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Improving the Eighth Year Students' Tense Achievement and Active Participation by Giving Positive Reinforcement at SMPN 1 Silo in the 2013/2014 Academic Year

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Dian Wahyuning Tyas, et al., Improving the Eighth Year Students' Tense Achievement and Active Participation by Giving Positive Reinforcement at SMPN 1 Silo in the 2013/2014 Academic Year 1 Improving the Eighth Year Students' Tense Achievement and Active Participation by Giving Positive Reinforcement at SMPN 1 Silo in the 2013/2014 Academic Year Dian Wahyuning Tyas, Wiwiek Eko Bindarti, Siti Sundari, Language and Arts Education Program, The Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Jember University E-mail: Villa_dhy@yahoo.com Abstract The objectives of this research were: (1) to improve the eighth year students’ active participation in the teaching learning process of tenses by giving positive reinforcement at SMPN 1 Silo in the 2013/2014 academic year, and (2) to improve the eighth year students’ tense achievement by giving positive reinforcement at SMPN 1 Silo in the 2013/2014 academic year . Positive reinforcements used in this method were in the form of material and social reinforcement. The material reinforcement used in this research was in the form of candies, snacks, pencils and notebooks and for the social reinforcement used was in the form of praise and gestures. The results of this research showed that there were improvements on students' tense achievement and active participation from Cycle 1 to Cycle 2 after giving positive reinforcement. Students' participation increased from 76.34% to 80.13% and students' tense achievement increased from 75.67% to 81.08%. Based on that result, the hypotheses of this research were accepted. Keywords: Positive Reinforcement, Students' Tense Achievement Test, Students' Active Participation. Introduction The target of teaching English for junior high school, as stated in the 2006 curriculum, is that the students can reach the functional level. It means that the students can communicate in written or spoken forms in order to solve the daily problems. In order to communicate effectively, the language learners should master grammar. Crystal (1995) in Dykes (2007:5) states that grammar is needed to communicate in intelligible sentences. It means that grammar can make the message clearer so that the hearer can easily understand what the speaker means. One aspect of grammar that should be mastered well by the language learners especially for junior high school students is tenses. In the 2006 curriculum (KTSP) especially for the eighth grade students, it is stated that the students should master 3 types of text. They are descriptive, recount, and narrative. Related to the types of the text above, the students should master four tenses to master those types of text. They are simple present tense, present continuous tense, simple past tense and past continuous tense. Simple present and present continuous tenses are related to a descriptive text and simple past and past continuous tenses are related to a recount and a narrative texts. Although tense is not stated in the standard competencies and basic competencies in the 2006 curriculum, tenses are needed to master and understand the materials that are taught. In one side tenses are important to master, on the UNEJ JURNAL XXXXXXXXX 2014, I (1): 1-4 other side, however, there are still many students who do not master the use of tenses well. This situation also happens at SMPN 1 SILO. After the preliminary study, the researcher could find that there were still many students who did not master tenses. It was proven by the previous scores of tense test that was conducted by the English teacher of the eighth grade students at SMPN 1 Silo showing that there were still many students who got score lower than 75. Class VIII-A got the lowest mean score. In that class, there were still 15 students (41%) of 37 students who got scores lower than 75. Besides, after doing observation in class VIII-A, the researcher could see that there were still many students who were lack of motivation in learning English especially tenses. They seemed passive during the teaching learning process and they also had no interest in paying attention to the teacher’s explanation. To solve these problems, the researcher decided to give positive reinforcement to the students. Ormrod (1990:52) states that positive reinforcement involves the presentation of a stimulus after the response. Food, praise, a smile, and feeling of success are all positive reinforcement. Some previous researches had been conducted related to give reinforcement to the students. Yuliane (2012) indicated that there was an improvement of the students' tense achievement and their active participation by giving non-verbal reinforcement at SMPN 1 Balung. Besides, Ma'ruf (2013) also reported in his research that there was an improvement of the students' speaking achievement by giving verbal and non-verbal reinforcement at SMN 1 Sukowono Jember. Dian Wahyuning Tyas, et al., Improving the Eighth Year Students' Tense Achievement and Active Participation by Giving Positive Reinforcement at SMPN 1 Silo in the 2013/2014 Academic Year Based on the background above, the researcher was interested in conducting the research entitled “Improving the Eighth Year Students’ Tense Achievement and Their Active Participation by Giving Positive Reinforcement at SMPN 1 Silo in the 2013/2014 Academic Year”. Research Method The design of this research was a classroom action research because the purpose of this research was to improve students' tense achievement and active participation at SMPN 1 Silo in the 2013/2014 academic year. Guy et al. (2011:509) state that the purpose of action research is to provide teacher researcher with a method for solving everyday problems in schools so that they may improve both student learning and teacher effectiveness. The area determination method of this research was purposive method. SMPN 1 Silo was chosen because the eighth grade students of SMPN 1 Silo had difficulties in learning grammar especially tenses. In addition, it was possible to get permission from the headmaster of the school to conduct this research in the second semester of 2013/2014 academic year. The subject determination method of this research was purposive method. Class VIII-A of SMPN 1 Silo was chosen because that class had the lowest mean score of simple past tense test that was conducted by the English teacher. At that class there were still 15 students (40%) who got score lower than 75. There were 4 methods used in this research to collect the data. Test and observation was used to get the primary data. Meanwhile, interview and documentation were used to get the secondary data. Interview was done on 21 December 2013. It was conducted with the English teacher of the eighth grade students of SMPN 1 SILO. In this case, the list of questions had been prepared. The list of questions related to the curriculum, the books used, how the teacher teaches grammar especially tenses, and the kinds of reinforcement usually used by the English teacher. Documentation in this research was used to get data about the names of the subject, the total number of the subjects, and the eighth grade students' previous scores of tenses. Discussion This research was conducted in 2 Cycles. Each cycle consisted of three meetings, two meetings were used for the teaching learning process and one meeting was for the tense test. The first meeting in each cycle was used to teach simple past tense and the second meeting for each cycle was used to teach about past continuous tense. In order to improve the students’ tense achievement and their active participation during the teaching learning process of tenses, the researcher gave the students’ positive reinforcement. It means that the researcher gave satisfying stimulus after correct responses that were given by the UNEJ JURNAL XXXXXXXXX 2014, I (1): 1-4 2 students. It was relevant with the theory saying that positive reinforcement involves the presentation of a stimulus after the response. In this research, the researcher gave positive reinforcement in the form of material and social reinforcement to the students. The material reinforcement given in this research was candies, snacks, pencils, and notebooks, and for the social reinforcement given was in the form of praise and gestures. The material reinforcements given in Cycle 1 and Cycle 2 were almost the same. The difference was only in the brand of snacks and candies given. In administering the reinforcement to the students, the researcher used continuous reinforcement schedule. It means that the researcher gave reinforcement to the students after every correct response that was given by the students. The researcher used continuous reinforcement schedule in this research because it was the first time for class VIII-A students at SMPN 1 SILO to receive material reinforcement and the researcher wanted to increase the students’ response during the teaching learning process of tenses. It based on the theory saying that continuously reinforced responses are acquired faster than intermittently reinforced response (Ormrod, 1990:58). Immediate reinforcement was used in this research to administer the reinforcement to the students. It means that the researcher gave reinforcement directly after every correct response that was given by the students. The researcher didn’t delay to give reinforcement to the students. It based on the theory saying that reinforcement should follow behavior very closely (Lefrancois, 1982:85). Besides, Ormrod (1990:46) also says that reinforcement is less effective when its presentation is delayed. While conducting the research, the researcher found some problems that occurred during the teaching learning process of tenses by giving positive reinforcement. The problems were; 1)Not all students will work for the same reinforcement, and 2) The teacher will spend more money to buy the material reinforcement for the students. To overcome those problems, the researcher decided to do some actions, there were: 1) the researcher varied the reinforcement given. The variation here didn't mean that the researcher gave totally different reinforcement to the students. The researcher still gave candies and snacks as reinforcement but the researcher gave different brand of candies and snacks for each meeting, 2) the researcher bought reinforcement that not too expensive In this research, positive reinforcement is effective to increase the number of students who wanted to give response during the teaching learning process and also to increase the students’ response during the teaching learning process of tenses. It was proven by the improvement of the students’ active participation from Cycle 1 to Cycle 2. In the Cycle 1, the result of observations showed that there were76.34% students who could be categorized as active students and in Cycle 2, the result was increased to 80.13%. The result of this research was relevant with Thorndike’s law of effect stating that behaviors followed by positive Dian Wahyuning Tyas, et al., Improving the Eighth Year Students' Tense Achievement and Active Participation by Giving Positive Reinforcement at SMPN 1 Silo in the 2013/2014 Academic Year outcomes are strengthened, whereas behaviors followed by negative outcomes are weakened (Santrock, 2005:278). In addition, the presence of positive reinforcement could also improve the students’ tense achievement. It happened because by giving satisfying stimulus, the students felt that they were being acknowledged by the teacher. Besides, the presence of positive reinforcement could also motivate the students to study harder because when they could answer the teacher’s question correctly, they received specific reinforcement. It was proven by the improvement of the students’ tense score from Cycle 1 to Cycle 2. In Cycle 1, the percentage of the students who got score ≥75 was 75.67% and in Cycle 2, the percentage of the students who got score ≥75 was increased to 81.08%. those result were relevant with the theory saying that positive reinforcement can enhance learning (Lefrancois, 1982:52) and it can also increase the students’ motivation in learning (Uno, 2010:168). Another advantage of giving positive reinforcement to the students was it could make a good relation between the teacher and the students. That situation could improve the students’ participation during the teaching learning process of tenses. It happened because the students’ felt comfortable to answer the teacher’s questions or to ask question to the students when they had difficulties to understand the materials. It based on the theory saying that to increase the students’ participation during the teaching learning process, the teacher needs to show a good relationship with the students while asking or receiving the students’ answers (UPPL and Microteaching, 2013:2). That was another reason that affected the improvement of the students’ active participation and the students’ tense achievement in this research. The result of this research showed that giving positive reinforcement could improve the eighth year students’ tense achievement and active participation at SMPN 1 Silo in the 2013/2014 academic year. The result of this research was in line with the research conducted by Yuliane (2012) who reported that giving verbal and non-verbal reinforcement could improve the students’ tense achievement at SMPN 1 Balung Conclusion and Suggestion Based on the result of data analysis, it showed that the result of the students’ tense achievement test increased from Cycle 1 that was 75.67% to Cycle 2 that was 81.08%. Besides, the result of observations also showed an improvement on students’ active participation. The result of observations increased from 76.34% in Cycle 1 to 80.13% in Cycle 2. Based on those results, it could be concluded that giving positive reinforcement can improve the eighth grade students’ tense achievement and their active participation at SMPN 1 Silo in the 2013/2014 academic year. As the result of the this research showed that giving positive reinforcement could improve the students’ tense UNEJ JURNAL XXXXXXXXX 2014, I (1): 1-4 3 achievement and active participation, the researcher gives some suggestions to the following people. 1. The English Teacher Based on the research result, it is suggested to the English teacher to give positive reinforcement as reinforcement in teaching learning process. Giving positive reinforcement can increase the students’ response and also their participation during the teaching learning process. It is suggested to the English teacher to use continuous schedule if it is the first time for the English teacher to give positive reinforcement to the students or to establish the students response. When the target has reached, the English teacher can use intermittent schedule to administer reinforcement to the students. Intermittent schedule can be used to minimize the teacher’s money to buy material reinforcement for the students. Besides, intermittent schedule can also be used to decrease the students’ dependence on reinforcement. 2. Future Researchers It was suggested to the future researcher to conduct further research dealing with the use of positive reinforcement in the teaching learning process. It can be used in different research design, area or language skill. For example, the effect of giving positive reinforcement on students’ reading comprehension achievement. References [1] Azar, B. S. 2003. Fundamentals of English Grammar (Third Edition). London: Longman [2] Depdiknas. 2006. Standard Kompetensi dan Kompetensi Dasar Sekolah Menengah Pertama Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris. Surabaya: Badan Standard Nasional Pendidikan. [3] Dykes, B. 2007. Grammar for Everyone: Practical Tools for Learning and Teaching Grammar. Victoria: ACER Press [4] Guy, R. Lorraine, Mills, E. G, and Airasian. 2011. Educational Research: Competencies for Analysis and Applications. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. [5] Lefrancois, G. R. 1982. Psychology for Teaching. California: Wadswort Publishing Company [6] Ma’ruf, H. 2013. Improving Class VIII-A Students’ Speaking Achievement by Giving Verbal and Non-Verbal Reinforcement at SMPN ! Sukowono Jember inthe 2011/2012 Academic Year. Jember: Universitas Jember [7] Ormrod, J. E. 1990. Human Learning: Theories, Principles, and Educational applications. New York: MacMillan Publishing Company. [8] Santrock, J. W. 2005. Psychology 7. New York. McGraw-Hill [9] Uno, H. B. 2010. Orientasi Baru Dalam Psikologi Pembelajaran. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara [10] UPPL dan Microteaching. 2013. Handout Pengajaran Mikro (Microteaching) untuk Mahasiswa FKIP Universtas Jember. Jember: Universitas Jember [11] Yuliane, V. S. 2012. Improving the year VIII students’ tense achievement by giving non-verbal reinforcement at SMPN 1 Balung in the 2011/2012 Academic Year. Jember: Universitas Jember. Yang Mempengaruhi Capital Flight Di Indonesia Periode 2002. 1-2006. 12 Nama Mahasiswa : Santi Dwi Astuti NIM : 030810101072 Jurusan : Ilmu Ekonomi dan Studi Pembangunan Konsentrasi : Ekonomi Moneter Disetujui Tanggal : 30 Januari 2008 Pembimbing I Pembimbing II Dra. Sri Utami, SU NIP. 130 610 496 Yulia Indrawati, SE, M.Si NIP. 132 296 911 Ketua Jurusan Ilmu Ekonomi dan Studi Pembangunan Dr. M. Fathorrazi, SE, M.Si NIP. 131 877 451 vi JUDUL SKRIPSI ANALISIS FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI CAPITAL FLIGHT DI INDONESIA PERIODE 2002. 1-2006. 12 Yang dipersiapkan dan disusun oleh: Nama : SANTI DWI ASTUTI NIM : 030810101072 Jurusan : ILMU EKONOMI STUDI PEMBANGUNAN telah dipertahankan di depan Panitia Penguji pada tanggal : 14 MEI 2008 dan dinyatakan telah memenuhi syarat untuk diterima sebagai kelengkapan guna memperoleh gelar sarjana dalam Ilmu Ekonomi Studi Pembangunan pada Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Jember. Susunan Panitia Penguji Ketua, Sekretaris, Drs. Badjuri, ME NIP. 131 386 652 Dr. M. Fathorrazi, SE, M.Si NIP. 131 877 451 Anggota, Dra. Sri Utami, SU NIP. 130 610 496 Mengetahui / Menyetujui Universitas Jember Fakultas Ekonomi Dekan, Prof. Dr. H. Sarwedi, MM NIP. 131 276 658 vii Analyse The Factors Influencing Capital Flight In Indonesia Period 2002.1-2006.12 Santi Dwi Astuti Majors Of Economics and Development Study, Faculty Of Economics University Of Jember ABSTRACT This Research aim to know the influence of Real Effective Exchange Rate, Difference mount the rate of interest Indonesia-America, and Inflation rate to Capital Flight in Indonesia Data type used in this research is data of time series of years monthly 2002. 1-2006. 12. Data used this research is data of Real Effective Exchange Rate, Difference mount the rate of interest Indonesia-America, and Inflation rate from Statistical Center Body, internet, statistical [of] Indonesia Bank economics, magazine and journal of related to research and various literature of economics, etc. Analysis data used by test of normalitas data, Multiple linear regression, test the classic assumption and hypothesis examination with the test F and test t. Result of data analysis indicate that the Real Effective Exchange Rate, Difference of interest rate Indonesia-America, and Inflation by simultan have an effect on the significant to Capital Flight in Indonesia. While by partial, Real Effective Exchange Rate have an effect on the negativity and significant to Capital Flight in Indonesia its meaning each; every make-up of variable of Real Effective Exchange Rate own the influence to degradation of Capital Flight. Difference of interest rate of Indonesia-America have an effect on the negativity and significant to Capital Flight in Indonesia each; every make-up of variable of difference of interest rate of Indonesia-America own the influence to degradation of Capital Flight in Indonesia. Inflation do not have an effect on the significant to Capital Flight in Indonesia its meaning each; every improvement and or degradation of inflation variable statistically do not own the influence to increase and or degradation of Capital Flight. This research conclusion is Real Effective Exchange Rate, Difference of interest rate Indonesia-America, and inflation rate on the significant to Capital Flight in Indonesia. Keyword : Capital Flight, Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER), Difference of interest rate Indonesia-America (DINT), Inflation Rate (INF). viii Analisis Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Capital Flight Di Indonesia Periode 2002. 1-2006. 12 Santi Dwi Astuti Jurusan Ilmu Ekonomi Studi Pembangunan, Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Jember ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh Real Effective Exchange Rate, perbedaan tingkat suku bunga Indonesia-Amerika, dan tingkat inflasi terhadap Capital Flight di Indonesia. Jenis data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah time series bulanan tahun 2002. 1-2006. 12. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah data Real Effective Exchange Rate, perbedaan tingkat suku bunga Indonesia-Amerika, dan tingkat inflasi dari Badan Pusat Statistik, internet, statistik ekonomi Bank Indonesia, majalah dan jurnal yang berkaitan dengan penelitian dan berbagai literatur lainnya. Analisis data yang digunakan adalah uji normalitas data, regresi linear berganda, uji asumsi klasik dan pengujian hipotesis dengan uji F dan uji t. Hasil analisis data menunjukkan bahwa Real Effective Exchange Rate, perbedaan tingkat suku bunga Indonesia-Amerika, dan tingkat inflasi secara simultan berpengaruh signifikan terhadap Capital Flight di Indonesia. Sedangkan secara parsial, Real Effective Exchange Rate berpengaruh negatif dan signifikan terhadap Capital Flight di Indonesia artinya setiap peningkatan variabel Real Effective Exchange Rate memiliki pengaruh terhadap penurunan Capital Flight. Perbadaan tingkat suku bunga Indonesia-Amerika berpengaruh negatif dan signifikan terhadap Capital Flight di Indonesia artinya setiap peningkatan variabel perbedaan tingkat suku bunga Indonesia-Amerika memiliki pengaruh terhadap penurunan Capital Flight. Inflasi berpengaruh tidak signifikan terhadap Capital Flight di Indonesia artinya setiap peningkatan ataupun penurunan variabel inflasi secara statistik memiliki pengaruh terhadap kenaikan ataupun penurunan Capital Flight. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah Real Effective Exchange Rate, perbedaan tingkat suku bunga Indonesia-Amerika, dan inflasi berpengaruh signifikan terhadap Capital Flight di Indonesia. Kata Kunci : Capital Flight, Rael Effective Exchange Rate (REER), Perbedaan tingkat suku bunga Indonesia-Amerika (DINT), dan Tingkat Inflasi (INF) ix KATA PENGANTAR Syukur Alhamdulillah kehadirat Allah SWT yang dengan segala kebesaran dan kemurahan-Nya telah melimpahkan rahmat, bimbingan, serta kemudahan dalam setiap langkah sehingga penyusunan skripsi dengan judul “Analisis Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Capital Flight Di Indonesia Periode 2002. 1-2006. 12” dapat terselesaikan dengan baik. Skripsi ini disusun guna memenuhi salah satu syarat untuk memperoleh gelar Sarjana Ekonomi Ilmu Ekonomi, Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Jember. Dengan terselesaikannya penyusunan skripsi ini, penulis menyadari sepenuhnya bahwa tidak akan terwujud skripsi ini tanpa bantuan, bimbingan dan motivasi maupun masukan yang positif dari berbagai pihak sejak awal hingga terselesaikannya skripsi ini, karena itu penulis mengucap terima kasih sebesar-besarnya kepada : 1. Prof. Dr. H. Sarwedi, MM selaku Dekan Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Jember; 2. Dr. M. Fathorrazi, SE., M.Si selaku Ketua Jurusan Studi S-1 Ilmu Ekonomi Studi Pembangunan, Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Jember; 3. Dra. Sri Utami, SU selaku Dosen Pembimbing I atas ilmu pengetahuan, perhatian, motivasi dan kesabaran serta waktu yang telah diberikan dengan penuh ikhlas dalam membimbing penulis selama ini; 4. Yulia Indrawati, SE, M.Si selaku Dosen Pembimbing II atas ilmu pengetahuan, perhatian, motivasi dan kesabaran serta waktu yang telah diberikan dengan penuh ikhlas dalam membimbing penulis selama ini; 5. Seluruh Bapak dan Ibu Dosen Jurusan Studi S-1 Ilmu Ekonomi Studi Pembangunan, Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Jember yang telah memberikan segala ilmu dan wawasan yang sangat berguna selama ini; 6. Seluruh staf dan karyawan Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Jember atas bantuan yang diberikan selama ini; 7. Sahabat dan teman-temanku atas kebersamaan dan kasih sayang yang tulus, bantuan dan nasehat-nasehatnya serta semangatnya yang sangat berarti; x 8. Semua pihak yang tidak dapat disebutkan satu per satu yang telah membantu penulis selama penyusunan skripsi ini. Penulis menyadari bahwa skripsi ini masih jauh dari sempurna, oleh karena itu saran dan kritik sangat diharapkan demi perbaikan dimasa mendatang. Akhir kata semoga skripsi ini dapat bermanfaat bagi para pembaca, khususnya rekan-rekan Fakultas Ekonomi terutama bagi penulis sendiri. Amin ya Robbal ’alamin Jember, 30 Januari 2008 Penyusun xi DAFTAR ISI Halaman HALAMAN JUDUL . ii HALAMAN PERSEMBAHAN . iii HALAMAN MOTTO . iv HALAMAN PERNYATAAN . . v HALAMAN PERSETUJUAN . . vi HALAMAN PENGESAHAN . . vii ABSTRACT . . viii ABSTRAK . ix KATA PENGANTAR . . x DAFTAR ISI . . xii DAFTAR TABEL . . xiv DAFTAR GAMBAR xv DAFTAR LAMPIRAN xvi BAB 1. PENDAHULUAN 1 1.1 Latar Belakang Masalah . 1 1.2 Rumusan Masalah . . 3 1.3 Tujuan dan Manfaat Penelitian . 4 1.3.1 Tujuan Penelitian . 4 1.3.2 Manfaat Penelitian penelitian ini adalah penelitian kuantitatif. Subjek penelitian ini adalah siswa SMP negeri 2 Jember kelas VIII E dengan 31 siswa. Instrumen yang digunakan untuk mengumpulkan data adalah tes berupa tiga soal PISA konten Space and Shape unit Shape yang telah diterjemahkan kedalam bahasa Indonesia. Soal PISA dan pendoman penskoran yang digunakan adalah sebagai berikut : AMATI GAMBAR BERIKUT 1. Mana diantara gambar-gambar diatas yang memiliki daerah terluas. Apa alasanmu? 2. Jelaskan cara untuk memperkirakan luas gambar C 3. Jelaskan cara untuk memperkirakan keliling gambar C Pedoman Penskoran: Soal 1 Skor Penuh (1) : Bentuk B, didukung dengan penalaran yang masuk akal. B merupakan daerah terluas karena dua bangun yang lain akan dimuat di dalamnya. B. karena tidak memiliki lekukan di dalamnya yang mengurangi luas daerahnya. Sedangkan A dan C memiliki Gap/celah. B, karena merupakan lingkaran penuh, sedangkan bangun yang lain seperti lingkaran dengan beberapa bagian yang hilang, sehingga mengurangi luasnya. B, karena tidak memiliki daerah terbuka Dll. Tidak ada Skor (0): B, tanpa disertai alasan yang masuk akal Jawaban lain yang kurang masuk akal. Soal 2: Skor Penuh (2): Dengan cara yang masuk akal. Menggambar petak-petak yang memuat bangun tersebut dan menghitung petak yang menutupi bangun tersebut. Jika lebih dari setengahnya, maka petak tersebut dihitung satu petak Memotong bentuk tersebut menjadi bagian-bagian yang lebih kecil dan mengatur potongan-potongan tersebut menjadi bentuk persegi/persegi panjang kemudian menhitung sisi-sisinya lalu menentukan luasnya. Membangun bentuk 3D dengan alas berdasarkan bentuk tersebut, dan mengisinya dengan air. Hitung volume air yang digunakan dan kedalaman air pada model. Luas dapat ditentukan dengan volume air dibagi kedalaman air pada model Dengan membagi bangun ke dalam beberapa bentuk bangun datar beraturan. Kemudian dihitung luasnya dan dijumlahkan. Dan alasan-alasan lain yang masuk akal Skor sebagian (1) : Membuat lingkaran yang memuat bentuk tersebut, kemudian mengurangkan luas lingkaran dengan luas diluar bentuk tersebut dalam lingkaran. Namun siswa tidak menyebutkan bagaimana untuk mengetahui luas daerah diluar bentuk tersebut dalam lingkaran. Alasan-alasan lain yang masuk akal, namun kurang detail atau kurang jelas. Tidak ada Skor (0): Jawaban lain yang kurang masuk akal. Soal 3: Skor Penuh (1): Dengan cara yang masuk akal. Rentangkan seutas tali pada pinggir bentuk tersebut, kemudian mengukur panjang tali yang digunakan. Potong bentuk tersebut menjadi bagian-bagian yang lebih kecil, gabungkan bagian-bagian tersebut hingga membentuk garis, lalu tentukan panjangnya. Dan alasan-alasan lain yang masuk akal Tidak ada Skor (0): Jawaban lain yang kurang masuk akal. Sumber : diadaptasi dari Take The Test Sample Questions From OECD’s PISA Assesment. Selanjutnya, skor siswa yang didapat akan dimasukkan dan diolah dengan program komputer Ministep (Winstep Rasch) untuk mengestimasi kemampuan siswa dalam menyelesaikan soal PISA konten Shape and Space yang diberikan berdasarkan analisis model Rasch. Soal 1 dan 3 menggunakan penskoran model dikotomus (Benar/Salah), sedangkan soal 2 menggunakan penskoran model politomus (Partial Credit Model). Skor mentah tersebut dikonversi menjadi nilai logit. Semakin tinggi nilai logit siswa dan lebih dari 0.0 logit mengindikasikan kemampuan siswa yang semakin tinggi. Semakin tinggi nilai logit soal dan lebih dari 0.0 logit mengindikasikan semakin tinggi tingkat kesulitan soal. HASIL DAN PEMBAHASAN Secara keseluruhan skor siswa dalam menyelesaikan soal PISA konten Shape and Space berbeda-beda Pada tabel 1 menampilkan skor mentah yang diperoleh siswa. Soal 1 mampu dijawab dengan benar oleh 17 siswa, soal 2 terdapat 2 siswa yang mampu menjawab dengan skor penuh, dan 6 siswa mampu menjawab dengan skor 1, sedangkan soal 3 terdapat 5 siswa yang mampu menjawab dengan benar Tabel 1. Skor Siswa dalam Menyelesaikan Soal PISA Konten Shape and Space NAMA SOAL NAMA NO SOAL NO (KODE SISWA) 1 2 3 (KODE SISWA) 1 2 3 1 01AT 1 0 1 17 17MW 1 0 0 2 02AO 0 0 0 18 18NA 0 0 0 3 03AN 0 0 0 19 19NR 1 0 0 NAMA SOAL NAMA NO SOAL NO (KODE SISWA) 1 2 3 (KODE SISWA) 1 2 3 4 04CA 0 0 0 20 20NA 1 2 0 5 05EA 1 0 0 21 21NS 0 0 0 6 06FY 1 1 1 22 22RR 0 0 1 7 07IN 1 1 0 23 23RF 0 0 0 8 08IE 1 0 0 24 24RA 0 0 0 9 09JN 1 1 0 25 25RW 0 0 0 10 10KH 1 1 1 26 26RL 0 0 0 11 11KT 1 0 0 27 27SA 0 0 0 12 12MI 1 1 0 28 28TA 1 2 0 13 13MA 0 0 0 29 29VT 0 0 1 14 14MR 1 1 0 30 30ZN 1 0 0 15 15MR 1 0 0 31 31PA 1 0 0 16 16MS 0 0 0 Selanjutnya skor siswa dengan pemodelan Rasch diolah dengan menggunakan program komputer ministep (Winstep Rasch). Berikut ditampilkan hasil statistic dari analisis model Rasch: Gambar 1. Tampilan Summary Statistics hasil pengolahan data ministep. Tampilan summary statistics diatas memberikan info tentang kualitas responden/siswa secara keseluruhan dalam menyelesaikan soal yang diberikan. Dari tampilan hasil pengolahan diatas diperoleh Person measure = – 0.10 logit dengan tidak mengikutsertakan Extrem Person (Responden/siswa yang mempuyai skor 0) yang kurang dari logit 0,0. Hal ini menunjukkan kemampuan siswa kurang dalam menyelesaikan soal PISA konten shape and space yang diberikan. Dengan mengikutsertakan siswa dengan ekstrem skor tentunya nilai person measure akan semakin kecil yaitu – 1.52 logit. Semakin tinggi nilai logit diatas 0.0 logit, semakin tinggi kemampuan siswa. Gambar 2. Tampilan Item Measure hasil pengolahan data ministep. Dari gambar 2, soal no 2 mempunyai nilai logit tertinggi yaitu +1.47 logit ini menunjukkan soal no 2 merupakan soal yang paling sulit dijawab oleh siswa, soal no 3 mempunyai nilai logit = 1.40 logit, dan soal no 1 mempunyai nilai logit = -2.87 logit. Soal 2 dan 3, nilai logit keduanya lebih dari 0.0 logit menunjukkan kedua soal ini merupakan kategori soal sulit. Dari tabel 1 menunjukkan untuk soal no 2 hanya terdapat 2 siswa yang mampu menjawab dengan skor penuh, dan 6 siswa mampu menjawab dengan skor 1. Untuk soal no 3 hanya 5 siswa yang mampu menjawab dengan benar. Sedangkan soal 1 mempunyai nilai -2.87 logit yang kurang dari 0.0 logit menunjukkan soal yang relatif mudah dikerjakan siswa, dari 31 siswa terdapat 17 siswa yang mampu menjawab dengan benar. SIMPULAN DAN SARAN Berdasarkan analisis data dan pembahasan diperoleh simpulan sebagai berikut : (1) Kemampuan siswa dalam menyelesaikan soal PISA konten shape and space berdasarkan analisis model Rasch masih kurang. Rata-rata nilai logit siswa - 1,52 logit yang kurang dari 0.0 logit. (2) Dari ketiga soal yang diujikan, dua soal dikategorikan sebagai soal sulit, dan 1 soal relatif mudah dikerjakan siswa. Berdasarkan penelitian yang telah dilakukan, peneliti mengemukakan saran-saran sebagai berikut : (1) Bagi pendidik, siswa hendaknya sering diberikan soal-soal non rutin atau soal-soal pemecahan masalah seperti soal-soal PISA dalam pembelajaran matematika dikelas, baik sebagai tugas maupun ulangan harian. Hal ini bertujuan untuk melatih dan meningkatkan kemampuan pemecahan masalah siswa. (2) Bagi peneliti lain, penggunaan Item Respon Theory (IRT) dalam hal ini Rasch Model dapat dijadikan alternatif dalam pengolahan data penelitian kuantitatif untuk mengatasi kelamahan teori tes klasik, karena Rasch Model telah memenuhi lima prinsip model pengukuran. DAFTAR PUSTAKA Aini, R.N. & Siswono, T.Y.E. 2014. Analisis Pemahaman Siswa SMP Dalam Menyelesaikan Masalah Aljabar Pada PISA. Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Matematika MATHEdunesa, vol 2, no 3, hal.158-164 BSNP Depdiknas.2006. Standar Isi Mata Pelajaran Matematika SD/MI dan SMP/MTs (Permendiknas Nomor 22 Tahun 2006). Jakarta: BSNP Depdiknas OECD. 2013. PISA 2012 Results in Focus. www.oecd.org OECD.2009. Take The Test Sample Questions From OECD’s PISA Assesment. www.oecd.org OECD.2015. PISA 2015 Draft Mathematics Framework. www.oecd.org Setiawan, H.,Dafik., dan Lestari, S.D.N. 2014. Soal Matematika Dalam PISA Kaitannya Dengan Literasi Matematika Dan Keterampilan Berpikir Tingkat Tinggi. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Matematika, Universitas Jember, 19 November 2014, hal.244-251. Shiel, G et al.2007. PISA mathematics: a teacher’s guide. Dublin :Department of Education and Science. Sulastri, R., et al.2014. Kemampuan Mahasiswa Program Studi Pendidikan Matematika FKIP Unsyiah Menyelesaikan Soal PISA Most Difficult Level. Jurnal Didaktik Matematika, Vol. 1, No. 2, September 2014, hal.13-21. Sumintono, B. & Widhiarso, W.2014. Aplikasi Model Rasch Untuk Penelitian Ilmu-Ilmu Sosial. Cimahi:Trim Komunikata Publishing House Wardhani, Sri dan Rumiyati. 2011. Instrumen Penilaian Hasil Belajar Matematika SMP: Belajar dari PISA dan TIMSS. Yogyakarta : Pusat Pengembangan dan Pemberdayaan Pendidik dan Tenaga Kependidikan (PPPPTK) Matematika.
Improving the Eighth Year Students' Tense Achievement and Active Participation by Giving Positive Reinforcement at SMPN 1 Silo in the 2013/2014 Academic Year
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Improving the Eighth Year Students' Tense Achievement and Active Participation by Giving Positive Reinforcement at SMPN 1 Silo in the 2013/2014 Academic Year

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