Study On Waste Wood As An Alternative Conservation Energy.

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i I/We * admit that this dissertation and in my/our* opinion this dissertation is the satisfactory in the aspect of scope and quality for the bestowal of Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering (Automotive) Signature : Supervisor Name (I) : PROFESSOR DR MD RAZALI BIN AYOB Date 24TH MAY 2010 : ii “I verify that this report is my own word except summary and extract that every one of it I have clarify the resource” Signature : Author’s Name : KAMAL BIN MUHAMMAD RAINI Date : 24TH MAY 2010 iii DEDICATION For My Beloved Parents and My Family iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The writer would like thank first to my supervisor, Prof. Dr. Md. Razali bin Ayob for his guidance and supports on the writer during the Projek Sarjana Muda (PSM). A thousand of appreciation is credited to Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) for their full commitments toward accomplishing this project especially Mr. Puad and his team members The acknowledgment also dedicated to my parents and fellow colleagues and last but no least all people who whether direct or indirectly support and involve in completing this Projek Sarjana Muda 1. v ABSTRACT In this paper project of Projek Sarjana Muda (PSM), the purpose is to study the method or solution to waste wood that are currently increasing fast. This project starts with the study of raw material of wood that are being used by industrial and construction site. There are many types of wood in tropical rain forest like Malaysia. In this case, some mechanical characteristic are being exposed in this project to understand more about woods. Then, this project is narrowed down to rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis,), oil palm trunk and rice stalks. Then, this paper is continued to review on the previous study and theory that matters in this project. The innovations of these wastes into product that can generate energy are elaborated in Methodology. After taking several studies on theory, it is particularly are to analyze the product or subject. Some physical and chemical tests are being conducted to indicate the effectiveness of this subject by comparing to the commercials. Discussion is to enable the reasons of each of the tests and last but not least conclusion with some suggestions for further studies. vi ABSTRAK Tujuan projek ini dijalankan adalah untuk membuat kajian dan mencari penyelesaian terhadap kayu dan hasil kayu buangan yang semakin bertambah sekarang ini. Penulisan ini bermula dengan kajian tentang bahan mentah iaitu kayu dan bahagian kayu yang dijadikan bahan dalam sector pembinaan dan industry lain. Terdapat banyak jenis kayu yang terdapat dalam Malaysia dan kayu telah dikategorikan kepada beberapa kelas. Dalam kajian ini, beberapa ciri mekanikal kayu perlu diambil perhatian untuk lebih mengetaui tentang ciri kayu. Kemudian, projek ini dikecilkan skop kepada jeni kayu lembut yang banyak digunakan dalam industri ssekunder seperti pembuatan perabot. Kita juga akan mempelajari tentang kajian sebelum ini dari pengkaji lain. Kemudian, inovasi terhadap buangan kayu akan dijalankan untuk menghasilkan jenis kayu yang mampu menjana tenaga. Metodologi dalam dan prosedur kajian juga akan diterangkan dalam kajian ini. Beberapa ujian juga telah dilakukan terhadap hasil kajian produk tersebut. Analisis terhadap subjek yang telah siap ini akan dibandingkan dengan produk komersial. vii TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER TOPIC PAGE CONFESSION ii DEDICATION iii ACKNOWLEDMENT iv ABSTRACT v TABLE OF CONTENT vii LIST OF TABLES x LIST OF FIGURES xii LIST OF SYMBOLS xiv LIST OF APPENDICES xv CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Background 1 1.2 Objectives 2 1.3 Scope 3 1.4 Problem Statement 3 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 5 2.1 Types of Wood in Malaysia 5 2.2 Rubberwood and Furniture Wood 6 2.3 Wood waste 8 viii 2.4 Oil Palm 9 2.4.1 Malaysia Palm Oil Industry 10 2.4.2 Oil Palm Biomass and Energy Content 11 2.4.3 Oil Palm Trunk 12 2.5 Rice Stalks 13 2.6 Previous Study 13 2.6.1 Firewood 14 2.6.2 Sawdust Briquette 15 2.6.3 Charcoal 17 2.6.4 Pellet technology 19 2.7 Relevant Theory 20 2.7.1 Wood Characteristics 20 2.7.2 Heat Reaction 30 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 32 3.1 The Making Of Fuel Solids 33 3.2 Pellet Analysis 34 3.2.1 Physical Properties Analysis 36 3.2.2 Heat Content (Bomb Calorimeter) 38 CHAPTER 4 RESULT AND ANALYSIS 4.1 Physical Properties Analysis 41 41 4.1.1 Appearance and Dimension 41 4.1.2 Density 42 4.1.3 Bulk Density 42 4.1.4 Volatile Matter 42 4.1.5 Moisture Content 43 4.1.6 Carbon Content 44 4.1.7 Fix Carbon 45 4.1.8 Overall Percentage 45 4.2 Chemical Properties 46 ix 4.2.1 Heat Calorie Value 4.3 Discussion 46 47 4.3.1 Briquette Making 47 4.3.2 Pellet Making 49 4.3.3 Pellet Analysis 50 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 53 5.1 Background 53 5.2 Conclusion 53 5.3 Suggestion 54 REFERENCE AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 56 APPENDICES 60 x LIST OF TABLES NO TITLE PAGE 1. The Strength properties of some Malaysian Timber 5 (Source: Lee at al, 1979) 2. Characteristic of Rubberwood 6 (Source: Forest Research Institute of Malaysia (FRIM)) 3. Heat value of Oil Palm Biomass (KCAL/Kg, dry) 10 (Source: PORIM International Palm Oil Congress, 1996) 4. Energy database for Palm Biomass. 10 (Ngan Ma Ah, 1995) 5. Comparison of Heat Value of Fuel Type 18 (Source: http://wgbis.ces.iisc.ernet.in/energy) 6. Relationship between mechanical properties and woods. 19 (Source: Roger, 2005) 7. Comparison of Oven Drying and Moisture Meter Method. 26 8. Analysis methods and standards 36 9 The length, diameter and the appearance of samples 40 10 The table of weight and density of samples 41 11 Bulk Densities of samples 41 12 Volatile Matter of samples 41 13 Moisture Content for each wood samples 42 14 Result of Carbon Content or Ash Content 43 xi 15 Fix carbon result for each sample 43 16 Overall Percentage of the preferred samples 44 17 Heat Calories Value using Bomb Calorimeter results 45 xii LIST OF FIGURES NO. TITLE PAGE 1. Pictures taken from a waste bin that have waste wood 8 2. Cross section of an oil palm fruit. 9 3. Oil palm trees in Malaysia 10 4. The Oil palm Trunk. 11 (Source: http://www.jircas.affrc.go.jp/english/) 5. The rice stalks or rice straws. 12 6. Picture of firewood 14 (Source: www.wikipedia.com) 7. Wood particle of sawdust and the waste environment 15 (Source: www.wikipedia.com) 8. Fiber saturation point where shrinkage begin to start. 27 (Source: http://chesto fbooks.com/home-improvement) 9. Graph of moisture content versus shrinkage and Graph of 27 moisture content versus tangential shrinkage (Source:Green, 1999) 10. Compression of the sapwood of hickory (26% moisture content) 29 at three different temperatures under increasing pressures. (Source: The United States Department of Agriculture, 1941) 11. Amount of compression retained by hickory sapwood after oven drying and then soaking in water. The specimens were pressed 29 xiii at different moisture contents and temperatures. (Source: The United States Department of Agriculture, 1941) 12. The flow Chart of this project from start to the end 31 13. The flow of making pellets from raw material of rubberwood, 32 sawdust and rice straws. 14. A typical commercial pellets compress set-up 34 15. Electronic Densimeter MD-300S 35 16. Schematic diagram of the bomb calorimeter system. 38 (Source:http://apchemreview.wikispaces.com) 17. Bomb Calorimeter in FRIM 39 18. Graphs of percentages of the fix Carbon, 45 volatile matter, carbon content and moisture content. 19. The calorie value for all samples 46 20. The result of briquette making using hydraulic compress. 47 21. pellet of rubberwood (sawdust) 49 22. Pellet of oil palm trunk 49 23. Pellet of rice straws 49 xiv LIST OF SYMBOLS m = mass, Kg V = volume, m3 Sm = Shrinkage (%) SO = Total Shrinkage, (%) M = Moisture content, (%) ρ = density, kg/m3 xv LIST OF APPENDICES NO. TITLE PAGE A PSM Gantt Chart 59 B Briquetting Process 61 C RISDA and RIIM statistics 62 D Laboratory Analysis 65 E CATIA Structural Generative Analysis Result 66 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Wood comes from trees. This is the most important fact that we have to know in understanding wood. Woods are characterized into hardwood and softwood that differ in the inner structure and characteristics. But in this project we will consider the hardwood including Hardwoods, Medium Hardwoods and Light Hardwood. In engineering, wood is a natural resource that being use in constructions such as poses or pillars, furniture, sailing and others. In manufacturing process, many characteristic involving grains that needs to be considered in order to produce required product with enough strength upon the wood which is the raw material. The word grain is so meaningful to show the pattern of inner the inner wood like the rings, and many other cell that determine the characteristic of woods. There are also several components in woods that need to be considered in understanding wood before being manufactured. Wood is a natural material and being used as a source of energy since decades to generate electric power and useful thermal output. For woods being exploited by manufacturers, they tend to produce more and more waste. An idea of using waste wood as an alternative energy giving much problem solving to recycling wood and not just let it be thrown away. Wood for use as energy sources comes from a wide variety of sources. The timberland is the primary, and in most cases original, resource base for fuel wood. The derived from this type of wood producing waste wood that can be found in construction site. The others are from manufacturing and 2 wood processing like furniture from urban tree and landscape views. When we looked into this matter we should know how much people are taking for granted this waste while it can be recycle to produce energy back for human use. Imagine how much could we save on energy if this waste can be applied to energy and being used as regular energy daily. Wood energy accounts for 9% of total energy consumption in Malaysia. Statistics show that most biomass energy is consumed by industries, but data on wood fuel use by households are not available. In the domestic sector biomass energy is mainly used for cooking (http://wgbis.ces.iisc.ernet.in/energy/ ). Firewood has been used in some industries for a very long time. In the rubber industry the smoking of rubber sheets to produce Ribbed Smoke Sheets (RSS) rubber is wholly wood fueled (Baharuddin, 1999). This can indicate to us that people are still recycling waste as energy but they are not into taking serious calibration and further studies on managing the waste. Thus the wastes of energy material still happen as specific measurement are not taken. 1.2 Objectives The main objective of this project is to innovate from waste wood and manipulated them as an alternative energy for daily purposes. The wastes are to become a reusable energy that can minimize wastes and pollution to the world. The objectives are to collect information on the types of wood that is being categorized as waste and then consolidate the superior quality of soft wood and their application. After that, the chosen waste woods are to be innovated into solid fuels either pellets or briquette for the compressed waste wood. Last but not least, the final objective is to test the efficiency of the subject comparing with the commercial ones. 3 1.3 Scope In this project, the types of wood that are not being used or waste woods are only taken into consideration as the study are directed to only waste woods no matter from raw material or residues. After general studies, the scope is narrowed down on the chosen wastes for samples to be experimented which are the rubber wood wastes and its product waste (sawdust), rice straws and oil palm trunks. The Process of innovating the waste parts into potential commercialized pellets are specifically into the types of machines and its principle of works. The models of machine, comparison on the pellets The Analysis of the pellets involves only in term of physical properties of the densities, volatile matter, carbon content, moisture content, fix carbon. Heat content is evaluated by using bomb calorimeter in its chemical properties to analyze the energy content. The cost of manufacturing, maintenance and other costing are also not taken into consideration in this paper to concentrate more on idea to perform alternative energy. Further studies should be taken on separate project for better understanding. 1.4 Problem Statement In Malaysia, we are promoting to save energy and recycle waste. Try to look at our surrounding we can see there are many woods that re being thrown away just like that. Then, people tend to buy more and more new products. Yet, these waste wood are being burnt away just like that without realizing that they still can be use to produce energy which is called biomass energy. In this matter, there are a lot of woods that are being exploited and their unneeded parts are left aside just like that. 4 Lesser, they will burnt it to vanish it from sight. The wood waste from consumers is getting higher and higher due to the increasing of wood application production for manufacturers. In other perspectives, in rubber estate for example, after the tree reaches its old times, the woods are being cut off and burnt away. There energy that they can produce still wasted for nothing. Nowadays, maybe there is improvement where we can see the waste wood in manufacturing industry is being used in recirculation energy thus reducing the use of energy fuel in industry. However, the method that they use are not very effective as the just throw the waste into furnace to put up fire and continue to innovate the system that uses the fire as source of energy. The wood must be such to dry and sizes and many more to increase the efficiency upon the energy aspect. In this case, wastage of wood also happens. 5 CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Types of Wood in Malaysia Generally woods are divided into two types which are Hardwood and Softwood. This study will consider more into hardwood and softwood as they are much usage in industrial products considered as abundant woods parts. There are three types of hardwood in Malaysia that are being used in industries. The first is the hard wood, followed by the medium-hard wood and soft wood. Types of woods are characterized by strength group. Forest Research Institution of Malaysia is the responsible institute in Malaysia to determine a species strength group based on Strength Test held by them. From the test, FRIM will divide woods into hard wood, medium hard wood, and soft wood. Under the Malaysian Grading Rules (1984), woods are classified as Heavy Hardwood (HHW) when their density exceeds 800kg/m3 and the timers are naturally durable. Medium hardwoods (MHW) are timbers with density exceeding 729 kg/m3 but lack sufficient natural durability. Lightwoods (LHW) are timber with density below 720 kg/m3 and not naturally durable in exposed condition. The rubberwood from waste will be use in this project. It is of particular interest to know why this wood is the selected raw material in this project. Light hardwoods especially rubberwood are also developed for construction uses, and not necessarily for building furniture, but they are more being concentrated on furniture like building utilitarian projects (cabinets for the woodshop, painted projects, dog 6 houses, and many more). So, to consumers, in certain period of time, they have come to change over their old furniture and this waste becoming an annoying part near dustbin for their size. (http://www.process- integrator.com/Solution/Briquette/Feasibility/Intro.htm) Table 1: The Strength properties of some Malaysian Timber (Source: Lee at al, 1979) CHARACTERISTICS STRENGTH GROUP (MPa) A B C D Modulus Elasticity 9700 6600 5500 3100 Bending and Tension 12.41 9.65 7.24 4.83 11.03 7.93 5.51 4.14 1.45 0.90 0.55 0.45 1.45 0.90 0.62 0.62 Parallel to grain Compression Parallel to grain Compression perpendicular to grain Shear Parallel to grain 2.2 Rubberwood and Furniture Woods The rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), often called rubber tree is a tree belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae and the most economically important member of the genus Hevea. Rubber wood is the common name of Hevea brasiliensis, the rubber tree that is found in plantations all over the country. It is of major economic importance because its sap-like extract known as latex can be collected and is the primary source of natural rubber (www.wikipedia.com). Malaysia is famous the world over for its quality timber. First in the furniture industry is rubber wood, which makes up 85% of total wood furniture exports. (http://www.mfpc.com.my). This also indicates that much furniture manufacturing is made from rubber wood instead of others. Its timber characteristics are moderate 7 hardness, light to moderate weight, and an even, straight grain in a light colour tone; all these details make rubberwood ideal for furniture manufacturing. Easy to machine and nail, rubberwood is a furniture designer's dream, allowing for an unlimited palette of design options. According to FRIM, rubber wood or Hevea brasilliensis have the density of 640 kg/m3 and types of whitish yellow seasons to a pale straw colour of wood. According to Lim K.O, 1986, he stated that rubberwood is a possibility for further utilization as fuel for its total matter available per annum is 150x10 3 tonnes and the total energy potentially available current annual basis is 150.73x10 3 boe. Percentage of presently uses as fuel is -62% and the percentage of total utilized for other economic considerations is only -5%. The amount wasted approximately 49.74x106 boe. In the other research of quantity of matter and energy potentially available from future replanting wastes in Malaysia. He stated that in 2007 there will be 2851.2x103 tonnes and energy potentially available will be 91.359x10 5 boe. The barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) is a unit of energy based on the approximate energy released by burning one barrel (42 US gallons) of crude oil. The US Internal Revenue Service defines it as equal to 5.8 × 106 BTU (British thermal unit). 5.8 × 106 BTU equals 6.1178632 × 109 J Table 2: Characteristic of Rubberwood (Source: Forest Research Institute of Malaysia (FRIM)) CHARACTERISTIC VALUE Density (kg/m3 at 16%Moisture content) 560-640 Tangential Shrinkage Coefficient (%) 1.2 Radical Shrinkage Coefficient (%) 0.8 Hardness(N) Static Bending, · N/mm at 12% Moisture Content Modulus of elasticity, N/mm at 12%Moisture Content 4,350 66 9,700 In Malaysia, according to Rubber Industry Smallholders Development Authority (RISDA), rubberwood plantation covers 51.8% of plantation than others 8 with 275,665.74 hectares. Pahang has the most quantity of rubber wood plantation which is 46,804.78 hectares of 17% of all state in Malaysia. Rubber Research Institute Malaysia (RRIM) in 2008, 61,100 hectares are estates and 1,185 93000 hectares are smallholdings resulting the total of 1,247 03000 hectares (Please refer Appendices). This can indicate how many woods are planted and this can turn into waste after several years or decades. After the wood turns old and not use, what will happen to the woods is they are burnt rather that being abundant aside. 2.3 Wood Waste Wood waste can be broadly defined as the solid wood residues resulting from the manufacture, use or disposal of wood products. Wood waste is can generally be any wood from raw material to after processed material that not being used for any applications. This definition can therefore include several broad categories of wood products and by-products. Wood wastes are generally wood residues with no further perceived value that are sent to landfill. Waste has been a problem for the developing as well as developed countries. German Federal Government Ordinance has announced that there are three classes or categories of wood waste occur in waste streams which are (preservative) treated timber, untreated timber and composite timber products. There are numerous published methods of categorizing wood residue into different components related to various recovery options. These published methods generally include one or several forms of the three broad categories listed above (treated, untreated and composite timber products), as well as some of the by-products such as off cuts, chips, shavings and sawdust Wood waste has been declared a waste of concern by many countries worldwide, including the 27 countries of the European Union (EU) through the Directive on Packaging and Packaging Waste (EU Directive 94/63/EC, 1994). Wood waste is a declared waste of concern in New South Wales (NSW), a state of Australia (Department of Environment and Climate Change NSW, 2007). In Malaysia, we can

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