AN ANALYSIS ON GRAMMATICAL ERROR IN WRITING MADE BY THE TENTH GRADE OF MULTIMEDIA CLASS IN SMK MUHAMMADIYAH 2 MALANG

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AN ANALYSIS ON GRAMMATICAL ERROR IN WRITING

  

IN SMK MUHAMMADIYAH 2 MALANG

THESIS

This thesis is submitted to meet one of the requirements to achieve Sarjana

Degree in English Education

  

By

ATIEK ERNAWATI NIM: 08360037

  

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

2014

AN ANALYSIS ON GRAMMATICAL ERROR IN WRITING MADE BY THE TENTH GRADE OF MULTIMEDIA CLASS

  IN SMK MUHAMMADIYAH 2 MALANG THESIS By ATIEK ERNAWATI NIM: 08360037 FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG ENGLISH DEPARTMENT 2014

  

This thesis written by Atiek Ernawati was approved on January 27, 2014

  By Advisor 1

  Advisor 2 Drs. Adiloka, M.Pd

  Iswahyuni, M.Pd This thesis was defended in front of the examiners of Faculty of Teacher Training and Education of University of Muhammadiyah Malang and accepted as the partial requirement to achieve

  Sarjana Degree in English Education on January 27, 2014

  Approved by: Faculty of Teacher Training and Education

  University of Muhammadiyah Malang Dean

   Dr. Poncojari Wahyono, M.Kes

  Examiners: Signatures: 1.

  1. …………………. Dr. Hartono, M.Pd 2.

  Rahmawati Khadijah Maro, S.Pd, M. PEd 2. ………………….

  3.

  3. …………………. Drs. Adiloka, M.Pd 4.

  4. …………………. Iswahyuni, M.Pd

  

MOTTO AND DEDICATION

MOTTO

“Sungguh menakjubkan perkara orang yang beriman, karena segala

perkaranya adalah baik. Jika ia mendapatkan kenikmatan, ia

bersyukur karena (ia mengatahui) bahwa hal tersebut adalah memang

baik baginya. Dan jika ia tertimpa musibah atau kesulitan, ia bersabar

karena (ia mengetahui) bahwa hal tersebut adalah baik baginya.”

(H.R Imam Muslim)

  

”Sabar bukanlah ilmu instan yang bisa kita pelajari dalam sekejap.

Sabar itu perlu disiplin dalam belajar, latihan dan praktek setiap hari.”

(Atiek Ernawati)

  DEDICATION I dedicated this thesis to: 

  My self  My beloved father and mother (Sudarno and Maryuni)

   My beloved family  My inspiration Yudi Krisdianto  My sister Ari Dwi Astuti and lovely friend Reni ,

  Thanks you very much for pray, support, attention, suggestion that you have given to me.

AN ANALYSIS ON GRAMMATICAL ERROR IN WRITING

  IN SMK MUHAMMADIYAH 2 MALANG ABSTRACT Writing is the most complicated one. In the process of writing, there are some

difficulties faced by the students. First, the students often make errors in their composition

when they write a paragraph, although the teacher has given the topic before. Second, they

did not re- check their assignment. Third, the students’ knowledge is low. The last, the

students do not understand well about steps of writing. Furthermore, they have less in

vocabulary and have no ability to write with good spelling but also in grammar.

  The design used in this study was descriptive qualitative research design because the resear cher wanted to describe the students’ errors and to give information about the

frequency of occurrence of the grammatical errors made by the students in writing paragraph.

  

The subject in this study was tenth grade Multimedia students of SMK Muhammadiyah 2

Malang. Out of 29 students, there were only 24 students who were able to do the assignment.

This subject was chosen because more students in this class had most grammatical error. In

collecting data, the researcher used writing test to the tenth grade Multimedia students of

SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Malang. One way in which reliability or lack of reliability of a test is

indicated; all tests had measurement error. The result of the tried out showed that the

instrument used by the researcher was reliable.

  Based on the result of the data analysis, it was found there were kind of error made by

students. In steps of writing there were 6 students who forgot about middle in writing

paragraph and 21 students who forgot about closing in writing paragraph. In proofreading

symbol identification and correction there were 6 (12,2 %) error in insert; 25 (51,1%) error in

capitalize16 (32,6%) error in make lower case. In the component of grammar there were 8

(19,6%) error in using nouns; 1 (2,4%) error in pronouns; 19 (46,3%) error in verbs; 10

(24,4%) error in adjectives; 3 (7,3%) error in conjunctions. In surface strategy taxonomy

there were 29 (25,4%) errors in omission; 20 (17,6%) errors in addition; 56 (49,1%) errors in

misformation 9 (7,9%) errors in misordering. Based on the explanation above, it can be

concluded that the most grammatical error made by students is proofreading symbol

identification and correction in point insert (51,1%).

  However, based on the previous study done by Novita (2003), grammatical errors

made by students are in the matter of grammatical error in sentence fragments form,

grammatical error in comma splices form, grammatical error in run-on or fused sentences

form, grammatical error in dangling modifier form. In this study, it may be assumed that the

students made errors because they were confused in making and develop their mind-set in

paragraph. Based on the result of the test, the students found difficulties in constructing the

paragraph.

  This study is expected to give the contribution to the teacher who should give more

attention to the students’ errors by explaining the material clearly. The students should pay

  

attention to the grammar rules that becomes the important aspect in language learning.

Moreover, the further researcher can use the research as one of the references in conducting

some research on students’ non-linguistic problems in developing paragraph.

  Key word: Writing, Grammatical Error Advisor 1

  The Writer

Drs. Adiloka M, Pd. Atiek Ernawati

  

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

  Alhamdulilahirabbal Aalamin, praise to Allah, for all blessing, energy and the brain storming, and health that finally make this thesis finished in due time. Thanks to Allah who always give the power to make her stand in-patient and keep on trying. In addition, the writer would like to say the deepest gratitude and thanks for whom that had helped and encouraged to finish this thesis.

  First, the writer would like to give the sincere gratitude to Drs. Adiloka, M.Pd as the first advisor and Iswahyuni, M.Pd as the second advisor, for the help, advice, and support during the thesis consultation especially during thesis examination. Thanks for your guidance, patience, and understanding until this thesis can be finished on time.

  Second, the writer would like to say thanks so much to her beloved parents moreover, family who always pray for her, give support and motivations. Third, special thanks to Yudi Krisdianto for big help and support. The last, for the writer’s sister and brother Ari Dwi Astuti and Arie Zakaria thanks for give the idea and inspiration. Moreover, for her best friends Reni, Andy, Saban, Tata, Andik thanks for always give her motivations so this thesis can be finished in due time.

  Malang, January 2014 Atiek Ernawati

  TABLE OF CONTENT

APPROVAL.................................................................................................... i

LEGALIZATION .......................................................................................... ii

MOTTO AND DEDICATION ...................................................................... iii

ABSTRACT .................................................................................................... iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................. vi

TABLE OF CONTENT ................................................................................. vii

LIST OF TABLE............................................................................................ ix

  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

  1.1

  1 Background of study .................................................................................

  1.2

  6 Statement of problem ................................................................................

  1.3

  6 Purpose of the study ..................................................................................

  1.4

  6 Significance of the Study ..........................................................................

  1.5

  7 Scope and Limitation ................................................................................

  1.6

  7 Definition of Key Terms ...........................................................................

  CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  2.1

  8 Writing .....................................................................................................

  2.1.1

  9 Steps in Writing ..............................................................................

  2.1.2 Elements of writing ........................................................................ 15

  2.2 Grammar .................................................................................................. 18

  2.2.1 Components of Grammar ............................................................... 19

  2.3 Communicative Effect Taxonomy ........................................................... 21

  2.4 Error ......................................................................................................... 22

  2.4.1 LinguisticCategory ......................................................................... 23

  2.4.2 SurfaceStrategy Taxonomy ............................................................ 24

  CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  3.1 Research Design ........................................................................................ 26

  3.2 Research Subject ....................................................................................... 28

  3.3 Instrument ................................................................................................. 28

  3.4 Procedure of Data collection and Analysis ............................................... 29

  CHAPTER IV FINDING AND DISCUSSION

  4.1 Research Finding ........................................................................................ 31

  4.1.1 Error in Grammar ............................................................................ 31 4.1.1.1 Component of Grammar.........................................................

  31 4.1.1.2 Surface Strategy Taxonomy ...................................................

  34

  4.1.2 Errors in Organize of idea .............................................................. 35 4.1.2.1 Element of Writing Essay ......................................................

  36 4.1.2.2 Proofreading Symbol Identification and Correction ..............

  38

  4.2 Discussion ................................................................................................ 39

  CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

  5.1 Conclusion. ............................................................................................... 43

  5.2 Suggestion ............................................................................................... 45

  5.1.2 To the Teacher of English in the SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Malang. 45

  5.1.3 To the Students in the SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Malang ................ 45

  5.1.4 For Further Research ...................................................................... 45

  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIXES

  LIST OF TABLE Table 4.1 Component of Grammar ..................................................................

  32 Table 4.2 Surface Strategy Taxonomy. ............................................................

  34 Table 4.3 Element of Writing Essay ................................................................

  36 Table 4.4 Proofreading Symbol Identification and Correction ........................

  38

  

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Brown, H. Douglas. 1980. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.

Bailey, Stephen. 2006. Academic Writing. New York: Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park,

Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN

Clouse, Barbara Fine. 1986. The Student Writer Editor and Critic. USA: McGraw-Hill Book

Company. Dulay, Heidy et al. 1982. Language Two. New York: Oxford University Press. Fall. 1998. Academic Studies English. Canada: New Brunswick Community College.

  

James, Carl. 1998. Errors in Language Learning and Use Exploring Error Analysis. USA:

Addison Wesley Longman Inc.

  Khotari, C.R.2008. Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Delhi, India: New Age Internasional Limited Publisher. Little, Joy. 1985. Building English Skill. USA: McDougal, Little & Company.

  Novita, Dian.2003. An Analysis on Grammatical Errors Made by Fourth Semester Students of English Department at Muhammadiyah University of Malang in Writing Narrative Paragraph. Malang: Published Thesis

  

Parse, Rosemarie Rizzo.2011. Qualitative Inquiry the Path of Sciencing. Canada: Jones and

Bartlett Publisher.

Richard. 1999. Writing Difficulties and Disability. Retrieved from

http://www.education.gov.sk.ca/reading-difficulties-disabilities/date/2012/15 Ritongga, Abdul Kadir. 2009. Skemata Struktur Bahasa Indonesia Terhadap Kecampingan

  Kalimat Bahasa Inggris Pada Mahasisa Akademi Pariwisata Medan: Kajian Morfosintaktis. Medan: Published Thesis.

  

Spivey, Becky L. 2006. What is the Writing Process?. Retrieved from

http//www.superduperinc.com/date/2012/5 Sommers, Nancy. 2010.

  A Writer’s Reference. USA: Harvard University.

  

Tarigan, Henry Guntur and Djago Tarigan.1988. Pengajaran Analisis Kesalahan Berbahasa.

  Bandung: Angkasa Press.

Tarigan, Henry Guntur. 1988. Pengajaran Pemerolehan Bahasa. Bandung: Angkasa Press.

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents background of study, statements of problems, purposes of study, significance of study, scope and limitation, and definition of key terms.

1.1 Background of study Language is the most important tool for communication in our daily activity.

  By using language people, can share opinion, idea, feelings, etc. Beside being a tool to communicate with others, language facilitates other communicants to understand what others want and to compare their knowledge (Abdul Ritonga: 2009). Every country has language as a mother tongue, but people who live there also learn foreign language, one of it is English.

  Generally, English is one of international languages learned by people. English is the most commonly used language among foreign language speakers. When people with different languages come together, they commonly use English to communicate to each other. For example, when people go for vacation in France, they want to buy something but they do not know about the language. Thus, they use English to ask the price or the product sold.

  English is very important to learn because nowadays there are many information presented in English. Moreover, English has been the main factor and bench mark in workplace. The ability to speak or write English well and in the correct form is the extra value to increase personal performance. English is also used in

  2 international business. If we want to take a managerial position in some multinational companies, mostly we will be required to speak English. Therefore, English regarded has important function to communicate with others, so that it is learnt from elementary school until university in Indonesia.

  English has four skills that should be mastered by the students, they are: speaking, reading, listening and writing. These four skills have connection to each other . However, it cannot be decided from where these skills should be mastered. Based on that, learning English in vocational schools should include the four skills. If students have difficulty on one skill, it will obstruct the optimality in learning English.

  Good mastery of English can be an effective means to increase the mastery of science and technology, so as to improve the competitiveness of human resources in Indonesia ). It can be accomplished by formal and non-formal learning. Basically, vocational students are prepared for working so that they should have skills including English. Learning English can help students to get information, to communicate well and to increase their confidence when they have interview for job with English in the future.

  Vocationally, learning English is very important because vocational students should have good communication skill because they are prepared for excellent and professional human resources. It is also important because mostly students will face English when they read the instructions of tools and when they create design by computer in which the guidance is also written in English. English in vocational school is not only learned in reading comprehension for understanding the instruction

  3 or guidance, but it is also learned and taught in writing. It has relation with communication, especially in business written. For example, they make letter of order for buying tools or they make letter of complaint when they got broken equipments. Yet, learning English in vocational school is not as successful as it is being expected. When the writer observed and interviewed one of the teachers in a vocational school, it was found that the students still need guidance and the teacher had to teach them slowly. Teacher should give students the clear explanation on writing text or paragraph it is better for the teacher to explain it step by step, start from outline to the development of sentences into paragraph.

  There are still many problems in teaching English for vocational students. In fact, they have to master four skills of English; speaking, listening, reading and writing. First, the students commonly have low motivation in learning English. They feel scared first of English because in the first time they learn it, they have no large number of vocabulary in English. It is one of the difficult problems in learning English for vocational school. Second, the students have low involvement in English teaching learning process. They do not want to be active in the class. They tend to keep silent when the teacher gives interactive session. Third, students have low achievement because of that. It is basically caused by less confidence among the students. It all happen in every skills of English, knowing vocabularies, structure, tenses and grammar is still hard for them; speak, listen, read and write also difficult for students.

  Based on the explanation above, the author would like to make a research on one of the skills in English, that is writing. Writing is one of the language skills and

  4 an activity that has a relationship with the process of thinking and expression skills in script form Siradanai Tan (stated in Abdul Ritonga: 2009). Writing is also one of the most complicated and complex skill for students (Richard: 1999). Students are required to produce words, sentences, and paragraphs to show their skill in a work. It means that students should know how to use words through its spelling, meaning, and its grammatical positions. They should understand about meaning, and its grammatical positions, because they need it to arrange sentences and develop sentences into paragraph.

  Writing activity refers to the knowledge of how some words are organized into a sentence possessing a series of words that have meaning. Having good writing, learner will be helpful in delivering their ideas, messages and feelings either to the reader Hartanti (stated in Novita 2003). In writing there are some components namely punctuation, structure and grammar. There component are always used in writing. If one of it is missing, it will cause errors and the writing can not be understood well.

  Usually errors that often occur in vocational high school students when they write something are they did not observed the word structure and the sentences are meaningless. Sometime they also interpret or arrange sentences word by word without paying attention to meaning. If people want to write in English, they have to understand well on the grammar. Grammar is one of the important aspects on writing. Using and mastering correct grammar is not easy, because the things grammar and the Indonesian are grammar very different. In fact, some students are not able to use grammar correctly.

  5 Actually, grammar is used to explain about the structure of a sentence so it will make the reader understand well about the meaning. A sentence without grammar would be disorganized and causes some mistake like grammatical error in writing. Grammatical error is big problem in writing subject Hartanti (stated in Novita 2003). In vocational school, students should already know about grammar or structure in writing but in reality they still make many errors when making paragraph. In study English the students must pay attention in grammar. Indonesian students, as foreign language learners of English, also face difficulties about grammar because of the difference in linguistic structure between Indonesia and English. It means that the students have difficulties in learning English grammar.

  Learning English in the tenth Multimedia class at SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Malang is conducted in all skills, such as speaking, reading, listening and writing.

  According the write r’s observation in teaching writing, students were taught to make the opening dialogue, greeting, telling things and times, expressing feeling and describing something. However, the students still make errors, especially in grammar.

  They are difficult in starting to make sentences because they have less vocabulary but the worst is that they cannot use “to be” in the proper place. They usually present “I” with “am” and it will follow with other “to be”. According to them, it is like “I” is come with “am”. Using “the” in the sentence is often done by students. It seems that they feel appropriate in using “the” in most words. Another problem in grammar is that they are difficult in determining adverb, auxiliary, and article. Accordingly, the researcher take a research to analyze the grammatical error occurs in class tenth of Multimedia class at SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Malang.

  6

  1.2 Statement of the Problem 1.

  What kinds of grammatical errors the tenth grade of Multimedia class make in learning writing in SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Malang?

  2. How the tenth grade Multimedia class in SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Malang organize their idea in writing essay?

  1.3 Purpose of the Study

  The purposes of the study are: 1. To find the kinds of grammatical errors made by the tenth Multimedia class in SMK Muhammadiyah 2, Malang.

2. To know how the tenth grade Multimedia class in SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Malang organize their idea in writing essay.

1.4 Significance of the Study

  The significance of the study is to give contributions to English teachers in SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Malang to improve their students’ writing including vocabulary, grammar, and developing paragraph. The result of this study is also expected to have contribution for teacher in knowing their students grammatical error and deciding what appropriate method and strategy for teaching writing, also s tudent’s error, especially the grammatical error in writing paragraph based on the picture or describing something or someone can be used as a reference of the evaluation for the next treatment in order to improve the process of teaching and learning as well. This analysis is also to make the students know of their own error, especially grammar.

  They will know the weakness in their learning process and it will help them to

  7 improve their competence in writing. So, this study is also expected to be useful for further researchers who want to create the similar research.

  1.5 Scope and Limitation

  There are some grammatical errors that often occur in the students such as errors in making paragraph that appropriate with the picture, describing something or someone and making dialogue. This study does not analyze all errors; it just focuses on writing in describing something or someone. The writer only limits the problems to the student’s grammatical error in writing made by the tenth Multimedia in SMK Muhammadiyah 2, Malang.

  1.6 Definition of Key Terms 1.

  Grammar Grammar is a process how some words and their component combine to form a sentence that is easily understood by the reader.

  2. Error Error is a situation where someone made a mistake in learning something.

  3. Writing Writing is an activity to convey idea in the written form.

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