IMPROVING STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN IDENTIFYING NONLITERAL MEANING OF NARRATIVE TEXT THROUGH CONTEXTUAL TEACHING LEARNING AT SECOND GRADE OF SMAN 3 BANDAR
JESY YUNITA FADMADI
Narrative text is a story or part of story that describes a sequence of fictional or non-fictional events. In narrative text, the writer often writes in non-literal form to paint word pictures and allow the reader to see a point. Based on the researcher’s experience at second grade of SMAN 3 Bandar Lampung, it is found out that students still have difficulties in identifying the non-literal meaning in narrative text. Therefore, the researcher used CTL as the method in this research since it is a concept of teaching and learning that helps teachers to relate subject matter content to real world situations and motivate students to make connections between knowledge and its application to their daily lives. The process of studying underlying the implementation of CTL gives many chances for students to construct their mind and relate the material with their own life problems. The objective of this research is to find out whether there is an improvement of the students’ ability in identifying non-literal meaning of narrative text after being taught through CTL.
The population of this research was the second grade of SMA Negeri 3 Bandar Lampung. There were seven classes of the second grade and each class consisted about 30 students. The researcher took class XI science 3 as the try-out class and XI social 3 as the experimental class. The study employed one group pretest and posttest design and the students were given three treatments. The researcher analyzed the data using repeated measure t-test.
IMPROVING STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN IDENTIFYING
NONLITERAL MEANING OF NARRATIVE TEXT THROUGH
CONTEXTUAL TEACHING LEARNING AT SECOND GRADE
OF SMAN 3 BANDAR LAMPUNG
JESY YUNITA FADMADI
IMPROVING STUDENTS’ ABILITY
NONLITERAL MEANING OF NARRATIVE TEXT THROUGH
CONTEXTUAL TEACHING LEARNING AT SECOND GRADE
OF SMAN 3 BANDAR LAMPUNG
JESY YUNITA FADMADI
Submitted in a Partial Fulfillment of The Requirements for S-1 Degree
The Language and Arts Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty
Research Title : IMPROVING STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN IDENTIFYING NONLITERAL MEANING OF NARRATIVE TEXT THROUGH CONTEXTUAL TEACHING LEARNING AT SECOND GRADE OF SMAN 3 BANDAR LAMPUNG
Student’s Name : Jesy Yunita Fadmadi Student’s Number : 0913042055
Department : Language and Arts Education Program Study : English Department
Faculty : Teacher Training and Education
APPROVED BY Advisory Committee
Prof. Dr. Patuan Raja, M. Pd. Dra. Rosita Simbolon, M. A. NIP. 19620804 198905 1 001 NIP. 19480920 197503 2 001
The Chairperson of
Language and Arts Education Department
1. Examination Committee
Chairperson : Prof. Dr. Patuan Raja, M. Pd. ...
Examiner : Dr. Muhammad Sukirlan, M. A. ...
Secretary : Dra. Rosita Simbolon, M. A. ...
2. The Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty
Dr. H. Bujang Rahman, M. Si. NIP 19600315 198503 1 003
The writer’s name is Jessy Yunita Fatmadi. She was born in Bengkulu, June 7th
1991. She is the first daughter of three siblings from a harmonious couple, Mulyadi and Desma Chairoma. She has a sister named Jeny Mulya Lestari and a brother named Abi Rahmat Fadilah.
She entered TK Ade Irma Suryani Bengkulu in 1996. In the following year, she entered SDN 65 Bengkulu only one year. In 1998, she continued her study at SDN 9 Bengkulu until the third grade. In 2000, she continued her study at SDN 69 Bengkulu until the fifth grade. After that, in 2002, she left for Lampung and finished her last year in elementary school at SDN 2 Kupang Kota. After that, she entered SMPN 3 Bandar Lampung and graduated in 2006. Then, she continued her study at SMAN 3 and finished her high school in 2009. In the same year, she continued her study to Lampung University in English Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty through SNMPTN.
I dedicate this script to:
My beloved parents, Mulyadi and Desma Chairoma
My beloved sister, Jeny Mulya Lestari and brother, Abi Rahmat Fadilah
My dearest grandmothers, Cia Syamsiah and Fatimah
My dearest grandfathers, Djaim and Nurhasan
Stupidity is expecting different result by
doing the same thing everyday
The writer would like to acknowledge to the Most Gracious and the Most Merciful, Allah S.W.T. for the countless bless and the best things she gets in her life and there is no doubt about it. Shalawat and Salam she offers to the Prophet Muhammad S.A.W., and his follower. Alhamdulillah, the researcher eventually completed her research paper entitled “Improving Students’ Ability In Identifying Non-literal Meaning of Narrative Text Through Contextual Teaching Learning at Second Grade of SMAN 3 Bandar Lampung” and presented to Department of Language and Arts of Teacher Training and Education Faculty in Lampung University as the partial fulfillment of the requirement in accomplishing the S-1 Degree.
First of all, I would like to express my deepest and sincerest gratitude to my first advisor, Prof. Dr. Patuan Raja, M.Pd., and my second advisor, Dra. Rosita Simbolon, M.A., who had given their advisory, comments, and evaluations patiently during the completion of this script. Their guidance help me so much and support me to present the best script. I am grateful to the examiner of this script, Dr. Muhammad Sukirlan, M.A., who had given critics, suggestions and improvement to make this script becomes perfect.
I am also grateful to Dra. Hj. Rospardewi, MM.Pd., as the Principal of SMA Negeri 3 Bandar Lampung, for giving permission for me to conduct my research. I would like to thank to the English teacher of SMA Negeri 3 Bandar Lampung, Drs. Edwar Hidayat, M.Pd. My thanks also go to the students of SMA Negeri 3 Bandar Lampung, especially for class XI Science 3 and XI social 3 for their willingness to participate in this research.
Afterwards, I dedicate my deepest gratitude to my beloved parents, Mulyadi and Desma Chairoma, my brother, Abi Rahmat Fadilah, my sister, Jeny Mulya Lestari, and my big family, for their biggest support and prayers for my success. Special thanks and appreciations go to my best friends namely Bassma, Titi, Puput, Yenni, Cici, Maria, Winda, Iin, Renal, Potel, Indra, Agung, Eko, and Asep, my comrades in ED ’09 namely Imeh, Yusni, Fera, Resta, Dea, Desset, Jegeg, Arini, Tri, Depe, Chai, my boyfriend Roviko, and my seniors mbak Vita and mbak Meizi who had helped and supported me in completion this script.
Bandar Lampung, April 2013
1.2. Identification of Research Problem ... 3
1.3. Limitation of Problem ... 3
2.2.1. Reading Comprehension ... 7
2.2.2. Non-literal Meaning . ... 9
2.2.3. Narrative Text ... 13
2.2.4. Contextual Teaching Learning (CTL) ... 16
2.2.6. Procedure of Teaching Narrative Text through CTL ... 21
2.2.7. Advantages and Disadvantages of Using CTL ... 23
2.3. Theoretical Assumption ... 24
2.4. Hypothesis ... 24
III. METHOD 3.1. Research Design ... 25
3.2. Population and Sample ... 26
3.3. Data Collecting Technique ... 26
3.4. Procedures of Data Collecting Technique ... 28
3.5. Scoring System ... 30
3.6. Try out of the Tests ... 30
3.6.1. Validity ... 31
3.6.2. Reliability... 32
3.6.3. Level of Difficulty ... 34
3.6.4. Discrimination Power ... 34
3.7. Data Analysis ... 34
4.2. Discussion of the Findings... 44
1. Observation sheet of implementation of CTL components during
teaching learning process ... 27
2. Table of Specification of Try-Out Test ... 31
3. Distribution of the Students’ Score of the Pretest ... 39
4. Distribution of the Students’ Score of the Posttest ... 40
5. Table of Specification of Pretest and Posttest ... 40
6. Increase of Students’ Pretest to Posttest ... 42
11. Computation of Reliability of Try-out Items ... 89
12. Level of Difficulty and Discrimination Power of Try Out test ... 90
13. Results of Students’ Scores of Pretest... 91
14. Results of Students’ Scores of Posttest ... 92
15. Students’ Score of Pre-test and Post-test ... 93
16. Table of Distribution of the Pre-test ... 94
17. Table of Distribution of the Post-test ... 95
18. Random Test of the Pre-test and the Post-test ... 96
19. Normality Test of the Pre-test and the Post-test ... 97
20. Homogeneity Test of the Pre-test and Post-test... 98
21. Analysis of Hypothesis ... 99
22. T-table ... 100
23. F-table ... 101 Result of pre-test and post-test of some students
This chapter discusses several points, namely introduction that deals with background of the problem, identification of research problem, limitation of the problem, formulation of the problem, objective of the research, uses of the research, scope of the research, and definition of terms. Classified like the followings.
1.1 Background of Problem
According to School Based Curriculum, students are expected to be able to communicate both in spoken and in written form to solve their problems in daily live. To achieve the objective of teaching English at school, the improvement of students’ language skills are required. The language skills that the students need to master are listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
general, the main objective of the teaching reading skill is to make the students able to understand the meaning of the text.
Furthermore, the English material is taught based on the text. There are some types of composition that should be learnt, one of them is narrative text. Students have been introduced with several types of stories, namely fables, myths, legends, folktales etc., since Elementary School. However, most students are still confused to get the meaning of the sentences. Without understanding the differences of literal and non-literal meaning in the narrative text, students are not able to find out what it really means. For example, the sentence “He can not give his hand to the victims” may be thought to have meaning as “He can not help the victims”.
During pre-observation in the second grade of SMAN 3 Bandar Lampung, it was found that the students still have difficulties in identifying the non-literal meaning in narrative text. It could be seen from their daily score in reading. The average of their reading scores was 65, while the KKM was 70. When the teacher asked them to retell the story, they could not tell it well. They were wrong in interpreting some sentences containing metaphor.
selecting the material to improve students’ participation during teaching and learning process.
In this research, the researcher used CTL (Contextual Teaching and Learning) as the method for teaching reading in the class, while narrative text as the media of CTL for developing students’ reading. According to Department of National Education (2002), CTL is a concept of learning which helps teacher relates the material being taught to the students’ real word and encourage the students to relate their knowledge in their daily lives. Therefore, the researcher expected CTL could help the students to know how to use their knowledge in real situation.
1.2 Identification of Research Problems
Based on the background above, the researcher identified the problems on SMAN 3 Bandar Lampung as follows:
1. The students got difficulties in finding the true meaning of the whole text. 2. The students got difficulties in identifying the meaning of sentences in
3. The students got difficulties in catching the points from the text. 4. The teachers used inappropriate technique in teaching English.
1.3 Limitation of Problem
1.4 Formulation of Problem
In reference to the background, the problems could be formulated as follow: “Is there any improvement of the Second Grade of Senior High School students’ ability in identifying the non-literal meaning of narrative text taught through contextual teaching learning (CTL)?”
1.5 Objective of the Research
The objective of the research was to find out whether there is improvement of the second year of Senior High School students’ ability in identifying non-literal meaning of narrative text taught through contextual teaching learning (CTL).
1.6 Uses of the Research
The results of this research could have the following uses: 1. Practically, the results of the research are expected to:
• Give contribution for the English teacher to improve their performance
in teaching narrative text reading.
• Develop students’ ability in understanding the non-literal meaning of
• Give contribution to the English teacher about how the uses of CTL as
a method in reading narrative text at senior high school. 2. Theoretically, the results of the research are expected to:
• Support the previous theories dealing with the theories of Contextual
1.7 Scope of the Research
This research was conducted at SMAN 3 Bandar Lampung. The subject of this research was second grade students of the school. The sample was randomly chosen, since the researcher decided that second grade classes have the same appropriate materials related to the issue of this research. This research focused on students’ activity in narrative text reading and the improvement of identifying non-literal meaning in the narrative text. The researcher used reading texts as teaching media of CTL to gain effective result. The texts were taken from students’ English textbooks, short story collection books, and internet. The improvement of students’ ability in identifying the non-literal meaning of narrative text was measured by a set of pre test and posttest in form of narrative text reading.
1.8 Definition of Terms
•••• Non-literal meaning is the meaning of words, phrases, sentences etc. in
some way other than the main or usual meaning, to suggest a picture in the mind or make a comparison by using the figures of speech and more poetic sense.
•••• Narrative text deals with a problematic story that describes a sequence of
fictional or non-fictional events to amuse or entertain the readers.
•••• Contextual Teaching and Learning is teaching that enables the students
In this chapter, the writer discussed the terms related to the study, i.e. reviews of the previous research, review of related literature, theoretical assumption and hypothesis.
2.1Reviews of the Previous Research
In this section, the researcher presented some reviews of previous research dealing with Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL). Sabriani (2011) has conducted a research dealing with the implementation of CTL in increasing students reading comprehension by using narrative text. The result of her study confirms that CTL is applicable to improve students reading comprehension.
Umran (2012) has conducted a quantitative research about the
implementation of CTL in students‟ reading hortatory text. The study focused on
how the teacher taught in the classroom and how he implemented all elements underlying CTL in teaching hortatory exposition. The findings of the research showed that the teacher and the students implement the whole seven elements of CTL well except in one aspect.
In addition, Gustiawan (2011) has conducted a research about the
implementation of Contextual Teaching and Learning approach in students‟
Bandar Lampung. The result of the research showed that CTL could significantly
improve students‟ narrative text writing.
From the review of preview research above, the researcher concluded that CTL was applicable in this research. The seven components of CTL could be implied to improve students‟ ability in identifying non literal meaning of narrative text.
2.2Review of Related Literature 2.2.1 Reading Comprehension
Reading is one of the major language skills which are distinctive characteristic from others. This is one facet of education that helps the individual attain full development of his potentials. The value of reading cannot be underestimated. According to Harris and Sipay (1980:9), reading may be defined as the act of responding with appropriate meaning to print or written verbal symbols. In line with this idea, Callahan and Clark (1982:260) assert that reading is an active process in which people attempt to extract ideas, concepts, thoughts, or images from the pattern of words set forth on the printed pages.
Stuffer in Petty and Jensen (1980:207) also states: 1. Reading is a complex process.
2. Reading means to get information from printed page.
3. Reading is the ability to pronounce and comprehend the printed works. 4. Reading is interpreting sign, letters, symbols, by assigning meaning to them. 5. Reading is receiving ideas and impression from an author via the printed page.
Reading has a very important place in learning English as a foreign language. By reading books in English, students can study more about the components for language such as new vocabularies, pronunciation, and sentence structure of English texts.
The first point to be made about the reading process is reading comprehension (Simanjuntak, 1984:4). It is also stated by Dallman (1982) who says that reading is more than knowing what each letter of alphabet stands for; reading involves more than words recognition, and comprehension is an essential of reading that without comprehension, no reading takes place.
Richard (1986) defines comprehension as the process by which the person understands the meaning of the written or spoken language. Comprehension is the process of making sense of words, sentences and connected text. Good readers are aware of how well they understand a text while reading, and also actively overcome difficulties in comprehension.
“making sense” of text, of relating written language to what we know already and
to what we want to know. Comprehension can be regarded as a condition where no uncertainty exists.
There are five aspects that help the students comprehend English texts well, they are main idea, specific information, reference, inference and vocabulary.
2.2.2 Non-literal Meaning
According to Palmer (1976:6), linguistics is the scientific study of language. Linguistics has important role to component of language that include sound, the arrangement of word and meaning.
Semantics as the technical term to refer to the study of meaning is a part of linguistics, since meaning is a part of language. Unfortunately, meaning covers a variety of aspect language, and there is no general agreement about the nature of meaning, what aspect of it may properly be included in semantics, or the way in which it should be describe (Palmer, 1976:1).
Linguistic expressions are divided into two classes: literal and non-literal (figurative). Literal means based on the real or meaning of the utterance. It is thought to use the true meanings of words that denote what it really means. We can find literal meaning in the dictionary. For example, “He is a lazy student”. The meaning of the sentence is clear to understand.
mean, it is called non-literal meaning. Non-literal meaning paints word pictures
and allows us to „see‟ a point.
Leech (1981) explained types of non-literal meaning as follow: 1. Metaphor
Metaphors are kind of figurative expression by which a comparison is made between two things by identifying one with other. Metaphors are ways to describe something. Authors use them to make their writing more interesting or entertaining. For example:
Life is a barren field. 2. Simile
Similes are comparisons that show how two things that are not alike in most ways are similar in one important way. Similes are a way to describe
something. Similes use the words “as” or “like” to make the connection
between the two things that are being compared. For example: His temper was as explosive as a volcano.
The sentence means his temper is being compared to a volcano in that, it can be sudden and violent.
Hyperbole is a figure of speech in which statements are exaggerated. It may be used to evoke strong feelings or to create a strong impression, but is rarely meant to be taken literally. For example:
Metonymy is a figure of speech characterized by the use of the name of one thing in place of the name of something that is symbolizes. For example:
They want to go to the white house. White is focus here, when the speaker says about White House, it refers to America. It does not mean I want to go to the house whose paint is white.
Litotes is an understatement in which an affirmation is expressed by the negative of its contrary. For example:
Please come to my hut.
The focus is my hut, as we know hut is very simple. Nevertheless, in this situation hut is not the hut but actually, he has a big house. He does not want to tell the hearer the truth.
Personification is the treating of an abstract quality of thing as if it had human qualities. For example:
The leaves danced when the wind blew.
The sentence is not means leaves dance, but the effect of the wind when it blows make the leaves as if they danced. The speaker means the leaves sway, because the word dance only addressed to human not a thing.
Oxymoron is figure of speech in which apparently contradictory terms are combined to produce an epigrammatic effect. For example:
When we hear about the word „justice‟ that means nobody is damaged or loss. Everybody is sincere in accepting the decision, but here justice is wild. Therefore, it is contradictory. The speaker means revenge is the only way to get success justice not through the law.
Irony is the quality of an event or situation which is the opposite of what it is promised, expected, etc. and which therefore seems to mock ones expectation. For example:
Your room is so tidy, I better sleep outside.
From the sentence it is not mean the room so tidy but the room very dirty, even the speaker chooses to sleep outside than sleep in the room.
We often find so many literary works contain non-literal meaning such as novel, prose, poem, or narrative texts. It is effective to use non-literal meaning in a literary works to beautify the language, make it sounds elegant, and give the magnificent word to attract the readers or audience.
Gibbs (1984: 287) states that literal language has no priority over non-literal language: Processing non-non-literal 1anguage does not necessitate processing the surface literal meaning first. Rather, non-literal meaning is processed directly, without the interference of the surface literal meaning. Understanding literal and non-literal language involves precisely the same complex comprehension processes and contextual information (Glucksberg et al., 1982).
people who has. Therefore, the researcher hopes this research may help them to keep communication with the others especially to understand non-literal meaning. In this research, the researcher talked about the using of non-literal meaning in narrative texts. The researcher got some reasons why she was interested in the topic above. Understanding the meaning of each word, each phrase and each sentence in the texts is important to make the students get the point of the texts. In this case, it is needed by the students to understand first the non-literal meaning of narrative texts. While, most students were still get difficulties in identifying the non-literal meaning of narrative texts they had read.
2.2.3 Narrative Text
A narrative text is a story that describes a sequence of fictional or non-fictional events in which one character or more face certain situation. According to Larson (1984:366), narrative text is an account of event, which is written mainly for entertainment. It means that narrative text is one that contains a series of events.
Labov (1972) also assumes all narratives are stories about a specific past event, and they have common properties. Those, which not only entertain but also instruct are highly valued. The story can be fiction or non-fiction. Narrative deals with problematic events, which lead to a crisis or turning point of some kind, which in turn finds a resolution. The basic purposes of narrative text are to
entertain, to hold the reader‟s interest, and deal with actual or vicarious experience
Derewianka (1990) states that a “narrative” is a story or part of story. It
may be spoken, written or imagined, and it will have one or more points of view representing some or all of the participants or observers.
Narratives sequence people/characters in time and place but differ from recounts in that through the sequencing, the stories set up one or more problems, which must eventually find a way to be resolved. Narrative text is based on life experience and is person-oriented using dialogue and familiar language.
There are some genres of narrative text:
1. Folktales, i.e., very old traditional story from a particular place that was originally passed on to people in a spoken form, e.g., Aladin.
2. Wonder tales, i.e., a story tells about something amazing, human‟s
imagination, e.g., Snow White.
3. Fables, i.e., traditional short stories that teach moral lesson, especially one with animals as characters; these stories are considered as one group of animal stories, e.g., The Bear and Rabbit.
4. Legend, i.e., a story from ancient times about people and events that may or not be true, e.g., Nyi Roro Kidul.
5. Myth, i.e., a story from ancient times, especially one that was told to explain about natural events or to describe the early history of a place or people, e.g., The Legend of Toba Lake.
7. Science fiction, i.e., a story that science-oriented. It is not really happened in real life, e.g., Time Machine.
8. Fantasy, i.e., a story about a pleasant situation that people imagine but it is unlikely to happen, e.g., Percy Jackson.
9. Historical fiction, i.e., a story about people and events that is in or connected to the past, e.g., Bumi Manusia.
From these nine genres of narrative text, the researcher will only use five genres; they are folktales, wonder tales, fables, legend and myth.
The common structure or basic plan of narrative text is known as the Story Grammar. The typical elements are: 1) setting: when and where the story occurs. 2) Characters, the most important people or players in the story. 3) Initiating event: an action or occurrence that establishes a problem and/or goal. 4) conflict/goal: the focal point around which the whole story is organized. 5) Events: one or more attempts by the main character(s) to achieve the goal or solve the problem. 6) Resolution: the outcome of the attempts to achieve the goal or solve the problem. 7) Theme: the main idea or moral of the story. The graphic representation of these story grammar elements is called a story map. The exact form and complexity of a map depends upon the unique structure of each narrative and the personal preference of the teacher constructing the map.
In narrative text, there are certain characteristics, namely:
a) The generic structure of narrative text is focused on a series of actions:
2. Complication denotes a crisis arises. It comprises initiating event, subsequent events and climax aspects when the main character faces the problems.
3. Resolution shows that the crises are resolved. In this part, the character does the act of solving or settling the problem for better or worse.
b) Social functions/ communicative approaches of narrative text are: 1. To entertain or amuse the readers.
2. To deal with actual/ various experiences in different ways.
c) Language features: 1. Use of past tense.
2. Use of temporal conjunction (time sequence/ chronological order) and temporal circumstances (time conjunction/ adverbial clause).
3. Use of the material process (action verbs). 4. Focus on specific or individual participants. 5. Use of relational and mental processes. 6. Use of behavioral and verbal processes. 7. Use of direct and indirect speech.
2.2.4 Contextual Teaching Learning (CTL)
content to real world situations and motivate students to make connections between knowledge and its application to their lives as family members, citizens, and workers and engage in a hard work that learning requires (Bern and Erickson, 2001).
Johnson (2002) defines contextual teaching learning is teaching that enables students to reinforce, expand and apply their academic knowledge and skills in a variety in-school and out-of school settings in order to solve simulated or real-world problems. This assumption clarifies that the knowledge on the material that the students got before could be reinforced in contextual teaching since the process of studying underlying the implementation of CTL gives many chances for students to construct their mind and relate the material with their own life.
According to Legawa (2004), contextual teaching and learning is a learning process that involved learner-centered and learning in context. The
context here means the condition that influences the students‟ lives in learning.
The students‟ will learn well by studying the material that related to students‟ real
world and experiences. It makes the students aware of the benefits of their learning and be interested of the material.
According to Depdiknas (2002), CTL has seven components, they are: 1. Constructivism
Knowledge grows with exposure and the understanding becomes deeper and stronger if learners are involved in learning process based on the previous knowledge.
Inquiry is the basic part of CTL. The learners seek the truth, information or knowledge not from memorizing, but finding by themselves. The teachers plan any activities and the learners have a chance to do an observation. They get some questions and then make their own hypothesis. Based on the observation, they will make a conclusion.
In CTL, the questioning should not be dominated by the teacher. Students are the center and the teacher should create the situation that makes the students curious. Questioning can be implemented between learner to learner, learners to teacher, and so on. Students will ask more to their teacher or their classmates if they have curious. The situation will make the teaching-learning process alive and motivate students in learning.
4. Learning community
In (CTL), giving example helps the students to understand the materials faster. But the teacher is not the only one who is responsible in giving the modeling. Model can be organized by involving students.
Self assessment (self reflection) can be introspective where the students are asked to reflect back on their foreign language experience and rate themselves against some kind of scale. Reflection is a way of thinking about what students have learnt. Teacher and students review and respond the activities and experiences they have done. They also record what they have learnt, how they feel, and appeared new ideas.
7. Authentic assessment
In this process the teacher collect the data to get information about the
students‟ development in learning. It is used to describe students‟ real
competency to the subject matter. The aim of authentic assessment is to
provide valid information about the students‟ progress and evaluate the
students‟ activities in a real world context. Authentic assessment can be
described as the result of students learning and motivation. It motivates students to be able to use their knowledge achievement in a real life.
Assessment places the need of students at the center of teacher‟s planning.
2.2.5 Teaching Reading through CTL
Teaching means giving instruction or a knowledge skill to a person or people, and teaching reading means giving instruction or a skill in reading written language. The purpose of teaching reading is to help students find out the information they want quickly besides to show the students that understanding just a few words is often sufficient to get the message. According to Salomon (1985:55), teaching reading skills can be divided into: skimming, scanning, on going prediction, reading for the main ideas and reading in detail.
William (1984:45) states that there are three-phase approaches to teach reading in the classroom. They are pre-reading phase, while-reading phase and post-reading phase.
A pre-reading phase is anything teachers do in class before students begin to read the selection and can affect comprehension. The writer gives the students the preparatory activity, such as brainstorming.
The while-reading phase or during-reading activity draws the students on text and involves them in the thinking process. The activities here will help the
learners understand the writer‟s purpose, the text structure, and the context.
The activities in the post-reading phase encourage learners to make use of acquired information to express their opinion and form ideas. Ideally, post-reading work should contribute to the writing, speaking, and listening skills. Students‟ activities can be varied such as writing, drawing, interviews and discussion research.
environment. In this regard, Dougill and Jones (1987) agree that CTL is “mirror
real life” and “reality of function in a simulated and structured environment”. CTL
is not real life; it is only a type of simulating real life in a simulated environment.
2.2.6 Procedure of Teaching Narrative Text through CTL
Modified from William‟s statement (1984:45), teaching narrative text through CTL is divided into three stages, they are:
Pre-reading is used to prepare students for the reading material. In this part, the teacher and students do some elements as follow:
1. Students greet the teacher to open the class.
2. Activate students‟ background knowledge of the topic. (Constructivism) 3. Do the constructivism to make it easy for students to inquire the main
point of the text in the next step. (Constructivism)
4. Clarify any cultural information that may be necessary to comprehend the passage. (Inquiry)
1. Teacher asks the students to read the text to check whether their prediction of schemata is correct or not. (Inquiry)
2. The students will get the information they are looking for when they are reading for the specific information. (Inquiry)
4. Teacher gives some example from the text. Since the modeling is not only done by the teacher, the teacher also asks the students to find certain sentences with ambiguous meaning. (Modeling)
5. The students make a group and discuss the exercise that is given by their teacher. (Learning Community)
6. The teacher asks the students to find out the non-literal phrases/ sentences in the text, and discuss the meaning of the phrases/ sentences. (Learning Community)
7. The teacher and students reflect their understanding of the material they have learnt. (Reflection)
1. Do evaluation of the students' comprehension and difficulty during the learning process. (Reflection)
2. Make conclusion of what they have learnt. (Reflection)
3. Give homework for students to make some examples of sentences with non-literal meaning to make them more understand and interest to the material. (Authentic Assessment)
4. Close the meeting.
This procedure was modified from William‟s statement (1984:45) about
2.2.7 Advantages and Disadvantages of Using CTL
There are some advantages and disadvantages of using CTL in teaching learning process. They are:
1. The advantages of CTL
a) By relating the subject matter they have learnt to their real-life situation, they can apply it to their lives and know how that knowledge will be used.
b) Encourages the students to be more active and involve directly in teaching and learning activity.
c) This approach provokes the students to be more curious to the learning matter.
d) It builds up the students‟ cooperation to share their ideas to each other and realize the better result of learning in-group.
2. The disadvantages of CTL
a) Teacher cannot monitor the students‟ self-discovery if they work in one group with weak students.
b) The teaching learning process spends much time.
c) The students imitate what the teacher does. If the teacher does mistakes, they will do too.
2.3 Theoretical Assumption
Reading is one of the important skills, which is required by the students. Students are able to get a lot of information from the text they read and narrative text is chosen in this research. Based on the literature review, the researcher
assumed that CTL was expected able to improve the students‟ ability in
identifying the non-literal meaning of narrative text. This assumption was supported by the seven components that are involved in Contextual Teaching and Learning. CTL requires the learners to be actively involved in teaching learning process and construct their own understanding based on their previous knowledge. The students were expected to be able to get better in the understanding of text and the main components included.
Based on the theoretical assumption above, the researcher formulated the
hypothesis as follow: there is an improvement of students‟ ability in identifying
This chapter discusses some points dealing with research method, namely: research design, population and sample, data collecting technique, procedures of data collecting technique, scoring system, try out of the instrument, data analysis, and hypothesis testing. The points are classified as the followings.
In this research, the researcher intended to find out the significant
improving of students’ ability in identifying the non-literal meaning of narrative
text in the implementation of Contextual Teaching Learning approach. The researcher only took one class as experimental class, which got treatment through CTL. In this quantitative research, the researcher applied experiment design; one group pre-test and post-test design. The design of the research consisted of one pre-test and one post-test in order to know students’ achievement in reading comprehension and in understanding the non-literal meaning before and after using CTL (Hatch and Farhady, 1982:22). One group pre-test and post-test design is represented as follows:
T1 X T2Where:
T1 = Pre-test
The researcher provided a reading test in conducting the pre-test at the first meeting of the research. After that, she gave the post-test by the end of the treatment. The result of the pre-test was used to indicate the students’ previous knowledge and their reading comprehension and the researcher analyzed and compared the result of post-test to see the improvement of students’ reading comprehension through CTL.
3.2Population and Sample
The population of the research was the second grade of SMA Negeri 3 Bandar Lampung since they had learnt narrative text at the first semester. There were seven classes of the second grade. Each class consisted of about 30 students. By using lottery drawing, class XI IPS 3 was chosen as the experimental class. The materials were applied based on the curriculum.
3.3 Data Collecting Technique
To gain accurate data, the researcher employed an observation and tests (pre-test and post-test) as the instruments. In collecting the data, she used the following technique:
explain the situation being investigated; activities, person, or individuals involved in an activity and the relationship among them. In this research, an observer was involved to validate the data collected. The observer was Ferayani Ulrica who had also conducted a research about the implementation of CTL. The observer made sure that the activities in teaching learning process implied all the components of CTL.
The samples of the observation sheet are presented in table below:
Table1. Observation Sheet of Implementation of CTL Components during the Teaching Learning Process
The students are involved in learning process based on the previous knowledge.
The students construct their knowledge through real experience.
Students seek the truth, information or knowledge by themselves.
The teacher plans any activities and the students have a chance to do an observation.
Students make their own hypothesis Students make a conclusion
Teacher creates a situation that makes the students curious. Students ask more to their teacher or their classmates when they have curious
4 Learning Community
Students interact with one another in sharing the information/ideas that they get from the text.
Students who do not know ask the students who know.
Teacher acts as a model or source. Teacher involves students as the model.
Students imitate or learn from the source or model.
Teacher and students review and respond the activities and experiences they have done.
Recording what they have learnt, how they feel, and appeared new ideas.
7 Authentic Assessment
2. Pre test
The pre-test was administered before the treatments, in order to know the
students’ ability in identifying the non-literal meaning of narrative text
before getting the treatment. The pre-test was consisted of reading narrative texts with 20 items of multiple choices. The pre-test was conducted within 60 minutes. The materials of the test were based on the curriculum.
3. Post test
The post-test was administered to the students after the treatment was applied in order to find out the improvement of students’ reading
comprehension after being taught using Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL). The test consisted of reading texts with 20 items of multiple choices test. The post-test was conducted within 60 minutes.
3.4Procedures of Data Collecting Technique
In collecting the data, the researcher used the following procedures: 1. Determining the samples of the research
2. Determining the research instrument
The researcher took the materials for the reading test (pre-test and post-test) from some English book and internet.
3. Administering the try out
The try out was given to the students in order to know the quality of the test as the instrument of the research. The test was a multiple-choice test consisting of 30 items and conducted for 60 minutes. Try out test was conducted to know the Reliability, Level of difficulty, and Discrimination Power of the test. The result of the try out test would be analyzed in order to know which items are good to be used in the pre-test.
4. Administering the pre-test
This test was given to find out the students’ basic knowledge about the non
-literal meaning in reading narrative text. The good items that had been analyzed in tryout test were given in the pre-test. The researcher administered the pre-test before giving the treatments. The pre-test used a narrative text and 20 of multiple choices with each correct answer load 5 points.
5. Conducting the treatments
6. Administering the post-test
The post-test was given in the last meeting. The post-test was conducted to
measure the students’ ability in identifying the non-literal meaning of
narrative text after being taught contextual teaching and learning (CTL). The test was in form of reading and multiple choices test. The post-test was conducted in 60 minutes.
7. Analyzing the data
After collecting the data, the data gained was done. The data was computed through SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) 16.0 for Windows.
Based on Arikunto’s formula (1989:271), the researcher used the ideal test
highest score 100. The researcher calculated the average of the pre-test and post-test by using formula:
S= --- 100 N
S : Score of the test R : right answer N : total items
3.6Try out of the tests
The composition of the test items was presented in the table of specification below:
Table2. Table of Specification of Try-Out Test
No Objectives Items Number of Items Percentage
1 Metaphor 19, 21, 23, 24 4 13,3 %
2 Simile 4, 16, 28, 29 4 13,3 %
3 Hyperbole 17, 20, 22, 26 4 13,3 %
4 Metonymy 3, 7, 9, 18 4 13,3 %
5 Litotes 14, 15, 30 3 10 %
6 Personification 5, 8, 12, 13 4 13,3 %
7 Oxymoron 6, 25, 27 3 10 %
8 Irony 1, 2, 10, 11 4 13,3 %
Total 30 100%
Validity is the extent to which a test measures what is intended to measure. According to Hatch and Farhady (1982:251), there are four types of validity. They are face validity, content validity, construct validity and criterion-related validity. To measure whether the test has a good quality, the researcher used content validity and construct validity in this research. These two validities were illustrated as follow:
1. Content Validity
2. Construct Validity
Construct validity is concern with whether the test is actually in the line with the theory of what it means to know the language (Shohamy, 1985:74). Knowing the test is true reflection of the theory of non-literal meaning, the researcher would examine whether the test questions actually reflects the means of non-literal meaning or not. The test in this research consisted of eight types of non-literal meaning namely metaphor, simile, hyperbole, metonymy, litotes, personification, oxymoron and irony.
To support the validity of the data, the researcher involved an observer to validate the data collected. The observer was Ferayani Ulrica who also conducted a research about CTL. She made sure whether the teaching learning process used CTL and its seven components or not by using observation sheet (see Appendix 4). From the observation, it could be concluded that the data collected was valid.
The test items used in this research are reliable. The researcher measured the reliability of the test by applying Pearson product moment formula on the data. The formula is:
r : coefficient of reliability between odd number items x : total number of odd number items
y : total number of even number items
y2 : the square of even number items ∑x : total score of odd number items ∑y : total score of even number items
(Lado (1961) in Hughes, 1992:32)
The researcher also used Spearman Brown’s Prophecy formula to know the coefficient correlation of whole items of the test as follows:
2 rl Rk = ---
1 + rl Note:
Rk : the reliability of the test Rl : the reliability of half test The criteria of reliability are: 0.90-1.00 = high
0.50-0.89 = moderate 0.0 –0.49 = low
(Hatch and Farhady, 1982:246)
3.6.3 Level of Difficulty
The researcher used Shohamy’s formula (1985:79) to see the level of
difficulty of the test, as follows: R
LD = --- N Note:
LD : level of difficulty
R : the total number of students who answer correctly N : the total number of students
To see the discrimination power, the researcher used Shohamy’s (1985:82)
U : the proportion of upper students who answer correctly L : the proportion of lower students who answer correctly N : total number of students
According to Heaton (1975:182), the criteria are: 0.00-0.20 = poor
0.21-0.40 = satisfactory 0.41-0.70 = Good 0.71-1.00 = Excellent
- (negative) = bad items (should be omitted)
The data were analyzed in order to know whether there was a significant
improvement of the students’ ability in identifying the non-literal meaning of
there was only experimental class used in this research. To analyze the data, the
researcher scored the students’ pre-test and post-test. The scores were taken the
average to be the final score that would be analyzed statistically using Repeated Measured T-test. Then to draw a conclusion, the data that had been analyzed using
Repeated Measured T-test would be computed through SPSS 16.0 for Windows
with level of significant 0.05.
The hypothesis was statistically analyzed using Repeated Measured T-test at the significant level of 0.05 (p<0.05) in which hypothesis was approved if Sig<α. It means that the probability of error in the hypothesis is only about 5%.
The result of pretest and posttest in experimental class implied that CTL could
made significant improvement on the students’ ability in identifying non-literal
meaning of narrative text. It meant that H0 is accepted and H1 is rejected.
The researcher used Hatch and Farhady’s (1982: 116) formula as follow:
t = ---in which SD¯ =
1 = mean score of pre-test 2 = mean score if post-test
SD¯ = standard error of differences between two items
SD = Standard Deviation
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
This chapter discusses about the conclusions and suggestions based on the results and discussions of this research.
After conducting the research at SMAN 3 Bandar Lampung, the researcher concluded several points as follows:
1. There is a significant improvement of students’ ability in identifying non-literal meaning of narrative text after being taught through CTL at SMA Negeri 3 Bandar Lampung. It can be seen from the result of students’ pre -test and post--test in experimental class. The mean score of pre-test has increased from 57.78 up to 85.83 in the posttest and the gain is 28.05. It shows that the hypothesis is accepted (p<0.05, p=0.000). There is a significant increase of students’ achievement.
2. CTL can help the students to relate the material of non-literal meaning to their real-life. For example, when they get some non-literal sentences in a novel, they can understand the meaning of the sentences.
4. CTL encourages students’ curiosity to the learning matter and builds up
students’ cooperation to each other.
The researcher would like to propose several suggestions based on the conclusions as follows:
1. CTL can be implemented into reading class. It may give important
contribution to develop students’ reading comprehension, especially
students’ ability in identifying the non-literal meaning of narrative text.
CTL is able to help the teacher to relate the subject matter to real life situations.
2. In applying CTL and narrative text, the teacher should guide the students to make them easier to understand the meaning of the text.