A TRANSLATION ANALYSIS OF EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES BASED ON THE TECHNIQUE OF ADJUSTMENT IN THE NOVEL OF HARRY POTTER AND THE DEATHLY HOLLOWS INTO HARRY POTTER DAN RELIKUI KEMATIAN

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perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id A TRANSLATION ANALYSIS OF EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES BASED ON THE TECHNIQUE OF ADJUSTMENT IN THE NOVEL OF HARRY POTTER AND THE DEATHLY HOLLOWS INTO HARRY POTTER DAN RELIKUI KEMATIAN THESIS Submitted as a partial fulfillment of requirements For the Sarjana Sastra Degree at English Department Faculty of Letters and Fine Arts Sebelas Maret University By: ISDIATI AGUSTRIANI C1306506 ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF LETTERS AND FINE ARTS SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY SURAKARTA 2011 commit to user perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id A Translation Analysis of Exclamatory Sentences Based on the Technique of Adjustment in the Novel of Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows into Harry Potter dan Relikui Kematian By: ISDIATI AGUSTRIANI C1306506 Approved to be examined before the Board of Examiners of English Department Faculty of Letters and Fine Arts Sebelas Maret University Consultant Prof. Drs. M.R. Nababan, M.Ed, MA, Ph.D NIP 196 303 281 992 011 001 The Head of S1 Non-Regular English Department Drs. Budi Waskito, M. Pd. NIP 195 211 081 983 031 001 commit to user ii perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id A Translation Analysis of Exclamatory Sentences Based on the Technique of Adjustment in the novel of Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows into Harry Potter dan Relikui Kematian By: ISDIATI AGUSTRIANI C1306506 Accepted and Approved by the Board of Examiners of English Department Faculty of Letters and Fine Arts Sebelas Maret University On January , 2011 Position Name Signature Chairman Drs. Budi Waskito, M.Pd NIP. 195 211 081 983 031 001 ………………. Secretary Drs. Agus Hari Wibowo, MA NIP. 196 708 301 993 021 001 ………………. Prof. Drs. MR. Nababan, M.Ed, MA, Ph.D NIP. 196 303 281 992 011 001 ………………. Ardianna Nuraeni, SS, M.Hum NIP. 198 209 272 008 122 001 ………………. First Examiner Second Examiner Dean of Faculty of Letters and Fine Arts Sebelas Maret University Drs. Sudarno, M.A. NIP. 195commit 303 141 to 985 user061 001 iii perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id PRONOUNCEMENT Name : Isdiati Agustriani Student Number : C 1306506 Pronounces truthfully that the thesis entitled A Translation Analysis of Exclamatory Sentences Based on the Technique of Adjustment in The Novel of Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows into Harry Potter dan Relikui Kematian is originally made by the researcher. It is not a plagiarism nor is it made by other people. The things related to the other people’s words are written in quotation and included in the bibliography. If this pronouncement is proved incorrect in the future, the researcher is ready to take the responsibility. Surakarta, January 2011 The Researcher Isdiati Agustriani C1306506 commit to user iv perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id MOTTO “The competitor to be feared is one who never bothers about you at all, but goes on making his own business better all the time.” (Henry Ford) “If my mind can conceive it, and my heart can believe it, Then, I can achieve it.” (Mohammad Ali) “Faith is taking the first step even when you don’t see the whole stairs.” (Marthin Luther King) commit to user v perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id DEDICATION I dedicate this thesis to: My Beloved Earth and Heaven, Mom and Dad My Adored Brothers and Sisters My Future Life-Partner commit to user vi perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id Acknowledgment To obtain Sarjana Sastra degree is a dream for almost all people including me. Without people who encourage and give their honest and truthful thoughts, this journey will never end. This thesis is the beginning of my new chapter of life. Therefore, it is a pleasure to thank all the people who have made it possible. 1. Drs. Sudarno, M.A., The Dean of Faculty of Letters and Fine Arts, Sebelas Maret University. 2. Drs. Budi Waskito, M. Pd., The Head of S1 Non-Regular English Department and my academic supervisor for the guidance during my study, for giving an approval and a permission to write this thesis. 3. A very special thank to Prof. Drs. M.R. Nababan, M. Ed., MA., Ph. D. Without his guidance and support, none of this will ever be accomplished. Thank you does not seem adequate but definitely it is said with appreciation and respect. 4. I would also like to gratefully acknowledge the support of some very special individuals. They helped me enormously with encouragement and friendships. They mirrored back my ideas so I heard them aloud, an important process for this writer to shape her thesis paper and future work. Betha, Key, Inul, Dije, Anggun and Ayu. I can only say proper thank you by presenting more achievement of further study. 5. Lastly, and most importantly, I wish to thank my family, absolutely without their support, school and work would not have been possible. Their belief commit to user vii perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id that one should follow what they love allowed me the freedom to pursue my Sarjana degree. Surakarta, January 2011 Isdiati Agustriani commit to user viii perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id TABLE OF CONTENTS APPROVAL OF CONSULTANT.................................................................. ii APPROVAL OF BOARD EXAMINERS …………………………………. iii PRONOUNCEMENT ……………………………………………………… iv MOTTO …………………………………………………………………….. v DEDICATION ……………………………………………………………... vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.............................................................................. vii TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………… ix ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………… xiii ABBREVIATION ………………………………………………………….. xv LIST OF TABLE……………..…………………………………………….. xvi I. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Research Background .................................................................... 1 1.2. Problem Statement ......................................................................... 8 1.3. Research Objectives ……............................................................... 8 1.4. Research Limitation ……………………………………………... 9 1.5. Research Benefits ………………………………………………... 9 1.6. Thesis Organization ……………………………………………… 10 II. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Definition of Translation ………………………………….…….. 12 2.2. Process of Translation …................................................................ 13 commit to user ix perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id 2.3. Problems in Translation ....…..………...………………………... 14 2.4. Context …………… ...………..……..……..…………………..... 15 2.5. Technique of Adjustments……………...………………………... 17 2.6. Accuracy and Acceptability ……..………………………………. 30 2.7. Definition of Sentences ....……………………………………...... 32 2.8. Classification of Sentences ……..………………………………... 33 2.9. Style ……………………………………………………………… 36 2.10. About the Novel ………………………………………………….. 36 III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1. Type of Research ...……………………………………………… 38 3.2. Data and Source of Data ……….........…........................................ 38 3.3. Sample and Sampling Technique ………………………………... 39 3.4. Research Procedure ...…………………………………………… 40 3.5. Technique of Collecting Data ...…………………………………. 40 3.6. Technique of Analyzing Data …………………………………… 42 IV. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 4.1. Introduction ……………....……………………………………… 44 4.2. Research Findings ……………………………………………….. 47 4.2.1. Technique of Adjustment ……..…………………………………. 47 4.2.1. Add. Adjustment in terms of addition …………………. 49 4.2.1. Sub. Adjustment in terms of subtraction ………………. 50 4.2.1. Alt. Adjustment in terms of alteration ……………….. 51 4.2.1. Add+Alt Adjustment in terms of addition and alteration …. commit to user x 52 perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id 4.2.1. Sub+Alt Adjustment in terms of subtraction and alteration... 53 4.2.2. The Purpose of the Technique of Adjustment…………………… 54 4.2.2. Struc/Add Addition as the Requirement of the Structure of the RL ........................................................................... 4.2.2. Struct/Add+Alt Addition and Alteration as the Requirement of the Structure of the RL .................................. 4.2.2.Sem/Add 56 58 Addition to produce Semantically Equivalence Structure ................................................................. 4.2.2.Sem/Sub 59 Subtraction to produce Semantically Equivalence Structure .................................................................... 4.2.2.Sem/Alt 61 Alteration to produce Semantically Equivalence Structure ................................................................. 63 4.2.2. Sem/Sub+Alt Subtraction and Alteration to produce Semantically Equivalence Structure ........................................... 4.2.2.Sty/Add Addition to provide Equivalence Stylistic Appropriateness ......................................................... 4.2.2.Sty/Sub Subtraction to provide Equivalence Alteration to provide Equivalence 68 Addition and Alteration to provide Equivalence Stylistic Appropriateness ................................... 4.2.2. Sty/Sub+Alt 67 Stylistic Appropriatness ....................................................... 4.2.2. Sty/Add+Alt 66 Stylistic Appropriatness .......................................................... 4.2.2.Sty/Alt 64 Subtraction and Alteration to provide Equivalence commit to user xi 70 perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id Stylistic Appropriateness ....................................... 4.2.2. Comm/Add Addition to carry an Equivalent Communication Load ....................................................................... 4.2.2. Comm/Sub 73 Subtraction to carry an Equivalent Communication Load ........................................................................ 4.2.2. Comm/Alt 71 74 Alteration to carry an Equivalent Communication Load .......................................................................... 75 4.2.2.Comm/Sub+Alt Subtraction and Alteration to carry an Equivalent Communication Load .......................................... 77 4.2.3. Accuracy and Acceptability ........................................................... 78 4.2.3. A. The Accuracy of the Translation ............................................. 83 4.2.3. A.1. Classification A ...................................................................... 84 4.2.3. A.2. Classification B ...................................................................... 87 4.2.3. A.3. Classification C ...................................................................... 91 4.2.3. B. The Acceptability of the Translation ......................................... 94 4.2.3. B.1. Classification A ...................................................................... 94 4.2.3. B.2. Classification B ...................................................................... 96 4.3. Discussion ........................................................................................ 98 V. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION ………………………………... 105 5.1. Conclusions……….………………………….………………….. 105 5.2. Suggestions………..………...…………………….…………….. 108 REFERENCES APPENDICES commit to user xii perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id ABSTRACT Isdiati Agustriani. C1306506. 2011. A Translation Analysis of Exclamatory Sentences based on the Technique of Adjustment in the novel of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows into Harry Potter dan Relikui Kematian . English Department. Faculty of Letters and Fine Arts. Sebelas Maret University. Surakarta. The aims of the study are to find out the technique of adjustments, the purposes of applying technique of adjustment and accuracy and acceptability of the translation of exclamatory sentences in ―Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows‖. The research is a descriptive qualitative method which employs total sampling technique. 121 exclamatory sentences in the novel Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows were taken as the data. Based on the analysis, the researcher ascertains the following results: First, based on the tabulation, it is apparent that the most dominant technique of adjustment used by the translator is in terms of alteration which amounts to 51.2%. Meanwhile, the second place is taken by the technique of adjustment in terms of subtraction with 21.5%. The third major technique of adjustment used is in terms of addition with 19.8%, followed by the technique of adjustment in terms of subtraction and alteration with 5.8% of 121 data and the last is in terms of addition and alteration which amounts 1.7% from the whole data. From this configuration, the findings of the technique of adjustments suggest that the translation is source text oriented. The tabulation also shows that the most dominant purpose of using technique of adjustment is to provide equivalence stylistic appropriateness which amounts to 53.7%. Meanwhile, the purpose to carry an equivalent communication load takes second place with 24%. The third major purpose with 19.8% is taken by producing semantically equivalence structure. The last purpose, as the requirement of the structure of the RL takes the last place with 4 data or 3.3% of 121 data. The findings of the research show that out of 121 translations of exclamatory sentences in the novel Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows written by JK Rowling, 75 data (62%) are accurate, 45 data (37.2%) are less accurate and 1 datum (0.8%) are inaccurate. The mean score of the accuracy level of the translation is 2.6. In terms of acceptability, there are 110 data (91 %) of the translations of exclamatory sentences in the novel Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows written by JK Rowling considered acceptable, 11 data (9%) are less acceptable and there is no datum found unacceptable. The mean score of the acceptability level of the translation is 2.8. From the results, it is expected that the research will give an input to the readers in conducting research on Exclamatory Sentence especially dealing with the technique of adjustments. It commit is suggested to userthat other researchers analyze the xiii perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id technique of adjustments with different approach or in other classifications in terms of the degree of accuracy and acceptability. They may challenge themselves to analyze it of other sources, such as films or dramas. commit to user xiv perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id ABBREVIATIONS SL : Source Language ST : Source Text RL : Receptor Language TT : Target Text Add : Addition Sub : Subtraction Alt : Alteration Sem : Semantic Struct : Structure Sty : Style Comm : Communication commit to user xv perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id LIST OF TABLE Table 4.1. Classification Based on Techniques of Adjustment Table 4.2. Classification Based on Purposes of using Technique of Adjustment Table 4.3. Accuracy Level of the Translation Table 4.4. Acceptability Level of the Translation Table 4.5. Accuracy Scale Table 4.6. Acceptability Scale commit to user xvi 1 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1. Research Background Translation generally is defined as substituting a text in a source language (SL) with that in a receptor one (RL). To conduct an accurate translation is not an easy thing to do. It needs not only a knowledge competence of both source and receptor language but also communication and translation competence. In the globalization era when the needs of knowledge increase significantly, translation plays a major role to transfer the knowledge from one language to another. Therefore, many problems occur in the process of transferring those languages since each language has its own cultural background. Nida’s idea in Widyamartaya states, ―The receptor language message must have the closest equivalent of the SL message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style‖ (1989, p: 11), supports the statement that due to the differences between the source and the receptor language, the translator has to adjust his translation in order to make it equivalent with respect to the message of the source and the receptor language. In adjusting his translation, a translator should consider a technique of adjustment. The technique of adjustment is concerned with what the translator does in terms of addition, subtractions, and alterations in a process of translating. Nida states ―The technique of adjustments are designed to produce correct commit to user 1 2 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id equivalents, not to serve as an excuse for tampering with the source language message‖ (1964, p: 226). In the process of translating, every translator always concerns himself with some kinds of sentences because language cannot be separated from sentences. There are several types of sentence in English. They are declarative sentence that simply states a fact or argument, without requiring either an answer or action from the reader; the interrogative sentence that asks a direct question and always ends in a question mark; the exclamatory sentence or exclamation, that is simply a more forceful version of a declarative sentence, marked at the end with an exclamation mark; and the imperative sentence that gives a direct command to someone -- this type of sentence can end either with a period or with an exclamation mark, depending on how forceful the command is. Type of sentence that is going to be analyzed in this research is exclamatory sentence. According to Shane, Ferris, and Keener in their book, Growth in Goodsss English 1958, ―Exclamatory sentence is a sentence spoken in fear, anger, excitement, dread, joy, delight, or some other strong feeling that might make a person cry out. It can be called a sentence which is cried out, or exclaimed and ended by an exclamation point (!)‖. The examples of the exclamatory sentences found in the novel of Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows will be explained below. Example 1 Vernon Dursley : ―You took your time!‖ (001/HPaTDH-031/Alt/Sem) : ―Kau sengaja berlambat-lambat!‖ (001/HPdRK-049/Alt/Sem) commit to user 3 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id Example 2 Dedalus Diggle : ―Good day to you, Harry Potter’s relatives!‖ (002/HPaTDH036/ Sub+Alt/Sem) : ―Selamat sore, sanak Harry Potter!‖ (002/HPdRK- 056/Sub+Alt/Sem) The first example is taken from a situation when Harry Potter is called by his uncle, Vernon Dursley, but he does not come right after the calling while his uncle urges him to come right away. He gives an impression to his uncle that he does it in purpose and it upsets Vernon. Therefore, his uncle concludes that Harry takes his time to react to his calling. The sentence is included as exclamatory sentence instead of imperative sentence since the sentence does not show a command. In his anger, Vernon Dursley roars to Harry when he finally appears. To show Vernon’s strong feeling of displease towards Harry, the exclamation mark is needed in the end of the sentence. In the second example, the sentence is obviously included as exclamatory sentence instead of imperative sentence due to the feeling of excitement and delight experienced by Dedalus Diggle. He is one of Harry Potter’s admirers. The situation in this conversation is the first occasion for him to meet Harry Potter’s relatives. Therefore, the feeling of such delight and pleasure is shown in his expression. In Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows novel, the researcher finds many exclamatory sentences that experience the technique of adjustment in terms of addition, subtraction and alteration. To understand more about them, the examples commit to user will be presented below. 4 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id Example 1: Exclamatory sentence in terms of addition. Hermione : ―Ron, we can’t!‖ (038/HPaTDH-137/Add/Comm) : ―Ron, kita tidak bisa kesana!‖ (038/HPdRK-223/Add/Comm) The example above is quoted from the conversation between Hermione and Ron. The following text will illustrate such condition. After a minute or two, Ron said, ―You know, we’re not far from the Leaky Cauldron here, it’s only in Charing Cross-‖ ―Ron, we can’t!‖ said Hermione at once. ―Not to stay there, but to find out what’s going on!‖ We know what’s going on! Voldemort’s taken over the Ministry, what else do we need to know?‖ Setelah semenit-dua menit berlalu, Ron berkata, ―kalian tahu, kita tidak jauh dari Leaky Cauldron, tempat itu cuma di Charing Cross-‖ ―Ron, kita tidak bisa kesana!‖ kata Hermione segera. ―Bukan untuk tinggal, tapi untuk mencari tahu apa yang terjadi!‖ ―Kita tahu apa yang terjadi! Voldemort sudah mengambil alih Kementerian, apa lagi yang perlu kita ketahui?‖ The word ‗kesana’ is added in the RL. Based on the situation above, the word ‗kesana’ refers to a place namely Charing Cross. It is not new information. This translation is already correct and the addition does not add the meaning. It is acceptable also if the translator does not add the word ‗kesana’, but she does it because the added word ‗kesana’ has been included elsewhere in the text and the commit to user perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 5 digilib.uns.ac.id translator attempts to carry an equivalence communication load. The translator adds this word to intensify the meaning. Example 2: Exclamatory sentence in terms of subtraction Ron : ―Not to stay there, but to find out what’s going on!‖ (039/HPaTDH137/Sub/Sty) : ―Bukan untuk tinggal, tapi untuk mencari tahu apa yang terjadi!‖ (039/HPdRK-223/Sub/Sty) The example above is quoted from a conversation between Ron and Hermione. The situation below will illustrate more. After a minute or two, Ron said, ―You know, we’re not far from the Leaky Cauldron here, it’s only in Charing Cross-‖ ―Ron, we can’t!‖ said Hermione at once. ―Not to stay there, but to find out what’s going on!‖ We know what’s going on! Voldemort’s taken over the Ministry, what else do we need to know?‖ Setelah semenit-dua menit berlalu, Ron berkata, ―kalian tahu, kita tidak jauh dari Leaky Cauldron, tempat itu cuma di Charing Cross-‖ ―Ron, kita tidak bisa kesana!‖ kata Hermione segera. ―Bukan untuk tinggal, tapi untuk mencari tahu apa yang terjadi!‖ ―Kita tahu apa yang terjadi! Voldemort sudah mengambil alih Kementerian, apa lagi yang perlu kita ketahui?‖ The word ‗there’ in the SL is subtracted. It does not lessen the meaning in the RL because from the text, it is quite clear that the omitted word ‗there’ refers commit to user to a place that has been mentioned before, so without translating the word ‗there’, perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 6 digilib.uns.ac.id it still can be understood. It seems unnecessary to repeat information which is clear enough from the context of situation. So the subtraction does not lessen the communication load nor deviate the source meaning. Example 3: Exclamatory sentence in terms of alteration Hagrid : ―An’ the last time you was on it, Harry, I could fit yeh in one hand!‖ (008/HPaTDH-051/Alt/Sty) : ―Dan terakhir kali kau naik motor ini, Harry, kau cuma sebesar satu tanganku ini!‖ (008/HPdRK-079/Alt/Sty) The exclamatory sentence above is taken from a situation when Hagrid feels astonish of the second chance he got to protect Harry Potter with the same vehicle, Sirius Black’s motorcycle. The first chance happens 16 years ago. The illustration of such situation is as follows. ―Is this it? Is this Sirius’s bike?‖ ―The very same,‖ said Hagrid, beaming down at Harry. ―An’ the last time you was on it, Harry, I could fit yeh in one hand!‖ ―Inikah motornya? Inikah motor Sirius?‖ ―Motor yang sama,‖ kata Hagrid, menunduk tersenyum pada Harry. ―Dan terakhir kali kau naik motor ini, Harry, kau cuma sebesar satu tanganku ini!‖ The translator has made an alteration in translating a clause ‗I could fit yeh in one hand.’ It is translated into ‗kau cuma sebesar satu tanganku ini.’ Indeed, the clause ‗I could fit yeh in one hand’ is referred to the expression of surprise due to Hagrid’s first experience to protect Harry Potter when he was a year-old baby. In commit to user that time, Harry was so small until Hagrid, a giant figure, could fit him only in perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 7 digilib.uns.ac.id one hand. Such alteration is intended to produce semantically equivalence structure. As a result, the meaning of the clause becomes clearer. Finally, it can be said that such alteration does not change or deviate the source meaning, it generates meaning equivalence. In addition to the techniques of adjustment that is used by the translator, the researcher also observes the accuracy and acceptability as parts of quality assessment of translation that are proposed to identify whether the translation result is accurate, acceptable and/or does not sound as a translation product. Accuracy is one of the elements of translation quality assessment. It deals with the degree of accurateness of the message transfer. The target text, or the translation product, should include a whole message in the source text. A translation should not betray the original text of the source language text. In addition, there is acceptability as another important aspect related to translation quality assessment. The acceptability level is emphasized on the language factor. The language use of the target text is expected to accept by target reader on a common form as what the original, so it does not seem like a work of translation. It means that the consideration of providing the Indonesian readers with translation, to make it effortless for Indonesian enjoying literary works seems hard to be completed and may furthermore create a bad understanding of the translation to the target readers. However, it is possibly to some people that the translation may not be hard to comprehend. Moreover, this research intends to assess the accuracy and acceptability level occurring in the Indonesian translation of Exclamatory-sentence, to find out commit to user 8 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id whether the target text is acceptable and sounds natural to the target reader. Furthermore, since the target text is a translation, the researcher attempts to observe what reasons that underlie the translator to do such adjustment dealing with the exclamatory sentence in Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows. This research is determined to have ―A Translation Analysis of Exclamatory Sentences Based on The Technique of Adjustment in The Novel of Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows Into Harry Potter dan Relikui Kematian.‖ 1.2. Problem Statements Based on the research background, the researcher proposes some problem statements as follows: 1. How are the exclamatory sentences in Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows translated into Indonesian in terms of technique of adjustments? 2. What are the purposes that underlie the translator to do such adjustment? 3. How are the accuracy and acceptability of the translation of exclamatorysentence that experience such adjustments in Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows novel? 1.3. Research Objectives The goals of this research are: 1. To illustrate the way of translating the exclamatory-sentences in Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows into Indonesian in terms of adjustment made by the translator. commit to user 9 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 2. To illustrate the purpose that renders the translator to do such adjustment. 3. To illustrate the accuracy and acceptability of the translations of exclamatorysentences that experience such adjustments in Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows novel. 1.4. Research Limitation Research limitation is necessary to be distinguished in purpose to evade the research amiss from the aim. In this research, the researcher only makes an analysis of translation on dialogues in the novel of Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows written by J.K. Rowling that is translated into Indonesian by Listiana Srisanti, which contains exclamatory-sentence. The analysis is constricted through the technique of adjustment in terms of addition, subtraction, and alteration, the purpose of using such technique and the quality assessment in term of accuracy and acceptability. 1.5. Research Benefit The researcher expects that this research will be beneficial for: 1. English Department Students This research is expected to be useful as an additional reference for the students in studying the translation subject especially about technique of adjustment in translation. commit to user 10 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 2. Lecturers This research can be used as an addition reference for the lecturers in teaching translation subject. 3. Other researchers This research can also be used to stimulate other researchers to conduct further research related to this study. 1.6. Thesis Organization The Thesis organization is systematically arranged as follows: CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION, Problem consists Statements, of Research Research Background, Objectives, Research Limitation, Research Benefit and Thesis Organization. CHAPTER II : LITERATURE REVIEW, consists of Definition of Translation, Process of Translation, Problems in Translation, Context, Technique of Adjustment, Accuracy and Acceptability, Definition of Sentence, Classification of Sentence, Style and About the Novel. CHAPTER III : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, consists of Type of Research, Data and Source of Data, Sample and Sampling Technique, Research Procedure, Technique of Collecting Data, and Technique of Analyzing Data. CHAPTER IV : DATA ANALYSIS, consists of an Introduction, Research Findings and Discussion. commit to user 11 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id CHAPTER V : CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION, conclusions and suggestions. commit to user consists of 12 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW In this chapter, various kinds of theories related to this research will be discussed. The theories are constructive for the researcher to conduct this study. They will function as the basic foundation in analyzing the data of this research. The theories include Definition of Translation, Process of Translation, Problems in Translation, Context, Techniques of Adjustment, Accuracy and Acceptability, Definition of Sentence, Classification of Sentence, Style and About the Novel. The detailed description of each theory is as follows. 2.1. Definition of Translation In The Theory of Translation, Nida and Taber explain the definition of translation as follow; ―Translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in term of meaning and secondly in term of style,‖ (1978, p: 12). Besides that, Catford defines translation as ―The replacement of textual material in one language (the source language) by equivalent textual material in another language (the target language)‖ (1965, p: 20). Brislin proposes another definition of translation. He says that ―Translation is the general term referring to the transfer of thoughts and ideas from one language (source) to another (receptor), whether the languages are in written or oral form‖ (1976, p: 6). commit to user 12 13 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id Based on the statements above, it can be concluded that translation is a process of message transference from one language (the source language) to other language (the receptor language). In transferring the thoughts and message, the most important thing is that the translator has to pay attention to the meaning and the style of text. 2.2. Process of Translation Translating a text is a complex thing and consists of a series activity that constitutes a process. Nida proposes simpler and more common translating process illustrated in a scheme as follows: Source Language Receptor Language Source Text Translated Text Analysis Restructuring Transfer (Nida and Taber, 1974:33) The explanation of the scheme as follows: 1. First, the translator has to read over text and understand the meaning and the message of the text. It will be better to repeat reading the passage two or three times in order to get a clear grasp of the entire content. 2. In order to understand the content of the text, the translator has to conduct a linguistic analysis both through grammatical and meaning analysis that covers the referential and connotative meaning. commit to user perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 14 digilib.uns.ac.id 3. After finishing the analysis of the text and understanding the source language message, the translator transfers the message into the target language. This process discusses ―how the analysis result is transferred from the source language to the target language with the least possible change in meaning and with equal reaction as felt by the native source language speaker‖. The transfer certainly is not perfect yet, so it needs correction consultation to the more professional person about figurative language and style. 4. Lastly, the restructuring process discusses some kinds of figurative language, style and technique which can be used in the translation. In this stage, the translation must be adjusted with the grammar of the target language. The translation must maintain the meaning of the source language. Then after the restructuring is over, it means that the process of translation has also been completed. 2.3. Problems in Translation J.C. Catford in A Linguistic Theory of Translation mentions, ―There is a translation problem namely untranslatability. Translation fails, or untranslatability occurs when it is impossible to build functionally relevant features of the situation into the contextual meaning of the TL text. There are two categories of untranslatability, linguistic and cultural untranslatability. In linguistic untranslatability, the functionally relevant features include some which are in fact formal features of the language of the SL text. It occurs when TL has no formally corresponding feature.‖ (1965, p: 94) In cultural untranslatability, the failure is due to the absence of the situational user feature which is relevant in the SLcommit culturetoand in the RL culture. 15 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id In his essay, A Framework for the Analysis and Evaluation of Theories Translation that is compiled by Sakri in Ikhwal Menerjemahkan, Nida also mentions two kinds of problems in transferring message, namely problems of content and problems of form. ―The circumstantial setting of the ST can give a serious problem for the translator to provide the most equivalent text. Every culture has its own characteristic that might be considered weird by other cultures. This is called the problems of content. In such cases, the translator may be forced to choose between the less comprehensible cultural setting of the SL and the more intelligible but anachronistic setting of the receptor language.‖ (1985, p: 71) Another problem in translating message is the problem of form. Nida said that ―Though the difficulties related to the adequate reproduction of content are often acute, they generally do not constitute as complex and intractable a series of problems as the particular formal features of language employed in a message‖ (1976, p: 72). It is easier to analyze and describe the cognitive equivalences of content then to find the formal equivalences of language. 2.4. Context Analyzing sentences related to the meaning cannot be separated from the context. Context makes the sentences can be understood appropriately. About this, Leech states ―Context deals with relevant aspects of the physical or social setting of an utterance‖ (1983, p: 13). Context is a background knowledge, which is shared by speaker and hearer in understanding their utterances. In short, someone who wants to commit to user 16 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id understand the meaning of language used has to know exactly the context in which the language is used. Furthermore, Malinowsky mentions two notions of context, context of situation and context of culture, which are playing important part in the interpretation of meaning. ―Context of situation is the situation in which the text is uttered. It refers to the environment of the text. Meanwhile, context of culture is the cultural background or history behind the participant‖ (in Halliday and Hassan, 1985, p: 6). Yet, with respect to the context of situation, Bloomfield states that the meaning of a linguistic form is the situation in which the speaker utters it and the response it calls forth in the hearer (in Samiati, 1990, p: 20). According to Allan Keith, context can be categorized into three items, namely: setting, the world spoken of, and textual environment. ―Setting is defined on the spatio-temporal location of the utterance. It means that setting refers to a particular time and place at which a speaker makes an utterance and hearer hears or reads the utterance‖ (1986, p: 36); ―The world spoken of is the world which is revealed in a certain utterance. It can be the real world of man’s experience, or it can be the dream world, the fictional world or even the mix of factual and fictional world‖ (1986, p: 37); ―The textual environment is a text in which an utterance happens. The text containing certain utterance will show what world is being spoken of, and also what persons, places, objects, states, events, acts, etc are being spoken of in the utterance‖ (1986, p: 37). With respect to the three items of context, it can be summarized that setting refers to time and place at which an utterance goes on, and the world spoken of refers to the matter which is being discussed through the utterance, commit to user perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 17 digilib.uns.ac.id while the textual environment refers to a text in which an utterance occurs. So, the three components complete one another. Based on some definitions above, it can be concluded that context includes time; the topic which is discussed; an information-background of an utterance or a sentence in terms of the participants involved in communication; place at which the utterance or the sentence occurs; and the textual characteristic in which the utterance or sentence happens. 2.5. Techniques of Adjustment Technique of adjustment is often used by the translator in order to gain the most equivalent result from the SL to the RL. It deals with what the translator does in term of addition, subtraction, and alteration in this translation. Such technique is consistent with Nida’s idea as follows; ―The present chapter deals with the technique of adjustment used in the process of translating. Here we are concerned, therefore, not with why the translator does one thing or another, but with what he does, in terms of addition, subtraction, and alteration.‖ (1964, p: 226) Further, Nida states that ―the essential purpose of these techniques are to produce correct equivalent, not to serve as an excuse for tampering with the source language message‖ (1964, p: 226). Nida states that the essential purposes of adjustment are as follows: 1. Permit adjustment of the form of the message to the requirement of the structure of the receptor; 2. Produce semantically equivalent structures; commit to userand 3. Provide equivalent stylistic appropriateness; 18 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 4. Carry an equivalent communication load (1964, p: 226-238). The following are the brief explanation of adjustments techniques proposed by Nida: 1. Addition According to Nida in his book entitled Toward A Science Translation, there are so many types of addition which may be employed in the process of translating, among them the most common and important are shown in the section below. Many of these additions are actually a part of the process of structural alteration, so that one technique of adjustment cannot be rigidly isolated from another (1964, p: 227). a. Filling out elliptical expression Though ellipsis occurs in all languages, the particular structures which permit such ―omitted‖ words are by no means identical from language to language. Accordingly, in an expression almost obligatory elliptical in one language, an ellipsis may not be permitted in another (Nida 1964, p: 227). Example: SL: ―She is smarter than I‖ TL: ―Dia lebih pintar daripada saya yang pintar‖ The translation is filled by elliptical construction yang pintar to emphasize that the subject I in RL is also smart but not as smart as She. b. Obligatory specifications The specification required in some translations result from one of two reasons; (a) ambiguity in the receptor language formations, and (b) the fact that commit to user 19 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id greater specifity may be required so as to avoid misleading reference (Nida 1964, p: 228). Example: SL: ―Ron… to the school…‖ TL: ―Saya, Ron, pergi ke sekolah…” The source language tells us about Ron only, however, the narrator is not stated, whereas the narrator is Ron. Therefore, it is necessary to add the word saya. So the translation on the target language is clear enough. c. Additions required by grammatical restructuring Almost any type of restructuring of a source language expression can result in some lexical ambiguity. Perhaps the most common instances which require amplification are: 1. Alteration of word classes. Probably the most frequent additions must be made when there is a shift in word classes (Nida, 1964, p: 228). Example: SL : ―False journalist.‖ TL : ―Orang yang berpura-pura menjadi wartawan.‖ The alteration of word class above happens in the adjective false that may be shifted into another class of words expressed by prepositions or conjunctions and then carried by verbs. Thus, the word false is altered into a full sentence and the addition, of course, appeared to be orang yang berpura-pura. commit to user 20 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 2. Modification from indirect to direct discourse. When an indirect discourse, whether explicit or implicit, is changed into a direct discourse a number of elements must be added. This is especially so when the discourse is largely implicit (Nida, 1964, p: 228). Example: SL: Mom informed us that she would go to Jakarta the next day. TL: Ibu berkata, “Ibu akan pergi ke Jakarta besok.‖ The word berkata is added as the predicate because the translator changes indirect sentence into direct sentence. 3. Shifts of voice. When a passive expression is changed to an active one it is obviously necessary to insert the agent. Example: SL: ―He was elected president.‖ (passive voice) TL: ―Mereka memilih dia menjadi presiden.‖ (active voice) As seen on the example of the passive voice above, the subject of the sentence receives the action whereas we use the active voice when the subject of the sentence does the action as seen on the second example. In passive voice we do not need to insert the agent, while in active voice it is necessary to insert the agent, in this instance is mereka. d. Amplification from implicit to explicit status Important semantic elements carried implicitly in the SL may require explicit identification in the receptor language. commit to user 21 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id Example: SL: Her sense of humour does lighten the general air of claustrophobia. TL: Rasa humornya memang mengisyaratkan tanda-tanda umum claustrophobia yaitu suatu perasan takut berada di ruangan tertutup. On the example above, the translator gives a clear explanation about what is meant by claustrophobia to avoid perplexity in reading the translation, because such term like claustrophobia may sounds unfamiliar for the RL reader. e. Classifiers Classifiers provide a convenient device for building meaningful redundancy into an overload text, especially in languages which readily employ such terms to identify proper names and borrowed terms. Example: SL: All Chinese are also our brothers. TL: Semua etnis China juga saudara kita. Chinese is a person who originally comes from China. In other words, he or she professes China blood. The translator adds the word etnis to explain that what is meant by Chinese is China people. f. Connectives Transitionals, which consist of the repetition of segments of the preceding text, are widely used in many languages. Such transitionals appreciably increase the total volume of the text, but do not add information (Nida, 1964, p: 230). Example: SL: Avoid using it during the first trimester of pregnancy, patients with gastric ultras. commit to user perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 22 digilib.uns.ac.id TL: Hindari penggunaan Bisolvon pada tiga bulan pertama kehamilan dan pada penderita tukak lambung. The translator adds the word dan on the target language. It is used to denote the relationship between the first sentence and the next phrase. g. Doublets Doublets happen in a certain type of discourse, they denote the conversation. In some languages, some texts employ the types of additions to denote the direct conversation; therefore, those texts resemble a quotation mark. But in a particular occasion the translator has to state the supporting explanation. Example: SL: ―He said…‖ TL: ―Dia berkata…katanya…‖ From the example above, we can conclude that doublet usually appears on the certain type of context used to denote the direct conversation and function as the quotation mark. 2. Subtraction Though, in translating, subtractions are neither so numerous nor varied as additions, they are, nevertheless, highly important in the process of adjustment (Nida, 1964, p: 231). They include primarily the following types a. Repetition In many languages one of the many repeated lexical items must be omitted or in some cases replaced by a term that intensifies the expression in question. Example: commit to user SL: ―Play for me now! Now I’ll dance!‖ perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 23 digilib.uns.ac.id TL: ―Sekarang mainkanlah untukku! Aku akan menari!‖ As seen in the example above, the translator omits the word now to avoid the repetition of information. This kind of omission is done to make an effective sentence in RL. b. Specification of reference The repetition of a proper name in two closely related sentences sometimes is misleading, thus omission can be applied. Example: SL: Tata is happy because she is going to have a long holiday. TL: Tata senang karena akan mendapatkan libur panjang. The translator reduces the participant she into Tata on the translation because it has been mentioned on the first clause. c. Conjunctions Two principal types of conjunctions are lost, namely: (a) those associated with hypotactic constructions; and (b) those which link coordinates, elements often combined without conjunctions, either in appositional relationships. Referring to point (a), it can be explained that hypotactic conjunction is the conjunction relating two or more clauses, but each clause has a different position, one as a dependent clause and the other as an independent clause (Nida, 1964, p: 232). It can be seen in the example below: SL: I was sick, so that I couldn’t go to the office. TL: Saya sakit, saya tidak masuk kerja. The translator reduces the hypotactic conjunction so that in the dependent clause, therefore it becomes paratactic in commit the RL. to user 24 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id The conjunction denoting the coordinate of the lexical element, which is usually related without a certain conjunction will be seen on the next example: SL: Sue, who is my sister, went to Singapore last week. TL: Sue, kakak saya, pergi ke Singapura minggu lalu. As seen on the example above, the translator omits the conjunction who is in the target language. d. Vocative All languages have ways of calling to people, but in some languages there is no means by which one may directly address another in a polite form (Nida, 1964, p: 232). In certain situation, the ways of calling to people (vocatives) can be shifted into nearby clause or omitted, if the total impact does not distort the meaning. Example: SL: Sam said to Bill, ―Dad where are you going?‖ TL: Sam berkata pada Bill, ayahnya, pergi kemana?” The use of the name or a title in a direct form may imply that the person was at some distance or that he was roundly denounced before others. In the example above the vocative dad is shifted into a nearby clause. e. Formulae A number of formulae in SL are relatively meaningless in receptor language. Hence, the formulae may be subtracted. Example: SL: ―… in His name.‖ TL: ―…oleh-Nya.‖ commit to user perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 25 digilib.uns.ac.id The example above shows us that the clause in His name can be translated into oleh-Nya because the word His name and –Nya refer to the same object which is God. f. Categories The insistence of some translators that all categories in the original be fully reflected in the receptor language text has resulted in very awkward translations. When the receptor language simply has no corresponding category the translator has no problem. He is simply obliged to omit such references, or to express them in entirely different ways (Nida, 1964, p: 232). This problem can be found in the difference of Indonesian and English tense system. Example: SL: I am sitting in front of my teacher now. TL: Saya sedang duduk di depan guru saya. English has the system of tenses that are used to explain about when the action is done, but Indonesian does not have because it will bring redundancy. As seen on the example above, the translation of the adverb of time now does not exist in RL sentence. It is because the existence of word sedang denotes that the action happens in the present time. g. Transitionals Transitionals differ from conjunctions in that, instead of combining two formally related units, they serve merely to mark a translation from one unit to another (Nida, 1964, p: 232). Transitional constitutes a short and efficient paraphrase to substitute the equivalent meaning that has been mentioned before. commit to user perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 26 digilib.uns.ac.id Example: SL: We have been going in a long journey since the morning, here comes the time for us to have dinner. TL: Kita telah melakukan perjalanan jauh sejak tadi pagi, sekarang kita makan malam. As stated before, transitional is a short paraphrase. It can be seen on the phrase here comes the time which is translated into sekarang. It means that the subtraction happens on the phrase here comes the time. After looking at the translation, we can conclude that transitional is an effective manner to paraphrase long words into a shorter word. 3. Alteration According to Nida, alterations may, of course, be all types, from the simplest problems of correspondence in sounds to the most complicated adjustment in idiomatic phrases. Some types of alteration are discussed below. a. Sounds Even the most consistent system of transliteration may occasionally produce a severe difficulty, since the resulting form may have another meaning in the receptor language. Example: SL: John said, ―I love you, babe. TL: John berkata: “Aku mencintaimu, sayang.” The word babe is quite misleading for Indonesian especially for Betawinese. The word babe in Betawi means father, while in English it means darling. The translator must be careful in translating word babe. The example above is commit totheuser 27 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id uttered by John (an English person) so it is appropriate to translate the word babe into sayang. b. Categories Alteration of categories include shifts from a singular expression to plural, a past-tense to a future, passive to active voice, etc. The employment of expressions which have no corresponding function in the source language also belongs to this class of alteration (Nida, 1964, p: 234). Example: SL: I am gripped by them TL: Buku-buku tersebut sungguh memikat hati saya. The shifts from passive to active involve similar alterations of categories. The subject is changed from I into buku-buku tersebut. The object of the first sentence (them = buku-buku tersebut) is put as a subject in the second sentence. c. Word classes Alteration of word classes includes the shifts from noun to verb, preposition to verb, etc. Examples: SL: ―You’re saying it wrong,‖ Harry heard Hermione snapped. TL: “Cara ngomongmu salah,” Harry mendengar Hermione menukas. The alteration of word class can be seen when the translator translate the word saying into cara ngomong. Saying is a verb while cara ngomong is a noun phrase. commit to user perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 28 digilib.uns.ac.id d. Order The shifts are used to emphasize important elements in a sentence, and provide a pleasing rhyme, so they can make clear of a complicated expression. Example: SL: The Queen knew only too well that the simple act of getting the Waleses to talk at all was a miracle. TL: Ratu sangat memahami bahwa hanya keajaiban belaka yang dapat membuat pasangan Wales berbicara. There is a change of order in the example above. In the first sentence, the word was a miracle is put in the end of the sentence, but in the translation it is put in the middle of the sentence. The change of order is done to make a natural translation. e. Clause and sentence structure The most serious problems of alteration in clause and sentence structure are found in shifts between hypotactic and paratactic formations, with or without additions or subtractions of lexical elements. Two other important alterations in clause and structure involve: 1. Shifts from questions to statements. Example: SL: Haven’t I told you he is not going! TL: Sudah kubilang dia tidak boleh pergi! 2. Changes from indirect discourse to direct. Example: SL: He warns the boys not to swim out too far. TL: Dia berkata, “Jangan berenang terlalu jauh anak-anak!” commit to user 29 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id f. Semantic problems involving single words All the semantic problems involving single words arise from distinctions in hierarchical status. Accordingly, alterations of this type may be classified on the basis of whether the lexical elements in question are of a lower rank, of a higher rank, of a higher rank plus qualifiers, or of the same rank but shifted in position (Nida, 1964, p: 236) Examples: SL: They celebrate the Easter. TL: Mereka merayakan hari raya Paskah . Every Christian all over the world celebrate the Easter because Easter is one of Christian’s holy days. English people use the word Easter while Indonesian calls it hari raya Paskah . The translator alterates the term Easter into hari raya Paskah. g. Semantic problems involving exocentric expressions This type of alteration is applied to translate expressions or idioms. Because of the different social-cultural background between the SL and RL, consequently a translator often makes a radical change in translating idioms or expressions. Example: SL: ―Load of old tosh,‖ said uncle Vernon. TL: “Omong kosong besar,” kata paman Vernon. The idiom load of old tosh is used to indicate that someone is talking about something that does not make sense. In Indonesia load of old tosh means omong commit to user perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 30 digilib.uns.ac.id kosong besar. The translator translates it in an appropriate way because those idioms have the same meaning. 2.6. Accuracy and Acceptability The quality assessment of translation is intended to identify whether a piece of translation is accurate, readable, acceptable and does not sound as a translation product. The quality assessment covers three points, they are: 1. The Accuracy Accurate means reproducing as exactly as possible the meaning of the source text. In translating a text, accuracy is an important thing for the translator to concern. As Baker states, ―Accuracy is no doubt an important aim in translation but it is also important to bear in mind that the use of common target language patterns which are familiar to the target reader plays an important role in keeping the communication channels open (1992, p: 57).‖ It can be said that in translating a text the translator should also concern to the familiar language pattern which is usually use by the target readers. It is also relates to the quality of results and is distinguished from correctness. Accuracy is not only at the word level, it is also involving every grammatical level of the language. A translation text may be accurate based on the words which are used in transferring the meaning from the source language to the target language, but if it does not have relation to each other according to the standard rules of grammar and language usage, it can be said not accurate. Therefore, a translator must have a sufficient knowledge of the field being commit translated to have a full understanding of to theuser subject matter. Only by having a full 31 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id and clear understanding of the concepts involved in the subject matter can a translator produce a translation which is both accurate and easy to read. 2. The Readability Readability refers to how easily a translation can be read. The more natural are the vocabularies and the forms used in translation, the higher it will rank readability. Richard et al defines the readability as ―readability…how easily written materials can be read and understood‖ (in Nababan, 1999, p: 63). 3. The Acceptability ―A good translation does not sound like a translation‖ (Nida and Taber, 1969). It means that the text which is translated sound natural for the target readers. To make the translation acceptable or sound natural for the target reader, a translator does not only have to translate whatever it is stated in the source language, but she/he also has to reconstruct, adapt, or even rewrite it. Acceptability can only be measured by the target language native speakers as Larsson states, ―The person who does the testing must also understand translation principles and knows the receptor language as well. If she/he needs some respondents, they must be also target language native speaker (1984, p: 472). Those who are helping with the evaluation should be mother-tongue speakers of the receptor language‖ (1984, p: 49). Based on those reasons, to make a translation acceptable to the target reader, a translator must have more sensitivity to the naturalness of the target language. commit to user perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 32 digilib.uns.ac.id However, not all target language native speakers can be respondents of acceptability because each text has its own target readers. Therefore, it needs proper target reader to measure the level of acceptability of a translation text. Based on those reasons, the researcher limited this research only in the accuracy and acceptability of a novel ―Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows‖ and its translation. Since this book does not mention the specific target readers, therefore the researcher decided only to analyze its accuracy and acceptability. 2.7. Definition of Sentence There are many definitions about ‗sentence’ said by the linguistics such as Marcella Frank who states that ―a sentence is a full predication containing a subject plus a predicate with finite verb. The classifications of sentence are: declarative sentence (statement), interrogative sentence (question), imperative sentence (command request), exclamatory sentence (exclamation)‖ (1972, p: 22). While Joseph C. Blumenthal et all, define a sentence as ―a group of words expressing a completed thought and containing at least a verb and its subject‖ (1983, p: 248). From the definition by Blumenthal above, we can conclude that a sentence, at least, consists of a subject and a predicate and expresses a complete thought. The subject of a sentence,, according to Blumenthal, is something about which a statement is made (1983, p: 250). It can be a noun or any word or group of words substituting for a noun. Meanwhile, Hodges in Harbrace College commit to user 33 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id Handbook defines subject as ―a basic grammatical division of a sentence. Subject is a noun or noun substitute about which something is asserted or asked in the predicate. It usually precedes the predicate‖ (1984, p: 555). In order to complete a good sentence, a subject is always followed by the predicate, which according to House and Harman, ―predicate is the word or group of words denoting that which is said of the subject‖ (1950, p: 12). The predicate may only be a finite verb, or it may be a finite verb with its complements and modifiers. 2.8. Classification of Sentence According to Warriner in his book English Grammar and Composition, sentences are classified into to which are according to structure and according to meaning. These classifications are discussed in the following paragraphs. 1. Classification of sentence according to structure a. A simple sentence is one that consists of a single independent clause and no subordinate clauses. The simple sentence always contains one subject and one verb. Example: The manager supervises the running program. b. A compound sentence has two or more independent clauses that are related in thought and joined by one or more coordinating conjunctions. Example: The manager is rewriting the instruction, and he will submit his draft to the board of directors for approval. commit to user 34 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id c. The complex sentence is one that consists of at least one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. Major emphasis is placed on the independent clause and the dependent clause gains its meaning from the independent clause. The clauses in a complex sentence that has only two clauses are joined by a subordinating conjunction. Example: You earn money while you work. d. A compound-complex sentence consists of a compound sentence (one with two or more independent clause) and at least one dependent clause. Example: Some of the employees who worked during the war years have retired, but many of them are still employed in the same office (1958, p: 81). 2. Classification of sentence according to meaning a. A declarative sentence is one that makes a statement. Such a sentence ends with a period. the parts of a declarative The sentence normal is grammatical order of the subject first followed by the predicate with all its modifiers. Example: I found her book on my desk. b. An imperative sentence is one that gives a command or makes a request. The subject of an imperative sentence is seldom expressed. The word you, understood, is the subject when a subject is not used. A period is normally used at the end of an imperative sentence; however, it may be followed by an exclamation point if it is an emphatic command. Examples: - Read that exercise. commit to user 35 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id - Close the door! c. An interrogative sentence is one that asks a question. The normal grammatical order of the words is inverted in an interrogative sentence and the sentence may begin with either a verb or an adverb with the subject following. An interrogative sentence ends with a question mark. Examples: - Did you hear the bell sound? - Where did you file the incoming letter? d. An exclamatory sentence is a complete sentence that expresses surprise, excitement, or other strong emotion. The order of the sentence is generally inverted—the subject and verb are placed near the end. An exclamatory sentence ends with an exclamation point. Examples: - What a storm that was! - How wonderful that is for you! (1958, p: 41) However, if the speaker shows strong feeling when making a statement, asking a question, or giving a command then the speaker’s sentence is exclamatory. Examples: - I won the prize! - Wasn’t he funny! - Help! Call the ambulance! In other words, when the declarative, interrogative, and imperative sentences are expressed with strong feelings (fear, anger, excitement, dread, joy, delight, etc.) they can be called exclamatory. commit to user perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 2.9. 36 digilib.uns.ac.id Style Style refers to the way or manner an individual writer writes. Each writer has his own style. Weisman defines ―Style is the way a person puts words together into sentences, arranges sentences into paragraph, and groups of paragraphs to make a piece of writing express his thoughts clearly,‖ (1980, p: 25). Nida and Taber define style, ―the patterning of choices made by a particular author within the resource and limitation of the language and of the literary genre he is working. It is his style which gives to a text its uniqueness and which relates the text personally to its author‖ (1969, p: 207). A writer expresses his emotions, attitudes, and aesthetics through his choice of lexical items and grammatical forms. The writer hopes that his expressive words or sentences bring an effect to the readers and then the readers get certain impression from them. 2.10. About the Novel Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows is the seventh book of Harry Potter’s novel that is written by J. K. Rowling. The book was released on 21 July 2007, ending the series that began in 1997 with the publication of Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone. It was published in the United Kingdom by Bloomsbury Publishing, in the United States by Scholastic, in Canada by Raincoast Books, and in Australia and New Zealand by Allen & Unwin. Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows that is released globally in ninetythree countries broke sales records as the fastest-selling book. It sold 15 million commit to user 37 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id copies in the first day following its release, including more than 11 million in the U.S. and U.K. alone. The previous record, nine million in its first day, had been held by Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. The novel has also been translated into numerous languages, including Ukrainian, Swedish, Polish, Hindi and Indonesian. commit to user 38 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1. Type of Research In this study, the researcher used a descriptive qualitative method which is defined by Soetrisno Hadi that in descriptive method, the researcher tries to collect data, analyze data, and to draw conclusion without formulating a hypothesis (1984, p: 3). In descriptive method, the researcher described the object of the study without generalizing the result of the study. Bell states ―some qualitative studies start without a hypothesis or objectives being specified‖ (1993, p: 19). Meanwhile, Cresswell states ―qualitative research is descriptive in that the researcher is interested in process, meaning and understanding gained through words or picture‖ (1994, p: 145). Qualitative method describes phenomena in words instead of numbers or measures. 3.2. Data and Source of Data Arikunto states, ―Yang dimaksud dengan sumber data dalam penelitian adalah subyek dari mana data diperoleh‖ (1987, p: 162). Meanwhile, according to Djajasudarma, ―The data can be obtained from scripts, interviews, photography, videotapes, personal documents, etc‖ (1993, p: 15). The source of data here constitutes a subject from which all the data are obtained. commit to user 38 perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 39 digilib.uns.ac.id The source of data of this research is J.K. Rowling’s famous novel entitled Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows and the raters. The novel itself was published by Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, London (2007) and its Indonesian translation, Harry Potter dan Relikui Kematian that was published by Penerbit PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama (2008), whereas the raters are three people who have both Indonesian and English competence, communicative competence, and translation competence, who provide data in relation to the influence of the technique of adjustment in its translation. Furthermore, the data of this research are the exclamatory sentences that experience technique of adjustment in terms of addition, subtraction and alteration. 3.3. Sample and Sampling Technique According to Lexy Moleong, in qualitative inquiry, sampling is gathering information as many as possible from various sources and construction (2002, p: 224). Sutopo explains that source of data in qualitative research do not represent population but tend to represent the information (2006, p: 57). The researcher employs a total sampling technique. Therefore she takes all exclamatory sentences that experience technique of adjustment as reflected in the novel Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows which are translated into Bahasa Indonesia. Those sentences are taken as sample of this research. In addition, the questionnaire which has been assessed by three raters to find the accuracy and acceptability of the translation of the novel are included in the analysis. commit to user 40 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 3.4. Research Procedure The research was conducted following the procedure below: 1. The first step taken by the researcher is to collect all dialogues which are assumed as exclamatory-sentences in the novel of Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows, both from the original script of the novel and their translation in Indonesia. 2. The data gathered are, then, sorted out to find those that are compatible with the criteria established. 3. The researcher gives codes to each datum based on the series numbers, page numbers, and from where the datum is selected. 4. The researcher analyzes the data obtained. 5. The results of the translation are then compared to their original message to know the influence of technique of adjustment. 6. The researcher counts the frequency-distribution of the data based on their classification. 7. Finally, the results of the analysis are used to draw conclusion to answer the problems proposed. 3.5. Technique of Collecting Data The data of the research include exclamatory sentences which experience technique of adjustment in terms of addition, subtraction and alteration. The data are taken from a book entitled Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows written by JK Rowling. commit to user 41 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id The procedures of collecting data in this research are as follows: 1. The researcher reads the whole story of Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows and its translation, Harry Potter dan Relikui Kematian. 2. The researcher is taking the data from the data source, namely, exclamatory sentences and their translation in Indonesian. 3. The researcher identifies the exclamatory sentences that experience adjustment in their translation, whether it is in terms of addition, subtraction or alteration, based on the grammatical and structural characteristics. 4. The researcher makes data coding in order to make an easy classification of data, as follows: a. A datum with codes of 001/HPaTDH-031 means that it is the first datum taken from the original book, Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows, on page 31. b. A datum with codes of 002/HPdRK-036 means that it is the first datum taken from the translated book, Harry Potter dan Relikui Kematian, on page 36. c. Additional data coding are also made to clarify such technique that has been applied and its purpose, as follows: Add : Technique of adjustment in terms of addition. Sub : Technique of adjustment in terms of subtraction. Alt : Technique of adjustment in terms of alteration. Alt+Add : Technique of adjustment in terms of alteration and addition. Alt+Sub : Technique of adjustment in terms of alteration and subtraction. commit to user 42 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id Struc : The purpose of using such technique in order to permit adjustment of the form of the message to the requirements of the structure of the receptor language. Sem : The purpose of using such technique in order to produce semantically equivalent structure. Sty : The purpose of using such technique in order to provide equivalent stylistic appropriateness. Comm : The purpose of using such technique in order to carry an equivalent communication load. 5. The researcher uses two methods in collecting the data, namely, content analysis and questionnaire. In the first method, content analysis, the researcher collects the data from the source of data, i.e. exclamatory sentences that experience technique of adjustment. In the second method, the researcher uses a close and open-ended questionnaire. The raters, who have to complete the questionnaire to rate the accuracy and acceptability of the translation, should give mark or score of the accuracy and acceptability of the translation and then they might give their comments related to the translation. 3.6. Technique of Analyzing Data After the data are collected by means of total sampling technique, the data analysis is conducted in several steps, as follows: 1. The researcher collects the data and found the exclamatory sentences and their translation. Next, the researcher gives codes to each datum which is collected. commit to user 43 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id For example 001/HPaTDH-SL/031, means the first data from the source language novel, Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows, on page 31. 2. After collects and gives code to each datum, the researcher classifies the types of adjustment of exclamatory sentence translation into five types, which are addition, subtraction, alteration, addition and alteration, and subtraction and alteration. These classifications are based on grammatical or structural characteristics. Furthermore, the researcher analyzes the purpose of using such technique of adjustment and classifies them into four essential purposes which are to permit adjustment of the form of the message to the requirements of the structure of the receptor language, to produce semantically equivalent structure, to provide equivalent stylistic appropriateness and to carry an equivalent communication load. 3. The researcher arranges questionnaire containing the data from the source language and its translation. Then, the researcher asks the raters to analyze the influence of technique of adjustment applied by the translator in dealing with the exclamatory sentences. The influences are in the form of quality of assessment in translation namely accuracy and acceptability. 4. After analyzing the data, the researcher counts the percentage of the data on each classification. 5. Finally, the researcher classifies the result of the data analysis to draw the conclusion. commit to user 44 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 4.1. Introduction This chapter describes the result of the data analysis which is expected to answer the problem statements of the research. The data analysis is a significant part because from the whole analysis, the conclusion of what had been researched can be drawn. The conclusion constitutes the final results of the research. The analysis is conducted by comparing the original clause in the Source Language (English) and the result of translation in the Receptor Language (Indonesian). The data are analyzed to describe the exclamatory sentence and its changing both in grammatical and structure. Firstly, the researcher analyzes the data in terms of the techniques of adjustment applied in translating the exclamatory sentences. There are five kinds of techniques of adjustment employed by the translator. Secondly, the researcher analyzes the purpose of using such technique. There are four purposes that are proposed by Nida. Finally, the researcher attempts to determine the translation quality as defined in two components: accuracy and acceptability. The findings of the discussion will then answer each problem statement posed for the research. As mentioned earlier, this chapter attempts to answer the questions stated in the problem statement as follows: 1. How are the exclamatory sentences in Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows translated into Indonesian in terms of technique of adjustments? commit to user 2. What purposes that underlie the translator to do such adjustment? 44 45 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 3. How are the accuracy and acceptability of the translations of exclamatorysentence that experience such adjustments in Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows novel? Thus, in this chapter, the researcher analyzes 121 data forming exclamatory sentences in Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows novel in terms of their techniques of adjustment, purposes of using such techniques and accuracy and acceptability levels. In assembling this research, the researcher attempts to make it systematically in order to be read easily. Therefore, the classifications of each problem statement are made. The classification of the technique of adjustments includes such those defined by Nida as adjustment in terms of addition, subtraction, alteration, the combination addition and alteration, and subtraction and alteration. The purposes underlie the translator to do such adjustments are also taken from Nida’s idea which are permit adjustment of the form of the message to the requirement of the structure of the receptor, produce semantically equivalent structures, provide equivalent stylistic appropriateness and carry an equivalent communication load. The level of accuracy is divided into three: accurate, less accurate, and inaccurate. The translation is considered accurate when the message or the content of the source text is fully transferred to the target text. In that case, there is no need to rewrite it. The translation is considered less accurate when there are some additions or deletion found, but it occasionally needs minor changes in order commit to user 46 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id to accommodate the intended original meaning. Finally, it is inaccurate when the message of the target text is totally different with that in the source text. Similarly, the acceptability is also divided into three levels: acceptable, less acceptable, and unacceptable. The translation is considered acceptable when the translation is natural, and reads like an original work. The translation is considered less acceptable when it sounds awkward. There are some less natural expression and word choices. Eventually, the translation is considered unnatural when there are unnatural uses of expression and words choices that lead to misunderstanding on the part of the target readers. In other words, the language use in the target text is expected to be acceptable for the target readers, making it sound like an original work. All data are coded in accordance with its classification. The codes are as follows: Add : Technique of adjustment in terms of addition. Sub : Technique of adjustment in terms of subtraction. Alt : Technique of adjustment in terms of alteration. Add+Alt : Technique of adjustment in terms of addition and alteration. Sub+Alt : Technique of adjustment in terms of subtraction and alteration. Struc : As the requirement of the structure of the RL. Sem : To produce semantically equivalence structure. Sty : To provide equivalence stylistic appropriateness. Comm : To carry an equivalent communication load. commit to user 47 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id Accuracy 3: The message or the content of the source text is fully transferred to the target text. The translation text is clear, and no rewriting is needed. 2: The message or the content of the source text is less accurately transferred to the target text. The translation still makes sense, but some rewriting and change in word order are needed. 1: The message or the content of the source text is not accurately transferred to the target text. The message of the target text is totally different with that in the source text. Acceptability 3: The translation text is considered to be natural, nearly unlike a translation work and no grammatical error. 2: The translation text sounds less natural, like a work of translation, and there are unnatural expression and word choices. 1: The translation text sounds unnatural and there are unnatural use of expression and word choice. 4.2. Research Findings 4.2.1. Technique of Adjustment There are 121 data that are found in this research. After comparing the source text and their target text, the researcher finds out that there are 5 kinds of technique of adjustment that are applied by the translator in translating commit to user 48 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id exclamatory sentences in the novel. Table 1 below will show the classification and percentage of each technique of adjustment. Add : Technique of adjustment in terms of addition. Sub : Technique of adjustment in terms of subtraction. Alt : Technique of adjustment in terms of alteration. Add+Alt : Technique of adjustment in terms of addition and alteration. Sub+Alt : Technique of adjustment in terms of subtraction and alteration. Table 4.1. Classification Based on Techniques of Adjustment No 1 2 Class. Add Sub Data Numbers 025, 094, 108, 046, 107, 013, 043, 044, 056, 063, 074, 097, 038, 048, 049, 050, 057, 062, 086, 113, 119 003, 030, 031, 034, 016, 020, 067, 068, 072, 093, 109, 111, 020, 027, 039, 053, 071, 081, 088, 090, 092, 100, 105 001, 007, 009, 010, 017, 036, 058, 064, 069, 077, 082, 085, 116, 120, 121, 004, 005, 008, 018, 019, 029, 033, 037, 040, 045, 052, 055, 060, 073, 075, 079, 080, 089, 096, 098, 101, 104, 112, 118, 012, 015, 022, 042, 047, 051, 059, 065, 070, 083, 083, 095, 099, 102, 117 014, 006, 066, 035, 114, 087, 054, 115, 011, 041, 076, 103, 024, 078, Total Percentage 24 19.8 % 26 21.5 % 62 51.2 % 3 Alt 4 Add+Alt 032, 061 2 1.7 % 5 Sub+Alt 002, 106, 027, 091, 023, 026, 110 7 5.8 % commit to user 49 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id The tabulation above apparently demonstrates that the leading technique of adjustment used by the translator is in terms of alteration which amounts 62 data or 51.2% from 121 data found. Meanwhile, the second place is taken by the technique of adjustment in terms of subtraction with 26 data or 21.5% of the data. The third major technique of adjustment used is in terms of addition with 24 data or 19.8% of them, followed by the technique of adjustment in terms of subtraction and alteration with 7 data or 5.8% of 121 data and the last is in terms of addition and alteration which amounts 2 data only or 1.7% from the whole data. 4.2.1. Add. Technique of adjustment in terms of addition Many of the technique of adjustment in terms of additions are actually a part of the process of structural alteration, so that one technique cannot be rigidly isolated from one another. Minor changes taken are to adjust the form of the source text according to the rules of the target languages. Nida states, ―It is important to recognize that there has been no actual adding to the semantic content of the message, for these additions consist essentially in making explicit what is implicit in the source-language text‖ (1964, p: 227). Thus, the additions are aimed to build clear understanding for the target reader without changing the content of the message. It appears only in the structural alteration stage and simply changes the manner in which the information is communicated. commit to user 50 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id Example: ―The trace! The trace! The charm that detects magical activity around underseventeens, the way the Ministry finds out about under-age magic!‖ (006/HPaTDH-045/Add /Comm) ―Jejak! Jejak! Mantra yang mendeteksi aktivitas sihir yang dilakukan di sekitar penyihir di bawah usia tujuh belas tahun, cara kementerian mengetahui tentang sihir di bawah umur!‖ (006/HPdRK-070/Add /Comm) In the example above the addition of ―penyihir‖ is needed to intensify the meaning of ―under-seventeens‖. In the source language, the phrase ―underseventeens‖ sounds natural and acceptable not to be added with the noun. While the reverse happens in the target language, the phrase ―under-seventeens‖ cannot only be translated ―dibawah tujuh belas tahun‖. It will sound awkward and unacceptable by the target reader. In rendering such sentence into Bahasa Indonesia, the translator can add ―penyihir‖ as its equivalence. 4.2.1. Sub. Technique of adjustment in terms of subtraction In translating, the technique of adjustment in terms of subtractions are applied not to lessen the original meanings but only to make them sounds natural in the target text. Nida states, ―In the present treatment of subtractions only those adjustments which involve certain structural losses, but which, however, are advisable because of the grammatical or semantic patterns of the receptor language are considered‖ (1964, p: 231). commit to user 51 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id Example: ―Not to stay there, but to find out what’s goin on!‖ (039/HPaTDH-137/Sub/Sty) ―Bukan untuk tinggal, tapi untuk mencari tahu apa yang terjadi!‖ (039/HPdRK223/Sub/Sty) The subtraction of ―there‖ in the example above does not actually alter the total content of the message. It also does not substantially lessen the information carried by the communication. In fact, the subtraction above is practically to have result in a closer equivalence and adequate in the target text. Without translating the word ―there‖ into ―di sana‖, the sentence undergoes natural sense in the target text since the translator does not repeat the reference that has been mention elsewhere in the text. 4.2.1. Alt. Technique of adjustment in terms of alteration Nida states, ―Alteration may, of course, be of all types, from the simplest problems of correspondence in sounds to the most complicated adjustments in idiomatic phrases‖ (1964, p: 233). It must be subjected to a series of changes, involving not only additions and subtractions, but also alterations, some of them relatively radical. However, alterations can be treated under the following classes which are sounds, categories, word classes, order of elements, clause and sentence structures, semantic problems involving single words, and semantic problems involving exocentric expressions. commit to user 52 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id Example: ―You sought to help Potter, to help him escape me!‖ (015/HPaTDH-075/Alt/Sty) ―Kau memilih membantu Potter, kau membantunya lolos dariku!‖ (015/HPdRK118/Alt/Sty) In the example above, the alteration happens in clause and sentence structure where in the source text, the clause happens to be an infinitive phrase while in the target text it is altered into a sentence with subject and verb. The translation of the underlined phrase above is supposed to be ―untuk membantunya‖; however, the result will sound unnatural and less acceptable in the target text, to stress on the expression of anger by the speaker. 4.2.1. Add+Alt. Technique of adjustment in terms of addition and alteration This kind of technique of adjustment appears to combine two such techniques that happen in one sentence. The researcher finds out that some of exclamatory sentence in the novel of Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows experienced the combination of two techniques of adjustments which are addition and alteration. The example is as follow. Example: ―Oh, I love her, always read her!‖ (032/HPaTDH-128/Add+Alt/Struc) ―Oh, aku suka dia, aku selalu membaca 208/Add+Alt/Struc) commit to user tulisannya!‖ (032/HPdRK- 53 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id Firstly, the translator makes an adjustment with respect to addition of subject pronoun of first-single person which is ―aku‖. Such addition is to assert Muriel’s statement. The addition is stressing more to what Muriel has stated and to make clear expression. Secondly, the translator makes an adjustment with respect to alteration of object pronoun ―her‖ which is translated into ―tulisannya‖, instead of ―dia‖. It means that Muriel refers to Rita Skeeters, a journalist, who always writes fascinating stories. The alteration happens in the word class’s level since the object pronoun ―her‖ is altered into noun ―tulisan-nya‖. 4.2.1. Sub+Alt. Technique of adjustment in term of subtraction and alteration. Similar to the previous one, this kind of technique of adjustment is also a combination of two such adjustment techniques that join subtraction and alteration. Both techniques are applied in translating one sentence and solving problems occurred in grammatical and structural levels. The example is as follow. Example: ―Going to lob them over the walls – they won’t like this!‖ (110/HPaTDH499/Sub+Alt/Sty) ―Akan dilempar lewat tembok – mereka tidak akan suka!‖ (110/HPdRK817/Sub+Alt/Sty) commit to user 54 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id In the example above, the translator makes an alteration in terms of sentence structure. The active sentence ―going to lob them‖ is translated into passive sentence ―akan dilempar‖. Such alteration does not deviate the source meaning since it only changes the position and makes the result in target language sounds natural and acceptable. Since all the examples are dialogues, the researcher finds out that some sentences are not in a complete sentence. The example above is an active sentence which, actually, requires subject pronoun before the verb ―going to lob‖. In this case, the translator is doing an accurate piece of work to apply such adjustment into passive sentence, which does not involve subject pronoun either. Beside the alteration, the translator also subtracts the object pronoun ―this‖. The complete translation of the sentence should be ―akan dilempar lewat tembok-mereka tidak akan suka ini‖. In general, by looking at the context of the sentence, the subtraction does not lessen the source meaning. 4.2.2. The purpose of technique of adjustment After analyzing the whole data found in the novel and experience the technique of adjustment, the researcher classifies the purposes of applying each technique of adjustment. Table 2 below will show the classification and percentage of each technique of adjustment. Struc : As the requirement of the structure of the RL. Sem : To produce semantically equivalence structure. Sty : To provide equivalence stylistic appropriateness. commit to user 55 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id Comm : To carry an equivalent communication load. Table 4.2. Classification Based on Purposes of using Technique of Adjustment No Class. Data Numbers Add 1 Total Percentage 4 3.3% 23 19% 65 53.7% 29 24% 025, 094, 108 Struc Add+Alt 032 2 Add 046, 107 Sub 030, 031, 034 Alt 001, 002, 004, 007, 009, 013, 017, 024, 036, 045, 054, 058, 064, 077, 116, 120, 121 Sem Sub+Alt 106 Add Sub 3 Sty Alt 014, 043, 044, 056, 057, 063, 074, 097 003, 016, 020, 053, 067, 068, 087, 088, 090, 109, 111, 114 005, 008, 010, 019, 029, 033, 052, 055, 060, 079, 080, 082, 098, 101, 103, 118 035, 039, 051, 071, 072, 081, 092, 093, 100, 011, 037, 069, 085, 104, 015, 040, 073, 089, 112, 018, 041, 075, 096, 115, Add+Alt 061 Sub+Alt 023, 028, 091, 110 4 Comm Add 006, 038, 048, 049, 050, 062, 066, 086, 113, 119 Sub 021, 027, 105 Alt 012, 022, 042, 047, 059, 065, 070, 076, 078, 083, 084, 095, 099,commit 102, 117 to user 56 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id Sub+Alt 026 Based on the tabulation above, it is apparent that the most dominant purpose of using technique of adjustment is to provide equivalence stylistic appropriateness which amounts to 53.7% or 65 data. Meanwhile, the purpose to carry an equivalent communication load takes second place with 29 data or 24%. The third major purpose with 24 data or 19.8% is taken by producing semantically equivalence structure. The last purpose, as the requirement of the structure of the RL takes the last place with 4 data or 3.3% of 121 data. 4.2.2. Struc/Add. Technique of adjustment in terms of addition as the requirement of the structure of the RL. Example: ―Mudblood and proud of it!‖ (094/HPaTDH-395/Add/Struc) ―Darah-lumpur, dan aku bangga menjadi Darah-lumpur!‖ (094/HPdRK-646/Add /Struc) The example is taken from the conversation between Hermione, Ron, Harry and a goblin named Griphook. The translator makes an addition in her translation. The added information is ‗Aku’. Since Hermione states it clearly how she feels proud of being a Mudblood, the sentence do not have a subject. In RL, a subject of a statement sentence is obligatory, so the translator add ‗Aku’ as the commit to user 57 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id subject of the sentence because Hermione was the only person who states it. It can be seen from the following sentences. ―Don’t call yourself –― Ron Muttered. ―Why shouldn’t I?‖ said Hermione. ―Mudblood, and proud of it! I’ve got no higher position under this new order than you have, Griphook! It was me they chose to torture, back at the Malfoys!‖ ―Jangan menyebut dirimu—― gumam Ron. ―Kenapa tidak?‖ kata Hermione. ―Darah-lumpur, dan aku bangga jadi Darah-lumpur! Aku tidak mendapat posisi lebih tinggi daripada kalian di bawah rezim baru ini, Griphook. Akulah yang mereka pilih untuk disiksa, di rumah Malfoy tadi!‖ From the sentences above, it is obviously seen that Hermione states the phrase for herself. To announce how proud she is being called as Mudblood in front of Harry, Ron and Griphook. Therefore, the translator adds the word ‗aku’ to give a subject for the sentence ―proud of it!‖ Furthermore, the addition does not change the original meaning of the source language nor result in meaning deviation. There are 3 data that belong to this classification, namely: 025 094 108 commit to user 58 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 4.2.2. Struc/Add+Alt. Technique of adjustment in terms of addition and alteration as the requirement of the structure of the RL. Example: ―Oh, I love her, always read her!‖ (032/HPaTDH-128/Add+Alt/Struc) ―Oh, aku suka dia, aku selalu membaca tulisannya!‖ (032/HPdRK-208/Add+Alt /Struc) The sentence above is a quotation from a conversation between Muriel, Harry and Doge. Muriel is talking about a journalist, named Skeeter, who has wrote many things in a well-known newspaper. Below is the text that will give an illustration of such situation: Perhaps Doge suspected Harry’s feelings, for he looked concerned and hurried on, ―Harry, Rita Skeeter is a dreadful –― But he was interrupted by a shrill cackle. ―Rita Skeeter? Oh, I love her, always read her!‖ Harry and Doge looked up to see Auntie Muriel standing there, the plumes dancing on her hat, a goblet of champagne in her hand. ―She’s written a book about Dumbledore, you know!‖ Barangkali Doge mencurigai perasaan Harry, karena dia tampak cemas dan buru-buru berkata, ―Harry, Rita Skeeter itu wartawan yang mengeri— ― Namun kata-katanya terputus oleh kekeh melengking nyaring. ―Rita Skeeter? Oh, aku suka dia, aku selalu membaca tulisannya!‖ commit to user 59 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id Harry dan Doge mendongak dan melihat Bibi Muriel berdiri di sana, buahbuah prem menari-nari di topinya, piala sampanye di tangannya. ―Dia menulis buku tentang Dumbledore, lho!‖ Firstly, the translator makes an addition in the form of subject ‗aku’ or in English it reads ‗I’. Secondly, the translator makes an alteration in terms of sentence structure. Such adjustment is intended by the translator to fulfill the requirement of the structure of the RL. The addition ‗aku’ gives a subject in the receptor language since it is to make more clear expression. Moreover, such adjustment in terms of addition and alteration do not change nor deviate the source text meaning. There is only 1 datum of this classification, namely: 032 4.2.2. Sem/Add. Technique of adjustment in terms of addition to produce semantically equivalence structure. Example: ―He told us Potter might try to get inside Ravenclaw Tower, and to send for him if we caught him!‖ (107/HPaTDH-476/Add/Sem) ―Dia memberitahu kami Potter mungkin akan mencoba masuk Menara Ravenclaw, dan menyuruh kami memanggilnya kalau kami menangkapnya!‖ (107/HPdRK-779/Add/Sem) The sentence above is a part of conversation between Amycus and Prof commit to user Mcgonagall. The phrase ‗to send for him’ in a literal translation is supposed to be 60 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id translated as ‗mengirim untuknya’, but this will look unacceptable in the RL seen from the context of situation. Therefore, based on the situational context, the translator adds ‗kami’ to gain semantically equivalent since the real meaning of ‗send for him’ is ‗menyuruh kami memanggilnya.’ The following text will illustrate such situation. ―She’s only Stunned,‖ said Prof Mcgonagall impatiently, who had stooped down to examine Alecto. ―She’ll be perfectly all right.‖ ―No, she bludgering well won’t!‖ bellowed Amycus. ―Not after the Dark Lord gets hold of her! She’s gorn and sent for him, I felt me Mark burn, and he thinks we’ve got Potter!‖ ―Got Potter?‖ said Prof Mcgonagall sharply. ―What do you mean, ―Got Potter‖?‖ ―He told us Potter might try and get inside Ravenclaw Tower, and to send for him if we caught him!‖ ―Dia cuma kena Mantra Bius,‖ kata Prof Mcgonagall tak sabar, yang telah membungkuk memeriksa Alecto. ―Dia akan baik-baik saja.‖ ―Tidak, dia jelas tidak akan baik-baik saja!‖ raung Amycus. ―Tidak setelah Pangeran Kegelapan menangkapnya! Dia telah memanggilnya, aku merasakan Tanda-ku terbakar, dan dia mengira kami berhasil menangkap Potter!‖ ―Menangkap Potter?‖ kata Prof Mcgonagall tajam. ―Apa maksudmu, ―Menangkap Potter‖?‖ commit to user 61 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id ―Dia memberitahu kami Potter mungkin akan mencoba masuk Menara Ravenclaw, dan menyuruh kami memanggilnya kalau kami menangkapnya!‖ Through the conversation above, it is clearly shown that the phrase ‗send for him’ meant ‗to call for him’ or in RL ‗menyuruh memanggilnya’. Therefore, the translator needs to add ‗kami’ to produce semantically structures. Although the addition does not influence the original meaning, it helps readers understand the text more clearly. It does not, of course, change or deviate the source meaning. There are 2 data which belong to this classification, namely: 046 107 4.2.2. Sem/Sub. Technique of adjustment in terms of subtraction to produce semantically equivalence structure. Example: ―We should go and congratulate them!‖ (030/HPaTDH-122/Sub/Sem) ―Kita harus memberi selamat kepada mereka!‖ (030/HPdRK-199/Sub/Sem) In the RL, the phrase ‗go and congratulate’ is translated into ‗memberi selamat’. The word ‗go’ is subtracted to gain semantically equivalent. This is a good decision since in the literal translation the phrase ‗go and congratulate’ will be ‗pergi dan memberi selamat’ while in the RL it will sound unacceptable. commit to user 62 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id The example is taken from the conversation between Ron, Hermione and Harry. Hermione is suggesting them to congratulate Ron’s brother, Bill, for the wedding. Such situation will be illustrated below. ―We should go and congratulate them!‖ said Hermione, standing on tiptoe to see the place where Bill and Fleur had vanished amid a crowd of wellwishers.‖ ―We’ll have time later,‖ shrugged Ron, snatching three Butterbeers from a passing tray and handing one to Harry. ―Kita harus memberi selamat kepada mereka!‖ kata Hermione, berdiri berjingkat untuk melihat Bill dan Fleur yang telah menghilang di tengah kerumunan orang yang memberi selamat. ―Kita masih punya waktu nanti,‖ Ron mengangkat bahu, menyambar tiga Butterbeer dari nampan yang lewat dan menyerahkan satu kepada Harry. In that situation, Hermione intention is to go to congratulate the couple. Therefore the translator omits the word ‗go’ because it will deviate from the source meaning if the literal translation is applied. Semantically, the phrase ‗go and congratulate’ is unacceptable in the RL culture. People usually state their intention directly and this causes the word ‗go’ is omitted. Although the translator subtracts the word, the result is more to gain the meaning equivalence. There are 3 data that belong to this classification, namely: 030 031 034 commit to user 63 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 4.2.2. Sem/Alt. Technique of adjustment in terms of alteration to produce semantically equivalence structure. Example: ―If you’re read this, Harry, we’re all behind you!‖ (064/HPaTDH-272/Alt/Sem) ―Kalau kau membaca ini, Harry, kami semua mendukungmu!‖ (064/HPdRK442/Alt/Sem) The first sentence is said by the people who always support Harry Potter in his battle against his enemy, Voldemort. Here, ‗we’re all behind you’ is translated into ‗kami semua mendukungmu’. This translation does not lessen the meaning. The phrase ‗we’re all behind you’ in the source text is intended to represent the support and courage from the people who care about Harry Potter and his family. This means that the alteration is made by the translator. In the text, the information has already been included elsewhere in the sentence, so the translator makes a further clear statement. The literal translation is ‗kami semua dibelakangmu’ which semantically means giving support and courage. The situations below will illustrate more. And all round these neatly lettered words scribbles had been added by other witches and wizards who had come to see the place where the Boy Who Lived had escaped. Some had merely signed their names in Everlasting Ink; others had carved their initials into the wood, still others had left messages. The most recent of these, shining brightly over sixteen years’ worth of magical graffiti, commitalltosaid usersimilar things. 64 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id ―Good luck, Harry, wherever you are.‖ ―If you read this, Harry, we’re all behind you!‖ ―Long live Harry Potter.‖ Dan disekitar kata-kata yang tertulis rapi ini, tulisan-tulisan lain telah ditambahkan oleh para penyihir yang datang untuk melihat tempat Anak Laki-laki yang Bertahan Hidup telah berhasil lolos. Beberapa hanya membubuhkan tanda tangan mereka dengan Tinta Abadi; yang lain mengukir inisial mereka di kayu, dan yang lain lagi meninggalkan pesanpesan. Pesan-pesan yang paling baru, berkilau terang di atas graffiti sihir selama enam belas tahun, semuanya mengatakan hal yang sama. ―Semoga sukses, Harry, dimanapun kau berada.‖ ―kalau kau membaca ini, Harry, kami semua mendukungmu!‖ ―Hidup Harry Potter.‖ At last, it can be concluded that the sentence word ‗behind’ implies the word ‗mendukung’, so that the receptor readers are not confused. There are 17 data that belong to this classification, namely: 001 002 004 007 009 013 017 024 036 045 054 058 064 077 116 120 121 4.2.2. Sem/Sub+Alt. Technique of adjustment in terms of subtraction and alteration to produce semantically equivalence structure. Example: ―She’s gorn and sent for him, I felt my Mark burn, and he thinks we’ve got commit to user Potter!‖ (106/HPaTDH-476/Sub+Alt/Sem) 65 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id ―Dia telah memanggilnya, aku merasakan Tanda-ku terbakar, dan dia mengira kami berhasil menangkap Potter!‖ (106/HPdRK-779/Sub+Alt/Sem) There are two adjustment applied by the translator for the example above. They are subtraction and alteration. The word ‗gorn’ is subtracted and the phrase ‗sent for him’ is altered into ‗memanggilnya’. This translation does not lessen the meaning. The phrase ‗gorn and sent for him', semantically, refers to summon someone. Based on the situational context, it can be clearly seen that the real sense of the subtraction and alteration phrase above is to summon. ―She’s only Stunned,‖ said Prof Mcgonagall impatiently, who had stooped down to examine Alecto. ―She’ll be perfectly all right.‖ ―No, she bludgering well won’t!‖ bellowed Amycus. ―Not after the Dark Lord gets hold of her! She’s gorn and sent for him! I felt me Mark burn, and he thinks we’ve got Potter!‖ ―Got Potter?‖ said Prof Mcgonagall sharply. ―What do you mean, ―Got Potter‖?‖ ―He told us Potter might try and get inside Ravenclaw Tower, and to send for him if we caught him!‖ ―Dia cuma kena Mantra Bius,‖ kata Prof Mcgonagall tak sabar, yang telah membungkuk memeriksa Alecto. ―Dia akan baik-baik saja.‖ ―Tidak, dia jelas tidak akan baik-baik saja!‖ raung Amycus. ―Tidak setelah Pangeran Kegelapan menangkapnya! Dia telah memanggilnya! Aku merasakan Tanda-ku terbakar, dan dia mengira kami berhasil menangkap Potter!‖ commit to user 66 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id ―Menangkap Potter?‖ kata Prof Mcgonagall tajam. ―Apa maksudmu, ―Menangkap Potter‖?‖ ―Dia memberitahu kami Potter mungkin akan mencoba masuk Menara Ravenclaw, dan menyuruh kami memanggilnya kalau kami menangkapnya!‖ The situation above is a quotation from the conversation between Amycus and Prof Mcgonagall. As a matter of fact, by looking at the context of the sentence, the subtraction and alteration do not deviate the meaning. Because in that situation, it is clear that Amycus wants to state that his sister has summoned the Dark Lord. There is only 1 datum that belongs to this classification, namely: 106 4.2.2. Sty/Add. Technique of adjustment in terms of addition to provide equivalence stylistic appropriateness. Example: ―All this snow!‖ (063/HPaTDH-264/Add/Sty) ―Wah, semua salju ini!‖ (063/HPdRK-428/Add/Sty) The word ‗wah’ is added by the translator to express the feeling of surprise experienced by Hermione. It is a good decision since in the source language such feeling of surprise is not obviously felt. The following text will illustrate such condition. commit to user 67 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id ―All this snow!‖ Hermione whispered beneath the Cloak. ―Why didn’t we think of snow? After all our precautions, we’ll leave prints! We’ll just have to get rid of them – you go in front, I’ll do it –― ―Wah, semua salju ini!‖ Hermione berbisik di bawah jubah. ―Kenapa kita tidak memikirkan salju? Setelah semua tindakan pengamanan kita, kita akan meninggalkan jejak! Kita harus menghapusnya---kau jalan duluan, biar aku yang menghapus jejak---― The text shows that Hermione is astonished by her surrounding, finding out that after all their precautions, she forgot about the snow. The addition of ‗wah’ in the RL will give an impact that Hermione feels surprise. The addition is merely the translator style of writing, because it determines the flavor, and the feel of the message in the receptor language. Therefore, the translation does not deviate the source language meaning. There are 8 data that belong to this classification, namely: 014 043 044 056 057 063 074 097 4.2.2. Sty/Sub. Technique of adjustment in terms of subtraction to provide equivalence stylistic appropriateness. Example: ―You can!‖ (068/HPaTDH-305/Sub/Sty) ―Bisa!‖ (068/HPdRK-498/Sub/Sty) commit to user 68 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id The translator subtracts the word ‗you’ in the translation. It belongs to the translator’s style of writing; for the reason that either she translates it or not both are acceptable. The subtraction does not really lessen the original meaning. Neither the preceding nor the following sentences imply that clause, so the translator decides to subtract it. ―You can do it,‖ said Harry, ―you can! You’ve just got the sword, I know it’s supposed to be you who uses it. Please, just get rid of it, Ron.‖ ―Kau bisa melakukannya!‖ kata Harry, ―bisa! Kau baru saja mendapatkan pedang itu, aku tahu itu berarti kaulah yang seharusnya menggunakannya. Tolong, singkirkan Horcrux ini, Ron.‖ It is acceptable also if the translator adds the word ‗kamu’, but she does it because the omitted word ‗you’ has been included elsewhere in the text so she does not make a repetition. There are 21 data that belong to this classification, namely: 003 016 020 035 039 051 053 067 068 071 072 081 087 088 090 092 093 100 109 111 114 4.2.2. Sty/Alt. Technique of adjustment in terms of alteration to provide equivalence stylistic appropriateness. Example: ―But somebody betrayed us!‖ (011/HPaTDH-065/Alt/Sty) ―Tapi ada yang mengkhianati kita!‖ (011/HPdRK-102/Alt/Sty) commit to user perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 69 digilib.uns.ac.id The translator applies technique of adjustment in terms of alteration in the word ‗somebody’. In the literal translation ‗somebody’ is supposed to be ‗seseorang’, but here the real meaning is altered into ‗ada’. Based on the situational context, the alteration does not change the meaning basically. The word ‗somebody’ refers to a person or a human being existence while in the translation it is acceptable also to use the word ‗ada’ to represent the same meaning. Kingsley turned his wand on Harry, but Lupin said, ―It’s him, I’ve checked!‖ ―All right, all right!‖ said Kingsley, stowing his wand back beneath his cloak. ―But somebody betrayed us! They knew, they knew it was tonight!‖ ―So it seems,‖ replied Lupin, ―but apparently they did not realize that there would be seven Harrys.‖ Kingsley ganti mengarahkan tongkatnya ke Harry, tetapi Lupin berkata, ―Itu dia. Aku sudah mengeceknya!‖ ―Baiklah, baiklah!‖ kata Kingsley, menyimpan kembali tongkat sihirnya ke balik jubahnya. ―Tapi ada yang mengkhianati kita! Mereka tahu, mereka tahu kita bergerak malam ini.‖ ―Kelihatannya begitu,‖ tanggap Lupin, ―Tapi tampaknya mereka tidak menyadari akan ada tujuh Harry.‖ The translator chooses to translate ‗somebody’ into ‗ada’ though actually she can translate the word into the original meaning. It is obviously a matter of the translator’s style of writing. The alteration does not cause meaning deviation. There are 31 data that belongs to this classification, namely: commit to user 70 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 005 008 010 011 015 018 019 029 033 037 040 041 052 055 060 069 073 075 079 080 082 085 089 096 098 101 103 104 112 115 118 4.2.2. Sty/Add+Alt. Technique of adjustment in terms of addition and alteration to provide equivalence stylistic appropriateness. Example: ―The Forbidden Forest, they’ve faced plenty worse than the Forbidden Forest, big deal!‖ (061/HPaTDH-249/Add+Alt/Sty) ―Hutan terlarang… mereka telah menghadapi banyak hal lebih menyeramkan daripada itu. Hutan terlarang sih kecil!‖ (061/HPdRK-402/Add+Alt/Sty) Here, the translator makes an addition ‗hutan terlarang’ while actually, such information belongs to previous sentence. Since the translator adds the phrase ‗hutan terlarang’ the second adjustment appears in the next sentence into ‗hutan terlarang sih kecil’ or in English ‗the Forbidden Forest is fine’. The ‗big deal’ itself is to express the feeling of relief experienced by Harry and Hermione. Therefore, the translation does not deviate the meaning in the source text. It is dealing to the translator’s style of writing, because either she adds ‗hutan terlarang’ or not both are acceptable. The addition and alteration do not lessen the original meaning. commit to user 71 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id There is only 1 datum that belongs to this classification, namely: 061 4.2.2. Sty/Sub+Alt. Technique of adjustment in terms of subtraction and alteration to provide equivalence stylistic appropriateness. Example: ―But then, that’s the Weasley’s boy!‖ (091/HPaTDH-372/Sub+Alt/Sty) ―Tapi, itukan si Weasley!‖ (091/HPdRK-607/Sub+Alt/Sty) The conversation above is a quotation from a conversation between Lucious and his wife, Narcissa. They are arguing about Ron who is in disguise. The following text will illustrate such situation. ―What about the Mudblood, then?‖ growled Greyback. Harry was nearly thrown off his feet as the Snatchers forced the prisoners to swivel around again so that the light fell on Hermione instead. ―Wait,‖ said Narcissa sharply. ―Yes – yes, she was in Madam Malkin’s with Potter! I saw her picture in the Prophet! Look, Draco, isn’t it the Granger girl?‖ ―I … maybe … yeah.‖ ―But then, that’s the Weasley boy!‖ shouted Lucius, striding round the bound prisoners to face Ron. ―It’s them, Potter’s friends – Draco look at commit to userhis name --?‖ him, isn’t Arthur Weasley’s son, what’s 72 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id ―Yeah,‖ said draco again, his back to the prisoners. ―It could be.‖ ―Bagaimana dengan si Darah-lumpur, kalau begitu?‖ geram Greyback. Harry nyaris terjungkal ketika Penjambret memaksa para tawanan berputar lagi, supaya cahaya menyinari Hermione sekarang. ―Tunggu,‖ kata Narcissa tajam. ―Ya—ya, dia waktu itu ada di Madam Malkin’s bersama Potter! Aku melihat fotonya di Prophet! Lihat, Draco, bukankah itu si Granger?‖ ―Aku… mungkin… yeah.‖ ―Tapi, itu kan si Weasley!‖ teriak Lucius, berjalan mengelilingi tawanan yang terikat untuk menghadapi Ron. ―Itu mereka, teman-teman Potter— Draco, lihat dia, bukankah itu anak si Arthur Weasley, siapa namanya--?‖ ―Yeah,‖ kata Draco lagi, memunggungi para tawanan. ―Bisa jadi.‖ In adjusting her translator, firstly the translator subtracts the word ‗then’ (RL ‗kalau begitu’). It belongs to the translator’s style of writing because either she translates it or not, both are acceptable. Therefore, the subtraction does not lessen or deviate the meaning. Another adjustment made by the translator is in term of alteration. He alters the phrase ‗the Weasley boy’ into ‗si Weasley’. In general, the alteration does not change the meaning essentially. That phrase refers to the same meaning. It is obvious that the receptor readers are not confused since actually the words ‗the Weasley boy’ is intended to represent a kid of Weasley’s family, so it shows that the alteration belongs to the translator’s style of writing. commit to user 73 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id There are 4 data that belong to this classification, namely: 023 028 091 110 4.2.2. Comm/Add. Technique of adjustment in terms of addition to carry an equivalent communication load. Example: ―Yeah, maybe I will!‖ (062/HPaTDH-253/Add/Comm) ―Yeah, barangkali aku mau pulang!‖ (062/HPdRK-409/Add/Comm) The word ‗pulang’ is added to the RL. This translation is already correct and the addition does not add the meaning. It is acceptable also if the translator does not add the word ‗pulang’, but she does it because the added word ‗pulang’ has been included elsewhere in the text, and the translator attempts to carry an equivalence communication load, so she just make a repetition. ―So why are you still here?‖ Harry asked Ron. ―Search me,‖ said Ron. ―Go home then,‖ said Harry. ―Yeah, maybe I will!‖ shouted Ron, and he took several steps towards Harry, who did not back away. ―Jadi, kenapa kau masih disini?‖ Harry menanyai Ron. ―Aku sendiri tak tahu,‖ kata Ron. ―Pulang saja kalau begitu.‖ commit to user 74 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id ―Yeah, barangkali aku mau pulang!‖ teriak Ron, dan dia maju beberapa langkah mendekati Harry, yang tidak mundur. In the SL, the word ‗go home’ is just mentioned once, but the translator repeats this word to intensify the meaning. There are 10 data that belong to this classification, namely: 006 038 048 049 050 062 066 086 113 119 4.2.2. Comm/Sub. Technique of adjustment in terms of subtraction to carry an equivalent communication load. Example : ―I’ve never even heard of them!‖ (027/HPaTDH-113/Sub/Comm) ―Aku belum pernah dengar!‖ (027/HPdRK-185/Sub/Com) The subtracted information in the example above is ‗them’. It is natural and acceptable in the SL to employ ‗them’ though in fact, it is not obligatory since the thing that Harry, Ron and Hermione are talking about is already clear. ―And as for this book, said Hermione, ―The Tales of Beedle the Bard … I’ve never even heard of them!‖ ―You’ve never heard of The Tales of Beedle the Bard?‖ said Ron incredulously. ―You’re kidding, right?‖ ―Dan soal buku ini,‖ kata Hermione, ―Kisah-kisah Beedle si Juru Cerita … aku belum pernah dengar!‖ commit to user 75 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id ―Kau belum pernah dengar Kisah-kisah Beedle si Juru Cerita ?‖ kata Ron tidak percaya. ―Kau bercanda, ya?‖ It sounds familiar for the readers of the original text to say ‗I’ve never even heard of them’. But the information has a different form and is usually distributed differently in the translation. So the subtraction does not lessen the communication load nor deviate the source meaning. There are 3 data that belong to this classification, namely: 021 027 105 4.2.2. Comm/Alt. Technique of adjustment in terms of alteration to carry an equivalent communication load. Example: ―I knew you weren’t dead!‖ (070/HPaTDH-310/Alt/Comm) ―Aku tahu kalian tidak mati!‖ (070/HPdRK-507/Alt/Comm) The word ‗you’ in the example above is translated into ‗kalian’. By translating ‗you’ into ‗kalian’ the translator intends to get correct and clear expression of the meaning of the source text. Moreover, this is more natural and acceptable in the receptor text. The situation showing that ‗you’ refers to Harry and Hermione had previously been introduced in the text since Ron actually talking not only to one person but with the two of them. It can be seen from the following situation: commit to user 76 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id ―Hermione,‖ interjected Harry, who considered this a low blow, ―he just saved my—― ―I don’t care!‖ she screamed. ―I don’t care what he’s done! Weeks and weeks, we could have been dead for all he knew –― ―I knew you weren’t dead!‖ bellowed Ron, drowning her voice for the first time, and approaching as close as he could with the Shield Charm between them. ―Hermione,‖ sela Harry, yang menganggap serangan terakhir itu keterlaluan, ―dia baru saja menyelamatkan hi—― ―Aku tak peduli!‖ dia menjerit. ―Aku tak peduli apa yang telah dilakukannya! Berminggu-minggu, kita bisa sudah mati dan dia tidak tahu apa-apa—― ―Aku tahu kalian tidak mati!‖ teriak Ron, menenggelamkan suara Hermione untuk pertama kalinya, dan maju sedekat dia bisa dengan Mantra Pelindung di antara mereka. From the text above, it is clear that what is meant by ‗you’ is Harry and Hermione. Therefore, the translator translates the word into ‗kalian’ to carry an equivalence communication load and this does not deviate the meaning of the source text. There are 15 data that belong to this classification, namely: 012 022 042 047 059 065 070 076 078 083 084 095 099 102 117 commit to user 77 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 4.2.2. Comm/Sub+Alt. Technique of adjustment in terms of subtraction and alteration to carry an equivalent communication load. Example: ―It was there, it was right there on the wall of his office during all our talks last year!‖ (026/HPaTDH-113/Sub+Alt/Comm) ―Pedang itu di sana, tergantung di dinding dalam kantornya selama semua percakapan kami tahun lalu!‖ (026/HPdRK-185/Sub+Alt/Comm) The translator applies two adjustments in this translation. Firstly, adjustment in terms of subtraction, the translator decides to subtract the object pronoun ‗it’ that refers to a sword. This subtraction does not change the original meaning generally. Yet, such information in the text has already been included elsewhere in the sentence, so it is not a predicament not to repeat it again. Secondly, adjustment in terms of alteration is made by the translator to alter the phrase ‗right there on the wall’. This alteration has no different meaning at all since in the situation of context, both are acceptable. ―And the sword,‖ said Ron finally, when they had at last abandoned their attempts to divine meaning in the Snitch’s inscriptions. ―Why did he want Harry to have the sword?‖ ―And why couldn’t he just have told me?‖ Harry said quietly. ―It was there, it was right there on the wall of his office during all our talks last year! If he wanted me to have it, why didn’t he just give it to me then?‖ commit to user perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 78 digilib.uns.ac.id ―Dan pedangnya,‖ kata Ron akhirnya, ketika mereka meninggalkan usaha mereka untuk menebak arti tulisan kata-kata pada Snitch. ―Kenapa dia menghendaki Harry memiliki pedang itu?‖ ―Dan kenapa dia tidak bilang saja kepadaku?‖ kata Harry pelan. ―Pedang itu di sana , tergantung di dinding dalam kantornya selama semua percakapan kami tahun lalu! Kalau dia menginginkan aku memilikinya, kenapa dia tidak memberikannya saja kepadaku waktu itu?‖ From the situation above, it is clear that the pronoun ‗It’ is subtracted by the translator to avoid a repetition, and alters them into different form. At last, the subtraction and alteration in this translation do not result in meaning deviation or subtracting to the original communication load. There is only 1 datum that belongs to this classification, namely: 026 4.2.3. Accuracy and Acceptability To gain the quality of translation in terms of accuracy and acceptability, the researcher makes questioners that are given to three raters. The data are classified into three degrees after analyzing on the relationship between the source and target texts in accordance with the level descriptors. The tabulation of the ratings from the raters is as follows: a. Classification A: Accurate, includes the data with mean score 2.6—3.0. b. Classification B: Less accurate, includes the data with mean score 1.6—2.5. c. Classification C: Inaccurate, includes the data with mean score 1.0—1.5. commit to user 79 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id Table 4.3. Accuracy Level of the Translation No Classification 1 2 3 A B C Number of Data 001, 005, 006, 007, 009, 013, 014, 016, 018, 019, 025, 026, 028, 029, 030, 036, 037, 038, 041, 043, 047, 048, 049, 050, 051, 059, 060, 064, 065, 066, 071, 072, 075, 076, 077, 080, 081, 082, 083, 084, 090, 093, 095, 096, 097, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 114, 116, 117, 119, 120 011, 020, 033, 044, 053, 067, 078, 085, 098, 108, 012, 021, 034, 046, 054, 069, 079, 087, 099, 109, 002, 003, 004, 023, 024, 027, 040, 042, 045, 058, 061, 062, 074, 086, 088, 105, 106, 107, 115, 118, 121 015, 035, 056, 070, 092, 112, 017, 039, 057, 073, 094, 113, 008, 031, 052, 063, 089, 110, 010, 032, 055, 068, 091, 111, 022 Total Total Data Percentage 75 62% 45 37.2% 1 0.8% 121 100% Mean of all data = total scores: total data: total raters = 943 : 121 : 3 = 2.6 a. Classification A: Acceptable, includes the data with mean score 2.6—3.0. b. Classification B: Less acceptable, includes the data with mean score 1.6—2.5. c. Classification C: Unacceptable, includes the data with mean score 1.0—1.5. commit to user 80 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id Table 4.4. Acceptability Level of the Translation No Classification 1 A Number of Data 001, 002, 003, 004, 005, 008, 009, 010, 011, 012, 017, 019, 020, 021, 022, 025, 026, 027, 028, 029, 032, 033, 034, 035, 036, 039, 040, 041, 042, 043, 047, 048, 049, 050, 051, 054, 055, 056, 057, 059, 062, 063, 064, 065, 066, 069, 070, 071, 072, 073, 077, 078, 079, 080, 081, 084, 085, 086, 087, 088, 092, 095, 096, 098, 099, 102, 103, 104, 106, 107, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121 006, 013, 023, 030, 037, 044, 052, 060, 067, 075, 082, 090, 100, 108, 115, 007, 014, 024, 031, 038, 045, 053, 061, 068, 076, 083, 091, 101, 109, 116, Total Data Percentage 110 91% 2 B 015, 016, 018, 046, 058, 074, 089, 093, 094, 097, 105 11 9% 3 C 000 0 0% 121 100% Total Mean of all data = total scores: total data: total raters = 1026 : 121 : 3 = 2.8 An assessment of accuracy and acceptability are important to accomplish since the result of this assessment will show the quality of the translation. In this research, the researcher involved three raters to rate the accuracy and the commit to user 81 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id acceptability of exclamatory sentences that experienced techniques of adjustment by using an open-ended questionnaire. Firstly, the raters determined the accuracy and acceptability of the translation by giving score to the translation based on the mentioned description and secondly, they were suggested to give their comments or suggestions related to the accuracy and acceptability of the translation. The questionnaire uses scale with the definitions as follows: Table 4.5. Accuracy Scale SCORE DESCRIPTION 3 The message or the content of the source text is fully transferred to the target text. The translation is clear, and no rewriting is needed. The message or the content of the source text is less accurately 2 transferred to the target text. The translation still makes sense, but some rewriting and change in word order are needed. The message or the content of the source text is not accurately 1 transferred to the target text. The message of the target text is totally different with that in the source text. Table 4.6. Acceptability Scale SCORE DESCRIPTION 3 The translation is considered natural, nearly unlike a translation work and no grammatical error. commit to user 82 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id The translation sounds less natural, like a work of translation, and there 2 are unnatural expression and word choices. The translation sounds unnatural and there are unnatural use of 1 expression and word choice. The mean of each data shows the accuracy and acceptability level of the translation. The total average of mean for all data is the result of accuracy and acceptability level of the translation. As an addition, the researcher makes statistical calculation to determine the mean of each datum by applying a formula. When a statistical calculation of the accuracy and acceptability levels are finished, the data of each level are classified into three groups. The formula to calculate the levels of accuracy and acceptability is as follow: Data Number Rater 1 Rater 2 Rater 3 Total 001 Score Score Score Total Score Mean Total score Total raters 002 Score Score Score Total Score Total score Total raters Furthermore, the data in each level, accuracy and acceptability level, are classified into three groups based on the statistical calculation result. commit to user 83 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 4.2.3. A. The Accuracy of the Translation In this research, the researcher found the data that are accurately transferred are 75 data (62%), less accurately translated into the target language are 45 data (37.2%), and only 1 datum (0.8%) that is inaccurately translated. The result is also supported by the comments from the raters about the accuracy of exclamatory sentences in the novel of Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows. The accuracy of transferring message is an important part in translation. Accuracy is one of the factors, which determine the quality of translation. It also means that the meaning of the source text is transferred into target text correctly and the translation can be understood by the target reader easily. Baker states, ―Accuracy is no doubt an important aim in translation but it is also important to bear in mind that the use of common target language patterns which are familiar to the target reader plays an important role in keeping the communication channels open.‖ (1992, pg: 57). Basically, accuracy is related to choose the correct words in order to reveal the same idea in target language. Choosing the right word is very important because if the translator is wrong to choose the word, the text will not be accurate. Choosing the right word would consider some factors, such as, the target readers, situational context, and socio-cultural condition. A translation is considered to be accurate if it conveys the meaning of the source language to the target language correctly. commit to user 84 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 4.2.3. A.1. Classification A (Accurate; includes the data with mean score 2.6—3.0) The data belong to classification are the data which have the mean between 2.6 – 3.0. There are 75 data that belong to this classification. The definitions of an accurate data in this classification are the message of the source text is accurately transferred into the target text and the translation text is clear, and no rewriting is needed. The following data are the examples: Example 1: Wow-we’re identical! (007/HPaTDH-049/Alt/Sem) Wow-kita sama! (007/HPdRK-076/Alt/Sem) The context of situation is as follows, Moody, quite unconcerned, was now loosening the ties of the large sacks he had brought with him: when he straightened up again, there were six Harry Potters gasping and panting in front of him. Fred and George turned to each other and said together, ―Wow-we’re identical!‖ Moody, tampak tidak peduli, sekarang membuka ikatan kantong-kantong besar yang dibawanya. Ketika dia menegakkan diri lagi, ada enam Harry Potter megap-megap terengah dihadapannya. Fred and George berpaling berhadapan dan berseru bersama-sama, ―Wowkita sama!‖ commit to user perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 85 digilib.uns.ac.id From the situation of context, the message of the source text has already been transferred well into the target text. The datum is classified into an accurate translation as the three raters provide score 3. Although one of the rater assumes that the word identical can be replaced by kembar in the target text due to the similarity in appearance experienced by Fred and George, but in general the message of the source text is accurately conveyed into the target text and no rewriting is needed. All raters and the researcher have considered that the translation is accurate since the message has been expressed appropriately into the target text and the word choice kembar or sama does not emerge any significant influence of the message in the receptor language. Example 2: You took your time! (001/HPaTDH-031/Alt/Sem) Kau sengaja berlambat-lambat! (001/HPdRK-049/Alt/Sem) The mean score of datum number 001 is 2.7. Thus, the datum belongs to the classification which considers the mean score as accurate. Two raters give score 3 and one rater gives 2. The two raters think that the message of the original text is accurately transferred into the target text and there are no rewritings needed. Furthermore, they notice that the translation is clear so that it is no need to revise the translation in the target text. The context of situation as follow, Sixteen years of being addressed thus left Harry in no doubt whom his commithe to did usernot immediately respond. He was uncle was calling; nevertheless, 86 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id still gazing at the mirror fragment in which, for a split second, he had thought he saw Dumbledore’s eye. It was not until his uncle bellowed ‗BOY!’ that Harry got slowly to his feet and headed for the bedroom door, pausing to add the piece of broken mirror to the rucksack filled with things he would be taking with him. ‗You took your time!’ roared Vernon Dursley when Harry appeared at the top of the stairs. ‗Get down here, I want a word!’ Enam belas tahun biasa disapa seperti itu membuat Harry tak meragukan siapa yang dipanggil pamannya. Meskipun demikian dia tidak segera menjawab. Dia masih menatap pecahan cermin, yang di dalamnya tadi selama sepersekian detik dia merasa melihat mata Dumbledore. Baru setelah pamannya berteriak ―BOY!‖ Harry pelan-pelan bangkit dan menuju pintu kamar, hanya berhenti untuk memasukkan pecahan cermin itu ke dalam ransel yang penuh dengan barang-barang yang akan dibawanya. ―Kau sengaja berlambat-lambat!‖ raung Vernon Dursley ketika Harry muncul di puncak tangga. ―Turun sini, aku mau bicara!‖ From the context of situation below, one of the raters assumes that the sentence ‗you took your time‖ is not translated well in the target text. She feels that it will be much better if the translator uses the sentence ‗kau lama sekali’ since from the context of situation, Vernon Dursley needs Harry to come as soon as possible and he cannot wait for Harry’s arrival. Hence she scores 2 for the datum 001. commit to user perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 87 digilib.uns.ac.id On the other hand, the researcher finds the data is accurately translated into the receptor language as from the context of situation, Harry does not immediately respond to his uncle’s call. This gives reason to his uncle’s that Harry has the intention to take his time. Therefore, the researcher believes that the datum number 001 is accurate and no rewriting is needed. 4.2.3. Classification B (Less accurate, includes the data with mean score 1.6—2.5) The data within this classification are the data which have the mean between 1.6 – 2.5. 45 data belong to this classification which the source text is less accurately transferred into the target text since there are some additions or deletion found, but it occasionally needs minor changes in order to accommodate the intended original meaning. There are several reasons why the raters do not give the best score for the translation. The examples of this classification are as follows: Example 1: Of course I ruddy well know how to drive! (003/HPaTDH-036/Sub/Sty) Tentu saja aku bisa menyetir mobil! (003/HPdRK-057/Sub/Sty) In datum 003, there are two raters score 2 and one rater score 3. One of the rater considers that the translation is less accurate since the word ruddy is not represented well in the target text. The context of situation is as follow: ‗I see you are packed and ready. Excellent! The plan, as Harry has told to user you, is a simple one, ‗saidcommit Dedalus, pulling an immense pocket watch out perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 88 digilib.uns.ac.id of his waistcoat and examining it. ‗We shall be leaving before Harry does. Due to the danger of using magic in your house – Harry being still underage, it could provide the Ministry with an excuse to arrest him – we shall be driving, say ten mile or so, before Disapparating to the safe location we have picked out for you. You know how to drive, I take it?’ he asked Uncle Vernon politely. ‗You know how to-? Of course I ruddy well know how to drive!’ spluttered Uncle Vernon. ―Kulihat kalian sudah berkemas dan siap berangkat. Bagus sekali! Rencananya, seperti yang telah disampaikan Harry kepada kalian, sederhana saja,‖ kata Dedalus, menarik keluar jam saku besar dari rompinya dan mengamatinya. ―Kita berangkat sebelum Harry. Karena berbahaya melakukan sihir di dalam rumah kalian-Harry masih di bawah umur, nanti Kementerian jadi punya alasan untuk menangkapnya-kita akan naik mobil, kira-kira lima belas kilo lah, sebelum ber-Disapparate ke tempat yang telah kami pilihkan untuk kalian. Anda bisa menyetir mobil, kukira?‖ dia menanyai Paman Vernon dengan sopan. ―Bisa me-? Tentu saja aku bisa menyetir mobil!‖ ujar Paman Vernon. From the context of situation above, Vernon Dursley spluttered Dedalus with his question about Vernon’s ability to drive a car. The raters consider that the message of the source text is not transferred well and less expressive. Ruddy well know are not translated in the target text while its purpose is to explain Vernon’s capability in driving a car is more than know but excellent. Larson states, ―When commit to user perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 89 digilib.uns.ac.id concepts are shared between the source and receptor languages, the important rule for the translator is to find the most natural and accurate way to communicate the same meaning in the receptor language as was intended by the author in the source language. This may mean that a very different form will be used in order to make sure correct meaning and natural expression.‖ (1984, pg: 159). Therefore, the raters suggest that the translation of the sentence as Tentu saja aku bisa menyetir mobil dengan sangat baik. Example 2: An’ the last time you was on it, Harry, I could fit yeh in one hand! (008/HPaTDH051/Alt/Sty) Dan terakhir kali kau naik motor ini, Harry, kau cuma sebesar satu tanganku ini! (008/HPdRK-079/Alt/Sty) The assessment from the raters giving scores in the questionnaire for this datum places the translation into classification B as it results 2.0 for the mean score of the translation. It means that the translation of the datum number 125 is less accurately transferred to target text and some rewritings are needed in the translation. The raters consider that the translation needs to be reconstructed although the message of the source language does not deviate from the message of the source language. The interesting part of this data is the three raters give different score. One of them scores 3 and the other two score 1 and 2. The rater giving score 2 considers that the sentence I could fit yeh in one hand as an idiom; however it is translated literally and causes different in commit to user 90 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id meaning. While the rater scored 1 believes that the translation above can be transferred without using technique of adjustment in term of alteration and suggest that if yeh in the sentence above referred to Harry, the possible alternative expression which would convey the meaning in a corresponding expression is aku bisa memuatmu dalam satu tangan. Example 3: You’ve got to find out about them for yourself! (088/HPaTDH-351/Sub/Sty) Kita harus mencari tahu sendiri! (088/HPdRK-573/Sub/Sty) The assessment from the raters giving scores in the questionnaire for this datum places the translation into classification B as it results 1.7 for the mean score of the translation. According to the raters, the message of the source language is not well conveyed into the target language. There are two raters score 2 and one rater scores 1. In this datum, the translator applies technique of adjustment in terms of subtraction where the phrase about them is not translated into target text. The raters consider that the subtraction above does not convey the message. Yet, according to them, the translation, especially in about them, does not need to be omitted. The translation may create a misunderstanding to the target reader because the message is rather unclear. Therefore the suggestion of the translation is kita sendirilah yang harus mencari tahu tentang hal itu. commit to user perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 91 digilib.uns.ac.id 4.2.3. Classification C (Inaccurate, includes the data with mean score 1.0— 1.5) The data which are included to this classification have the mean between 1.0-1.5. The reason that the data belong to this category the translator fails in transferring the message from the source text into the target text. There is only 1 datum (0.8%) that belong to this classification. Example: It-it wasn’t stealing! (022/HPaTDH-088/Alt/Comm) Aku-aku tidak mencurinya! (022/HPdRK-141/Alt/Comm) In datum number 022, one rater gives score 2 and two others give 1. The raters consider that the translation is confusing that the message of the source text cannot be transferred into the target text. Its meaning is not conveyed, even deviates from the source text. The sentence of It-it wasn’t stealing is an exclamatory sentence that experiences technique of adjustment in terms of alteration. The pronoun It which is referred to a thing is altered into pronoun Aku which is in the target text obviously referred to a person. One of the raters scores 1 considers that based on its context of situation, the sentence will be much more accurate and understandable if pronoun it is not altered into aku since the rater thinks that it cannot be referred into a person. Below is the situation. commit to you userdestroy a Horcrux?’ asked Ron. ‗And once we get hold of it, how do 92 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id ‗Well,’ said Hermione, ‗I’ve been researching that.’ ‗How?’ asked Harry. ‗I didn’t think there were any books on Horcruxes in the library?’ ‗There weren’t,’ said Hermione, who had turned pink. ‗Dumbledore removed them all, but he – he didn’t destroy them.’ Ron sat up straight, wide-eyed. ‗How in the name of Merlin’s pants have you managed to get your hands on those Horcruxes books?’ ‗It – it wasn’t stealing!’ said Hermione, looking from Harry to Ron with a kind of desperation. ‗They were still library books, even if Dumbledore had taken them off the shelves. Anyway, if he really didn’t want anyone to get at them, I’m sure he would have made it much harder to-’ ―Dan kalau kita sudah berhasil mendapatkannya, bagaimana kau menghancurkan Horcrux?‖ Tanya Ron. ―Yah,‖ kata Hermione, ―aku sudah mencari tahu soal itu.‖ ―Bagaimana?‖ Tanya Harry. ―Bukankah tak ada buku tentang Horcrux di perpustakaan?‖ ―Memang tak ada,‖ kata Hermione, yang wajahnya telah merona merah. ―Dumbledore telah memindahkan semuanya, tapi dia-dia tidak menghancurkannya.‖ Ron duduk tegak, matanya terbelalak. ―Bagaimana demi celana Merlin kau berhasil mendapatkan buku-buku Horcrux itu?‖ commit to user 93 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id ―Aku-aku tidak mencurinya!‖ kata Hermione, bergantian memandang harry dan Ron dengan tatapan putus asa. ―Buku-buku itu masih tetap buku perpus, sekalipun Dumbledore sudah mengambilnya dari rak-raknya. Lagi pula, kalau dia benar-benar tidak ingin ada yang membaca buku-buku itu, aku yakin dia akan membuatnya lebih susah untuk-‖ On the other hand, the only rater who score 2 believes that the situation above has a bit illustrate the reader that the reason of the alteration made is to make the expression clear enough although seen from the translation accuracy there is another way to translate the sentence into more accurate target language. Larson states, ―When concepts are shared between the source and receptor languages, the important rule for the translator is to find the most natural and accurate way to communicate the same meaning in the receptor language as was intended by the author in the source language. This may mean that a very different form will be used in order to make sure correct meaning and natural expression.‖ (1984, p: 159). The researcher considers that the message is inaccurately transferred to the receptor language since in the translation result, it appears that Hermione is the only person who steals the book, while in fact, based on the context of situation, Hermione wants to clarify that the books are not being stolen by anyone. The message is found totally different with in the source text. Therefore, the researcher suggests its translation as buku-buku ini tidak dicuri. commit to user 94 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 4.2.4. The Acceptability of the Translation Looking back on table 4, there are 110 data (91%) are naturally translated, 11 data (9%) sounds less natural, like a work of translation, and there are unnatural expression and word choices, and no data found (0%) is unnatural. The researcher also discovers that the mean score for the whole data in the acceptability of the translation is 2.8. It means that the message of the data, namely, Exclamatory sentence experience technique of adjustment in Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows novel is naturally translated into the target text. Acceptability only can be measured by the target language native speakers so as Larsson states, ―The person who does the testing must also understand translation principles and knows the receptor language as well. If she/he needs some respondents, they must be also target language native speaker (1984: 472). Those who are helping with the evaluation should be mother-tongue speakers of the receptor language.‖ (1984: 49). Base on those reasons, to make a translation acceptable to the target reader, a translator must have more sensitivity to the naturalness of the target language. 4.2.4. Classification A (Acceptable, includes the data with mean score 2.6— 3.0) The data included in this classification are those with mean score that ranges from 2.6 to 3.0. On table 4, it is clear that there are 110 data or 91% of the data belong to this classification. The definition of an acceptable datum in this commit to user 95 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id classification is that the translated text sounds natural. It practically sounds unlike a translation work and close in meaning equivalence. Example: I’m on it, Harry, don’t worry! (009/HPaTDH-54/Alt/Sem) Kutangani, Harry, jangan kawatir! (009/HPdRK-84/Alt/Sem) The translation is included into the acceptable category since all of the raters give score 3. In datum number 9, the expression used in the sentence does not seem like a work of translation, the translation sounds natural and it is close in meaning equivalence. Larson states, ―He (the translator) will know he is successful if the receptor language readers do not recognize his work as a translation at all but simply as a text written in the receptor language for their information and enjoyment.‖ (1984, p: 23) Based on the context of situation, the preposition of on in the source language is related to something that is trying to be taken care. While apart from the situation, the sentence looks indicating to a position standing to something. Thus, the researcher agrees with the translation and does not provide a suggested translation. Example: I’ve never even heard of them! (027/HPaTDH-113/Sub/Comm) Aku belum pernah dengar! (027/HPdRK-185/Sub/Comm) commit to user perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 96 digilib.uns.ac.id This datum belongs to classification A since its mean score is 2.7. Two raters give score 3 and one rater gives 2. It means that the translation belongs to the category of acceptable although there is still one rater providing score 2. The translation needs to be revised in order to make it sound more natural. In this datum the translator subtracts the object. The phrase of them is not translated in the target text. However, this omission of subject does not hamper the acceptability of the message. According to one rater, who gives score 2 for this translation, the omission of the object pronoun makes the translation sound less natural when the viewers read the translation. Yet, a revision needs to be done and the rater suggests that it will be more appropriate if the translator puts the words cerita itu as object in the target text to make it more acceptable in the structure of the target language. In contrast, the researcher believes that whether the translator puts the words cerita itu or not, the translation result can still be considered to be an acceptable translation and there is no need to have a grammatical reconstruction. The translation is not difficult to understand since it is expressed naturally in the receptor language. Thus, the researcher agrees with the translation and does not provide a suggested translation. 4.2.4. Classification B (Less acceptable, includes the data with mean score 1.6—2.5) This classification covers all data with mean score from 1.6 to 2.5. There are 11 data that belong to this category. In this classification, the target text commit to user perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 97 digilib.uns.ac.id sounds like a translation. There are also some unnatural expressions and word choices. Thus, there are some reasons why the raters do not give the best score for the translation. Example 1: I’m not being ―Rodent‖, no way, I told you I wanted to be ―Rapier‖! (089/HPaTDH-359/Alt/Sty) Siapa yang mau jadi ‗Rodent’, no way, sudah kubilang aku mau jadi ‗Rapier’! (089/HPdRK-585/Alt/Sty) The mean of datum number 89 is 2.3. One rater scores 3 while two others give score 2. The raters giving score 2 consider the translation as less acceptable. It sounds like a work of translation. There is an unnatural expression and word choice. In the target language no way is not translated and remain the same, as a result, the translation is less acceptable since actually it can be changed and translated in order to create unlike the work of translation. Two raters who give score 2 believe that the unfamiliar expression of no way will sounds better if the translator uses correct word choices to replace it and yet the style is very unnatural. It is not expressed in an interesting way. Thus the researcher suggests the translation as Aku tidak mau jadi ‘Rodent’, tidak sama sekali, aku mau jadi ‘Rapier’. Example 2: It’s impossible to make good food out of nothing! (058/HPaTDH-241/Alt/Sem) commit to user 98 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id Tak mungkin mengadakan makanan dari udara kosong! (058/HPdRK390/Alt/Sem) The data number 58 is quite interesting since the three raters give different score 1, 2 and 3. It means that the datum is less acceptable for the mean of data is 2. One of the rater points out the part of target text which makes it sound like a translation work. There are unnatural expression and word choice when the translator translates the words make good food and out of nothing into mengadakan makanan dan udara kosong. According to the rater, the word choices are unnatural. Thus, the translation is considered to be difficult to understand since it is not expressed naturally in the target text. The researcher has the same opinion with one of the rater that as a translator, we should be able to present this meaning in a clear natural expression. The phrase out of nothing becomes udara kosong sounds peculiar in the receptor language. Therefore, the researcher provides the suggested translation as Tidak mungkin memunculkan makanan begitu saja because for the receptor language, mengadakan makanan dari udara kosong sounds a work of translation and less natural. 4.3. Discussion There are 121 exclamatory sentences found in the novel of Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows. All the sentences mentioned have experienced such technique which is technique of adjustment. The researcher has taken several commit to user 99 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id observations through the exclamatory sentences and finds out that there are five kinds of techniques of adjustment applied to translate them. As had been mentioned before that the data used in this research are exclamatory sentences, which types of sentences that are closely to declarative but more forceful and are ended with an exclamation point. As Warriner states, ―An exclamatory sentence is a complete sentence that expresses surprise, excitement, or other strong emotion. The order of the sentence is generally inverted—the subject and verb are placed near the end. An exclamatory sentence ends with an exclamation point.‖ (1958, p: 41) Therefore, after the researcher decides the data and puts them into several types of techniques of adjustment, the research findings need to be discussed as follows: 1. Technique of adjustment From the results of analysis, it can be concluded that there are five techniques of adjustment used in translating exclamatory sentences in the novel Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows, namely: a. Technique of adjustment in terms of addition covers 24 data or 19.8% b. Technique of adjustment in terms of subtraction covers 26 data or 21.5% c. Technique of adjustment in terms of alteration covers 63 data or 52.1% d. Technique of adjustment in terms of addition and alteration covers 2 data or 1.7% e. Technique of adjustment in terms of subtraction and alteration covers 6 data or 4.9% commit to user 100 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id It can be concluded that translation by using technique of adjustment in terms of alteration had the biggest proportion in translating exclamatory sentences. In other words, translating by technique of adjustment in terms of alteration is the most frequently used in the exclamatory sentences found in the novel of Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows. In order to create the most equivalent translation into the target text, adjustment in terms of alteration is suitable to use in translating the exclamatory sentences from the source language (English) into the target text (Indonesian). As Nida states, ―Alteration may, of course, be all of types, from the simplest problems of correspondence in sounds to the most complicated adjustments in idiomatic phrases. However, in general, alterations can be treated under the following classes: (a) sounds, (b) categories, (c) word classes, (d) order of elements, (e) clause and sentence structure, (f) semantic problems involving single words, and (g) semantic problems involving exocentric expressions.‖ (1964, p: 233). The translation result as follow illustrate us that some of the data hold idioms that need to be altered in order to be more acceptable and not less expressive in the target text. e.g. ST : I think her mind’s going, personally! (116/HPaTDH553/Alt/Sem) TT : Pendapat pribadiku, pikiran Bathilda terganggu! (116/HPdRK907/Alt/Sem) commit to user perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 101 digilib.uns.ac.id The forms of the ST and TT are different yet the meaning has been conveyed well. The translator uses different expressions in the target text which is pikiran Bathilda terganggu because it is related to the previous situation in which the character wants to show that she is sure whether about Bathilda latest condition since she is old enough. The expression is suitable to convey its meaning into the target text. Based on the context of situation, the translator wants to clear the idiomatic expressions her mind’s going into the closest meaning in the target text to make it more acceptable into pikiran Bathilda terganggu. e.g. ST : It was Ron, all Ron’s idea! (112/HPaTDH-500/Alt/Sty) TT : Ron nih hebat, semuanya ide Ron! (112/HPdRK-819/Alt/Sty) In the second example, the alteration is more into the style of the translator to choose the suitable expressions. It is to convey the message of how surprise Hermione is about Ron’s idea in solving the Horcrux’s thing. Instead of translating the source text literally, the translator prefers to alter the phrase It was Ron into Ron nih hebat, to deliver such expression using her own style of writing into the target text. The word choices, which are the addition nih and the alteration of hebat, apparently have equal expressive meaning to illustrate the feeling of astonishment felt by Hermione. The decision taken by the translator in rendering the ST into the TT has an aim to provide the reader with an accurate and acceptable translation. Thus, some considerations in applying such techniques of adjustment of translation and in commit to user considering the norms of translating are employed. perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 2. 102 digilib.uns.ac.id The purpose of applying techniques of adjustment. In creating a translation product, a translator is confronted into many strategies that need to be applied and of course there are purposes behind them. These strategies are used to encounter translation problems occur in the process of translation itself. Nida states, ―Before considering the technique of adjustment, it is important to indicate the essential purposes of these techniques.‖ (1964, p: 226) There are four essential purposes in the technique of adjustment. From the research findings in the previous part, the classification is as follow: a. Permit adjustment of the form of the message to the requirements of the structure of the receptor language covers 4 data or 3.3%. b. Produce semantically equivalent structures covers 23 data or 19%. c. Provide equivalent stylistic appropriateness covers 65 data or 53.7%. d. Carry an equivalent communication load covers 29 data or 24%. As it has been showed above, the research findings in the purposes of applying technique of adjustment proposed by Nida has put to provide equivalent stylistic appropriateness as the major purpose with 65 data or 53.7%. In creating a piece of writing, a writer expresses his emotions, attitudes, and aesthetics through his choice of lexical items and grammatical forms. The writer hopes that his expressive words or sentences bring an effect to the readers and then the readers get certain impression from them. The same thing goes for creating a translation. In translating a source text, a translator might eager to get close with the source text or might wish for synchronization between the source texts with that in the target text. Yet, he or she commit to user 103 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id craves not to depend on the form of the source text but more to the message only. Therefore, to accomplish a good translation, a translator will use his or her own style to deliver the same message into target text to reach an equivalent and stylistic expression found in the source text. e.g. ST : Harry and I are fine with it the way it is! (019/HPaTDH081/Alt/Sty) TT : Harry dan aku oke-oke saja dengan keadaannya! (019/HPdRK019/129/Alt/Sty) The example clearly shows the style of writing the translator has to gain similar expressive meaning in the source text. The word fine has been translated into oke-oke saja while actually in the target language the phrase is actually not in the formal one. Instead of translating the word into baik-baik saja , the translator inserts Indonesian reserved word oke. 3. The Accuracy and Acceptability In the table 3 and 4, the mean data have shown that the result of translation in Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows novel is accurate and acceptable with the range of 2.6 for accuracy and 2.8 for acceptability. The decision taken by the translator in rendering the ST into the TT has an aim to provide the audience with an accurate and acceptable translation. Thus, some considerations in applying technique of adjustments are employed. e.g. ST : Dumbledore was already dying when Snape finished him! commit to user (120/HPaTDH-593/Alt/Sem) 104 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id TT : Dumbledore memang sudah sekarat ketika Snape menghabisinya! (122/HPdRK-976/Alt/Sem) The example above is the datum that given score 3 from each of the raters. From the whole sentence and based on the context of situation, the translator has succeed to deliver the equivalent message in the source language into the target one. The faithfulness of the source language text is still maintained in the target language text. Thus, The raters give score 3 since the message or the content of the source text is fully transferred to the target text. The translation is clear, and no rewriting is needed. The researcher also finds that the applying of technique of adjustment in term of alteration above is impressive. e.g. ST : Nice night for it! (111/HPaTDH-499/Sub/Sty) TT : Malam yang menyenangkan! (111/HPdRK-818/Sub/Sty) The datum above is considered acceptable in the target text although there is a phrase that omitted by the translator. Therefore, the raters give score 3 for it since the omitted phrase is no longer needed in the target text. Based on the context of situation, the message of the omitted phrase has already included somewhere in the text and therefore the translator avoid to do a repetition that will create unnatural translation result. In conclusion, the translation text of the second example is considered to be natural, nearly unlike a translation work and no grammatical error. commit to user 105 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 5.1. Conclusion In this chapter, the researcher tries to conclude results of the research based on the data analysis. The research purposes to illustrate the way of translating the exclamatory-sentences in Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows into Indonesian in terms of adjustment made by the translator. In addition, the researcher has also demonstrated the purposes behind applying such technique of adjustments and its accuracy and acceptability. After the data analysis has been completed, the researcher draws conclusions on the basis of the problem statements and the data analysis. The conclusions are as follows: 1. With regard to the technique of adjustment used by the translator, the translations of exclamatory sentences in Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows have adjustments in terms of: a. Addition, it amounts 24 data (19.8%). b. Subtraction, it amounts 26 data (21.5%). c. Alteration, it amounts 62 data (51.2%). d. Addition and alteration, it amounts 2 data (1.7%). e. Subtraction and alteration, it amounts 7 data (5.8%). Adjustment in terms of alteration is the commonest technique used to translate the exclamatory sentences in this novel. There are 62 data (51.2%) commit to user 105 106 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id included to this technique of adjustment. In other words, this adjustment is the most frequent technique applied by the translator compared to the other four adjustments. Despite the technique of adjustments, the meanings in the source text whatsoever are conveyed well. This is confirmed by the fact that the reader finds the translation result is highly comprehended in terms of both the accuracy and acceptability. 2. Based on the purposes of using technique of adjustments, there are four essential purposes, namely: a. The adjustment is to permit adjustment of the form of the message to the requirements of the structure of the receptor language, it amounts 4 data (3.3%). b. The adjustment is to produce semantically equivalent structures, it amounts 23 data (19%). c. The adjustment is to provide equivalent stylistic appropriateness, it amounts 65 data (53.7%). d. The adjustment is to carry an equivalent communication load, it amounts 29 data (24%). The essential purpose of technique of adjustment that frequently appears is to provide equivalent stylistic appropriateness with 65 data (53.7%). To deal with piece of writing such as translation, style of a writer is needed to convey similar expression with that in the source language. Therefore, in this novel the translator has her own style and applied it to deliver equal emotions, commit to user perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 107 digilib.uns.ac.id attitudes, and aesthetics in the target language so that the reader experiences the exact fixations resembling to the source language. 3. Based on the rating to accuracy and acceptability dimensions of the target text supplied by the three raters, the accuracy and acceptability levels are as follows: a. 75 data (62%) are considered accurate. b. 45 data (37.2%) are considered less accurate. c. 1 datum (0.8%) is considered inaccurate. d. 110 data (91%) are considered acceptable. e. 11 data (9%) are considered less acceptable. f. 0 datum (0%) is considered unacceptable. The mean score of the whole data in terms of accuracy level is 2.6. It indicates that the message of the data containing exclamatory sentence that experiences technique of adjustment in Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallow novel is considered accurate. The message or the content of the source text is fully transferred to the target text. The translated text is clear, and no rewriting is needed. The translator’s emphasis on accuracy is to retain the same meaning in the translation which shows loyalty to the SL text. In term of its acceptability, the researcher also finds that the mean score for the whole data in the acceptability of the message transfer of the translation is 2.8. It means that the message of the exclamatory sentences data in The Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows novel is naturally translated into the target text. It is nearly unlike a translation work, and there is no commit to user 108 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id grammatical error. In other words, the message of the translation can be understood. It can be said that the translation is an acceptable one since there is almost no significant grammatical mistake exists, and it sounds natural. The major aim of the translator in rendering the ST into the TT is to provide the audience with an accurate and acceptable translation. In that end, the translator should take technique of translation into consideration. To bear in mind, accuracy will affect the acceptability of the translation in the source language text. A good and proper choice of technique of translation will lead to an accurate and acceptable translation. 5.2. Suggestions Based on the conclusions of the study above, the researcher suggests several points to the translator and other researcher as follows: 1. The translator The translator should pay attention to the closest equivalence of the source language since each country has its own language and culture. To avoid misinterpretation and translation failure, the translator should be able to choose and to apply the appropriate technique of translation in order to produce a quality translation. The translator should be aware that there are differences of the source and target language systems, either grammatically, semantically, or stylistically. commit to user 109 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 2. Other researcher The application of the technique of adjustment in translation is interesting to be examined since the usage of adjustment is very common in practices of translating. Thus, a researcher can make further research related to the application of the techniques of adjustment in translation. Furthermore, the researcher also suggested that other researchers have to be careful enough in choosing the respondents to fill the questionnaire. They should choose the right respondents who understand and expert in the field of the research that will be studied. So, the next researcher and the respondents could have the same point of view in purpose to make the result of the research more reliable. commit to user
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