A Study on Old and Modern English Used in the Play of drama Oedipus Rex Sophocles
A STUDY ON OLD AND MODERN ENGLISH USED
NIP.195708031984041 004 Submitted to Faculty of Cultural Studies, University of North SumateraIn partial fulfiment of the requirements for DIPLOMA (D-III) in English Approved by Head of Diploma III English Study Program Dr. 195211261981121 001 Approved by the Diploma III English Study Program Faculty of Cultural Studies, University of Sumatera Utaraas paper for the Diploma (D-III) Examination Accepted by the Board of Examiners in partial fulfiment of the requirements for the D-III Examination of the Diploma III English Study Program, Faculty ofThe examination is held on June 2014 Faculty Of Cultural Studies, University of North Sumatera Dean, Dr.
3. Drs. Umar Mono, Dipl. Tran., M. Hum. (Reader) ……………
Except wh ere the reference is ma de in the text of this paper, this papercontains no material published elsewhere or extracted in whole or in part from a paper by which i have qualified for or awarded another degree. This paper has not been submitted for the award of anotherdegree in any tertiary education.
In this writing of this paper, the author of the paper using the method of library and internet. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First of all, I would like to thank and praise the Almighty God for blessing and giving me health, strength and ease to accomplish this paper as one of therequirements to get Diploma III from English Diploma Study Program, Faculty of Cultural Studies , University of North Sumatera.
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 The Problem of the Study Referring to the explanation of the background of the analysis above, problems that writer like to analyze of Old and Modern English used in the playof Oedipus Rex Sophocles. The writer wants1) To find out the words Old English2) To find equal the words Old English to Modern English 1.3 The Scope of the Study Based on the problem of study, writer will find out the words used in the play of Oedipus Rex by Sopcholes.
1.5.1 Method of the Study 1) Research Method
some data to support the analysis, finding the related data to the research then narrowing the collecting data of the library research to the related element whichare about the Old and Modern English. Besides that, the writer also uses internet for search some imformation about Old and Modern English.
2) Data collecting Method
In process collecting of the data, the writer obtained the supporting data from several books as the sources of the data, the primary source of the datawhichis being discuss in this paper, is the drama written by sophocles entitle oedipus rex sophocles published by Dover Publication, Inc, New York in 1991. The entire drama is read while identifying the Old and Modern English in the dramabased on the person reprensented itself, then marked the Old and ModernEnglish.
3) Data Analyzing Method
2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The data analyzing procedure is applied when all the primary data from the drama is collected and selected, as the data from the drama is in a form ofwritten text, which concern about the words Old and Modern English used in the drama that has been choosen to the most significant data, then the data will be beinterpreted and to be brought into this paper as the subject matter of the analysis, that is the Old and Modern English from the drama. Next, the analysis will bestated by explaining the Old and Modern English based on the definition and the classification which reflected in Old and Modern English used in the play ofdrama Oedipus Rex Sophocles.
2.1 Old English
Old English is prior the beginnings of English, the inhabitants of Great three tribes invaded England from Western Germany and Denmark. These tribesspoke a similar language that, over says, develop into Old English.
1) The Indo-Eorupean languages
We may begin to understand why the Old English word looks differentfrom the others when we compare these words for âfootâ:Old English : fotLatin : pedemGreek : podaSanskrit : padam If we suspect that Latinâpâ will always correspond to Old English âfâ, we are right, more or less. Torecognize that the Indo-Eorupean languages share a Perhaps the most important development that distinguishes the Germanic languages from others in the Indo-European family is the one that produced thedifference, illustrated above, between the âpâ of Latin and the âfâ of Old English faeder.
3) West Germanic and Low German
This non-event is the âhigh german consonan shift‘, which alterd the sounds of high german dialects as radically as Grimm‘s Law had altered the sounds of Germanic. Students of Modern German will recognize the effects of the High German consonant shift in such pairs as English eat and German essen, and English sleepand German schlafen.
2.2 Middle English
The new language became the official languabge of the government, trade and the rulling class. The division of the classes began toinclude linguistics, with the upper or noble classes speaking French, while the lower classes spoke Middle English.
2.2.1 Early Middle English
Gradually, the wealthy and the government Anglicised again, although Norman (and subsequently French)remained the dominant language of literature and law until the 14th century, even after the loss of the majority of the continental possessions of the Englishmonarchy. The loss of case endings was part of a general trend frominflections to fixed word order that also occurred in other Germanic languages, and therefore cannot be attributed simply to the influence of French-speakingsections of the population: English did, after all, remain the language of the vast  majority.
2.5 Old English different from Modern English
(In fact, for a further hundred years after that, English was still not a prestigious language, although it wasbeginning to be a written language again.) Writing normally acts as a kind of brake to language change, since literate people are influenced in their linguistichabits not only by what they hear but by what they read, which is liable to be stuff from some time ago. So to sum up, Modern English is different from Old English because languages just do change over time, because linguistic change was acceleratedduring a period of contact with other languages and the removal of written language from the equation, and because phonological change, especially theGreat Vowel Shift, was added to lexical change (all those loan words) and syntactic/inflectional change.
3. ANALYSIS OF OLD AND MODERN ENGLISH
3.1 Old English There are some Old English which is find in the play of Drama Oedipus Rex
( Priest :2) 2) Thyself By the Ismenian hearth oracular and the twin shrines of Pallas.** Loe the cityLabours-thyself art witness-over deep already, powerless to uprear her head out of the abysses of a surge of blood. ( Tiresias : 15) 5) Hast Thou hast not spoken loyally, nor friendly toward the state that bred thee,Wherefore do thou not sparing augury, either through birds, or any other way thou hast of divination-save thyself, and save the city, and me; save the whole mass by this dead corpse infected.
3.2 Modern English
Based on Old English which can from in the play of Drama Oedipus Rex, we can see the equal this Old English on bold words. They are
(2 Messenger:46)I think he is no other than that peasant whom you were taking pains to find, before but she could say as well as any one Jocasta (1 Senator:38) 9) Ever A blessing ever be on hers and her, who is, in such a perfect sort, his wife!(Messenger:33) 10) SoSo shall you see me, as of right, with you venging this country and the God together. (Oedipus:6)Measure the new by knowledge of the old, but is at mercy of whoever speaks, if he but speak the speak the language of despair.
4. Conclusion and Suggestion
The changes that turned Old English into Modern English took placesgradually, over the centuries and there never was a time when people perceived their language as having broken radically with the language spoken a generationbefore. Suggestion After analyzing of Oedipus Rex Sophocles, I hope the reader can understand about the Old and Modern English and get more knowledge.