A STUDY ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SCIENTIFIC APPROACH USED BY ENGLISH TEACHER IN TEACHING ENGLISH TO LOW LEVEL STUDENTS AT SMP IN MALANG
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A STUDY ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SCIENTIFIC APPROACH USED BY ENGLISH TEACHER IN TEACHING ENGLISH TO LOW LEVEL STUDENTS AT SMP IN MALANG THESIS By: INDY PUTRA DARANA HARIYANTO 201110100311144 ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG 2015 A STUDY ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SCIENTIFIC APPROACH USED BY ENGLISH TEACHER IN TEACHING ENGLISH TO LOW LEVEL STUDENTS AT SMP IN MALANG THESIS This thesis is submitted to meet one of the requirements to achieve Sarjana Degree in English Education By: INDY PUTRA DARANA HARIYANTO 201110100311144 ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG 2015 iii iv MOTTO AND DEDICATION Karena sesungguhnya sesudah kesulitan itu ada kemudahan. Sesungguhnya sesudah kesulitan itu ada kemudahan. (Q.S. AL INSYIRAH 94:5-6) “Kesempatan tidur memang ada di depanmu. Jika engkau mengambil kesempatan itu, sesungguhnya engkau akan tertidur panjang di alam barzah kelak. Tapi engkau tak tahu, apakah tidurmu itu bersama penyesalan atau kebahagiaan.” (Syaikh Ahmad Khalil Jum’ah dalam Nisa’ min Ashrut Tabi’in) My graduation is dedicated to: My beloved mother and father My brother and my family My bestfriends My beloved someone v vi vii viii ix x REFERENCES Ary, Donald. 2010. Introduction to Research in Education (Eighth Edition). Canada: Thomson Wadsworth. Creswell, John W. 2012. Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (Fourth Edition). United State of America: Pearson Education, Inc. Daryanto. 2014. Pendekatan Yogyakarta: Gava Media Pembelajaran Saintifik Kurikulum 2013. Fadlillah, M. 2014. Implementasi Kurikulum 2013 dalam Pembelajaran SD/MI, SMP/MTS, & SMA/MA. Yogyakarta: Ar-Ruzz Media Fogarty, Robin J., & Kerns, Gene M. 2009. Informative Assessment: When It’s not About a Grade. United State of America: Corwin A SAGE Company Halimi, Sisilia S. 2010. Becoming a Creative Teacher: A Manual for Teaching English to Indonesian Elementary Students. Jakarta: LBI FIB UI Haq, Arina El. 2014. “Scientific Approach in Teaching Writing Used by the English Teacher at SMAN 4 Malang.” Hidayat, Arifudin. 2014. ”Penerapan Pendekatan Saintifik pada Mata Pelajaran Pendidikan Agama Islam untuk Peningkatan Prestasi Belajar Kelas IB SD N 1 Bantul Tahun Ajaran 2013-2014.” Hidayat, Sholeh. 2013. Pengembangan Kurikulum Baru. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya Hosnan. 2014. Pendekatan Saintifik dan Kontekstual dalam Pembelajaran Abad 21. Bogor: Ghalia Indonesia Idi, Abdullah. 2011. Pengembangan Kurikulum: Teori dan Praktik. Yogyakarta: Ar-Ruzz Media Idi, Abdullah. 2009. Pengembangan Kurikulum: Teori dan Praktik. Yogyakarta: Ar-Ruzz Media Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. 2012. Dokumen Kurikulum 2013. Jakarta: Kemendikbud Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. 2013. Diklat Guru Dalam Rangka Implementasi Kurikulum 2013: Konsep Pendekatan Scientific. Bandung Barat: Kemendikbud 49 50 Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. 2013. Implementasi Kurikulum 2013. Jakarta: Kemendikbud Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. 2013. Kerangka Dasar dan Struktur Kurikulum 2013. Jakarta: Kemendikbud Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. 2013. Pengembangan Kurikulum 2013. Jakarta: Kemendikbud Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. 2014. Paparan Wakil Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia Bidang Pendidikan: Konsep dan Implementasi Kurikulum 2013. Kosasih, E. 2014. Strategi Belajar dan Pembelajaran Implementasi Kurikulum 2013. Bandung: Yrama Widya Kurniasih, Imas S.Pd. & Sani, Berlin. 2014. Sukses mengimplementasikan Kurikulum 2013: Memahami Berbagai Aspek Dalam Kurikulum 2013. Surabaya: Kata Pena Majid, Abdul. & Rochman, Chaerul. 2014. Pendekatan Ilmiah: Dalam Implementasi Kurikulum 2013. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya Mamdouh, Marco. 2014. EFL/ESL Teaching Strategies for Low-Level Learners. Retrieved from: http://www.thailandteaching.asia/classroom/52-efl-eslteaching-strategies-low-level-learners.html Accessed on December 8, 2014 / 09:36 PM Miles, Matthew B.; A. Michael Huberman; Johnny Sdana. 2014. “Qualitative data analysis: A Methods Sourcebook - Third Edition.” United State of America: SAGE Publications, Inc. Moss, Connie M., & Brookhart, Susan M. 2009. Advancing Formative Assessment in Every Classroom. United State of America: ASCD Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia Nomor 81 A Tahun 2013 Tentang Implementasi Kurikulum Sinambela, Pardomuan Nauli Josip Mario. 2013. Kurikulum 2013 dan Implementasinya dalam Pembelajaran. Jurnal Generasi Kampus Volume 6, No. 2, September 2013. ISSN: 1978-869X Susanto, Slamet. (2013). 2013 Curriculum Launched in Bantul. Retrieved from http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2013/07/15/2013-curriculumlaunched-bantul.html Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 20 Tahun 2003 Tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional 51 Yulaiha, Nur. 2014. “Scientific Approach in Teaching Reading Used by the English Teacher at SMAN 4 Malang.” Zohrabi. M, Torabi, M. A., & Baybourdiani, P. 2012. Teacher-centered and/or Student-centered Learning: English Language in Iran. English Language and Literature Studies; Vol. 2, No. 3; 2012. ISSN 1925-4768 E-ISSN 19254776 doi:10.5539/ells.v2n3p18 http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ells.v2n3p18 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1.Background of Study Curriculum is one of components of teaching learning and it becomes an important thing in education. According to Act of National Education System No. 20, 2003, it says that “Curriculum means a set of plans and regulations about the aims, content and material of lessons and the method employed as the guidelines for the implementation of learning activities to achieve given education objectives.” Furthermore, “pedagogically, curriculum is design of education which gives learners opportunity to develop their potential in a fun learning environment and in accordance with their ability to have the desired quality of society and the nation.” (Ministry of National Education and Culture: 2012). In other words, curriculum is general planning of education which consists of purpose, teaching materials, teaching methods, approach in teaching learning and assessment. All of them are used to guide the teachers to teach students so that the students became qualified people. According to Kurniasih and Sani (2014: 3), “Curriculum is like the heart of education, if the heart is able to work well, the whole body will function properly.” It means that curriculum is absolutely important in education. Further, an appropriate curriculum will make objectives of education are reached well. In Indonesia, curriculum has changed for several times. According to Ministry of Education and Culture, in 1947 curriculum in Indonesia was called as detailed Lesson Plan, after that in 1964 it was changed into Primary School Education 1 2 Plan, then in 1968 it was changed into Elementary School Curriculum. Furthermore, in 2004 it was changed into Competency-Based Curriculum (KBK), then in 2006 it was changed into school-level autonomy curriculum (KTSP). Finally, in 2013 it was changed into Curriculum 2013 (Ministry of National Education and Culture: 2013: 7). Those changes indicate that the government always tries to adjust the curriculum with the condition which happens in Indonesia or in the world. Those changes are normal and unavoidable since it prepares the students who will be able to compete in the future with different challenges. Curriculum 2013 emphasizes on competency based on attitudes, skills and knowledge (Nuh in Susanto, 2013). This is in line with Sinambela‟s statement (2013: 17) that “Learning is not only focused on one aspect but also it should cover three aspects namely affective aspect, psychomotor aspect, and cognitive aspect.” In other words, the implementation of teaching learning in curriculum 2013 has to relate to attitude, skill and knowledge. Furthermore, the attitude is related to affective aspect, the skill is related to psychomotor aspect, and the knowledge is related to cognitive aspects. The goals of those three aspects are to make generations who are productive, creative, innovative and affective. (Kurniasih and Sani, 2014: 7; Hosnan, 2014: 32). It means that 2013 curriculum creates students who have those skills namely productive, creative, innovative, and affective through strengthening the three integrated aspects. Further, Kosasih (2014: 73) states about the details of the three aspects: 3 “In the field of knowledge, the students have competence about “know what” from learning materials. In the field of skill, the students have competence about “know how” from learning materials and in the field of attitude, the students have competence about “know why” from the learning materials. One thing which differentiates between curriculum 2013 and the previous one is the approach used in teaching and learning activities. The current curriculum applies scientific approach (Sinambela: 2013; Kurniasih and Sani: 2014) According to Daryanto (2014), “Teaching and learning in the scientific approach is a learning process that is designed in order to make learners actively construct concepts, laws, or principles through the stages observed (to identify or observe the problem), to formulate the problem, propose or formulate hypotheses, collect data using various techniques, analyse the data, draw conclusions and communicate concepts, laws or principles found.”(Kurniasih and Sani, 2014: 29) In other words, scientific approach is learning process which asks the students to find a problem, observe the problem, analyse the problem by collecting data, formulate the data and draw conclusion and communicate the concepts which are found. In scientific approach, the students are expected to actively ask anything related to teaching learning (Kosasih, 2014:71) There are five steps to do scientific approach. They are (1) observing, (2) questioning, (3) associating, (4) experimenting, (5) networking or communicating. According to Hosnan (2014), “Step of scientific approach in the learning process at all levels of the curriculum implemented in 2013 for using a scientific approach, they are digging information through observing/observation, questioning/ask, experimenting/trial, then process the data and information, presenting data or information, followed by analysing, associating/reasoning, then concluded, and create and also making networks/networking.” (Daryanto. 2014: 59; Kurniasih and Sani. 2014: 38; Kosasih. 2014: 72) 4 From the explanation above, scientific approach is used to make students active in the class. The new knowledge is not only given by the teacher, but also students can construct the concept or find the new knowledge by themselves using scientific approach. Some experts believe that if students only get the knowledge from the teacher, it means that students get knowledge from long time ago. In current rapid progress of technology, the students are asked to actively learn by themselves. They can explore many things in any places, so that the classes can be anywhere. In addition, scientific approach may apply in all levels of achievement such as low level students and high level students. The high level students are those who have high achievement. The low level students are those who have low achievement or the beginner students. Applying the scientific approach in high level students will be easier rather than in low level students because high level students can understand the material faster and they can understand the instruction given by teacher to do steps of scientific approach. It is not difficult for the teacher to teach them. When teacher teaches the high level students using scientific approach, the principles of scientific approach will be able to apply well so that students-cantered learning can also be applied well. The students will be active in the class to learn. It can be indicated from previous research conducted by Hidayat (2014) that scientific approach has been applied in high level students in SDN 1 Bantul which was International Standard Pilot-Project School (RSBI). In contrast, teaching low level students will face some problems. It is difficult for the students to understand the instructions and material given by the teacher. 5 Therefore, the students will be passive so that the scientific approach is difficult to apply. Further, students-cantered learning is impossible to do and teacher-cantered learning will be the only choice. There are some previous researchers related to the use of scientific approach. The previous research is by Haq (2014) indicated that the scientific approach was maximally implemented at SMAN 4 Malang although it was not implemented in every meeting. Therefore, the teacher faced many obstacles like the lack of materials for writing skill and lack of time. Most of material in SMAN 4 Malang is dialogue so the teacher has to find another text for writing. Further, the time allocated for English subject was only 2 hours (2X45 minutes) every week. Another researcher conducted by Yulaiha (2014) indicated that the teacher was able to implement the scientific approach in 2013 curriculum in their teaching and learning activities. All of students are more active while the teacher conducted well as the facilitator. Further, the English teacher used scientific approach had problem in limited time, because the time that given by the government for English skill class was 2 hours (2X45) minutes in 1 meeting. So, the teacher solved the problem by asking the students to learn and observe materials at home and the next step of scientific approach was continued in the class. Based on the previous study above, all of researchers analysed about scientific approach in teaching writing and reading in the best school whose students are mostly high achievement in Malang. Therefore, the researcher is interested in conducting a research entitled “A Study on the Implementation of Scientific Approach Used by English Teacher in Teaching English to Low Level Students at 6 SMP in Malang.” The researcher chooses SMP „Aisyiyah Muhammadiyah 3 Malang because based on researcher‟s preliminary observation, the students of SMP „Aisyiyah Muhammadiyah 3 Malang are categorized as low level students. It can be indicated from the average score of National Exam that was 5.52. 1.2.Statement of Problem Based on the background of study above, the researcher formulates the statement of problems as follows: 1. How does the English teacher implement scientific approach in teaching English to low level students at SMP in Malang? 2. What are the problems faced by the English teacher in implementing the scientific approach in teaching English to low level students at SMP in Malang? 3. How does the English teacher cope with the problems in implementing scientific approach in teaching English to low level students at SMP in Malang? 1.3.Purpose of Study Based on the statement of problems above, the researcher formulates the purposes of the study as follows: 1. To investigate the procedure of English teacher in implementing scientific approach in teaching English to low level students at SMP in Malang. 7 2. To identify the problems faced by the English teacher in implementing the scientific approach in teaching English to low level students at SMP in Malang. 3. To find out the English teacher‟s solutions of the problems in implementing scientific approach in teaching English to low level students at SMP in Malang. 1.4.Significance of Study The result of this study will be significant for three parties. The first is students. The researcher hopes that students realize that being active in the class is important so that the goal of teaching and learning activity can be reached. In addition, the students are one of components in teaching and learning process who influence the success or failure of implementation the scientific approach. The second party is teachers. The researcher hopes that the result of this research can be additional information for English teacher about implementing scientific approach and about the way to make students able to learn individually. The last is for the next researchers. The researcher hopes that this study is able to be a reference to do next research about scientific approach or Curriculum 2013. 1.5.Scope and Limitation The scope of this research is about a study on the implementation of scientific approach used by an English teacher in teaching English to low level students at 8 in Malang. The limitation of this research is in the second grade students of SMP in Malang. 1.6.Definition of Key Terms 1. Scientific approach is teaching and learning approach which consists of observing, questioning, associating, experimenting, networking or communicating (Ministry of National Education and Culture, 2013). 2. Low level student is the student who has short attention, problem in communication and difficulty in drawing conclusion. (Mamdouh, 2014). 3. SMP in Malang is SMP „Aisyiyah Muhammadiyah 3 Malang. It is one of junior high schools in Malang. This is a school under the primary and secondary Educational Institutions of Muhammadiyah.