarbiya and Teachers‟ Training Faculty. 2. Drs. Syauki, M.Pd the head of English Education Department of Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University. 3. Mrs. Neneng Sunengsih, as the secretary of English Education Department of Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University. iv 4. All lectures in English Education Department of Syarif Hidayatullh State Islamic University. 5. Mr. Faisal Bakar, S.E, the headmaster of SMK Nusantara 6. Mrs. Rini Ramdani Yafas, S.E, the English teacher of SMK Nusantara class XI.2 marketing program. The writer realizes this skripsi is still so far from being perfect, therefore, the writer expects some suggestions and critiques for this skripsi. Jakarta, May 31st 2011 The Writer v TABLE OF CONTENTS The Approval Sheet of Advisor..................................................................................................i The endorsement sheet of Examination Committe....................................................................ii Abstract.....................................................................................................................................iii Acknowledgement....................................................................................................................iv Table of Contents......................................................................................................................vi List of Tables............................................................................................................................ix List of Charts............................................................................................................................x List of Figures..........................................................................................................................xi List of Appendices...................................................................................................................xii Chapter I Introduction A. The Background of Research ........................................................................................1 B. The Research Question...................................................................................................3 C. The Objectives of Research............................................................................................3 D. The Significances of Research.......................................................................................4 E. The Limitations of Research...........................................................................................4 F. The Method of Research.................................................................................................4 Chapter II Theoretical Framework A. Vocabulary 1. The Definition of Vocabulary...............................................................................5 2. Types of Vocabulary.............................................................................................6 3. The Objectives of Teaching Vocabulary for Secondary Students.......................10 4. The Difficulties in Teaching Vocabulary............................................................11 B. Word Cards 1. The Definition of Word Cards........................................................................13 2. Techniques in Using Word Cards...................................................................14 vi 3. Some Activities in Using word Cards............................................................16 4. The Advantages and The Disadvantages of Using Word Card.....................17 Chapter III Research Methodology A. The Objective of Research........................................................................................20 B. The Place and Time...................................................................................................20 C. The Research Design.................................................................................................20 D. The Procedures of Research......................................................................................23 E. Collecting Data Techniques.......................................................................................24 F. Data analysis Techniques...........................................................................................25 G. The Trustworthiness Study.......................................................................................27 H. The Criterion of Action Success...............................................................................29 Chapter IV Research Finding A. Before Implementing CAR 1. The Result of Interview.......................................................................................30 2. Pre Observation....................................................................................................30 3. The Result of Pre Test..........................................................................................31 B. After Implementing CAR 1. Cycle I..................................................................................................................33 2. Cycle II.................................................................................................................37 C. The Discussion of The Data After CAR 1. The Result of Post Interview..............................................................................40 2. The Result of Post Tests.....................................................................................40 D. The Interpretation of Data...........................................................................................47 Chapter V Conclusion and Suggestion A. Conclusions..................................................................................................................49 B. suggestions...................................................................................................................50 Bibliography Appendices vii List of Charts Chart 4.1 : Students‟ Pre Test Score………………………………………………………..39 Chart 4.2 : Students‟ Post Test 1 Score…………………………………………………….43 Chart 4.3 : Students‟ Post Test 2 score…………………………………………………….46 Chart 4.4 : Students‟ Pre Test and Post Tests Score Comparation………………………....48 List of Figures Figure 3.1 : Kemmis and Taggart Action Research Design…………………………………21 Figure 3.2 : Research Cycle Design………………………………………………………….22 ix List of Tables Table 3.1 : The Classification of Item Descrimination…………………………28 Table 3.2 : The Classification of Item Facility…………………………………29 Table 3.3 : The Test Scoring Criteria ………………………………………….29 Table 4.1 : Students‟ Pre Test Score…………………………………………...31 Table 4.2 : Students‟ Post Test 1 Score………………………………………..35 Table 4.3 : Students‟ Post Test 2 Score………………………………………..39 Table 4.4 : Students‟ Pre Test and Post Tests Comparation…………………..41 List of Appendices Appendix 1:The Interview Guidelines Before CAR ...............................................................52 Appendix 2: The Interview Guidelines after CAR..................................................................54 Appendix 3: The Syllabus.......................................................................................................56 Appendix 4: The Lesson Plans.................................................................................................64 Appendix 5: The Blue Print of Test........................................................................................73 Appendix 6: The Test...............................................................................................................75 Appendix 7: The Answer Key.................................................................................................79 Appendix 8: The Item Descrimination Analysis......................................................................81 Appendix 9: Item Facility Analysis.........................................................................................82 Appendix 10: The Chart of Students‟ Improvement...............................................................83 Chapter I Introduction A. The Background of Research Vocabulary as one of language components is a very important thing besides other language components. Without vocabulary, people will not be able to say anything. People with large vocabulary are more proficient in language skills than people with little vocabulary. Large vocabulary makes a significant contribution to almost all of the aspects of language. “Without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed”.1 This is how the linguist David Wilkins summed up the importance of vocabulary learning. When people have large amount of vocabulary, people can express their idea precisely, and of course, it is very helpful for them, whether in listening, speaking, reading or writing skills. While Jeremy Harmer made an analogue, “If language structures make up the skeleton of language, then it is vocabulary that provides the vital organs and the flesh”.2 It shows that vocabulary is very important, even though people have good ability in structures, but they do not have enough vocabulary to express their idea, the structures are useless. 1 Scott Thornbury(2002) cited in David Wilkins ( 1972 ), How to Teach Vocabulary. ( London: Person Education Limited,2002)P.16 2 Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching(Harlow: Longman Group UK Limited,1991) P.153 1 2 English is taught in almost all of Indonesian schools, even though every level has different status and purpose. It has been mentioned in Permen Diknas number 19 2005 Standar Nasional Pendidikan that in elementary school, English is taught as local contents, it means that the students learn English if it is relevant to local needs and regional condition. It is different with junior and senior high schools that English is taught as a compulsory subject, every student of junior and senior high school must learn English, students are expected to have ability in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. While in university, students learn English as a complementary subject, they learn English in order to have a good command of English and to participate in various academic activities3. Nevertheless, many learners in many schools now have very limited vocabulary. They have little vocabulary, even, their vocabularies are misused and do not have any relationship with their daily activity or their tests. It causes learners stressful and under pressure when they are taking test or forced to give their idea by using English language. Nusantara vocational high school is one of schools in Ciputat, Tangerang in which the learners have problem with their vocabulary. They have very limited vocabulary. When teachers asked them to say something, actually, they knew what they wanted to say, but it was hard for them to express it in English language due to their limited vocabulary. Learners just kept silent. It was different when teacher asked them to give their idea by using Indonesian language, they said everything what they felt and what they wanted to say, they did not feel ashamed or afraid of making mistakes and did not feel that others would not get what they said. Teachers sometimes give students some new vocabularies, but they never review the words. Teachers only make a list of vocabulary and then ask 3 http://www.scribd.com/doc/21685064/Lampiran-Permen-Diknas-23-Th-2006-SKL 3 the students to memorize them. It can cause the students lose their vocabulary easily. When the writer observed students of Nusantara vocational high school class XI Marketing 2, she found that students were full of enthusiasm while they were learning English, but the problem that students face was vocabulary mastery. The writer tried to speak with them by using English, but they said that they did not get what she was talking about, then she translated into Indonesian language, they tried to answer, but they did not know how to express the sentence in English, they always asked how to say the words in English. The writer conducted an interview with the teacher of Nusantara vocational high school class XI marketing 1, she said that students usually memorized the words by using traditional method, the teacher wrote on the whiteboard, and then asked them to memorize the words, but some days later, students usually forgot what they had memorized. Sometimes they still remembered the words, but just a few of them. Therefore, the writer is interested in investigating students of Nusantara vocational high school class XI marketing 1 The writer chooses word cards as the media to enrich students‟ vocabulary because word cards are portable, students can take them wherever they are, they can review all of the words on their word cards anytime and anywhere, when they forget their memorized vocabularies they just need to open the cards and check them. B. The Research Questions According to the problems that the writer describes above, she formulates a research question. “Do the students get the higher score after they are trained by using word cards?” 4 C. The Objectives of Research The objectives of this research are to improve the students‟ achievement and enrich students‟ vocabulary by using word cards. D. The Significances of Research In conducting this research, the writer will get knowledge how to use word cards in enriching learners‟ vocabularies and know its effectiveness. This research also gives teacher knowledge about a method that can be used by him/her to improve students‟ vocabulary, and if it is a good way, teachers should consider applying it for other classes. E. The Limitations of Research This research is conducted in Nusantara vocational high school class XI.2. It is all about using word cards in enriching students‟ vocabulary; it includes the vocabularies which are presented in material book of vocational high school class XI semester 2. F. The Method of Research In this research, the writer gives a pre-test to the students, which consists of vocabulary knowledge based on their English materials; it is given to know their vocabulary mastery. After giving the test and knowing students‟ vocabulary mastery, the writer finds what kinds of words that he must give to the students, and then, give those words to the students by using word cards. This research consists of 2 cycles, in the last of each cycle, the writer gives the students a test, to know their vocabulary progress and she knows what she must do in the next cycle. Chapter II Theoretical Framework A. Vocabulary 1. The Definition of Vocabulary Talking about language, it is inseparable from vocabulary, learning language means learning its component, including vocabulary. The importance of vocabulary knowledge has long been recognized in language development. Vocabulary mastery becomes one of the requirements for people to speak a language; it cannot be denied that without vocabulary, people cannot say anything. That is, language students need to learn vocabulary of language. Even though vocabulary is not the only one component that students must have, it is undeniable that vocabulary becomes one of important components in developing language. According to Oxford English dictionary, vocabulary is defined as “total number of words in a language, words known to a person, list of words and their meaning especially at the back of a book used for teaching a foreign language.”1 Vocabulary is total number or list of words, and then it can be arranged into broader forms, such as phrase, clause, or sentence. Those arrangements forming ideas that can be understood by others, ideas will not be able to be performed without vocabulary. In The New Lexicon Webster’s Dictionary, vocabulary is defined as: 1 Oxford Learners Pocket Dictionary(Oxford: Oxford University Press,1991),p.461 5 6 “A list of words, usually arranged alphabetically and defined, explained or translated. A range of language, the stock of words at a person‟s command, or used in a particular work, branch of a subject, language etc”2. People has been supplied with language faculty since they were born, they also have some words stored on their brain that he/she has got from her/his environment, especially from his/her mother, as a modal to make interaction with others3, however, words always change and improve from time to time; some new words appear while some old words may be out of date, people need enrich the storage of vocabulary to get along with the environment and its situation. According to Hatch and Brown vocabulary is “a list or set of words for a particular language or a list or set of word that individual speakers of language might use”.4 Every person must have vocabulary for communicating with others, it is a very significant element of language, with vocabulary he/she can express their idea. Even though vocabulary does not always affect in the fluency of language, there are some language aspects that must be known and mastered by learners, such as grammar, pronunciation, diction, and so on, vocabulary still becomes requirement for mastering a language. 2. Types of Vocabulary Based on the people capability in implementing the vocabulary, Paul Nation mentions two types of vocabulary, those are: a. “Receptive Vocabulary: Knowing a word involves being able to recognize it when it is heard (What is the sound like?) or when it seen (What does it look like?) and having an expectation of what grammatical pattern the word will occurrence. This includes being able to distinguish it from word with a similar form and being able to judge if the word form sounds right or look right. The New Lexicon Webster’s Dictionary(Danbury: Lexicon Publication, Inc,1994),p.1101 Noam Chomsky. Aspect of The Theory of Sintax(Massachusetts: The MIT Press,1965),p. 47 4 Evelyn Hatch and Cheryl Brown. Vocabulary, Semantic and Language Education (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1995)p.1 2 3 7 b. Productive Vocabulary: Knowing a word involves being able to pronounce the word, how to write and to spell it, how to use it in grammatical pattern along with the word in usually collocates with it, it also involves not using the word too often if it is typically a low frequency word and using it in a suitable situation using the word to stand for the meaning it represents and being able to think of suitable substitutes for the word if there any”.5 Jo Ann Aeborsold and Mary Lee Field give another term for types of vocabulary: a. “Active Vocabulary refers to items the learner can use appropriately in speaking or writing and it is also called as productive vocabulary, although, in fact, it is more difficult to put into practice. It means that to use the productive vocabulary, the students are supposed to know how to pronounce it well, they must know and be able to use grammar of the language target, they are also hoped to familiar with collocation and understand the connotation meaning of the words. This type is often used in speaking and writing skill. b. Passive Vocabulary refers to a language items that can be recognized and understood in the context of reading or listening and also called as receptive”.6 Nation uses the term of receptive and productive in explaining the types of vocabulary, meanwhile, Jo Ann Aeborsold and Mary Lee Field use the term of active and passive. The writer can say that receptive or passive vocabulary is the word that someone knows when it is heard or seen, she/he can mention the meaning of the word, and recognizes it when it appears in reading. In contrast, productive or active vocabulary is the word that someone knows and she/he can apply it into sentence correctly, it is more difficult to put into practice than receptive or passive one. It means, using productive vocabulary, she/he must know to pronounce the word well, be able to use grammar, and be familiar with the collocation. From the explanation above, it is received that person with productive or active vocabulary have better language capability than person with receptive or passive vocabulary, because knowing vocabulary is not only knowing the 5 ISP Nation, Teaching and Learning Language (New York: New Burry house,1990),p.29 Jo Ann Aeborsold and Mary lee Field, From Reader to Reading Teacher (New York:Cambridge University Pres,1977),p.139 6 8 meaning, vocabulary does not stand alone, there are some aspects that make vocabulary more useful. Teacher should have been able to transfer learners‟ receptive into productive vocabulary, to make the vocabulary more useful and communicative as the standard competency of teaching-learning English language, it is students are able to communicate by using English. While, Keith S Folse devided vocabulary based on its items, those are: a. Single word “This is the word that people think of first, this group includes the bulk of vocabulary of any languages, this group includes not only more items, but also used items”7: Animal: cat, dog, mouse, and so on Time periods: Monday, January, today, and so on. Countries: Indonesia, Mexico, Japan, and so on. Action: fly, stay, drink, and so on. Description: Happy, sad, amazing, and so on. Counters: Dozens, plenty, decade, and so on. b. Set Phrases Keith S Folse, in his book Vocabulary Myth Defined set phrases as follow: “It consists more than one word and do not usually change. For example, in the phrase of „ in other words‟ , people cannot say „ with other words‟ or „in other terms‟ with „ in other remarks, even though, „terms‟ and „remarks‟ might seem to be able to fit. Below some examples of set phrases: Raining cats and dogs not : raining kittens and puppies The bottom line not : the lowest line It‟s up to you not : it‟s above you Other set phrases must be arranged in a certain order, even though rearranging the ordering would not really affect the meaning. However, English conventions have locked these phrases into only one possible ordering: Raining cats and dogs not : raining dogs and cats Up and down not : down and up From head to toe not : from toe to head Back and forth not : forth and back8 7 Keith S Folse. Vocabulary Myth Applying Second Language Research to Classroom Testing. (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 2004),p. 2 9 c. Variable Phrases “The components of variable phrases usually stay same; however, it has some variation. The variation often involves in personal pronoun or possessive. For example when a person says “it has come to our attention that....................”, it can change to be “it has come to my attention that............. “, from that phrase, the listeners or readers will know that the message is usually not good, that phrase really means „I‟m going to tell you what you did and the problems it has caused‟, the phrase is not about knowing anyone‟s attention. The only thing can change in that expression is the possessive adjective before the word “attention”, with “my” or “our” being much more common than “her” or “his”, even though, any possessive adjective can work here”.9 d. Phrasal Verb “It consists of more than two or three words, the first word is always verb, the second word is preposition, article, or adverb, if there is the third word, it is usually a preposition”. Many verbs can serve as phrasal verb, such as: come, put, take, get, and so on”10. For example: come back, put away, take off, get up, and so on. Many English words are phrasal verbs, and do not have connected meaning with the root words. People may know the meaning of “put” and “away”, however, it does not guarantee that they know the meaning of “put away”. Look at the following example, with the word “Take” as base, each sentence has different meaning: Andy is taking his book We take the clock apart If you take away 3 from 7, you get 4 8 Keith S Folse. Vocabulary Myth Applying Second Language Research to Classroom Testing..................p.3 9 Keith S Folse. Vocabulary Myth Applying Second Language Research to Classroom Testing..................p.4 10 Keith S Folse. Vocabulary Myth Applying Second Language Research to Classroom Testing..................p.5 10 You must take your shoes off “Most phrasal verbs are idiomatic expression”11, and of course idiomatic expressions are vocabulary items. As the writer has mentioned above that phrasal verb does not have connected meaning with its root word, when a person says “lets the cat out of the bag”, it does not mean that there is a cat in the bag. However, knowing the meaning of each those words, people cannot always figure out the meaning of that phrasal verb. From those types of vocabularies, it can be seen that, mastery vocabulary is not an easy way, people cannot master the whole words, especially English that have so many idioms. Idiom usually becomes the first problem for foreign language students to master vocabulary; however, teacher can give the students some phrasal verbs or idiomatic expressions that most frequently they use. 3. The Objectives of Vocabulary Teaching for Secondary Students Learning language is learning vocabulary; people will have good English skills if they have sufficient vocabulary supporting them to have a good communication. In the newest Indonesian curriculum, educational integrated curriculumkurikulum tingkat satuan pendidikan, it is mentioned English syllabus for secondary schools that the objective of teaching English language is for communicating, even though, in the simple expression, such as asking permission or offering12, however, it cannot be reached if the students do not have sufficient vocabulary. Learning vocabulary is not only about memorizing, students need to see, say, and write the new word they have got. Student cannot learn vocabulary just one time, then they can remember all the words, they need to practise the vocabulary, whether in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Practice will 11 Keith S Folse. Vocabulary Myth Applying Second Language Research to Classroom Testing..................p.9 12 Sillabus Bahasa Inggris KTSP SMA 2006 11 help the students getting long memorization and improving the vocabulary they have. English has been a compulsory subject for secondary students in Indonesia, students have to be able make an English expression, respond a dialog in written or form, understanding a text in kind of narration, exposition, and so on. In addition, English has been included in the national examination-ujian nasional since elementary until secondary school. It is undeniable that one of factor affecting their success or fault in that examination is the capacity of vocabulary they have. 4. The Difficulties in Teaching English Vocabulary Indonesian and English Language are so different, so are in the words, the differences make learners hard to learn the language, Scott Thornbury mentioned some factors causing second or foreign language learners feel some words more difficult, those are: a. Pronunciation “Words that are more difficult to pronounce are usually more difficult to learn. Potentially, difficult words will be typically those that contain sounds that are unfamiliar for some groups of learners”.13 For example, Sundanese speakers who are hard to distinguish between „p‟ and „f‟, such in the word paper, some of them pronounce it „fafer‟, „faper‟ or „pafer‟, then „flash‟ becomes „ples‟, the difficult pronunciation can be caused some letters do not exist in the learners first language. b. Spelling Spelling usually becomes the problem for second or foreign language learners. “Sound-spelling mismatches are likely to be the cause of errors, either of pronunciation or of spelling. Some words containing silent letters may 13 Scott Thornbury, How to Teach Vocabulary …………………………….,p.27 12 become the problem: foreign, listen, climbing, honest, muscle, and so on”.14 c. Length and complexity “The long words seem to be more difficult for learners, also variable stress, such as in the word families like: necessary, necessity, and necessarily, can add their difficulties”.15 d. Meaning “When two words overlap in meaning, learners are likely to confuse them, such as in „make‟ and „do‟, like in sentences „you make a breakfast‟ and „you make an appointment‟, but „you do the homework‟ and „do a questionnaire‟. Words with multiple meaning, such as „since‟ and „still‟, can also troublesome for learners.”16 e. Idiomaticity “English contains so many idiomatic expression, they are generally more difficult than the words whose meaning is transparant”17. The writer has discussed about idiomatic expression in types of vocabulary subbab. f. Grammar “Also problematic is grammar associated with word, especially if this differs from L1 equivalent”18. Indonesian speakers know that adjective is following verb, such as in the phrase „buku baru‟ that influences when the speakers are translating the English phrase, such as „red balloon‟ most of them translate it becomes „ merah balon‟. Another problem in grammar is using verb+ing, to+infinitive, or bare infinitive, after some verbs, they usually confuse to decide, which one followed by verb+ing, to+infinitive, or bare infinitive. Scott Thornbury, How to Teach Vocabulary …………………………….,p.27 Scott Thornbury, How to Teach Vocabulary …………………………….,p.27 16 Scott Thornbury, How to Teach Vocabulary …………………………….,p.27 17 Scott Thornbury, How to Teach Vocabulary …………………………….,p.28 18 Scott Thornbury, How to Teach Vocabulary …………………………….,p.28 14 15 13 B. Word Cards 1. The Definition of Word Cards Word card is one of teaching vocabulary technique suggested by Paul Nation in his book New Ways in Teaching Vocabulary and Learning Vocabulary in Another Language 19 . Nation preferred a systematic technique in teaching vocabulary to incidental approach. Word card is one kind of form focused instruction, it is a type of teaching which “involves some attempts to focus learners‟ attention on specific properties of the L2 so that they will learn them”20, it means, using word cards is intended to “develop some elements of language such as pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, spelling, and so on”21. As the writer mentioned in the paragraph above, using word cards is a systematic technique, the students are introduced into new words explicitly and teacher has known what words that she/he is going to give to the students. “The term learning from word cards is the association between a foreign language word form (written or spoken) and its meaning (often in the form of a first language translation, although it could be a second language definition or a picture or a real object, for example).”22 Using word cards is not only memorizing the words, it also supplies the words repetition that can be helpful for their memorization. The words are stored longer on their mind than just memorizing the words list. It is also flexible because the words on the cards can be adjusted with students material. In the simplest form of learning from word cards, a learner writes a foreign word on side of small, easily carried card and its first language 19 Norbert Schmitt and Michael McCarthy, Vocabulary: Description, Acquisition, and Pedagogy................................p.11 20 Rod Ellis, The Study of Second Language Acquisition, Second Edition ( Oxford: Oxford University Press,2008),p.963 21 Long, M., & Robinson, Focus on form instruction in classroom second language acquisition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1998).p.15 22 ISP Nation, Learning vocabulary in Another Language ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,2001 ),p.169 14 translation on the other. “The learner goes through a set of cards looking at each foreign language and trying to retrieve its meaning. If it cannot be retrieved, the learner turns the card over and looks at the translation.”23 2. Techniques in Using Word Cards There are some techniques that teacher can use to teaching vocabulary by using word cards, Scott Thornbury has suggested some steps that teacher can do in teaching vocabulary through word cards, they are24: a. Learners write a word to be learned on one side of a small card and its mother tongue translation on the other. Front Back Put Meletakkan b. Depending on the difficulty of the words a full set at any one time should consists of between 20 and 50 cards. c. Words do not have belonged to lexical sets – in fact it is probably better that they do not, to avoid the interference effect of words of similar meaning being learned together. d. Learners test themselves on the words by first recalling the meaning of the new words. e. They then reverse the process, using the translation to trigger the form of new word. f. Words that cause difficulty should be moved to the top of the pile. In any case, the cards should be shuffled periodically to avoid „serial effect‟ – that is, remembering words because of the order they come in and not for any other reason. 23 ISP Nation, Learning vocabulary in Another Language ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,2001 ),p.169 24 Scott Thornbury, How to Teach Vocabulary……………………….,p.147 15 g. The sequence of learning and review should become increasingly spaced. h. As words are learned they should be discarded, and new word cards made and added to the set. Dr. Irfan Tosuncuoglu in Teaching vocabulary for active use also gives some steps that teachers or students use in enriching vocabulary through word cards, the steps include25: a. Write the vocabulary items on individual cards with their translation on the reverse side. See how many words you can remember from the English definition by turning them over one by one; then try it the other way round. (This game is more fun if played with two or more people!) Separate out the ones you find hard to recall and carry them around with you in your pocket, reviewing them while waiting for buses, standing in line to buy tickets, etc. b. Learn the words in the context of the sentences in the dialogues of your textbook. c. Say the words out loudly. d. Write down the words that are most difficult to memorize on a separate sheet of paper and give extra time to them, e. Tape-record the words and their definitions; then listen to the tape several times. Use the 'pause' button to test yourself. Associate words with pictures, f. Group them by generic categories, e.g. furniture, foods. g. Make sentences using the new vocabulary (and grammar patterns) ready for use in class. Comparing between the first technique (suggested by Scott Thornbury) and second technique (suggested by Irfan Tosuncuoglu), the second technique is more adjustable with the senior high school curriculum which demands the students more active in the class. Learning vocabulary is not only memorizing the words and their meaning, but also applying them into sentences and paragraphs. The second technique covers what students need more than the first, that is the writer prefers implementing the second technique in the classroom. 3. Some Activities in Using Word Cards 25 Irfan Tosuncuoglu, Teaching Vocabulary for Active Use ( Kyrgyz: Manas University Press,2008),p.143 16 Scott Thornbury, in his book How to Teach Vocabulary, gives some activities in using word cards that teacher can use during the class, those are26: b. Peer teaching and testing At the beginning of the lesson, pair students off, and ask them to compare their current word cards sets. Encourage them to teach other the words in their sets that they do not share, and to test each other. c. Association games Each learner lays down one card at the same time, with the L2 face up. The first to make a coherent sentence incorporating both words gets a point. (The teacher may have to adjudicate the coherence of some of the sentences). If no association can be made by either player, put the cards aside and deal two more. Continue in this way until all the cards are used. d. Guess my word When learners are already familiar with each other‟s word card, each takes a word by random, and other has to guess which word it is by asking yes/no question, questions, such as is it a noun/verb/adjective……? Does it begin with…..? Has it got one/two/three syllables…..?etc e. De-vowelled words Each of pair selects a word from their word cards and writes it down without its vowel, their partner has to work out what the word is. f. Ghost writing After giving some vocabularies by using word cards, teacher can review the vocabularies by using this activity. Teacher asks students to make a pair; each of pair takes turns into write the word in the air or on their partner back. Their partner has to work out what the word is. g. Categories In pairs or small groups, learners organize their vocabularies on the word cards into categories, for example: according to the whether the words have hot or cold, or masculine or feminine, or good or bad, or sweet of sour, associations. h. Back to board This is another guessing game, but this time the student who is „it‟ has to guess a word, which teacher has given by using word cards by asking the rest of the class questions. The student sit facing the class, back to the board; the teacher writes recently studied word on the board, out of sight of the student. The student asks different students yes/no or either/or questions in order to guess the word. For example: Mandy, is it a verb or a noun? joe, is it an action? And so on. To make the game easier, the words chosen can be limited in some way, for example: kinds of verbs. i. Pictionary 26 Scott Thornbury, How to Teach Vocabulary……………………….,p.147 17 Based on the commercialized game of the same name, this involves students guessing word from drawings. They work in team, each member of team taking turns to be the „artist‟. If there are three teams, for example, the three „ artists‟ go to the front of the class where the teacher shows them a word on a card. At the cue, they quickly return to their group and try to get their group team to guess correctly earns a point, and three new „artists‟ have turn with another word. At the end of game, groups can use the pictures as memory prompts in order to recall and write down the expressions that came up in the game, and then to put them into a sentence to show what they mean. i. Word Race The class is divided into teams and each team is given a board marker pen. The board is divided into as many sections as there are teams. The teacher ( or a specially appointed student ) says a word from word cards in the students‟ language, and the first team to get the correct English translation on the board earns a point. The game continues for as many words as it is felt necessary to review. From some activities that the writer has mentioned above, she chooses association game because based on the educational integrated curriculumkurikulum tingkat satuan pendidikan, students should not only be able to recognize the meaning of the words, but they also can apply the words into sentences, it will make the words meaningful for the students. 3. The Advantages and disadvantages of Using Word Cards a. The Advantages Students can get many advantages by using word cards in enriching their vocabularies, such as27; a. Word cards can give a sense of progress and a sense of achievement, particularly if numerical targets are set and met. b. Word cards are readily portable and can be used in idle moments in or out of class either for learning new words or for revising old ones. c. Word cards can be specifically made suit to particular learners and their needs and are thus self-motivating. d. Word cards are learning tool for use at any level of vocabulary proficiency. 27 Norbert Schmitt and Michael McCarthy, Vocabulary: Description, Acquisition, and Pedagogy ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1997 ),p. 10 18 e. Learning from word cards will usually involve repetition of the same material because the cards themselves do not change from one repetition to another. However, learners can change the way they process the cards by thinking of new sentences containing word, applying new mnemonic techniques, thinking of new instantiations of the word and imagining context. f. When words are met in reading and listening or used in speaking and writing, the generativeness of the context will influence learning. That is, if the words occur in new sentence context in the reading text, learning will be helped. Word cards technique is really helpful for reinforcing students‟ memorization, the teacher does not only give the students words, then ask them to memorize, because it will cause the students easily forget. As the writer mentions above, that word cards are portable, students can review them wherever and whenever. In addition, word cards can be adjusted based on students level. Using word cards also includes repetition, which is an important aid in learning and students can actively recall the words. b. The Disadvantages of Using Word Cards Using word cards has some advantages that the writer has explained above, however, some teaching techniques have the weakness, and so does using word cards, it has some disadvantages28. a. Using word cards is an outdated method of learning and it is not agreement with communicative approach to language teaching. b.It should not be assumed that learning from word cards means that the words are learned forever. c. Using word cards does not mean that all knowledge of a word has been learned, even though it can be designed to include a wide range of information about a word. Teaching vocabulary through word cards needs the patience of teacher, she/he should be patient to ask the students review their vocabulary if teacher does not encourage them to check their cards, they 28 Norbert Schmitt and Michael McCarthy, Vocabulary: Description, Acquisition, and Pedagogy................................p.12 19 have chance to forget their memorized vocabulary, more over for lazy students. Some English teaching experts regard that word cards technique is an out of date method; it does not require the students learn English communicatively; it is not being used in communicative purpose. Today, in Indonesia, the students need to learn English language communicatively; students must be able to express, interact each other through English language, understand the reading passage, meanwhile, word cards do not give all of what students need. Chapter III Research Methodology A. The Objectives of Research The objectives of this research are to improve students‟ achievement and enrich students‟ vocabulary by using word cards. B. The Place and time This research is conducted in SMK Nusantara, Jl. Tarumanegara no. 01, Pisangan, Ciputat, on April 2011. The object of the research is students of SMK Nusantara at marketing program, class XI.2. C. The Research Design In this research, the writer uses action research designed by Kemmis Taggart, This research focuses on enriching students vocabulary by using word cards, the design of classroom action reseach is as follow: 20 21 Figure 3.11 1 Rochiati Wiriaatmadja, Metode Penelitian Tindakan Kelas(Bandung: PT.Rosdakarya Remaja,2008)p.66 22 Based on the design above, the writer describes the research design below: Research Cycles Design Introduction 1. observing the school 2.interviewing the teacher 3. deciding the class Reflecting I: Observing I: 1. Observing the student in the class 2. Analyzing the data 3. Giving first post test 1. Analyzing the test 2. Discussing with English teacher Cycle I Acting I: 1. Teaching and learning by using word cards to enrich students vocabulary Observing I: 1. Observing the student in the class 2. Analyzing the data 3. Giving second post test Reflecting II 1. Analyzing the test 2. Discussing with English teacher Cycle II Planning I: 1.giving pre test 2. Making lesson planning 3. Preparing observation form and observation instrument Reflecting I: 1. Evaluating teaching and learning process 2. Discussing with English teacher 3. Making a new plan Acting II: 1. Teaching and learning by word cards to enrich students vocabulary Evaluating all cycles 23 D. The Procedures of Research Because this research is an action research, it includes some stages and cycles. As the writer has mentioned in the previous chapter that this action research is based on Kemmis and Taggart, it includes “planning, action, observation, and reflection or evaluation”2. This is a collaborative research, the writer collaborate with the English teacher of SMK Nusantara class XI.2 marketing program. The steps include: 1. Planning After finding the vocabulary problems in the classroom proven by observing and interviewing, the writer gives the test and then plans the techniques and instruments that she will use in solving those problems, such as; preparing the lesson plans, and syllabus. 2. Acting In this phase, both the writer and teacher collaborate to carry out the planned action. The writer determines the strategy that is applied in the classroom; she changes the teacher‟s position in conducting this research, while the teacher observes the condition and activities in classroom. 3. Observing In this phase, the teacher observes the activities occurring in the classroom, and note all on the note field or unstructured observational sheet. When the teacher is observing, she notes all the activities. It could be about students‟ response, classroom condition, or writer (as teacher) performance. 2 Rochiati Wiriaatmadja, Metode Penelitian Tindakan Kelas(Bandung: PT.Rosdakarya Remaja,2008)p.67 24 4. Reflecting This stage is aimed to reflect done action based on the data collected by either teacher or writer, it is from observation and test, when they still find the problems they repair in the next cycle, by replanning, re-acting, and re-observing. E. Collecting data Techniques 1. Observation Observation is one way that can be done for collecting data. As the writer has mentioned in the previous chapter that observation is one thing that must be included in the action research because it is one of the stages of action research cycles. In this classroom action research, the writer chooses participant observation.the writer works with the English teacher in conducting the research, the writer changes teacher‟s position, while the teacher has role as an observer. 2. Interview Besides observation, the, writer also conducts an interview as the way in collecting data, the writer conducted an interview with the teacher to know about the class and the students‟ capability in English, especially vocabulary mastery. 3. Objective Test It is a kind of test that is most used by teacher or researcher in measuring students‟ capability in a subject, it can be caused by objective test covers almost all of the material and it is easy to score. There are some types questions that the writer uses here, the tests consist of 40 questions, part A, finding the meaning consisting of 5 questions, part B, 10 multiple choice questions, part C, 25 matching the synonim 15 question, and part D is guessing words meaning in sentences consisting 10 questions. 4. Documentation The writer uses documentation as one way to collect the data, it includes learning syllabi and program planning. F. Data Analysis Techniques The data that the writer collects in this research are from interview, observation, and test. In analyzing numerical data, the writer gains the average students‟ score in each cycle; it is used to measure the students‟ vocabulary mastery. It uses the formula3: _ ∑x X = ── n _ X : mean x : individual score n : number of students To know the class percentage, the writer uses the formula4: F P = ── X 100% N 3 4 Sudjana, Metoda Statistika, (Bandung: PT. Tarsito, 2002), p. 67. Sudjana, Metoda Statistika..........................., p. 68 26 P : the class percentage F : total percentage score N : number of students After getting mean of students‟ score per actions, the writer identifies whether or not there might have any improvement of students‟ vocabulary master from pre-test up to students‟ average score in cycle 1 and cycle 2. In analyzing that, the writer uses the formula5: y1 - y P = ─── X 100% y P : percentage of students‟ improvement y : pre-test result y1 : post-test 1 y2 - y P = ─── X 100% y P : percentage of students‟ improvement y : pre-test result 5 Sudjana, Metoda Statistika..........................., p. 70. 27 y2 : post-test 2 G.The Trustworthiness of Test To analyze the examined test items, the writer uses the trustworthiness of test. There are some ways including: 1. Test Validity A test is regarded as a valid test, when it measures what must be measured, it could be about the representation of test toward the material that is being given for the students (content validity), or toward the entire of cognitive aspects (concept validity). One thing which has relationship with validity is accuration, besides measuring what should be measured, a test can be said have high validity, if it has high accuration. 2. Item Discrimination It distinguishes for each item between the performances of students who did well and poorly on the exam. The computing of discrimination index uses the formula below6: U-L D= N D = the index of discriminating U = The number of pupils in the upper group who answered the item correctly L : The number of pupils in the lower group who answered the item correctly 6 139. Wilmar Tambunan, Evaluation of Student Achievement, (Jakarta: Depdiknas, 1998), p. 28 N : Number of pupils Then, the discrimination scale uses7: DP ≤ 0.40 0.20 – 0.39 ≤ 0.10 REMARK Used Revised Discarded 3 .Item Facility Item facility ( also called difficulty item ) concerns on the proportion of comparing students who answer the questions correctly with all of the students following the test. Item difficulty is how easy or difficult is the test based on the group of students of examinees taking the test. The formula is as following8: Ncorrect IF = Ntotal In which, IF : Item Facility Ncorrect: Number of students who selected the correct answer Ntotal : Total number of students taking the test 7 8 p. 66. J. B. Heaton, Classroom Testing, (New York: Longman Inc, 1990), p. 174 James Dean Brown, Testing in Language Programs, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005), 29 The criterion that is used is as:9 ID REMARK 0 – 0.14 Difficult 0.15 – 0.85 Moderate 0.86 – 1.00 Easy H. The Criterion of the Action Success The CAR can be called successful if it can achieve the criteria which have been determined, and failed if it cannot achieve the criteria. In this study, based on the Minimal Mastery CriterionKriteria Ketuntasan Minimal of SMK Nusantara, students can pass the English test if they get score 75 or above, so that, the writer uses the same criterion for this CAR, in addition, this CAR can be called successful if the students getting 71 above is 70% or above. Test Scoring Criteria No 9 247 Score Remark 1 91-100 Excellent 2 81-90 Good 3 75-80 Enough 4 <75 Failed John W. Oller, Language Test at School, (London: Longman Group Limited, 1979),p. Chapter IV Research Finding In this chapter, the writer presents the result of classroom action research conducted to enrich students’ vocabulary mastery for the students of Nusantara vocational high school class XI.2 marketing program academic year 2010/2011. A. Before Implementing CAR 1. The Result of interview Before implementing CAR, the writer interviewed the students of Nusantara vocational high school class XI.2 marketing program. It was unstructured interview, the writer gave some questions for the students related to the teaching and learning vocabulary, the questions could be about the techniques that the teacher used in presenting new vocabulary, then the writer found that the technique is monotonous, the teacher gave some vocabularies taken from students’ book, then she asked them to memorize the whole vocabulary, in addition, the teacher also asked the students to memorize some conversations that make them bored, and they easily forgot what they had memorized because the vocabularies were never recalled. 2. Pre Observation From the pre observation, the writer saw that the technique the teacher used in presenting new vocabularies was by memorization, the 30 31 teacher chose some words from the students’ book, and then the students memorized the whole words. In the next meeting, the teacher did not review the words. In addition, the teacher did not make the students apply the words into sentences, therefore, they only knew the words, but could not know how to use them in the broader form. During the class, most of students were getting bored, some were sleeping, talking to their friends, even though some were still paying attention to the teacher. In the observation, the writer found that the teacher did not expose the students into English language, it could be caused when she tried to speak English, the students always complained; they did not have any idea what she was talking about. However, it was understandable, since the students had very limited English vocabulary. It occur the same thing and condition in the second meeting of observation, in that meeting, the teacher got the students to memorize the conversation, it was about expressing idea, the students complained and got bored. 3. The Result of Pre Test Before implementing CAR, the writer gave the students pre test, it was done to know the students’ vocabulary mastery, therefore, she could compare the score of pre test and post test, the test included multiple choices, finding synonyms, and filling the in the blanks. This test was conducted on Wednesday, April 2011, at 11.00 am. After giving the pre test, the writer calculated the score, below is the students’ score for the pre test: Students’Number 1 Pre test score 74 32 2 72 3 72 4 72 5 76* 6 72 7 72 8 62 9 60 10 63 11 70 12 68 13 36 14 18 15 46 16 46 17 44 18 32 19 40 20 65 21 60 22 63 23 66 24 47 25 43 26 53 27 56 28 44 29 40 Mean 54.4 *Students passing KKM From the data above, it can be seen that there is only one student passing KKM, by score 76, while the rests are lower than 75. When the students 33 were taking the exam they also complained that the test was too hard, even though the words were taken from their material book. B. The Implementation of CAR After conducting the observation, interview, and pre test, the writer knew the students’ vocabulary problem were how to make their vocabulary memorization lasted longer and more useful, in this research she used word cards as technique to enrich students’ vocabulary and make the vocabularies stored longer in their mind, therefore, it also helped students to take the exam, because the vocabularies were taken from their material book. This CAR consisted of two cycles, there were 4 phases for each cycle, those are: planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. 1. Cycle 1 a. Planning In this phase, the writer and the teacher planned some instruments they used in the class, they included lesson plans, some words that would be presented to the students, and technique for presenting the words . The writer and the teacher also prepared some note sheets for noting all of the classroom activities. The writer chose word cards in enriching students’ vocabulary, in the observation, the writer made the students prepare some word cards, they just needed to cut their papers into small parts, it consisted of 30 cards. b. Acting In this phase, the writer as the teacher applied word cards in the class; she had chosen some words that she presented to the students. She had asked the students in the previous meeting to prepare some cards to note all the words that she gave. 34 In the first meeting, the writer made some lists of the words, the students copied the words on their cards, the words included 30 words, each card had one word. After the students copied the words, the writer asked them to find the translation of the words in their dictionary, and then they wrote them on the other side of cards The writer gave the students time to memorize the whole words they had written on their cards included the translation. After memorizing the words, the students checked their memorization in pair. In the second meeting, the steps were same as the first meeting, however, she gave the different words than the previous meeting, the students prepared 25 cards, then copied the words on their cards and their translations. In this meeting, the writer also explained about the part of speech of the words and got the students to make sentences by using those words, it was done to make students able to apply the words contextually, therefore, the words were more useful. In the third meeting, the writer gave the students exercise, it included part of speech, they were asked to identify the words part of speech, then she gave students game, it was ‘guess my word’, when the students were already guess which word it was by asking yes/no question, such as, ‘is it a noun/verb/adjective........?, does it begin with..........?’. c. Observing Observing is one of the phase that must be included in an action research, in this phase the English teacher as the observer observed and noted all of the class activities. The teacher prepared some note sheets for noting the class activities, as the writer mention in acting phase, she presented vocabulary by word cards then the students check their memorization in pair. The duty of the 35 teacher was noting the students’ name and the words they could memorize well. Here, the teacher found that some students were enthusiasm in receiving new vocabulary, they proudly asked teachers in English language even though in the very simple question, many of them also never complained when being asked to prepare word cards for the next meeting. When the students checked in pair, the observer noted how many words that the students could remember, then gave them point, it was for encouraging them to participate during the English class. d. Reflecting After doing all of the phases, the writer gave the post test, then compared the score between the post and pre test whether there were any improvements or not. Here is the table of students’ post test scores: Students’ Number Post test 1 score 1 75* 2 97.5* 3 80* 4 85* 5 97.5* 6 90* 7 95* 8 85* 9 77.5* 10 80* 11 72.5 12 80* 13 67.5 14 54 36 15 60 16 75* 17 65 18 40 19 65 20 70 21 65 22 74 23 78* 24 75* 25 75* 26 60 27 72.5 28 62.5 29 72.5 Mean 74 * Student Passing KKM In the first cycle, there were only 15 had passed KKM, however it significantly improved, from mean 54.4 to 74. The writer found that the students’ score are better than the post test, some students had reached KKM (75), even though, she still found so many students had not reached it yet. The writer and the teacher evaluated why so many students still could not pass KKM, based on the observation, the teacher found that some students did not pay attention during the class, when the writer asked them to prepare the word cards, they did not care about it. Then, the writer forced them to make the word cards when the class was beginning, of course, it wasted the time and caused teaching learning process was not maximal, because the time was over before the writer finishing the material. From those problems, the writer and the teacher decided to carry out the second cycle, they formulated the new lesson plans. In the second 37 cycle, they still used word cards, however, they made the class more interesting than in the previous cycle, they made the game called ‘back to board’ (the writer explains it at the acting second cycle), besides to make students more interested in the classroom activity, the game also was given to reinforce their memorization. In overcoming the students who did not prepare the word cards, the writer made the students work in pair, the students who did not prepare the word cards should have co-worked with the students who did, it did not only result the efficient time, but also trained them to work in team. 2. Cycle II a. Planning In the first cycle, the writer found there were so many students had not reached KKM, even though the scores were better than before implementing the CAR. In this phase, the writer made new plans, and she formed a new lesson plan. The writer and the teacher discussed on the problems then found the solution to solve the problems. The writer made the class more interesting for the students and more enthusiastic in receiving new vocabularies, since, in the first cycle, there were still some students lack of motivation and bored during the class. In this cycle, the writer prepared some new vocabularies given to the students, the vocabularies were still from their material book, the writer also prepared a game, that was ‘back to board’. In addition, the writer focused on the useful and contextual vocabulary, then she asked the students to make narrative paragraph from the words that she had given, it was also for improving their writing ability. 38 In the last meeting of cycle 2, the writer got students to make the conversation in pair, it was written conversation, the topic was about asking permission, then the writer made them practise the conversation in pair. b. Acting In this phase, the writer conducted teaching learning activities to get the better result than the first cycle. In the first meeting, the writer reviewed all of the vocabularies that she had presented, it was by using ‘back to board game’, she chose one of the students to come forward and back to the board, then the writer wrote a word on white board, the duty of the student was asking to the whole class by using yes/no questions, for example; ‘Dina, is it a noun?, Ditmar, does it have 4 letters, and so on, until the student could guess what word was that. In the second meeting, the writer tried to improve students’ writing ability by using the words she had presented, she asked the students to make narrative paragraph, from about 55 words that she had given, the students must have be able to take at least 35 words to apply in paragraph. In the last meeting, the topic was about asking permission, the writer asked the students to make conversation about asking permission in pair by using the words on their word cards in written form, and then, she asked them to practice the conversation they had made. c. Observing The writer with the English teacher carried out the observation. Both of them observed the teaching learning process by monitoring the students’ activities in this cycle. This observation was done to get the data of students’ progress during the teaching learning process. 39 In the first cycle, the teacher found the students still had bad memorization when they were asked to recall the words they only could remember a few words, however, in this cycle, she got the students had better enthusiasm, many students were brave to give teacher questions in English and they actively respond the teacher’s question, since, the class was more interesting and communicative. The students did not only memorize the words on the cards, and then check in pair, but also they could learn to apply the words into longer form, in the first cycle, the writer only asked students to make sentence, but in this cycle she asked them to make paragraph. d. Reflecting In this second cycle, students’ vocabulary mastery was better than in the first, it was shown by students’ capability to recall the words and their translation, in addition, they got the better score than the first, below is the students’ post test 2 scores: Students’ Number Post test 2 score 1 80* 2 100* 3 90* 4 90* 5 100* 6 97.5* 7 97.5* 8 90* 9 85* 10 95* 11 80* 12 90* 13 70 40 14 65 15 75* 16 85* 17 90* 18 70 19 80* 20 80* 21 75* 22 80* 23 85* 24 85* 25 80* 26 72 27 80* 28 77.5* 29 80* Mean 84 *Student passing KKM In this cycle, the students get better score, there were 25 students had reached KKM, the mean also improved from 74 to 84. The students were braver in showing up in the class; they actively asked and answered in English language even grammatically it was an error sentence. Students also could recall almost all of the words that the writer gave including knowing the Indonesian translation and synonim for some words, in addition, they could make the sentences by using the words given, especially in narrative sentences. When the writer asked the students to make conversation by using the words that she had given, she found that students could use the words correctly. In this cycle also, the time was more efficient than before, since, the time was not wasted by preparing the word cards, then, the writer 41 could maximize the time and complete the material, that was, the writer decided to stop the cycle. C. The Discussion of the Data after CAR 1. The Result of Post Interview After doing CAR, the writer conducted a post interview to the students, it was unstructured interview, she gave some questions related to the vocabulary mastery, they said that getting new vocabulary by using word cards was a nice activity, it also helped them in enriching their vocabulary, they could take their cards on their pocket and could open them every time they wanted. In addition, the games that the writer gave related to word cards were very nice and did not make students get bored; they could actively participate in the class. The teacher also said that, students could make the sentence or narrative paragraph because they have amount vocabularies that support that ability; they knew how to apply the words into sentence correctly, even though there were still some errors, the teacher could repair it by herself. 2. The Result of Post test In this part, the writer compares and gives the result of pre test, post test 1, and 2. Students’ Number Pre test Post test 1 score Post test 2 score 1 74 75* 80* 2 72 97.5* 100* 3 72 80* 90* 4 72 85* 90* 5 76* 97.5* 100* 6 72 90* 97.5* 42 7 72 95* 97.5* 8 62 85* 90* 9 60 77.5* 85* 10 63 80* 95* 11 70 72.5 80* 12 68 80* 90* 13 36 67.5 70 14 18 54 65 15 46 60 75* 16 46 75* 85* 17 44 65 90* 18 32 40 70 19 40 65 80* 20 65 70 80* 21 60 65 75* 22 63 74 80* 23 66 78* 85* 24 47 75* 85* 25 43 75* 80* 26 53 60 72 27 56 72.5 80* 28 44 62.5 77.5* 29 40 72.5 80* 54.4 74 84 Mean *Student passing KKM Based on the table above, it is known the mean score before implementing CAR is only 54.4, there is only one student passing KKM. To know the percentage of students passing KKM before CAR is by using formula below: F 43 P = ── X 100% N 1 P= X 100% 29 P= 3.44% From that calculation, it is known the percentage of students passing KKM is only 3.44%, there is only one student passing KKM from 29 students, it can be said that students’ vocabulary mastery is very low. Below is the chart of students’scores in pre test 30 The number of students getting >KKM 25 20 The number of students getting KKM 75 15 10 The number of students getting <KKM 5 0 < KKM KKM 75 > KKM After scoring, pre test, the writer gave the students post test 1, then calculated the score, it was to know whether any improvement or not between pre test and post test 1. In this test, there were 15 students passing KKM. In calculating the student’s percentage passing KKM, here, the writer still uses the same formula as in pre test. 44 F P = ── X 100% N 15 P= X 100% 29 P= 51.72% Below is the chart of students’ scores in post test 1 14 12 The number of students getting >KKM 10 8 The number of students getting KKM 75 6 4 The number of students getting <KKM 2 0 < KKM KKM 75 > KKM It is known that, the students’ percentage in post test 1 is better than in pre test. Later, the writer calculated the percentage of students’ improvement between pre test and post test1. y1 - y P = ──── X 100% y 74 – 54.4 45 P = ───────── X 100% 54.4 19.6 P = ──── X 100% 54.4 P = 36% Here, the writer sees that the improvement of students’ percentage is 36% The next step was calculating the percentage of students passing KKM in post test 2. In this test, there were 25 students could reach KKM. F P = ── X 100% N 25 P = ── X 100% 29 P = 86.20% 46 Below is the chart of students’ scores in post test 2. 25 The number of students getting >KKM 20 15 The number of students getting KKM 75 10 The number of students getting <KKM 5 0 < KKM KKM 75 > KKM After, calculating the percentage of students passing KKM in post test 2, the next step, the writer calculated the percentage of students’ improvement between pre test and post test 2. y2 - y P = ──── X 100% y 84 – 54.4 P = ───────── X 100% 54.4 29.6 P = ──── X 100% 54.4 P = 54.41% It shows the percentage of students’ improvement from pre test to post test 2 is 54.41%, there are 25 students passing KKM while the rests are failed. In pre test the number of students passing the KKM was only 47 1 student and the percentage was 34.48 %, meanwhile, in the post test 2 there were 25 students passing KKM and the percentage was 86.20. D. The Interpretation of the Data In pre test, the mean score of students was 54.4, it was before the writer used word cards in presenting new vocabularies, while the percentage of students passing KKM was 3.44%, there was only 1 student getting 75 or above, 28 students were failed. In post test 1, it was conducted in the first cycle of CAR, the mean of students’ score was 74, the percentage of students getting 75 or above was 51.72%, it means, there was good improvement from pre test to post test 1, however, students still needed to improve their score, since, the criterion of action success was 75%, they still needed the better result. Therefore, the writer and the teacher conducted the second cycle. In post test 2, the mean of students score improved, it was 84, and the percentage of students getting 75 or above was 86.20%, there were 25 students passing KKM, it means this CAR is called successful, because the percentage of students passing KKM was above 75%. 48 Below is the chart of students’ score improvement from pre test up to post test 2. 30 25 20 < KKM 15 75 10 > KKM 5 0 Pre test Post test 1 Post test 2 Chapter V Conclusion and Suggestion A. Conclusion From all of discussion of this ‘skripsi’, the writer concludes that using word cards is one way of enriching students’ vocabulary that is helpful; students need to enrich their vocabulary since vocabulary is one of the most important components in languages, here, the writer conducted research in SMK Nusantara class XI.2 marketing program. Word cards, the technique that the writer uses here is a technique that has been suggested by ISP. Nation, using word cards is a simple technique in enriching students’ vocabulary, since, word cards are portable, students can take them everywhere, even though, there are still many disadvantages in using word cards, as the writer has mentioned in chapter II, it is undeniable that using word cards is a good way. In this research, the writer uses classroom action research, it is the research the first introduced by Kurt Lewin, there are so many models which can be used, here, the writer uses Kemmis and Taggart model as the writer has mentioned in chapter III, this research included some steps needed to be carried out, in conducting the research, the writer also needs to calculate the validity, index difficulty, and index facility of test, those are done to get a good test. 49 50 From this research, the writer found that using word cards is a good way to be applied in SMK Nusantara class XI.2 marketing program; it was proved by the scores that students have got. In pre test, there was only a student passing KKM, the percentage of students passing KKM was only 3.44%, it was different with the post test 1, which the students passing KKM were 15 students, and the percentage was 51.72%, then it improved in the second cycle, in post test 2 the students passing KKM were 25, the percentage was 86.20%, it means this research is successful, since the criteria of action success is 75% for the percentage of the students passing KKM. B. Suggestions Since using word cards is successful to implement in SMK Nusantara class XI.2 marketing program, here, the writer suggests teachers as well as readers to use word cards for enriching students’ vocabulary, it is simple, easy to be carried out, and helpful. Word cards are flexible; it can be fixed in the students’ level. Word cards also can be used by student to improve their vocabulary independently; however, in enriching vocabulary, the teachers should always motivate the students to always check the cards. 51 BIBLIOGRAPHY Aeborsold, Jo Ann and Mary Lee Field. From Reader to Reading Teacher. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1977 Arikunto, Suharsimi. Dasar-Dasar Evaluasi Pendidikan. Jakarta: PT. Bumi Aksara, 2005 Bachman, Lyle F. Statistical Analyses for Language Assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004 Biklen, Sari Knopp and Robert C Bogdan. Research for Education: An Introduction to Theories and Methods. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. 2007 Brown, James Dean. Testing in Language Programs. New York: McGraw Hill, 2005 ________________. Using Surveys in Language Program. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001 Burns, Anne. Doing Action Research in English Language Teaching. New York: Routledge, 2010 __________ and Jack C Richards,ed. 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Vocabulary: Description, Acquisition, and Pedagogy. Cambridge: Cambridge University press, 1997 Tambunan, Wilmar. Evaluation of Students’ Achievement. Jakarta: Depdiknas, 1998 The New Lexicon Webster Dictionary. Danbury: Lexicon Publication Inc,1994 Thornbury, Scott. How to Teach Vocabulary. London: Pearson Education, 2002 Tosuncuogle, Irfan. Teaching Vocabulary for Active Use. Kyrgyz: Manas University Press, 2008 Whitehead, Jack and Jean McNiff. Action Research Living Theory. London: SAGE Publication Ltd, 2008 Wiersma, William and Stephen Gours. Research Method in Education: An Introduction. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc, 2009 Wiriaatmadja, rochiati. Metode Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya, 2008 54 APPENDIX 1 Interview Guidelines for the Classroom Action Research (CAR) Data (Before CAR) Peneliti : Bagaimana proses belajar mengajar Bahasa Inggris di dalam kelas ibu? Guru : selama saya mengajar sih nggak pernah ada masalah, walaupun ya biasanya paling anak-anak ngantuk di kelas, atau nggodain teman. Peneliti : Menurut ibu bagaimana kemampuan Bahasa Inggris siswa kelas 2.2 Pemasaran ini? Guru : kalo anak disini, rata-rata kemampuan anaknya nggak jauh beda sih, tapi kalo anak 2.2 pemasaran memang saya akui kemampuannya memang di bawah kelas lain. Peneliti : Metode apa yang biasa ibu pakai dalam menyajikan kosa kata baru untuk anak-anak? Guru : biasanya saya mengambil beberapa kata sulit dari buku mereka, setelah itu saya meminta mereka untuk menghafal. Peneliti : bagaimana respon anak-anak ketika mereka diminta untuk menghafal? Guru : ya, biasanya sih ada yang nurut karena memang anaknya nurut, tapi tidak jarang juga yang complain, katanya malas atau apalah Peneliti : Apakah metode tersebut efektif dalam meningkatkan pemahaman siswa? Guru : ya, begitulah, banyakan mereka lupa kalo besoknya ditanya lagi, walaupun memang ada salah satu yang masih ingat Peneliti : berarti penguasaan kosa kata masih menjadi masalah untuk anak-anak Guru : tentu, mereka suka lupa-lupa ingat gitu, ya saya maklumi aja, karena memang bahasa Inggris masih merupakan bahasa asing ya, dan saya yakin hal itu ga Cuma terjadi di sekolah saya. 55 Peneliti Guru : untuk ulangannya sendiri nilainya bagaimana? : ada beberapa yang lulus KKM, walaupun masih banyak yang ga lulus Peneliti : untuk KKM bahasa Inggris disekolah ini berapa? Guru : kalau untuk bahasa Inggris KKM 73? Peneliti : ibu sudah pernah mencoba menggunakan cara lain untuk menyajikan kosa kata baru? Guru Peneliti Guru : selama ini sih, belum pernah : saya rasa cukup bu untuk interview kali ini, terima kasih banyak : sama-sama 66 APPENDIX IV Rencana Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran Mata Pelajaran: Bahasa Inggris Kelas/semester: XI/2 Alokasi Waktu: 2X35 menit Standar Kompetensi 1. Memahami makna teks monolog/esei berbentuk report, narrative dan analytical exposition secara akurat, lancar, dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dan mengakses ilmu pengetahuan. 2. Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks monolog/esei tulis berbentuk narrative,spoof dan hortatory exposition secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dan mengakses ilmu pengetahuan. Kompetensi Dasar 1. Memahami dan merespon makna dalam teks monolog/esei yang menggunakan ragam bahasa tulis secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam teks berbentuk: narrative 2. Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks monolog/esei yang menggunakan ragam bahasa tulis secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam teks berbentuk: narrative 67 Indikator  Siswa Mampu mengidentifikasi jenis-jenis paragraph  Siswa mampu membuat paragraph narrative baik secara individu ataupun kelompok 1. Tujuan Pembelajaran  Pada akhir pembelajaran, siswa mampu mengidentifikasi jenisjenis teks  Pada akhir pembelajaran, siswa mampu membuat paragraph dalam bentuk narrative  2. Materi Pokok How to make something 3. Metode Pembelajaran/Teknik: three-phase technique 4. Langkah-langkah Kegiatan a. Kegiatan Awal (15’) Siswa mereview berbagai aspek teks narrative (tujuan, organisasi, dan ciriciri kebahasaan) b. Kegiatan Inti (40’) 68  Guru memberikan beberepa list kata sulit dari buku siswa, yang kemudian siswa secara berpasangan diminta untuk mencari arti kata-kata tersebut dalam kamus.  Siswa menyiapkan beberapa kartu yang digunakan untuk menulis kata-kata tersebut, dan arti dalam bahasa Indonesia pada bagian belakang kartu.  Siswa diminta mengingat seluruh kata-kata tersebut, kemudian siswa berpasangan mengecek hapalan tersebut secara bergantian. c. Kegiatan Akhir (15’) Guru mengecek hapalan siswa satu-persatu 5. Sumber/Bahan/Alat  Buku Look Ahead 2  Kamus Dwi bahasa (Indonesia-Inggris/Inggris Indonesia)  Teknik: Performance Assessment, Checklist 6. Penilaian Mengetahui Guru Mata Pelajaran Rini Ramdani Yafas, S.E 69 Rencana Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran Mata Pelajaran: Bahasa Inggris Kelas/semester: XI/2 Alokasi Waktu: 2X35 menit Standar Kompetensi 3. Memahami makna teks monolog/esei berbentuk report, narrative dan analytical exposition secara akurat, lancar, dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dan mengakses ilmu pengetahuan. 4. Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks monolog/esei tulis berbentuk narrative,spoof dan hortatory exposition secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dan mengakses ilmu pengetahuan. Kompetensi Dasar 3. Memahami dan merespon makna dalam teks monolog/esei yang menggunakan ragam bahasa tulis secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam teks berbentuk: narrative 4. Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks monolog/esei yang menggunakan ragam bahasa tulis secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam teks berbentuk: narrative 70 Indikator  Mengidentifikasi makna dalam teks narrative  Menyusun kalimat dalam bentuk narrative 1. Tujuan Pembelajaran  Siswa mampu membuat kalimat dalam bentuk narrative  Siswa memahami makna dari teks berbentuk narrative 2. Materi Pokok How to work with something 3. Metode Pembelajaran/Teknik: three-phase technique 4. Langkah-langkah Kegiatan a. Kegiatan Awal (15’) Siswa mereview kata-kata yang telah mereka hapalkan melalui word cards b. Kegiatan Inti (40’)  Guru memberikan beberapa list kata baru yang sulit dari buku siswa, yang kemudian siswa secara berpasangan diminta untuk mencari arti kata-kata tersebut dalam kamus.  Siswa menyiapkan beberapa kartu yang digunakan untuk menulis kata-kata tersebut, dan arti dalam bahasa Indonesia pada bagian belakang kartu. 71  Siswa diminta mengingat seluruh kata-kata tersebut, kemudian siswa berpasangan mengecek hapalan tersebut secara bergantian.  Guru memberikan games back to board untuk menguatkan ingatan hapalan kosa kata siswa c. Kegiatan Akhir (15’) Siswa membuat kalimat dengan menggunakan kalimat yang telah mereka hapalkan. 5. Sumber/Bahan/Alat  Buku Look Ahead 2  Kamus Dwi bahasa (Indonesia-Inggris/Inggris Indonesia)  Teknik: Performance Assessment, Checklist 6. Penilaian Mengetahui Guru Mata Pelajaran Rini Ramdani Yafas, S.E 72 Rencana Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran Mata Pelajaran: Bahasa Inggris Kelas/semester: XI/2 Alokasi Waktu: 2X35 menit Standar Kompetensi 5. Memahami makna teks monolog/esei berbentuk report, narrative dan analytical exposition secara akurat, lancar, dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dan mengakses ilmu pengetahuan. 6. Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks monolog/esei tulis berbentuk narrative,spoof dan hortatory exposition secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dan mengakses ilmu pengetahuan. Kompetensi Dasar 1. Memahami dan merespon makna dalam teks monolog/esei yang menggunakan ragam bahasa tulis secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam teks berbentuk: narrative 2. Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks monolog/esei yang menggunakan ragam bahasa tulis secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam teks berbentuk: narrative Indikator  Mengidentifikasi makna dalam teks narrative  Menyebutkan part of speech dari teks narrative  Mangurutkan kalimat sesuai dengan urutan masing-masing 73 1. Tujuan Pembelajaran  Siswa mampu menyebutkan jenis part of speech yang digunakan dalam teks bentuk narrative  Siswa memahami makna dari teks berbentuk narrative  Siswa mampu menyusun kalimat menjadi bentuk narrative 2. Materi Pokok Teks Narrative 3. Metode Pembelajaran/Teknik: three-phase technique 4. Langkah-langkah Kegiatan a. Kegiatan Awal (15’) Siswa mereview kata-kata yang telah mereka hapalkan melalui word cards b.Kegiatan Inti (40’)  Guru memberikan sebuah teks narrative kepada siswa, yang kemudian siswa diminta untuk menemukan arti kata-kata sulit dari bacaan tersebut  Guru menulis beberapa kata sulit tersebut di papan tulis  Siswa menulis kata-kata tersebut beserta arti bahasa Indonesia pada word cards yang telah mereka siapkan c. Kegiatan Akhir (15’) Guru meminta siswa untuk membuat paragrap menggunakan kata yang telah mereka dapatkan dari word cards. 5. Sumber/Bahan/Alat  Buku Look Ahead 2  Kamus Dwi bahasa (Indonesia-Inggris/Inggris Indonesia) dengan 74 6. Penilaian  Teknik: Performance Assessment, Checklist Mengetahui Guru Mata Pelajaran Rini Ramdani Yafas, S.E 56 APPENDIX 2 Interview Guidelines for the Classroom Action Research (CAR) Data (After CAR) Peneliti : Bagaimana penguasaan kosa kata anak-anak kelas 2.3 setelah mereka belajar dengan word cards? Guru : Lumayan bagus, ketika saya bertanya arti kata pada buku ajar mereka, mereka bisa menjawab Peneliti : Bagaimana halnya dengan kemampuan anak dalagraam membuat kalimat atau paragraph? Guru : sedikit banyak ada perubahan, yak arena kosa kata mereka bertambah, mau tidak mau kemampuan mereka menulis lebih baik, walaupun masih banyak kekurangan dalam hal grammatical. Peneliti : bagaimana kemampuan anak tentang part of speech? Maksud saya apakah sekarang anak-anak sudah mulai bias mengidentifikasi jenis part of speech? Guru : kalau dibandingkan dengan sebelumnya, Alhamdulillah sekarang lebih baik, kalau dulu anak-anak Cuma tahu verb dan noun, itupun cuma beberapa anak, sekarang mereka sudah bisa mengenal adverb dan adjective, walaupun ada beberapa anak masih kesulitan untuk mengidentifikasi. Peneliti : menurut ibu sendiri apakah word cards sendiri bagus untuk diterapkan di kelas? Guru : kalau bagus, iya, karena anak banyak mereview kosa kata dari kartu yang memang simple, dan kartu tersebut bisa mereka bawa kemana-mana, tapi yang jadi masalah adalah meminta mereka untuk menyiapkan kartu-kartu tersebut dari rumah Peneliti : iya bu, itupun sempat jadi masalah kemarin, akhirnya waktupun terpotong untuk menyiapkan kartu, tapi lama-lama mereka terbiasa juga 57 Guru : iya Peneliti : Dengan hasil yang seperti itu, apakah ibu setuju menggunakan word cards dalam menyajikan kosa kata baru? Guru :iya, saya berusaha untuk mencoba menerapkannya untuk anakanak, tapi ga setiap hari, ya selang seling lah. Peneliti : Oh begitu, terima kasih ya bu atas bantuan dan kerja samanya selama ini. Guru : Ya sama-sama, saya juga terima kasih banyak. Saya jadi punya pengetahuan baru sekarang. 58 APPENDIX III Silabus Bahasa Inggris Kurikulum Satuan Tingkat Pendidikan (KTSP) Kelas/Semester: XI/2 Standar Kompetensi Kompetensi Dasar Indikator Merespon makna dalam percakapan transaksional (to get things done) dan interpersonal (bersosialisasi) resmi dan tak resmi secara akurat, lancar, dan berterima menggunakan ragam bahasa lisan yang melibatkan tindak tutur: menyatakan perasaan love, sorrow, attention, embarrassment, anger, attitude, annoyance A. TINDAK BAHASA Bereaksi atau merespon dengan benar terhadap tindak tutur: menyatakan perasaan love sorrow, attention, embarrassment, anger, attitude, annoyance Jenis Teks/ Functional Text Materi Pokok Contoh Teks SIKLUS LISAN (SPOKEN CYCLE) MENDENGARKAN Memahami makna dalam percakapan transaksional/ interpersonal resmi dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari.  Menyatakan perasaan (love) mis. I love you. I really love you and I always will.  Menyatakan perasaan sorrow mis. My heart is so burdened I‟m so sad to hear it  Menyatakan attention mis. Oh, really? It’s amazing.  Menyatakan perasaan (embarrassment) mis. It really makes me ashamed I was very embarrased  Menyatakan perasaan (anger) mis. Oh, hell!! You burn me up!  Menyatakan attitude mis. What I mean is…Now, let me think…  Menyatakan perasaan (annoyance) mis. I can’t take it anymore I need a break Pengalaman Belajar        Mendengarkan percakapan interpersonal/ transaksional m*elalui tape secara klasikal. Mendiskusikan berbagai tindak tutur yang didengar melalui tape secara klasikal. Mendengarkan percakapan transaksional/ interpersonal yang dilakukan oleh teman. Mendiskusikan berbagai tindak tutur yang dilakukan oleh teman. Merespon suatu situasi dengan tindak tutur yang tepat Mendengar kutipan tentang cinta dan menjodohkannya dengan orang yang mengatakannnya Mendengar definisi teman tentang cinta Penilaian Performance assessment (merespon ungkapan lisan) Alokasi Waktu 1 x 45’ 1 x 45’ Sumber/ Bahan/ Alat Buku Look Ahead 2 Kaset/CD Script teks dari buku teks Tugas OHP/ LCD 2 x 45’ 2 x 45’ 59 BERBICARA Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks percakapan transaksional resmi dan percakapan berlanjut (sustained) secara akurat, lancar, dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dan mengakses ilmu pengetahuan. Mengungkapkan makna dalam percakapan transaksional (to get things done) dan interpersonal (bersosialisasi) resmi dan tak resmi dalam ragam lisan secara akurat, lancar dan berterima yang melibatkan tindak tutur: menyatakan perasaan love, sorrow, attention, embarrassment, anger, attitude, annoyance Melakukan berbagai tindak tutur dalam wacana lisan interpersonal /transaksional: menyatakan perasaan love sorrow, attention, embarrassment, anger, attitude, annoyance             MENDENGARKAN Memahami dalam teks monolog lisan berbentuk narrative, spoof dan hortatory exposition secara akurat, lancar, dan berterima dalam Merespon makna dalam teks monolog sederhana menggunakan ragam bahasa lisan secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam teks berbentuk: narrative, Merespon wacana monolog: narrative, spoof dan hortatory exposition Narrative Today, I‟d like to tell you a legend from South Sea, Central Java. The title is The Stone Flower or Bunga Batu. Well, listen carefully. A long long time ago the people of Wanakerta Kingdom were very worried because the Queen   Membaca dialog Melafalkan berbagai tindak tutur Menggunakan tindak tutur yang sesuai untuk suatu pernyataan/situasi yang diberikan. Melengkapi dialog dengan tindak tutur yang sesuai. Mendiskusikan model percakapan berpasangan Mempraktekkan dialog Menjawab pertanyaan tentang percakapan Tanya-jawab dengan teman Memberi tanggapan tentang suatu isu Membuat dialog berpasangan sesuai dengan situasi yang diberikan Mempraktekkan dialog di depan kelas Mendengarkan teks monolog dengan bantuan audio Mencocokkan gambar dengan cerita yang didengar Mengidentifikasi informasi yang benar/salah dari Performance assessment (responding, jawaban lisan,dialog) Checklist Tugas Proyek Performace assessment (presentation, telling story) Checklist 4 x 45’ 60 konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dan mengakses ilmu pengetahuan. BRBICARA Mengungkapkan makna dalam monolog yang berbentuk narrative, spoof dan hortatory exposition secara akurat, lancar, dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dan mengakses ilmu pengetahuan. spoof dan hortatory exposition Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks monolog secara akurat, lancar dan berterima yang menggunakan ragam bahasa lisan yang berbentuk: narrative, spoof dan hortatory exposition Dewi Kalasekti had suffered from a strange illness for a long time. Doctors and shamans were ordered to cure the Queen, but the queen was not healed. Meanwhile, the high priest of the kingdom was praying to God, when he heard a voice echoing, “The queen can be cured by the stone flower. (lanjutan di buku teks) Melakukan monolog berbentuk : narrative, spoof dan hortatory exposition    Spoof Hortatory Exposition  Okay students. Listen to me. I have a good story. The story is about a boy named Michael. He was ten years old. He was not a very good pupil. Why? Because he didn‟t like doing his homework. What did he like then ?Oh, he liked playing in his leisure time. He liked football very much. Do you know why he didn‟t like doing his homework? Because he always made a lot of mistakes when he did it. Well, one day, his mathematics teacher looked at Michael‟s homework and found that all his homework was correct. Wow, that‟s a good job! Of course students, the teacher was very pleased and surprised. So, he called Michael to his office and said to him, Michael, you‟ve got all your homework right this time. You‟re doing great. Well done, Michael. Did your father help you? “No, sir” Michael said, “Usually my father did it for me. But last night he was very busy. He had a meeting. So, he couldn‟t do my homework. Then, I had to do it by myself.. (Adapted from: Intermediate Reading Comprehension,L.G.Alexander)  Program Presenter : It‟s ten to three and time for our special program today „ Beautiful World‟ with me Thery. I will be your host for about 30 minutes. Well, listeners we have two senior high school students, Sarah and Astari on the line ready to debate about          cerita yang didengar Mendengar percakapan mendongeng Mengidentifikasi intonasi yang tepat untuk sebuah percakapan Melengkapi teks monolog Menjawab pertanyaan Mendengarkan teman mendongeng Mendengarkan teman presentasi Mencocokkan gambar dengan judul cerita yang tepat Melakukan tanya jawab Membaca percakaan mendongeng Menjawab pertanyaan Memberi tanggapan pada kartun Mempelajari ungkapan yang digunakan untuk mendongeng dan presentasi Mendiskusikan organisasi teks monolog Menjawab pertanyaan tentang teks organisasi teks monolog 4 x 45’ 6x45’ 61 „Quashing litter-bug habits.’ So, if you‟re interested, find a pen and paper. Then choose the best suggestion of all by sending your SMS. Remember, at the end of the segment we will give you a cool gift for the winner. Okay Sarah and Astari and all listeners the problem of littering reflects a lack of responsibility on all sides. Although heavy penalty has already been arranged under government regulation, many people still drop broken bottles or empty cans in public places, like parks or streets, even in the river. It‟s always interesting to know how the youth are concerned about social problems like littering.        Menganalisa teks monolog Melakukan drama Bekerjasama dengan teman untuk membuat dongeng Bekerjasamam dengan teman untuk mempresentasikan suatu isu. Mendongeng secara individu Mendongeng cerita lucu secara individu Mempresentasikan suatu isu secara individu First on the line is Sarah. Hello. Thank you for being part of our program. Tell me what do you think of this bad habit? Sarah : I am against this bad habit 100%.I personally believe that throwing litter on the ground is a very bad habit. Everybody knows. However many people do it. Why? Because they don’t care about a clean and healthy environment. They are careless and thoughtless. That’s disgusting, isn’t it?....(lanjutan lihat di buku) SIKLUS TULISAN (WRITTEN CYCLE) MEMBACA Memahami makna teks monolog/esei berbentuk narrative, spoof dan hortatory exposition secara akurat, lancar, dan Memahami dan merespon makna dalam teks monolog/esei yang menggunakan ragam bahasa tulis secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam teks   Mengidentifi kasi makna dalam teks Mengidentifi lasi langkahlangkah retorika Narrative The Lion and The Mouse Once, when a Lion was asleep, a little mouse began running up and down upon him; this soon wakened the Lion, who placed his huge paw upon him, and opened     Menanggapi gambar/foto Membaca teks Menjawab pertanyaan Bekerjasama dengan teman menjodohkan 11x45’ 62 berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dan mengakses ilmu pengetahuan. berbentuk: narrative, spoof dan hortatory exposition his big jaws to swallow him. “Pardon, O king,” cried the little Mouse, “ Forgive me this time, I shall never forget it; who knows but what I may be able to do you a turn some of these days?” The Lion was so tickled at the idea of the Mouse being able to help him, that he lifted up his paw and let him go.Some time after the Lion was caught in a trap, and the hunters, who desired to carry himalive to the king, tied him to a tree while they wentin search of a wagon to carry him on. Just then the little Mouse happened to passby, and see the sad plight in which the Lion was.He went up to the lion and soon gnawed away the ropes that bound the king of the Beasts. “Wasn‟t I right? “ said the little Mouse.Moral: Little friends may prove great friends.(AESOP) dalam wacana:. narrative, spoof dan hortatory exposition Spoof MENULIS Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks monolog/esei tulis berbentuk narrative, spoof dan hortatory exposition secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dan mengakses ilmu pengetahuan. Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks monolog/esei yang menggunakan ragam bahasa tulis secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam teks berbentuk: narrative, spoof dan hortatory exposition Menulis teks berbentuk monolog/esei berbentuk narrative, spoof dan hortatory exposition Hortatory Exposition New Baby A woman is sitting at home entertaining her parents who have come around to congratulate her on their first grandchild. “So, when can we see the bay?,asks the grandmother. “In a little while”,replies the mother. Some time passes. The grandparents are looking quite anxious at this point. “So, when can we see the baby?, asks the grandfather. “When the baby starts crying”,replies the mother. The grandparents turn to look each other, a little perplexed and ask,”Why do we have to wait until she starts crying?!” The mother snaps back,”because I put her down somewhere this morning and I can‟t remember where she is!” Can “AFI” Guarantee One to be a Talented Singer? “Menuju Puncak” is a song that is so popular now. No one can deny that AFI (Akademi Fantasi Indosiar) has fascinated many fans around the nation. As one of the many talent search shows, AFI is bound to be compared with other such programs like “Indonesian Idol”, “Penghuni Rumah Terakhir”, “KDI”,              fable dengan amanatnya Berdiskusi dengan teman tentang teks yang dibaca. Melengkapi teks dengan kata yang disediakan Mengidentifikasi ciri-ciri kebahasaan Membaca komik Mengidentifikasi organisasi teks Mengidentifikasi teks dari berbagai aspek (tujuan, organisasi dan ciriciri kebahasaan) Memberi nama/term untuk tiap bagian teks Membandingkan paragraf yang dibaca. Bekerjasama dengan teman menyusun paragraf menjadi teks utuh berpasangan Bekerjasama dengan teman melengkapi bagian teks yang hilang Bekerjasama dengan teman membuat teks Menulis teks narrative secara individu Menulis teks spoof secara individu 6x45’ 9x45’ 63 B. LINGUISTIK Mengidentifikasi ciriciri kebahasaan teks narrative  Simple Past tense  Past Tenses  Action Verbs  Thinking and feeling Verbs  Noun and Noun Phrases  Adverbs  Time Connectives  Conjuction Mengidentifikasi ciriciri kebahasaan teks Spoof  Simple Past tense  Past Continuous Tense  Present Mengidentifikasi ciri-ciri kebahasaan teks narrative  Simple Past tense  Past Tenses  Action Verbs  Thinking and feeling Verbs  Noun and Noun Phrases  Adverbs  Time Connectives  Conjuction Mengidentifikasi ciri-ciri kebahasaan teks Spoof  Simple Past tense  Past “Indonesia Cantik “ and so on.AFI has offered a unique package for viewers; a combination between a reality show and a talent show. Their way of finding real entertainers has increased the public‟s awareness of the difficulties in reaching the top in the entertainment business. But frankly saying, AFI has not fully succeeded in reaching its main goal. If you take an objective look at a number of the winners, you’ll see that they are not yet able to fill the most basic requirements, which is to sing properly. This is ironic, considering all the criticisms coming from the judges about pitch tones, tempos, and everything that has to do with becoming a good singer. Thus, if we want to improve the Indonesian music industry, we should really think about the singer‟s and the musician‟s talents and train them appropriately, so they can be a professional singer or musician. Adapted from C‟sN Magazine,2004  Menulis teks hortatory exposition secara individu  Mendiskusikan ciriciri kebahsaan tiap teks Mengidentifikasi bentuk positif, negatif dan pertanyaan pada past tenses dalam suatu paragraf Menentukan bentuk kata kerja yang tepat pada suatu kalimat/teks Menggarisbawahi teks Mengidentifikasi jenis verb yang dimaksud pada kalimat Mengembangkan kalimat Melengkapi teks Mengerjakan puzzle Membuat kalimat berdasarkan gambar         64 Participle and Past Participle  Pronoun  Saying Verbs  When and While     Mengidentifikasi ciriciri kebahasaan teks hortatory exposition  Modal verbs and Adverbs of Certainty  Abstract Nouns  Subjective and Objective Statements C. SOSIOKULTURAL  Memahami pandangan mengenai hari Valentine  Memahami body language sebagai salah satu alat untuk berkomunikasi  Memahami topik yang sebaiknya dikatakan ketika pertama kali berbicara dengan seseoang, khususnya di Amerika. Continuous Tense Present Participle and Past Participle Pronoun Saying Verbs When and While     yang disediakan Menodohkan suatu kejadian Menganalisa fungsi Modal Verbs Menentukan tingkat kepastian kalimat penutup Menganalisa paragraph Mengidentifikasi ciri-ciri kebahasaan teks hortatory exposition  Modal verbs and Adverbs of Certainty  Abstract Nouns  Subjective and Objective Statements  Memahami pandangan mengenai hari Valentine  Memahami body language sebagai salah satu lat untuk berkomunikasi  Memahami topik yang sebaiknya dikatakan ketika pertama kali berbicara dengan 1x45’ 1x45 1x45’     Membaca teks dan menjawab pertanyaannya Mengiidentifikasi pertanyaan Berdiskusi tentang informasi tersebut. Menyimpulkan perbedaan kebudayaan di 65 seseoang, khususnya di Amerika. D. STRATEGI  Berinisiatif berlatih dengan teman  Menjawab dan menaggapi pertanyaan  Berpartisipasi melakukan presenntasi laporan pengamatan dan mendongeng  Membaca teks intensif  Berlatih dengan teman  Bertanya pada Guru  Memperbaiki kalimat sendiri  Memakai kamus  Scanning  Skimming E. WACANA  Menciptakan koherensi teks dan konteks  Menggunakan ungkapan gambits  Struktur Teks  Berinisiatif berlatih dengan teman  Menjawab dan menaggapi pertanyaan  Berpartisipasi melakukan presenntasi laporan pengamatan dan mendongeng  Membaca teks intensif  Berlatih dengan teman  Bertanya pada Guru  Memperbaiki kalimat Sendiri  Memakai kamus  Scanning  Skimming  Menciptakan koherensi teks dan konteks  Menggunakan ungkapan gambits  Struktur Teks Indonesia dengan Negara berbahasa Inggris  Berinisiatif berlatih dengan teman  Menjawab dan menaggapi pertanyaan  Berpartisipasi melakukan presenntasi laporan pengamatan dan mendongeng  Membaca teks intensif  Berlatih dengan teman  Bertanya pada Guru  Memperbaiki kalimat sendiri  Memakai kamus  Scanning  Skimming  Menciptakan koherensi teks dan konteks  Menggunakan ungkapan gambits  Struktur Teks 66 75 APPENDIX V Kisi-kisi soal pre test dan post test Classroom Action Research (CAR) Tahun Pelajaran 2010/2011 Kelas :XI Mata Pelajaran Standar Kompetensi Berkomunik asi lisan dan tertulis menggunaka n ragam bahasa yang sesuai dengan lancar dan akurat dalam wacana interaksional Semester : Bahasa Inggris Kompetensi Dasar   Nama Sekolah : SMK Nusantara Skills Vocabulary Memahami nuansa makna dan langkahlangkah pengembanga n retorika di dalam teks tertulis berbentuk narrative, dan procedure, Indikator      Mengungkap kan kalimat ekspressi senang, sedih, kecewa : II menemukan arti kata menemukan arti kata dalam suatu kalimat menemukan persamaan kata menggunaka n kata sesuai dengan kontek mengungkap kan fungsi suatu benda sesuai dengan gambar Jenis soal Nomor Soal Finding the the words meaning 1,2,3,4,5 5 Finding the words meaning 31,32,33,34,35 ,36,37,38,39,4 0 10 Matching the words 16,17,18,19,20 ,21,22,23,24,2 5,26,27,28,29, 30 15 4 Multiple choice 6,8,9,15 2 Multiple choice 7,11 2 76 ataupun bangga  Bertanya dan menjawab kalimat yang berhubungan dengan hobby  menentukan kata, frasa, atau kalimat ekspressi Multiple choice 10,12 2 Multiple choice  Menggunaka n kalimat sesuai dengan konteks 13,14 77 APPENDIX VI A. Find the Indonesian translation of the words below! 1. Training: 2. Profit: 3. Expensive: 4. Serve: 5. Newest: B. Answer the following questions by crossing a, b, c, or d. 6. Sally: Can you........a delicious food for my birthday? Dina: Of course A. Make B. Mix C. Pour D. Heat 7. This tool is for......... A. Tiding up the clothes C. Hanging the clothes B. Washing the clothes D. Saving the clothes 8. A: where do you work? B: I work in the restaurant A: are you a cashier? B: no, I’m not, I’m a.................I offer customers with menus. A. manager B. waiter/waitress C. Janitor D. Chef 9. Stephanie Mayer now becomes a very famous.........., her series novel ‘Twilight’ sold millions copies throughout the world and has been translated into many languages. 78 A. Composer B. Author C. Director D. Translator 10. The expressions below are for praising, except............. A. Great! B. Well done! C. Good job D. What a mess 11. We use this tool for........ A. Catching animals B. Observing small objects C. Stirring batter D. Slicing potatoes 12. Galang: How do you feel having dinner at ‘maknyos’ restaurant? Raka : ................I don’t have to wait too long for the food. A. I feel annoyed B. I can’t accept this C. I’d would rather find the others D. I’m very satisfied with the service. 13. Sport helps us become strong and...... A. Healthy B. Lazy C. Sleepy D. Wealthy 14. Rangga: what’s your hobby? Naela: my hobby is .........., I do it every morning to make a breakfast with my mother, I also like helping them cleaning the dishes and cleaning the dining table. A. Jogging B. Cooking c. Fishing D. Gardening 79 15. Customer: can you show the newest sport shoes in your store? Shop assistant: this the newest ‘Fiba’. It must match with your........... A. Feet B. Head C. Knee D. Neck C. Find the synonym! 16. Product a. Corporation 17. Approved b. Accident 18. Company c. Copy 19. Provide d. Merchandise 20.Shut e. Measure 21. Crash f. Newest 22. Imitate g. Clever 23. Size h. Ill 24. Latest g. Make 25. Smart h. Right 26. Study i. Close 27 . Sick j. Supply 28. Produce k. Permitted 29.Correct l. Move 30.Shake m. Learn D. Match the underlined words with the translation below the texts. a. Like all other things on earth, Allah has created you perfectly and given you everything you 31 32 need. What you should do in return is to give thanks to our Lord,Who has given you all these 33 34 blessings that are much more valuable 80 35 36 than any other present you may be given in this world. b. A new instrument has been invented. This multifunction instrument can help save money 37 38 since its user just has to buy one instrument but he will get more benefits compared to other 39 40 instruments. a. Ditemukan f. Menciptakan b. Berharga g. Dibandingkan c. Keuntungan h. Mengembalikan d. Butuh i. Berkah e. Membantu j. Dengan sempurna 81 APPENDIX VII Answer key A. 1. Pelatihan 2. keuntungan 3. mahal 4. melayani 5. terbaru B. 6. A 7. A 8. B 9. B 10.D 11.B 12. D 13. A 14. B 15. A C. 16. D 17. M 18. A 19. L 82 20. K 21. B 22. C 23. E 24. F 25. G 26. O 27. H 28.I 29.J 30. N D. 31.Menciptakan 32.Dengan Sempurna 33.Butuh 34.Mengembalikan 35.Berkah 36.Berharga 37.Ditemukan 38.Membantu 39.Keuntungan 40. Dibandingkan 83 APPENDIX VIII Item Discrimination Analysis Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 IF Upper 10 10 10 10 10 9 10 5 10 5 8 6 9 10 8 6 3 9 4 7 5 4 6 5 6 8 10 6 3 5 10 10 9 10 10 10 10 10 9 10 IF Lower Item Descrimination Remark 10 6 3 4 5 7 3 0 3 2 4 4 3 9 4 2 0 4 2 3 5 3 4 2 3 5 2 2 0 1 9 7 7 6 5 7 5 7 3 2 Discarded Used Used Revised Used Discarded Revised Used Revised Discarded Used Discarded Revised Discarded Used Used Discarded Used Discarded Used Discarded Discarded Discarded Discarded Discarded Discarded Revised Used Discarded Used Discarded Discarded Discarded Used Used Discarded Used Discarded Revised Revised 0 0.13 0.24 0.20 0.17 0.06 0.24 0.17 0.24 0.10 o.13 0.06 0.20 0.03 0.13 0.13 0.10 0.17 0.06 0.13 0 0.03 0.06 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.27 0.13 0.10 0.13 0.03 0.10 0.06 0.13 0.17 0.10 0.17 0.10 0.20 0.27 84 APPENDIX IX Item Facility Analysis Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Total Correct Answer 30 24 23 21 19 25 20 6 23 10 21 13 21 28 18 15 5 17 8 13 13 10 12 8 11 15 15 10 8 29 26 24 25 22 23 18 27 11 19 Item Facility Remark 1.03 0.82 0.79 0.72 0.65 0.86 0.68 0.20 0.79 0.34 0.72 0.44 0.72 0.96 0.62 0.51 0.17 0.58 0.27 0.44 0.44 0.34 0.41 0.27 0.37 0.51 0.51 0.34 0.27 1.00 0.89 0.82 0.86 0.75 0.79 0.62 0.93 0.37 0.65 Easy Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Easy Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate easy Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Easy Easy Moderate Easy Moderate Moderate Moderate Easy Moderate Moderate 84 85 APPENDIX X The Improvement of Students’ Score during Classroom Action Research from Pre-test - post-test 2 100 90 80 70 Pre Test 60 Post Test 1 50 40 Post Test 2 30 Column1 20 10 Pre Test 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 85
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