Al amstal fi surat An-Nur wa ma fiha minal ittijahat al ijtima'iah

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I \ Lセi t L.v :0J"L.JI ,(-PI GMAセi TABLE OF CONTENTS APPROVAL . i LEGALIZATION MOTTO . ii . iii DEDICATION . iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABSTRACT . iv . vi TABLE OF CONTENT . vii CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study . 1 1.2 Statement of the Problems . 4 1.3 Purpose of the Study . 4 1.4 Significance of the Study 1.5 Scope and Limitation . 4 . 5 1.6 Definition of the Key Terms . 5 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELEAD LITERATURE 2.1 Writing . 7 2.2 Types of Writing 2.2.1 Narrative . 7 . 8 2.2.2 Procedure . 8 vii 2.2.3 Report . 8 2.2.4 Recount . 9 2.2.5 Descriptive 2.3 Grammar 2.4 Error . 9 . 9 . 10 2.4.1 Types of Error . 12 2.4.1.1 Error Type Based on Linguistic Category . 12 2.4.1.2 Error Type Based on Surface Strategy Taxonomy . 13 2.4.1.3 Error Type Based on Comparative Taxonomy . 15 2.4.1.4 Error Type Based on Communicative Effect Taxonomy . 16 2.5 Sources of Error 2.6 Error Analysis 2.7 Previous Studies . 18 . 19 . 20 CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Design . 22 3.2 Population and Sample 3.3 Data Collection . 23 . 24 viii 3.3.1 Research Instrument . 24 3.3.2 Procedures of Data Collection 3.4 Data Analysis . 25 . 25 CHAPTER IV: RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Findings . 27 4.1.1 Types of Errors . 27 4.1.1.1 Errors of Omission . 27 4.1.1.2 Errors of Addition . 28 4.1.1.3 Errors of Misformation . 29 4.1.1.4 Errors of Misordering . 30 4.1.2 Frequency of the Occurrence of Errors Made by the Students 4.2 Discussion . 30 . 32 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 5.1 Conclusions . 34 5.2 Suggestions . 35 5.2.1 For English Teachers 5.2.2 For the Students . 35 . 35 5.2.3 For the Next Researcher REFERENCES APPENDIXES ix . 36 REFERENCES Ary, Donald, Jacobs, Lucy Cheser, Razavieh, Asghar. 2002. Introduction to Research in Education: Fourth Edition. USA: Wadsworth Thomson Learning, Inc. Azar, Schrampfer Betty. 1989. Understanding and Using English Grammar. Second Edition. USA. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Byrne, Donn. 1984. Teaching Writing Skills: Fifth edition. Essex: Longman Group Ltd. Brown, H. D. 1980. Principles of Learning and Teaching. First Edition. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Brown, H. D. 2000. Principles of Learning and Teaching. Fourth Edition. Addition Wesley Longman, Inc. Brown, H. D. 2001. Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. Second Edition. New York: Addison Wesley Longman. Cahyono, Bambang Yudi.1997. Pengajar Bahasa Inggris; Teknik, Strategi, dan Hasil penelitian. Malang: IKIP Malang Press. Dulay, Heidi, Burt, Marina & Krashen Stephen. 1982. Language Two. New York: Oxford University Press. Hall, Eugene J. 1993. Grammar For Use. A realistic Approach to Grammar Study for Intermediate and Practical Application. Jakarta. Indonesia. Indriatiningsih. 2002. An analysis of Spelling and Grammatical Errors Made By Students of English Department at UMM. Unpublished S1 Thesis. Malang: University of Muhammadiyah Malang. Maulidiyah, H. 2008. Grammatical Errors in the First Year Students’ Writing Task of SMP Negeri 6 Malang. Unpublished S1 Thesis. Malang: State University of Malang. Mufarocha, S. 2009. An Analysis on The Subject-Verb Agreement Errors in Writing Paragraph Made by Fourth Semester Students of English Departrment at University of Muhammadiyah Malang. Unpublished S1 Thesis. Malang: University of Muhammadiayah Malang. Martin. J, Lee. 1980. The five Hundred Word. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Crimmon, Mc and James M. 1984. Writing With A purpose. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company Narsumi. 2000. Grammatical Problems in Writing a short Paragraph Based on The Pictured Series of The Third Year Students of SLTP Negeri 2 Srengat. Unpublished S1 Thesis. Malang: State University of Malang. Oshima, Alice & Hogue, Ann. 1999. Writing English Academy: Third Edition. New York: Longman. Raimes, Ann. 1983. Techniques in Teaching Writing. New York: Oxford University Press. Sridhar, S. N. 1980. Contrastive Analysis, Errors Analysis and Interlanguage, in Croft Kenneth (ed), Reading on English as a Second Language. Cambridge, Winthrop Publisher, Inc. Sudijono, Anas. 2008. Pengantar Statistik Pendidikan. Jakarta: PT. Raja Grafindo Persada. Veit, Richard. 1986. Discovering English Grammar. USA. Dallas. Geneva, Illionis. Lawrenceville, New Jersey. Palo Alto. Houghton Mifflin Company. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter presents the background of the study, the statement of the problem, the purpose of the study, the significance of the study, scope and limitation, and the definitions of the key terms. Each section is presented as follows. 1.1 Background of the Study As an international language which is used for communicate by people around the world, English has an important role in many fields. One of those is education. English is one of the main subjects which is taught in the school. There are four skills that must be mastered by students through the process of learning. They are speaking, reading, listening and writing. Between those four skills, writing is considered as difficult skill in its acquisition. As stated by Byrne, writing is translating thought into language that requires some components like grammar, vocabulary, mechanic and rhetoric. The combination of these components makes the skill of writing a complex one (1984). Students find it difficult to express and combine their opinion in written in a good arrangement and good structure, particularly in term of organization and language use (grammar). Commonly, in term of organization, the students could not organize their idea well. The language use (grammar) is considered a primary problem in students‟ writing. As we know that without a good grammar, meanings and ideas may not deliver properly and misunderstanding might exist. Also, one of the problems that often appear is the choice of words. There are many students 1 2 who do not know how to use the correct words to make a good sentence, or in other words they still have a lack of vocabulary. It is inevitable for students who learn foreign language to make errors in their learning process. Dulay (1982: 138) defined that “Errors are the flawed side of learner speech or writing”. All students surely ever make some errors as a part of their learning process. Errors may appear when students do not acquire the foreign language rules. As there might be some rules which have not been acquired yet, the errors may be made by the students. Otherwise, committing of errors is evidence that the students are acquiring and learning the However, it cannot be decided from where these skills should be mastered. Based on that, learning English in vocational schools should include the four skills. If students have difficulty on one skill, it will obstruct the optimality in learning English. Good mastery of English can be an effective means to increase the mastery of science and technology, so as to improve the competitiveness of human resources in Indonesia (http://file.upi.edu/ ). It can be accomplished by formal and non-formal learning. Basically, vocational students are prepared for working so that they should have skills including English. Learning English can help students to get information, to communicate well and to increase their confidence when they have interview for job with English in the future. Vocationally, learning English is very important because vocational students should have good communication skill because they are prepared for excellent and professional human resources. It is also important because mostly students will face English when they read the instructions of tools and when they create design by computer in which the guidance is also written in English. English in vocational school is not only learned in reading comprehension for understanding the instruction 3 or guidance, but it is also learned and taught in writing. It has relation with communication, especially in business written. For example, they make letter of order for buying tools or they make letter of complaint when they got broken equipments. Yet, learning English in vocational school is not as successful as it is being expected. When the writer observed and interviewed one of the teachers in a vocational school, it was found that the students still need guidance and the teacher had to teach them slowly. Teacher should give students the clear explanation on writing text or paragraph it is better for the teacher to explain it step by step, start from outline to the development of sentences into paragraph. There are still many problems in teaching English for vocational students. In fact, they have to master four skills of English; speaking, listening, reading and writing. First, the students commonly have low motivation in learning English. They feel scared first of English because in the first time they learn it, they have no large number of vocabulary in English. It is one of the difficult problems in learning English for vocational school. Second, the students have low involvement in English teaching learning process. They do not want to be active in the class. They tend to keep silent when the teacher gives interactive session. Third, students have low achievement because of that. It is basically caused by less confidence among the students. It all happen in every skills of English, knowing vocabularies, structure, tenses and grammar is still hard for them; speak, listen, read and write also difficult for students. Based on the explanation above, the author would like to make a research on one of the skills in English, that is writing. Writing is one of the language skills and 4 an activity that has a relationship with the process of thinking and expression skills in script form Siradanai Tan (stated in Abdul Ritonga: 2009). Writing is also one of the most complicated and complex skill for students (Richard: 1999). Students are required to produce words, sentences, and paragraphs to show their skill in a work. It means that students should know how to use words through its spelling, meaning, and its grammatical positions. They should understand about meaning, and its grammatical positions, because they need it to arrange sentences and develop sentences into paragraph. Writing activity refers to the knowledge of how some words are organized into a sentence possessing a series of words that have meaning. Having good writing, learner will be helpful in delivering their ideas, messages and feelings either to the reader Hartanti (stated in Novita 2003). In writing there are some components namely punctuation, structure and grammar. There component are always used in writing. If one of it is missing, it will cause errors and the writing can not be understood well. Usually errors that often occur in vocational high school students when they write something are they did not observed the word structure and the sentences are meaningless. Sometime they also interpret or arrange sentences word by word without paying attention to meaning. If people want to write in English, they have to understand well on the grammar. Grammar is one of the important aspects on writing. Using and mastering correct grammar is not easy, because the things grammar and the Indonesian are grammar very different. In fact, some students are not able to use grammar correctly. 5 Actually, grammar is used to explain about the structure of a sentence so it will make the reader understand well about the meaning. A sentence without grammar would be disorganized and causes some mistake like grammatical error in writing. Grammatical error is big problem in writing subject Hartanti (stated in Novita 2003). In vocational school, students should already know about grammar or structure in writing but in reality they still make many errors when making paragraph. In study English the students must pay attention in grammar. Indonesian students, as foreign language learners of English, also face difficulties about grammar because of the difference in linguistic structure between Indonesia and English. It means that the students have difficulties in learning English grammar. Learning English in the tenth Multimedia class at SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Malang is conducted in all skills, such as speaking, reading, listening and writing. According the writer’s observation in teaching writing, students were taught to make the opening dialogue, greeting, telling things and times, expressing feeling and describing something. However, the students still make errors, especially in grammar. They are difficult in starting to make sentences because they have less vocabulary but the worst is that they cannot use “to be” in the proper place. They usually present “I” with “am” and it will follow with other “to be”. According to them, it is like “I” is come with “am”. Using “the” in the sentence is often done by students. It seems that they feel appropriate in using “the” in most words. Another problem in grammar is that they are difficult in determining adverb, auxiliary, and article. Accordingly, the researcher take a research to analyze the grammatical error occurs in class tenth of Multimedia class at SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Malang. 6 1.2 Statement of the Problem 1. What kinds of grammatical errors the tenth grade of Multimedia class make in learning writing in SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Malang? 2. How the tenth grade Multimedia class in SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Malang organize their idea in writing essay? 1.3 Purpose of the Study The purposes of the study are: 1. To find the kinds of grammatical errors made by the tenth Multimedia class in SMK Muhammadiyah 2, Malang. 2. To know how the tenth grade Multimedia class in SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Malang organize their idea in writing essay. 1.4 Significance of the Study The significance of the study is to give contributions to English teachers in SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Malang to improve their students’ writing including vocabulary, grammar, and developing paragraph. The result of this study is also expected to have contribution for teacher in knowing their students grammatical error and deciding what appropriate method and strategy for teaching writing, also student’s error, especially the grammatical error in writing paragraph based on the picture or describing something or someone can be used as a reference of the evaluation for the next treatment in order to improve the process of teaching and learning as well. This analysis is also to make the students know of their own error, especially grammar. They will know the weakness in their learning process and it will help them to 7 improve their competence in writing. So, this study is also expected to be useful for further researchers who want to create the similar research. 1.5 Scope and Limitation There are some grammatical errors that often occur in the students such as errors in making paragraph that appropriate with the picture, describing something or someone and making dialogue. This study does not analyze all errors; it just focuses on writing in describing something or someone. The writer only limits the problems to the student’s grammatical error in writing made by the tenth Multimedia in SMK Muhammadiyah 2, Malang. 1.6 Definition of Key Terms 1. Grammar Grammar is a process how some words and their component combine to form a sentence that is easily understood by the reader. 2. Error Error is a situation where someone made a mistake in learning something. 3. Writing Writing is an activity to convey idea in the written form.

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