A TRANSLATION ANALYSIS OF EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES BASED ON THE TECHNIQUE OF ADJUSTMENT IN THE NOVEL OF HARRY POTTER AND THE DEATHLY HOLLOWS INTO HARRY POTTER DAN RELIKUI KEMATIAN

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perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id A TRANSLATION ANALYSIS OF EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES BASED ON THE TECHNIQUE OF ADJUSTMENT IN THE NOVEL OF HARRY POTTER AND THE DEATHLY HOLLOWS INTO HARRY POTTER DAN RELIKUI KEMATIAN THESIS Submitted as a partial fulfillment of requirements For the Sarjana Sastra Degree at English Department Faculty of Letters and Fine Arts Sebelas Maret University By: ISDIATI AGUSTRIANI C1306506 ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF LETTERS AND FINE ARTS SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY SURAKARTA 2011 commit to user perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id A Translation Analysis of Exclamatory Sentences Based on the Technique of Adjustment in the Novel of Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows into Harry Potter dan Relikui Kematian By: ISDIATI AGUSTRIANI C1306506 Approved to be examined before the Board of Examiners of English Department Faculty of Letters and Fine Arts Sebelas Maret University Consultant Prof. Drs. M.R. Nababan, M.Ed, MA, Ph.D NIP 196 303 281 992 011 001 The Head of S1 Non-Regular English Department Drs. Budi Waskito, M. Pd. NIP 195 211 081 983 031 001 commit to user ii perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id A Translation Analysis of Exclamatory Sentences Based on the Technique of Adjustment in the novel of Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows into Harry Potter dan Relikui Kematian By: ISDIATI AGUSTRIANI C1306506 Accepted and Approved by the Board of Examiners of English Department Faculty of Letters and Fine Arts Sebelas Maret University On January , 2011 Position Name Signature Chairman Drs. Budi Waskito, M.Pd NIP. 195 211 081 983 031 001 ………………. Secretary Drs. Agus Hari Wibowo, MA NIP. 196 708 301 993 021 001 ………………. Prof. Drs. MR. Nababan, M.Ed, MA, Ph.D NIP. 196 303 281 992 011 001 ………………. Ardianna Nuraeni, SS, M.Hum NIP. 198 209 272 008 122 001 ………………. First Examiner Second Examiner Dean of Faculty of Letters and Fine Arts Sebelas Maret University Drs. Sudarno, M.A. NIP. 195commit 303 141 to 985 user061 001 iii perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id PRONOUNCEMENT Name : Isdiati Agustriani Student Number : C 1306506 Pronounces truthfully that the thesis entitled A Translation Analysis of Exclamatory Sentences Based on the Technique of Adjustment in The Novel of Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows into Harry Potter dan Relikui Kematian is originally made by the researcher. It is not a plagiarism nor is it made by other people. The things related to the other people’s words are written in quotation and included in the bibliography. If this pronouncement is proved incorrect in the future, the researcher is ready to take the responsibility. Surakarta, January 2011 The Researcher Isdiati Agustriani C1306506 commit to user iv perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id MOTTO “The competitor to be feared is one who never bothers about you at all, but goes on making his own business better all the time.” (Henry Ford) “If my mind can conceive it, and my heart can believe it, Then, I can achieve it.” (Mohammad Ali) “Faith is taking the first step even when you don’t see the whole stairs.” (Marthin Luther King) commit to user v perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id DEDICATION I dedicate this thesis to: My Beloved Earth and Heaven, Mom and Dad My Adored Brothers and Sisters My Future Life-Partner commit to user vi perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id Acknowledgment To obtain Sarjana Sastra degree is a dream for almost all people including me. Without people who encourage and give their honest and truthful thoughts, this journey will never end. This thesis is the beginning of my new chapter of life. Therefore, it is a pleasure to thank all the people who have made it possible. 1. Drs. Sudarno, M.A., The Dean of Faculty of Letters and Fine Arts, Sebelas Maret University. 2. Drs. Budi Waskito, M. Pd., The Head of S1 Non-Regular English Department and my academic supervisor for the guidance during my study, for giving an approval and a permission to write this thesis. 3. A very special thank to Prof. Drs. M.R. Nababan, M. Ed., MA., Ph. D. Without his guidance and support, none of this will ever be accomplished. Thank you does not seem adequate but definitely it is said with appreciation and respect. 4. I would also like to gratefully acknowledge the support of some very special individuals. They helped me enormously with encouragement and friendships. They mirrored back my ideas so I heard them aloud, an important process for this writer to shape her thesis paper and future work. Betha, Key, Inul, Dije, Anggun and Ayu. I can only say proper thank you by presenting more achievement of further study. 5. Lastly, and most importantly, I wish to thank my family, absolutely without their support, school and work would not have been possible. Their belief commit to user vii perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id that one should follow what they love allowed me the freedom to pursue my Sarjana degree. Surakarta, January 2011 Isdiati Agustriani commit to user viii perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id TABLE OF CONTENTS APPROVAL OF CONSULTANT.................................................................. ii APPROVAL OF BOARD EXAMINERS …………………………………. iii PRONOUNCEMENT ……………………………………………………… iv MOTTO …………………………………………………………………….. v DEDICATION ……………………………………………………………... vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.............................................................................. vii TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………… ix ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………… xiii ABBREVIATION ………………………………………………………….. xv LIST OF TABLE……………..…………………………………………….. xvi I. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Research Background .................................................................... 1 1.2. Problem Statement ......................................................................... 8 1.3. Research Objectives ……............................................................... 8 1.4. Research Limitation ……………………………………………... 9 1.5. Research Benefits ………………………………………………... 9 1.6. Thesis Organization ……………………………………………… 10 II. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Definition of Translation ………………………………….…….. 12 2.2. Process of Translation …................................................................ 13 commit to user ix perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id 2.3. Problems in Translation ....…..………...………………………... 14 2.4. Context …………… ...………..……..……..…………………..... 15 2.5. Technique of Adjustments……………...………………………... 17 2.6. Accuracy and Acceptability ……..………………………………. 30 2.7. Definition of Sentences ....……………………………………...... 32 2.8. Classification of Sentences ……..………………………………... 33 2.9. Style ……………………………………………………………… 36 2.10. About the Novel ………………………………………………….. 36 III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1. Type of Research ...……………………………………………… 38 3.2. Data and Source of Data ……….........…........................................ 38 3.3. Sample and Sampling Technique ………………………………... 39 3.4. Research Procedure ...…………………………………………… 40 3.5. Technique of Collecting Data ...…………………………………. 40 3.6. Technique of Analyzing Data …………………………………… 42 IV. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 4.1. Introduction ……………....……………………………………… 44 4.2. Research Findings ……………………………………………….. 47 4.2.1. Technique of Adjustment ……..…………………………………. 47 4.2.1. Add. Adjustment in terms of addition …………………. 49 4.2.1. Sub. Adjustment in terms of subtraction ………………. 50 4.2.1. Alt. Adjustment in terms of alteration ……………….. 51 4.2.1. Add+Alt Adjustment in terms of addition and alteration …. commit to user x 52 perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id 4.2.1. Sub+Alt Adjustment in terms of subtraction and alteration... 53 4.2.2. The Purpose of the Technique of Adjustment…………………… 54 4.2.2. Struc/Add Addition as the Requirement of the Structure of the RL ........................................................................... 4.2.2. Struct/Add+Alt Addition and Alteration as the Requirement of the Structure of the RL .................................. 4.2.2.Sem/Add 56 58 Addition to produce Semantically Equivalence Structure ................................................................. 4.2.2.Sem/Sub 59 Subtraction to produce Semantically Equivalence Structure .................................................................... 4.2.2.Sem/Alt 61 Alteration to produce Semantically Equivalence Structure ................................................................. 63 4.2.2. Sem/Sub+Alt Subtraction and Alteration to produce Semantically Equivalence Structure ........................................... 4.2.2.Sty/Add Addition to provide Equivalence Stylistic Appropriateness ......................................................... 4.2.2.Sty/Sub Subtraction to provide Equivalence Alteration to provide Equivalence 68 Addition and Alteration to provide Equivalence Stylistic Appropriateness ................................... 4.2.2. Sty/Sub+Alt 67 Stylistic Appropriatness ....................................................... 4.2.2. Sty/Add+Alt 66 Stylistic Appropriatness .......................................................... 4.2.2.Sty/Alt 64 Subtraction and Alteration to provide Equivalence commit to user xi 70 perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id Stylistic Appropriateness ....................................... 4.2.2. Comm/Add Addition to carry an Equivalent Communication Load ....................................................................... 4.2.2. Comm/Sub 73 Subtraction to carry an Equivalent Communication Load ........................................................................ 4.2.2. Comm/Alt 71 74 Alteration to carry an Equivalent Communication Load .......................................................................... 75 4.2.2.Comm/Sub+Alt Subtraction and Alteration to carry an Equivalent Communication Load .......................................... 77 4.2.3. Accuracy and Acceptability ........................................................... 78 4.2.3. A. The Accuracy of the Translation ............................................. 83 4.2.3. A.1. Classification A ...................................................................... 84 4.2.3. A.2. Classification B ...................................................................... 87 4.2.3. A.3. Classification C ...................................................................... 91 4.2.3. B. The Acceptability of the Translation ......................................... 94 4.2.3. B.1. Classification A ...................................................................... 94 4.2.3. B.2. Classification B ...................................................................... 96 4.3. Discussion ........................................................................................ 98 V. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION ………………………………... 105 5.1. Conclusions……….………………………….………………….. 105 5.2. Suggestions………..………...…………………….…………….. 108 REFERENCES APPENDICES commit to user xii perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id ABSTRACT Isdiati Agustriani. C1306506. 2011. A Translation Analysis of Exclamatory Sentences based on the Technique of Adjustment in the novel of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows into Harry Potter dan Relikui Kematian . English Department. Faculty of Letters and Fine Arts. Sebelas Maret University. Surakarta. The aims of the study are to find out the technique of adjustments, the purposes of applying technique of adjustment and accuracy and acceptability of the translation of exclamatory sentences in ―Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows‖. The research is a descriptive qualitative method which employs total sampling technique. 121 exclamatory sentences in the novel Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows were taken as the data. Based on the analysis, the researcher ascertains the following results: First, based on the tabulation, it is apparent that the most dominant technique of adjustment used by the translator is in terms of alteration which amounts to 51.2%. Meanwhile, the second place is taken by the technique of adjustment in terms of subtraction with 21.5%. The third major technique of adjustment used is in terms of addition with 19.8%, followed by the technique of adjustment in terms of subtraction and alteration with 5.8% of 121 data and the last is in terms of addition and alteration which amounts 1.7% from the whole data. From this configuration, the findings of the technique of adjustments suggest that the translation is source text oriented. The tabulation also shows that the most dominant purpose of using technique of adjustment is to provide equivalence stylistic appropriateness which amounts to 53.7%. Meanwhile, the purpose to carry an equivalent communication load takes second place with 24%. The third major purpose with 19.8% is taken by producing semantically equivalence structure. The last purpose, as the requirement of the structure of the RL takes the last place with 4 data or 3.3% of 121 data. The findings of the research show that out of 121 translations of exclamatory sentences in the novel Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows written by JK Rowling, 75 data (62%) are accurate, 45 data (37.2%) are less accurate and 1 datum (0.8%) are inaccurate. The mean score of the accuracy level of the translation is 2.6. In terms of acceptability, there are 110 data (91 %) of the translations of exclamatory sentences in the novel Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows written by JK Rowling considered acceptable, 11 data (9%) are less acceptable and there is no datum found unacceptable. The mean score of the acceptability level of the translation is 2.8. From the results, it is expected that the research will give an input to the readers in conducting research on Exclamatory Sentence especially dealing with the technique of adjustments. It commit is suggested to userthat other researchers analyze the xiii perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id technique of adjustments with different approach or in other classifications in terms of the degree of accuracy and acceptability. They may challenge themselves to analyze it of other sources, such as films or dramas. commit to user xiv perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id ABBREVIATIONS SL : Source Language ST : Source Text RL : Receptor Language TT : Target Text Add : Addition Sub : Subtraction Alt : Alteration Sem : Semantic Struct : Structure Sty : Style Comm : Communication commit to user xv perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id LIST OF TABLE Table 4.1. Classification Based on Techniques of Adjustment Table 4.2. Classification Based on Purposes of using Technique of Adjustment Table 4.3. Accuracy Level of the Translation Table 4.4. Acceptability Level of the Translation Table 4.5. Accuracy Scale Table 4.6. Acceptability Scale commit to user xvi 1 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1. Research Background Translation generally is defined as substituting a text in a source language (SL) with that in a receptor one (RL). To conduct an accurate translation is not an easy thing to do. It needs not only a knowledge competence of both source and receptor language but also communication and translation competence. In the globalization era when the needs of knowledge increase significantly, translation plays a major role to transfer the knowledge from one language to another. Therefore, many problems occur in the process of transferring those languages since each language has its own cultural background. Nida’s idea in Widyamartaya states, ―The receptor language message must have the closest equivalent of the SL message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style‖ (1989, p: 11), supports the statement that due to the differences between the source and the receptor language, the translator has to adjust his translation in order to make it equivalent with respect to the message of the source and the receptor language. In adjusting his translation, a translator should consider a technique of adjustment. The technique of adjustment is concerned with what the translator does in terms of addition, subtractions, and alterations in a process of translating. Nida states ―The technique of adjustments are designed to produce correct commit to user 1 2 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id equivalents, not to serve as an excuse for tampering with the source language message‖ (1964, p: 226). In the process of translating, every translator always concerns himself with some kinds of sentences because language cannot be separated from sentences. There are several types of sentence in English. They are declarative sentence that simply states a fact or argument, without requiring either an answer or action from the reader; the interrogative sentence that asks a direct question and always ends in a question mark; the exclamatory sentence or exclamation, that is simply a more forceful version of a declarative sentence, marked at the end with an exclamation mark; and the imperative sentence that gives a direct command to someone -- this type of sentence can end either with a period or with an exclamation mark, depending on how forceful the command is. Type of sentence that is going to be analyzed in this research is exclamatory sentence. According to Shane, Ferris, and Keener in their book, Growth in Goodsss English 1958, ―Exclamatory sentence is a sentence spoken in fear, anger, excitement, dread, joy, delight, or some other strong feeling that might make a person cry out. It can be called a sentence which is cried out, or exclaimed and ended by an exclamation point (!)‖. The examples of the exclamatory sentences found in the novel of Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows will be explained below. Example 1 Vernon Dursley : ―You took your time!‖ (001/HPaTDH-031/Alt/Sem) : ―Kau sengaja berlambat-lambat!‖ (001/HPdRK-049/Alt/Sem) commit to user 3 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id Example 2 Dedalus Diggle : ―Good day to you, Harry Potter’s relatives!‖ (002/HPaTDH036/ Sub+Alt/Sem) : ―Selamat sore, sanak Harry Potter!‖ (002/HPdRK- 056/Sub+Alt/Sem) The first example is taken from a situation when Harry Potter is called by his uncle, Vernon Dursley, but he does not come right after the calling while his uncle urges him to come right away. He gives an impression to his uncle that he does it in purpose and it upsets Vernon. Therefore, his uncle concludes that Harry takes his time to react to his calling. The sentence is included as exclamatory sentence instead of imperative sentence since the sentence does not show a command. In his anger, Vernon Dursley roars to Harry when he finally appears. To show Vernon’s strong feeling of displease towards Harry, the exclamation mark is needed in the end of the sentence. In the second example, the sentence is obviously included as exclamatory sentence instead of imperative sentence due to the feeling of excitement and delight experienced by Dedalus Diggle. He is one of Harry Potter’s admirers. The situation in this conversation is the first occasion for him to meet Harry Potter’s relatives. Therefore, the feeling of such delight and pleasure is shown in his expression. In Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows novel, the researcher finds many exclamatory sentences that experience the technique of adjustment in terms of addition, subtraction and alteration. To understand more about them, the examples commit to user will be presented below. 4 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id Example 1: Exclamatory sentence in terms of addition. Hermione : ―Ron, we can’t!‖ (038/HPaTDH-137/Add/Comm) : ―Ron, kita tidak bisa kesana!‖ (038/HPdRK-223/Add/Comm) The example above is quoted from the conversation between Hermione and Ron. The following text will illustrate such condition. After a minute or two, Ron said, ―You know, we’re not far from the Leaky Cauldron here, it’s only in Charing Cross-‖ ―Ron, we can’t!‖ said Hermione at once. ―Not to stay there, but to find out what’s going on!‖ We know what’s going on! Voldemort’s taken over the Ministry, what else do we need to know?‖ Setelah semenit-dua menit berlalu, Ron berkata, ―kalian tahu, kita tidak jauh dari Leaky Cauldron, tempat itu cuma di Charing Cross-‖ ―Ron, kita tidak bisa kesana!‖ kata Hermione segera. ―Bukan untuk tinggal, tapi untuk mencari tahu apa yang terjadi!‖ ―Kita tahu apa yang terjadi! Voldemort sudah mengambil alih Kementerian, apa lagi yang perlu kita ketahui?‖ The word ‗kesana’ is added in the RL. Based on the situation above, the word ‗kesana’ refers to a place namely Charing Cross. It is not new information. This translation is already correct and the addition does not add the meaning. It is acceptable also if the translator does not add the word ‗kesana’, but she does it because the added word ‗kesana’ has been included elsewhere in the text and the commit to user perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 5 digilib.uns.ac.id translator attempts to carry an equivalence communication load. The translator adds this word to intensify the meaning. Example 2: Exclamatory sentence in terms of subtraction Ron : ―Not to stay there, but to find out what’s going on!‖ (039/HPaTDH137/Sub/Sty) : ―Bukan untuk tinggal, tapi untuk mencari tahu apa yang terjadi!‖ (039/HPdRK-223/Sub/Sty) The example above is quoted from a conversation between Ron and Hermione. The situation below will illustrate more. After a minute or two, Ron said, ―You know, we’re not far from the Leaky Cauldron here, it’s only in Charing Cross-‖ ―Ron, we can’t!‖ said Hermione at once. ―Not to stay there, but to find out what’s going on!‖ We know what’s going on! Voldemort’s taken over the Ministry, what else do we need to know?‖ Setelah semenit-dua menit berlalu, Ron berkata, ―kalian tahu, kita tidak jauh dari Leaky Cauldron, tempat itu cuma di Charing Cross-‖ ―Ron, kita tidak bisa kesana!‖ kata Hermione segera. ―Bukan untuk tinggal, tapi untuk mencari tahu apa yang terjadi!‖ ―Kita tahu apa yang terjadi! Voldemort sudah mengambil alih Kementerian, apa lagi yang perlu kita ketahui?‖ The word ‗there’ in the SL is subtracted. It does not lessen the meaning in the RL because from the text, it is quite clear that the omitted word ‗there’ refers commit to user to a place that has been mentioned before, so without translating the word ‗there’, perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 6 digilib.uns.ac.id it still can be understood. It seems unnecessary to repeat information which is clear enough from the context of situation. So the subtraction does not lessen the communication load nor deviate the source meaning. Example 3: Exclamatory sentence in terms of alteration Hagrid : ―An’ the last time you was on it, Harry, I could fit yeh in one hand!‖ (008/HPaTDH-051/Alt/Sty) : ―Dan terakhir kali kau naik motor ini, Harry, kau cuma sebesar satu tanganku ini!‖ (008/HPdRK-079/Alt/Sty) The exclamatory sentence above is taken from a situation when Hagrid feels astonish of the second chance he got to protect Harry Potter with the same vehicle, Sirius Black’s motorcycle. The first chance happens 16 years ago. The illustration of such situation is as follows. ―Is this it? Is this Sirius’s bike?‖ ―The very same,‖ said Hagrid, beaming down at Harry. ―An’ the last time you was on it, Harry, I could fit yeh in one hand!‖ ―Inikah motornya? Inikah motor Sirius?‖ ―Motor yang sama,‖ kata Hagrid, menunduk tersenyum pada Harry. ―Dan terakhir kali kau naik motor ini, Harry, kau cuma sebesar satu tanganku ini!‖ The translator has made an alteration in translating a clause ‗I could fit yeh in one hand.’ It is translated into ‗kau cuma sebesar satu tanganku ini.’ Indeed, the clause ‗I could fit yeh in one hand’ is referred to the expression of surprise due to Hagrid’s first experience to protect Harry Potter when he was a year-old baby. In commit to user that time, Harry was so small until Hagrid, a giant figure, could fit him only in perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 7 digilib.uns.ac.id one hand. Such alteration is intended to produce semantically equivalence structure. As a result, the meaning of the clause becomes clearer. Finally, it can be said that such alteration does not change or deviate the source meaning, it generates meaning equivalence. In addition to the techniques of adjustment that is used by the translator, the researcher also observes the accuracy and acceptability as parts of quality assessment of translation that are proposed to identify whether the translation result is accurate, acceptable and/or does not sound as a translation product. Accuracy is one of the elements of translation quality assessment. It deals with the degree of accurateness of the message transfer. The target text, or the translation product, should include a whole message in the source text. A translation should not betray the original text of the source language text. In addition, there is acceptability as another important aspect related to translation quality assessment. The acceptability level is emphasized on the language factor. The language use of the target text is expected to accept by target reader on a common form as what the original, so it does not seem like a work of translation. It means that the consideration of providing the Indonesian readers with translation, to make it effortless for Indonesian enjoying literary works seems hard to be completed and may furthermore create a bad understanding of the translation to the target readers. However, it is possibly to some people that the translation may not be hard to comprehend. Moreover, this research intends to assess the accuracy and acceptability level occurring in the Indonesian translation of Exclamatory-sentence, to find out commit to user 8 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id whether the target text is acceptable and sounds natural to the target reader. Furthermore, since the target text is a translation, the researcher attempts to observe what reasons that underlie the translator to do such adjustment dealing with the exclamatory sentence in Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows. This research is determined to have ―A Translation Analysis of Exclamatory Sentences Based on The Technique of Adjustment in The Novel of Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows Into Harry Potter dan Relikui Kematian.‖ 1.2. Problem Statements Based on the research background, the researcher proposes some problem statements as follows: 1. How are the exclamatory sentences in Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows translated into Indonesian in terms of technique of adjustments? 2. What are the purposes that underlie the translator to do such adjustment? 3. How are the accuracy and acceptability of the translation of exclamatorysentence that experience such adjustments in Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows novel? 1.3. Research Objectives The goals of this research are: 1. To illustrate the way of translating the exclamatory-sentences in Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows into Indonesian in terms of adjustment made by the translator. commit to user 9 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 2. To illustrate the purpose that renders the translator to do such adjustment. 3. To illustrate the accuracy and acceptability of the translations of exclamatorysentences that experience such adjustments in Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows novel. 1.4. Research Limitation Research limitation is necessary to be distinguished in purpose to evade the research amiss from the aim. In this research, the researcher only makes an analysis of translation on dialogues in the novel of Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows written by J.K. Rowling that is translated into Indonesian by Listiana Srisanti, which contains exclamatory-sentence. The analysis is constricted through the technique of adjustment in terms of addition, subtraction, and alteration, the purpose of using such technique and the quality assessment in term of accuracy and acceptability. 1.5. Research Benefit The researcher expects that this research will be beneficial for: 1. English Department Students This research is expected to be useful as an additional reference for the students in studying the translation subject especially about technique of adjustment in translation. commit to user 10 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 2. Lecturers This research can be used as an addition reference for the lecturers in teaching translation subject. 3. Other researchers This research can also be used to stimulate other researchers to conduct further research related to this study. 1.6. Thesis Organization The Thesis organization is systematically arranged as follows: CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION, Problem consists Statements, of Research Research Background, Objectives, Research Limitation, Research Benefit and Thesis Organization. CHAPTER II : LITERATURE REVIEW, consists of Definition of Translation, Process of Translation, Problems in Translation, Context, Technique of Adjustment, Accuracy and Acceptability, Definition of Sentence, Classification of Sentence, Style and About the Novel. CHAPTER III : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, consists of Type of Research, Data and Source of Data, Sample and Sampling Technique, Research Procedure, Technique of Collecting Data, and Technique of Analyzing Data. CHAPTER IV : DATA ANALYSIS, consists of an Introduction, Research Findings and Discussion. commit to user 11 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id CHAPTER V : CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION, conclusions and suggestions. commit to user consists of 12 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW In this chapter, various kinds of theories related to this research will be discussed. The theories are constructive for the researcher to conduct this study. They will function as the basic foundation in analyzing the data of this research. The theories include Definition of Translation, Process of Translation, Problems in Translation, Context, Techniques of Adjustment, Accuracy and Acceptability, Definition of Sentence, Classification of Sentence, Style and About the Novel. The detailed description of each theory is as follows. 2.1. Definition of Translation In The Theory of Translation, Nida and Taber explain the definition of translation as follow; ―Translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in term of meaning and secondly in term of style,‖ (1978, p: 12). Besides that, Catford defines translation as ―The replacement of textual material in one language (the source language) by equivalent textual material in another language (the target language)‖ (1965, p: 20). Brislin proposes another definition of translation. He says that ―Translation is the general term referring to the transfer of thoughts and ideas from one language (source) to another (receptor), whether the languages are in written or oral form‖ (1976, p: 6). commit to user 12 13 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id Based on the statements above, it can be concluded that translation is a process of message transference from one language (the source language) to other language (the receptor language). In transferring the thoughts and message, the most important thing is that the translator has to pay attention to the meaning and the style of text. 2.2. Process of Translation Translating a text is a complex thing and consists of a series activity that constitutes a process. Nida proposes simpler and more common translating process illustrated in a scheme as follows: Source Language Receptor Language Source Text Translated Text Analysis Restructuring Transfer (Nida and Taber, 1974:33) The explanation of the scheme as follows: 1. First, the translator has to read over text and understand the meaning and the message of the text. It will be better to repeat reading the passage two or three times in order to get a clear grasp of the entire content. 2. In order to understand the content of the text, the translator has to conduct a linguistic analysis both through grammatical and meaning analysis that covers the referential and connotative meaning. commit to user perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 14 digilib.uns.ac.id 3. After finishing the analysis of the text and understanding the source language message, the translator transfers the message into the target language. This process discusses ―how the analysis result is transferred from the source language to the target language with the least possible change in meaning and with equal reaction as felt by the native source language speaker‖. The transfer certainly is not perfect yet, so it needs correction consultation to the more professional person about figurative language and style. 4. Lastly, the restructuring process discusses some kinds of figurative language, style and technique which can be used in the translation. In this stage, the translation must be adjusted with the grammar of the target language. The translation must maintain the meaning of the source language. Then after the restructuring is over, it means that the process of translation has also been completed. 2.3. Problems in Translation J.C. Catford in A Linguistic Theory of Translation mentions, ―There is a translation problem namely untranslatability. Translation fails, or untranslatability occurs when it is impossible to build functionally relevant features of the situation into the contextual meaning of the TL text. There are two categories of untranslatability, linguistic and cultural untranslatability. In linguistic untranslatability, the functionally relevant features include some which are in fact formal features of the language of the SL text. It occurs when TL has no formally corresponding feature.‖ (1965, p: 94) In cultural untranslatability, the failure is due to the absence of the situational user feature which is relevant in the SLcommit culturetoand in the RL culture. 15 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id In his essay, A Framework for the Analysis and Evaluation of Theories Translation that is compiled by Sakri in Ikhwal Menerjemahkan, Nida also mentions two kinds of problems in transferring message, namely problems of content and problems of form. ―The circumstantial setting of the ST can give a serious problem for the translator to provide the most equivalent text. Every culture has its own characteristic that might be considered weird by other cultures. This is called the problems of content. In such cases, the translator may be forced to choose between the less comprehensible cultural setting of the SL and the more intelligible but anachronistic setting of the receptor language.‖ (1985, p: 71) Another problem in translating message is the problem of form. Nida said that ―Though the difficulties related to the adequate reproduction of content are often acute, they generally do not constitute as complex and intractable a series of problems as the particular formal features of language employed in a message‖ (1976, p: 72). It is easier to analyze and describe the cognitive equivalences of content then to find the formal equivalences of language. 2.4. Context Analyzing sentences related to the meaning cannot be separated from the context. Context makes the sentences can be understood appropriately. About this, Leech states ―Context deals with relevant aspects of the physical or social setting of an utterance‖ (1983, p: 13). Context is a background knowledge, which is shared by speaker and hearer in understanding their utterances. In short, someone who wants to commit to user 16 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id understand the meaning of language used has to know exactly the context in which the language is used. Furthermore, Malinowsky mentions two notions of context, context of situation and context of culture, which are playing important part in the interpretation of meaning. ―Context of situation is the situation in which the text is uttered. It refers to the environment of the text. Meanwhile, context of culture is the cultural background or history behind the participant‖ (in Halliday and Hassan, 1985, p: 6). Yet, with respect to the context of situation, Bloomfield states that the meaning of a linguistic form is the situation in which the speaker utters it and the response it calls forth in the hearer (in Samiati, 1990, p: 20). According to Allan Keith, context can be categorized into three items, namely: setting, the world spoken of, and textual environment. ―Setting is defined on the spatio-temporal location of the utterance. It means that setting refers to a particular time and place at which a speaker makes an utterance and hearer hears or reads the utterance‖ (1986, p: 36); ―The world spoken of is the world which is revealed in a certain utterance. It can be the real world of man’s experience, or it can be the dream world, the fictional world or even the mix of factual and fictional world‖ (1986, p: 37); ―The textual environment is a text in which an utterance happens. The text containing certain utterance will show what world is being spoken of, and also what persons, places, objects, states, events, acts, etc are being spoken of in the utterance‖ (1986, p: 37). With respect to the three items of context, it can be summarized that setting refers to time and place at which an utterance goes on, and the world spoken of refers to the matter which is being discussed through the utterance, commit to user perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 17 digilib.uns.ac.id while the textual environment refers to a text in which an utterance occurs. So, the three components complete one another. Based on some definitions above, it can be concluded that context includes time; the topic which is discussed; an information-background of an utterance or a sentence in terms of the participants involved in communication; place at which the utterance or the sentence occurs; and the textual characteristic in which the utterance or sentence happens. 2.5. Techniques of Adjustment Technique of adjustment is often used by the translator in order to gain the most equivalent result from the SL to the RL. It deals with what the translator does in term of addition, subtraction, and alteration in this translation. Such technique is consistent with Nida’s idea as follows; ―The present chapter deals with the technique of adjustment used in the process of translating. Here we are concerned, therefore, not with why the translator does one thing or another, but with what he does, in terms of addition, subtraction, and alteration.‖ (1964, p: 226) Further, Nida states that ―the essential purpose of these techniques are to produce correct equivalent, not to serve as an excuse for tampering with the source language message‖ (1964, p: 226). Nida states that the essential purposes of adjustment are as follows: 1. Permit adjustment of the form of the message to the requirement of the structure of the receptor; 2. Produce semantically equivalent structures; commit to userand 3. Provide equivalent stylistic appropriateness; 18 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 4. Carry an equivalent communication load (1964, p: 226-238). The following are the brief explanation of adjustments techniques proposed by Nida: 1. Addition According to Nida in his book entitled Toward A Science Translation, there are so many types of addition which may be employed in the process of translating, among them the most common and important are shown in the section below. Many of these additions are actually a part of the process of structural alteration, so that one technique of adjustment cannot be rigidly isolated from another (1964, p: 227). a. Filling out elliptical expression Though ellipsis occurs in all languages, the particular structures which permit such ―omitted‖ words are by no means identical from language to language. Accordingly, in an expression almost obligatory elliptical in one language, an ellipsis may not be permitted in another (Nida 1964, p: 227). Example: SL: ―She is smarter than I‖ TL: ―Dia lebih pintar daripada saya yang pintar‖ The translation is filled by elliptical construction yang pintar to emphasize that the subject I in RL is also smart but not as smart as She. b. Obligatory specifications The specification required in some translations result from one of two reasons; (a) ambiguity in the receptor language formations, and (b) the fact that commit to user 19 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id greater specifity may be required so as to avoid misleading reference (Nida 1964, p: 228). Example: SL: ―Ron… to the school…‖ TL: ―Saya, Ron, pergi ke sekolah…” The source language tells us about Ron only, however, the narrator is not stated, whereas the narrator is Ron. Therefore, it is necessary to add the word saya. So the translation on the target language is clear enough. c. Additions required by grammatical restructuring Almost any type of restructuring of a source language expression can result in some lexical ambiguity. Perhaps the most common instances which require amplification are: 1. Alteration of word classes. Probably the most frequent additions must be made when there is a shift in word classes (Nida, 1964, p: 228). Example: SL : ―False journalist.‖ TL : ―Orang yang berpura-pura menjadi wartawan.‖ The alteration of word class above happens in the adjective false that may be shifted into another class of words expressed by prepositions or conjunctions and then carried by verbs. Thus, the word false is altered into a full sentence and the addition, of course, appeared to be orang yang berpura-pura. commit to user 20 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 2. Modification from indirect to direct discourse. When an indirect discourse, whether explicit or implicit, is changed into a direct discourse a number of elements must be added. This is especially so when the discourse is largely implicit (Nida, 1964, p: 228). Example: SL: Mom informed us that she would go to Jakarta the next day. TL: Ibu berkata, “Ibu akan pergi ke Jakarta besok.‖ The word berkata is added as the predicate because the translator changes indirect sentence into direct sentence. 3. Shifts of voice. When a passive expression is changed to an active one it is obviously necessary to insert the agent. Example: SL: ―He was elected president.‖ (passive voice) TL: ―Mereka memilih dia menjadi presiden.‖ (active voice) As seen on the example of the passive voice above, the subject of the sentence receives the action whereas we use the active voice when the subject of the sentence does the action as seen on the second example. In passive voice we do not need to insert the agent, while in active voice it is necessary to insert the agent, in this instance is mereka. d. Amplification from implicit to explicit status Important semantic elements carried implicitly in the SL may require explicit identification in the receptor language. commit to user 21 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id Example: SL: Her sense of humour does lighten the general air of claustrophobia. TL: Rasa humornya memang mengisyaratkan tanda-tanda umum claustrophobia yaitu suatu perasan takut berada di ruangan tertutup. On the example above, the translator gives a clear explanation about what is meant by claustrophobia to avoid perplexity in reading the translation, because such term like claustrophobia may sounds unfamiliar for the RL reader. e. Classifiers Classifiers provide a convenient device for building meaningful redundancy into an overload text, especially in languages which readily employ such terms to identify proper names and borrowed terms. Example: SL: All Chinese are also our brothers. TL: Semua etnis China juga saudara kita. Chinese is a person who originally comes from China. In other words, he or she professes China blood. The translator adds the word etnis to explain that what is meant by Chinese is China people. f. Connectives Transitionals, which consist of the repetition of segments of the preceding text, are widely used in many languages. Such transitionals appreciably increase the total volume of the text, but do not add information (Nida, 1964, p: 230). Example: SL: Avoid using it during the first trimester of pregnancy, patients with gastric ultras. commit to user perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 22 digilib.uns.ac.id TL: Hindari penggunaan Bisolvon pada tiga bulan pertama kehamilan dan pada penderita tukak lambung. The translator adds the word dan on the target language. It is used to denote the relationship between the first sentence and the next phrase. g. Doublets Doublets happen in a certain type of discourse, they denote the conversation. In some languages, some texts employ the types of additions to denote the direct conversation; therefore, those texts resemble a quotation mark. But in a particular occasion the translator has to state the supporting explanation. Example: SL: ―He said…‖ TL: ―Dia berkata…katanya…‖ From the example above, we can conclude that doublet usually appears on the certain type of context used to denote the direct conversation and function as the quotation mark. 2. Subtraction Though, in translating, subtractions are neither so numerous nor varied as additions, they are, nevertheless, highly important in the process of adjustment (Nida, 1964, p: 231). They include primarily the following types a. Repetition In many languages one of the many repeated lexical items must be omitted or in some cases replaced by a term that intensifies the expression in question. Example: commit to user SL: ―Play for me now! Now I’ll dance!‖ perpustakaan.uns.ac.id 23 digilib.uns.ac.id TL: ―Sekarang mainkanlah untukku! Aku akan menari!‖ As seen in the example above, the translator omits the word now to avoid the repetition of information. This kind of omission is done to make an effective sentence in RL. b. Specification of reference The repetition of a proper name in two closely related sentences sometimes is misleading, thus omission can be applied. Example: SL: Tata is happy because she is going to have a long holiday. TL: Tata senang karena akan mendapatkan libur panjang. The translator reduces the participant she into Tata on the translation because it has been mentioned on the first clause. c. Conjunctions Two principal types of conjunctions are lost, namely: (a) those associated with hypotactic constructions; and (b) those which link coordinates, elements often combined without conjunctions, either in appositional relationships. Referring to point (a), it can be explained that hypotactic conjunction is the conjunction relating two or more clauses, but each clause has a different position, one as a dependent clause and the other as an independent clause (Nida, 1964, p: 232). It can be seen in the example below: SL: I was sick, so that I couldn’t go to the office. TL: Saya sakit, saya tidak masuk kerja. The translator reduces the hypotactic conjunction so that in the dependent clause, therefore it becomes paratactic in commit the RL. to user 24 digilib.uns.ac.id perpustakaan.uns.ac.id The conjunction denoting the coordinate of the lexical element, which is usually related without a certain conjunction will be seen on the next example: SL: Sue, who is my sister, went to Singapore last week. TL: Sue, kakak saya, pergi ke Singapura minggu lalu. As seen on the example above, the translator omits the conjunction who is in the target language. d. Vocative All languages have ways of calling to people, but in some languages there is no means by which one may directly address another in a polite form (Nida, 1964, p: 232). In certain situation, the ways of calling to people (vocatives) can be shifted into nearby clause or omitted, if the total impact does not distort the meaning. Example: SL: Sam said to Bill, ―Dad where are you going?‖ TL: Sam berkata pada Bill, ayahnya, pergi kemana?” The use of the name or a title in a direct form may imply that the person was at some distance or that he was roundly denounced before others. In the example above the vocative dad is shifted into a nearby clause. e. Formulae A number of formulae in SL are relatively meaningles

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