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Submitted in the English Department of State University of Medan In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for

The Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan



Registration Number: 2103121004






Anisa. The Effect of Using Semantic Clues Technique on the Students’

Achievement in Reading Comprehension. A Thesis. Medan. FBS UNIMED, 2016.

This study deals with the effect of using semantic clues technique on the students’ achievement in reading comprehension. The objective was to investigate the effect of using semantic clues technique on the students' achievement in reading comprehension. The research was conducted by experimental design. The population of this study was the 2014/2015 students of the Grade 7 of the Private Junior High School of Swa Bina Karya Medan. The number of the students was 60 students as a total sample. This sample was divided into 2 classes, experimental and control classes. Each of the class consisted of 30 students. The data of this study was collected by administrating a test. It was a teacher made test. The test was an essay test which consists of 20 items. It was given to both groups, experimental and control groups. After the data were analyzed, it was found that that tobserved was higher than ttable (5.46 > 2.002) with df = 58 at level of significant 0.05 was 2.000. The result of research find that there is significant effect there is significant effect of using semantic clue on the students’ achievement in reading comprehension.




First of all, the writer would like to thank to the Almighty Allah SWT for His blessings, so the writer is able to accomplish her thesis as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of SarjanaPendidikan at the English Department, Faculty of Languages and Arts (FBS) in State University of Medan (UNIMED).

During the process of writing, the writer realizes that she can’t accomplish

without support from many people. The writer would like to express her sincere gratitude to:

Prof. Dr. Syawal Gultom, M.Pd., Rector of State University of Medan. Dr. Isda Pramuniati, M.Hum., Dean Faculty of Languages and Arts. Prof. Dr. Hj. Sumarsih, M.Pd., the Head of English Department, Dra.

Meisuri, MA.,the Secretary of English Department.

Nora Ronita Dewi, S,Pd., S.S.,M.Hum., the Head of Education Program of English Department.

Prof. Amrin Saragih, M.A.,Ph.D., her Thesis Supervisor

Prof. Dr. Lince Sihombing, M.Pd, Dr. Siti Aisah Ginting, M.Pd, Rita Suswati, M.Hum., her Thesis Examiner, Dra. Masitowarni Siregar, M.Ed., Her Academic Consultant also her Thesis Examiner

 Headmaster of SMP SWA BINA KARYA Medan and the English Teacher who had helped her during the research in the school.

 The writer’s beloved parents, Mariadi and Lusiaty. Her sister Indah Fajar Waty, her brother Muhammad Ridwan for the support and love, also for the rest of her biggest families for the motivation.

 The writer’s beloved husband, Ridwan,SE for always support, motivated and pushed the writer to finish this study quickly and her beautiful daughter Nadhifa Saffa Almeera as the source of great spirit and love.  Her best 5, Halimatun Husna Rambe, Liza Insyirah, Risqa Indina, and



overcome together. For always stay and never leave the writer’ side during the hardest time in the writer’s life, the writer would like to say thank you.

God bless the writer for sending these people as her best support. .

Regular A ‘2010 fellow members, for the amazing 4 years they spent

together. , and all member of Regular A, B, C, and extention class 2010 for 4 years fighting together.. Thank you for helping the writer a lot until the last minute this thesis finished.

 The member of her PPLT 2013 team in SMPN 1 Stabat for wonderful memorable moment that we spent together on teaching practice,

 Last but not least, those who cannot be mentioned one by one who have supported the writer to finish her thesis.

Finally the writer realizes that this thesis is far from being perfect. Therefore, the writer will happily accept constructive criticism in order to make it better. The writer hopes that this thesis would be beneficial to everyone. Amin

Medan, April 2016 The Writer




E. The Significance of the Study ... 4


A. Theoretical Framework ... 5

1. Reading Comprehension ... 5

2. Factor Affecting Student’s Reading Comprehension ... 6

3. Context Clues ... 7

a. Syntactic Clue ... 9

b. Semantic Clue ... 9

4. Using Semantic Clue in Teaching Reading Comprehension ... 12

a. Contextual Redefenition ... 12

b. Fill in the blanks ... 12

c. Crossword Puzzles ... 14

d. Analogies ... 14

e. Listen for miscues ... 14

5. Using Syntactic Clue in Teaching Reading Comprehension ... 15

a. Guided Reading ... 15

b. Missing Morphemes ... 16

c. Contextual Word Attack Instructional Sequence ... 16

d. Metacognition– Click or Clunk... 17

e. Morphemic Analysis ... 17

6. Genre ... 18

7. Narrative Text ... 20

B. Conceptual Framework ... 22




A. Research Design ... 24

B. Population and Sample ... 25

C. The Instrument of Collecting the Data ... 25

D. The Procedure of the Study ... 25

1. Pre- Test ... 25

2. Treatment ... 26

3. Post- Test ... 31

E. The Validity and Reliability of the Test ... 31

1. The Validity of the Test ... 31

2. The Reliabity of the Test ... 32

F. The Technique for Analyzing Data ... 33


A. Data ... 34


A. Conclusion ... 39

B. Suggestions ... 39







Appendix A : The Result of Pre- and Post Tests

in the Experimental Group ... 43 Appendix B : The Result of Pre- and Post Tests

in the Control Group ... 44 Appendix C : Reliability of the Test ... 45 Appendix D : The Calculation of T-test ... 48 Appendix E : The Result of Students’ Score

in Experiment Group ... 51 Appendix F : The Result of Students’ Score





A. The Background of the Study

A study of a language is an interesting one to be conducted, especially if the language is a foreign or a second language. In the process of learning it, someone will say that it is a complex activity while others may say that it is challenging. If one is serious then the complexity will sooner or later becomes simple, fun, and enjoyable. In fact, in the teaching-learning process, it should be that way, i.e. fun and enjoyable; learning English is fun. It cannot be denied that if one wants to study a language, in this respect, one must give a special interest and attention so that it is motivating and interesting, otherwise one will say that is it difficult to learn.

In learning English, students are expected to be able to achieve and be familiar with the four language skills, such as listening, speaking, reading and writing. In reading, the students are expected to be knowledge and familiar with what the teacher has explained in the context, where as in comprehension the students are expected to have more skills than to explain individual text or passage after comprehending them. The purpose of reading comprehension is to get some skills in understanding the text. Students' attempt to comprehend an English passage is often hindered by the encounter of unfamiliar words. Such words have been recognized as a vocabulary problem that the students face in trying to understand the passage. This is confirmed by Nation and Coady's (2001:4) claim that word familiarity may become one of the factors that contributes to the ease or difficulty of a certain reading passage.


2 in such a situation seems to give a practical solution, because they are expected to get the meaning of words immediately after reading a list of definitions and picking up one which sounds suitable. However, they should not depend on the dictionary as the main aid to comprehension of a particular reading text since other problems may arise when the dictionary is used as the major means of gaining vocabulary knowledge in reading comprehension.

The first problem concerns with the students' motivation. Robinson (2002:5) writes that believes looking up the meaning of the words in the dictionary frequently may be quite ineffective since it obstructs the flow of comprehension process which is going on in the students' mind. In the long run, they will lose interest in what they are reading, and this can be harmful for their motivation to read further. Another problem relates to the definitions presented in the dictionary. Nagy (2008:76) finds that many definitions are simply not very good, inaccurate, or not appropriate to the reading selections. Moreover, the definitions deal only with superficial level of word knowledge, and therefore they cannot guarantee thorough comprehension of the reading texts containing the words which are defined. The words in the reading texts are presented in a context, and occasionally the definitions supplied by the dictionary do not match this context. Therefore, context should be taken into account in determining the meaning of words.


3 guess at the meaning of the words they do not know rather than look them up in the dictionary.

Context clues have role in teaching reading. Through context clues, a sentence, paragraph, or passage can be hinted to make the students understand the meanings of new or unfamiliar words. Learning the meaning of a word through its use in a sentence or paragraph is the most practical way to build vocabulary, since a dictionary is not always available when a reader encounters an unknown word. Students must be aware that many words have several possible meanings. Only by being sensitive to the circumstances in which a word is used can the students decide upon an appropriate definition to fit the context.

Students should rely on context clues when an obvious clue to meaning is provided, or when only a general sense of the meaning is needed for the reader’s purposes. Context clues should not be relied upon when a precise meaning is required, when clues suggest several possible definitions, when nearby words are unfamiliar, and when the unknown word is a common one that will be needed again; in these cases, a dictionary should be consulted.


4 B. The Problem of the Study

The problem of in this study is formulated as : "Is there any significant effect of using semantic clues technique on the students' achievement in reading


C. The Objective of The Study

With reference to the problem mentioned before, the objective of this study is: “to investigate the effect of using semantic clues technique on the students'

achievement in reading comprehension.

D. The Scope of the Study

This study deals with the analysis of the effect of using semantic clues technique on the students' achievement in reading comprehension. The researcher limits her study on the reading of narrative text.

E. The Significance of the Study

Findings of this study are expected to be useful for,

1. English teachers who want to enlarge the students' achievement to get the meaning of the reading text through mastering semantic clues,

2. English students who be able to use semantic clue to overcome their difficulties in reading comprehension especially narrative text can help them through identifying the words, sentences, figurative meaning, synonym and antonym, and





A. Conclusion

It was found that t-observed is greater than the value of t-table. Therefore the alternative hypothesis was accepted. In other words, this means that the H0 was rejected and the Ha was accepted. So that, this study can be concluded that there is a significant effect of using semantic clues technique on the students' achievement in reading comprehension.

B. Suggestions

In line with the conclusion, suggestions are staged as the following.

(1). English teachers should teach English reading comprehension by using semantic clue to make the students can guess the reading material based on the context of the passage. So when the students read a text, they often guess word meaning without consulting a dictionary.

(2). Students, it is useful to apply semantic clues because it helps the students to find unfamiliar word without using dictionary.






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Table 3.1 Research Design ...........................................................................

Table 3.1

Research Design ........................................................................... p.11


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