An Analysis Of Conjunctions Found In Charles Dickens’novel Oliver Twist
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The writer had spent so much time to write this thesis to fulfil requirements to get the Bachelor Degree from the English Literature study programe at the Faculty ofCultural Studies University of Sumatera Utara. I also share my gratefull to the Central Library of Sumatera Utara University and those who have lent some important and usefull books and much suggestion incompleting the thesis My deepest thanks also I share to my beloved mother T.
1.1 Background of the Study
Therefore, learning a language, in this case English must started from the understanding of the function and the proper position of each word in constructingideas to communicate in a sentence. 1.3 Objective of the Study There are some objective of the study about studying conjunction as follow, they are :1) To find out the types conjunctions found in the novel Oliver Twist.2) To find out the kinds of conjunctions found in the novel Oliver Twist.3) To find out the dominant kind of the conjunction in the novel Oliver Twist.
1.4 Scope of the Study
1.5 Significance of the Study
The analysis is limited to the two types of conjunctions, they are The writer of this thesis hopefull that it can give the reader some significances as follow:a. The writer wants to persuade the reader the important of conjunction in forming sentence and building story.
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The word grammar infact comes from the Greek grapho,meaning “write”but althoughstatement about the origin of words such as this may be interesting historically, we can not rely on them to tell us the current meaning of the world, as meanings changein time. Conjunction are useful indicators of develovment Therefore one of the most important parts of speech tobe discussed is conjunction which can relate people, things and ideas to one another, and help toshow the logic of the information.
2.2 The Description of Conjunction
Aygun (2003:131) says that conjunction is used tojoin two things, to express contrast and to express a choice of two or more things. Azar (1993:283) Says that conjunction is used to connect words or phrases that have the same grammatical function a sentence.
2.3 Types of Conjunction
Hartanto (1986 : 327) says that Konjungsi dibagi ke dalam dua golongan yang utama:1) Co- ordinating conjunctions. It means that conjunction can be classified into two main groups :1) Co- ordinating conjunctions.
1) Coordinating Conjunction
Notice that hey have distinct meanings: a.“And” show argumentation and additional information,for examples:1) My brother moved to New York, and I moved to Seatle.2) Dolphins are friendly animals, and they are also intelligent.3) China has a huge population, and it is growing.b.”But” and “yet” are used to show contrast. Yet is sometimes considered a conjunctive adverb like however, rather than a coordinate conjunction, for examples:1) Her cousin moved away, but he stayed in town.2) Doni is a fat man, yet he eats more food.3) Argentina is a large country , but it has a small population.
Wishon (1980:155) states that a subordinating conjunction introduces the adverbial clause and connects it with a word in the main clause. Time Subordinating conjunctions is a form of adverbial clause of time.the kinds of clauses consist of conjunctions: when (ever) , while, since, before, after, until, till, as, as soon as, as long as, and now that, for examples: Whenever : - He read law books whenever he had the chance.
The kinds of clause consist of the conjunction although, though, eventhough, for examples:Although : - She is happy although she is not rich. The kind of clause consist of the conjunction if, even if, unless, in case, if only, as long as,suppose (that), and wether....or, for examples: If : - If I pass the exam, my father will buy me a motorcycle.
The kinds of clause consist of the conjuction as if, as though, and as, for examples :As if : - Andi is walking as if he is dancing. The kinds of clause consist of conjunction than, for examples :Than : - He is more handsome than his brother.
2.4 The Position of Conjunction
Generally all of the conjunctions occur between the sentence patterns, but it may occur at the beginning of the patterns, at the end of the second pattern, or in themiddle of the second pattern, for examples : 1. In the sentence (1) the conjunction “though” is a subordinator and in the sentence (2) “though” is a connector, while in (3) “though” is in shared position.
2.5 The Punctuation of Conjunction When and connects only two items within a sentence, no comma are used
Examples :1) I saw a cat and a mouse.2) I saw a cat, a mouse, and a rat.3) I opened the door and walked in to the room.4) I opened the door, walked into the room, and sat down at my desk.5) Their flag is green and black.6) Their flag is green, black, and yellow. In (5) : and connects two adjectives (no commas)In (6) : and connects three adjectives (commas) When and connects two independent clauses, a comma is usually used.
2.6 The Uses of Conjunction
Thus they form pairs of series of it with a grammatical structure, for examples : 1. The teacher gave the answer, and the students wrote it fast.
e. As Predicate noun, for example : 1. My mother’s react was then the suspect gave wrong evidenc
2.7 The Difrence Between Conjunction With Preposition
The difrence is that conjunction is followed by clause, while preposition is followed by phrase. Preposition : They were upset because of the delay.
CHAPTER III METHOD OF RESEARCH
3.1 Research Design
It means Research design is an organizing requirements to control data collection in a research such is that with thepurpose to combine all relevant information (there is relationship) according to the purpose of research. The last I make them in a form of table list, based on the formula (Nawawi, 1993: 28) ��n = � ���% � n = the percentage of one kind of conjunction fx = individual frequency (one kind of conjunction)N = number of occurance (all kinds of conjunction) After finishing to count the data of conjunction in percentage, I determine the types of conjunctions, the kinds conjunctions and the most dominant till the leastdominant kinds of conjunction .
CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS AND FINDING In this thesis the writer analysis about thirteen kinds of conjunctions that are
In analizing this thesis, the writer analysis the usage of conjunction and the relation to any parts of grammar. The writer also determines the most dominant kind of conjunction by making percentage of eachkind of conjunctions.
4.1 Analysis 1) Conjunction and
The same things are found in the following sentences: (4) Fagin and the boys came back, pulling Oliver between them.(5) Charley, show Oliver to bed and help him take off his good clothes.(6) He left, rolling up the new clothes under his arm, and locking the door behind him. (7) Alone in the dark, sick and weary, Oliver fell asleep.(9) Jew, speaking very low and pulling his chair nearer.(12) She looked very ill and seemed anxious.(14) They hurried through the little town of Chertsey and about a quarter of a mile beyond they stopped out side a detaced house surrounded by ahigh hall.(15) In a moment all three were over the wall and creeping silently towards the house.
2) Conjunction now
The sentence is complex sentence because consist of one independent clause and two dependent clauses, theyare: The now heavy rain roused him (independent clause), and he looked around and saw a house, (independent clause), which he knew he must reach to get help(dependent clause). 3) Conjunction or From the source of data, the writer found 3 sentences used conjunction or, taken from chapter 6, 7, 8, and chapter 10, they are:(1) ”Get up, or I’ll spill your brains on the grass”.p.45(2) Or I’ll do it my self with a knock on the head.p.45(3) Alive or dead, that’s all I know about him.p.49 Sentence number (1) ”Get up, or I’ll spill your brains on the grass”.
6) Conjunction then
The sentence above consist of one independent clause and then in the sentence is used to expain subject, the Jew. Sentence number (5) Then came the loud ringing of a bell, anoise of firearms and shouts and a sensation of being carried rapidly over uneven ground.
7) Conjunction so
Conjunction so in the sentence is used to show result. Sentence number (4) They entered anempty room on the first floor, leaving the candle outside, so as not to show light through the shutters.
8) Conjunction for
The sentence is complex sentence because consist of oneindependent clause and one dependent clause, they are: Quickly she led him from the house in to a house in to a horse cab (independent clause) which seemed to bewaiting for them (dependent clause). The sentence is complex sentence because consist of one independent clause and twodependent clauses, they are: Sikes, cursing Fagin for sending Oliver on such a job The sentence is imperative sentence.
9) Conjunction that
Conjunction that in the sentence is used that you’d given it up (dependent clause), in which case I should have done the job alone (dependent clause). The sentence is a simple sentence because it consists of one main verb, that is ” makes”.
10) Conjunction as
Complex sentence is a sentence that consists of one independent clause and Sentence number (6) As they talked, a gig drove up and out jumped a fat gentlemen, who rushed into the room a moment later. The sentence is a complex sentence that consist of one independent clause and two dependent clause, they are: A gig drove up and outjumped a fat gentlemen (independent clause), As they talked (dependent clause), who rushed into the room a moment later (dependent clause).
12) Conjunction when
Sentence number (2)”Don’t you know the devil when he’s got a great coat on?” conjunction when in the sentence is used to show interrogative sentence. It consists of 1 independent clause and 2dependent clauses, they are : After more walking (dependent clause), the wearyOliver was led into a ruined house beside a river (independent clause), where they were greeted by a man whom Bill called Toby Crackit ( independent clause).
4.2 FindingHaving analized the novel Oliver Twist, I found 151 sentences of conjunctions are found in the novel. From the total of 151 conjunctions in OliverTwist, we can state that: there are 55 sentences use conjunctions and, 6 sentences use conjunctions now, 3 sentences use conjunction or, 11 sentences use conjunction but,2 sentences use conjunctions yet, 9 sentences use conjunctions then, 9 sentences use conjunctions so, 15 sentences use conjunctions for, 12 sentences use conjunctions that, 8 sentences use conjunctions as, 7 sentences use conjunction if, 7 sentences use conjunctions when, and 7 sentences use conjunctions after. Frequency Here are the frequency of each kinds of conjunctions which found in the novel OliverTwist, based on the formula: n = fx/N x 100%Conjunction and = 55/151x 100% = 36,42%Conjunction now = 6/151x 100% = 3,97%Conjunction or = 3/151x 100% = 1,98%Conjunction but = 11/151x 100% = 7,28%Conjunction yet = 2/ 151x 100% = 1,32%Conjunction then = 9/151x 100% = 5,96%Conjunction so = 9/151x 100% = 5,96%Conjunction for = 15/151x 100% = 9,93%Conjunction that = 12/151x 100% = 7,94%Conjunction as = 8/151x 100% = 5,29%Conjunction if = 7/151x 100% = 4,63%Conjunction when = 7/151x 100% = 4,63%Conjunction after = 7/151x 100% = 4,63% CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGESTIONS
After analizing the conjunction in the novel “ Oliver Twist” it can be concluded that: 1. There are two types of conjunctions in the novel, they are coordinating conjunctions that consist of : cumulative/additive, alternative/disjunctive,adversative and Illative, and subordinating conjunctions that consist of : apposition, cause or reason, condition, and time.
2. There are Thirteen kinds of conjunction are found in the novel, they are: and, now, or, but, yet, then, so, for, that, as, if, when, and afterFrom 151 of conjunctions in “Oliver Twist, there are 55 sentences use conjunctions and, 6 sentences use conjunctions now, 3 sentences use conjunctions or, 11 conjunction use conjunctions but, 2 sentences use conjunctions yet, 9 sentences use conjunctions then, 9 sentences use conjunctions so, 15 sentences use conjunctions for, 12 sentences use conjunctions that, 8 sentences useconjunctions as, 7 sentences use conjunctions if, 7 sentences use conjunctions when and 7 sentences use conjunctions after. 3. The most dominant kinds of conjunction in Oliver Twist is conjunction “and ” which presents (36,42 %), then followed by conjunctions for (9,93%),conjunctions that (7,94%), conjunctions but (7,28%), conjunctions then (5,96%), conjunctions so (5,96%), conjunctions as (5,29%), conjunctions if (4,63%), See the table list below: 9 5,96% 7 4,63% 13 After 7 4,63% 12 When 7 4,63% 11 If 8 5,29% 10 As 12 7,94% 9 That 15 9,93% 8 For 7 So No Kinds of Conjunctions Number of cases Percentages 9 5,96% 6 Then 2 1,32% 5 Yet 11 7,28% 4 But 3 1,98% 3 Or 6 3,97% 2 Now 55 36,42% 1 And Total 151 100%
Conjunctions have important role in building up a good story particularly in the novel “Oliver Twist as a word, phrase,and clause to make the story easier tounderstand 2. The students are expected by studying conjunction as a part of speech, they are more fluent to speak English because English grammar has great connection withconjunctions.
3. The writer hopes by studying conjunction can make the reader get more research and information about conjunctions to improve their knowledge
At last, the writer realizes that that this thesis is not perpect, therefore all critics or good suggestion from the readers are accepted. The writer hopes this thesiswill have great meaning for all readers, particularly for those who want to study about conjunctions.