IMPROVING STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN IDENTIFYING NONLITERAL MEANING OF NARRATIVE TEXT THROUGH CONTEXTUAL TEACHING LEARNING AT SECOND GRADE OF SMAN 3 BANDAR LAMPUNG

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ABSTRACT IMPROVING STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN IDENTIFYING NONLITERAL MEANING OF NARRATIVE TEXT THROUGH CONTEXTUAL TEACHING LEARNING AT SECOND GRADE OF SMAN 3 BANDAR LAMPUNG By JESY YUNITA FADMADI Narrative text is a story or part of story that describes a sequence of fictional or non-fictional events. In narrative text, the writer often writes in non-literal form to paint word pictures and allow the reader to see a point. Based on the researcher’s experience at second grade of SMAN 3 Bandar Lampung, it is found out that students still have difficulties in identifying the non-literal meaning in narrative text. Therefore, the researcher used CTL as the method in this research since it is a concept of teaching and learning that helps teachers to relate subject matter content to real world situations and motivate students to make connections between knowledge and its application to their daily lives. The process of studying underlying the implementation of CTL gives many chances for students to construct their mind and relate the material with their own life problems. The objective of this research is to find out whether there is an improvement of the students’ ability in identifying non-literal meaning of narrative text after being taught through CTL. The population of this research was the second grade of SMA Negeri 3 Bandar Lampung. There were seven classes of the second grade and each class consisted about 30 students. The researcher took class XI science 3 as the try-out class and XI social 3 as the experimental class. The study employed one group pretest and posttest design and the students were given three treatments. The researcher analyzed the data using repeated measure t-test. Based on calculation of t-test, the result shows that the total score of pretest increases from 2080 up to 3090 in the posttest. The mean score of pretest increases from 57.78 up to 85.83 in the posttest, and the gain score is 28.05. The result of t-test indicates that the significant (2-tailed) value is 0.000 (p<0.05, p=0.000). The result of hypothesis testing shows that t-ratio (18.449) is higher than t-table (2.042). It can be concluded that there is a significant increase of students’ ability in identifying non-literal meaning of narrative text after being taught through CTL. IMPROVING STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN IDENTIFYING NONLITERAL MEANING OF NARRATIVE TEXT THROUGH CONTEXTUAL TEACHING LEARNING AT SECOND GRADE OF SMAN 3 BANDAR LAMPUNG (A Script) By JESY YUNITA FADMADI LAMPUNG UNIVERSITY BANDAR LAMPUNG 2013 IMPROVING STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN IDENTIFYING NONLITERAL MEANING OF NARRATIVE TEXT THROUGH CONTEXTUAL TEACHING LEARNING AT SECOND GRADE OF SMAN 3 BANDAR LAMPUNG By JESY YUNITA FADMADI A Script Submitted in a Partial Fulfillment of The Requirements for S-1 Degree in The Language and Arts Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty LAMPUNG UNIVERSITY BANDAR LAMPUNG 2013 Research Title : IMPROVING STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN IDENTIFYING NONLITERAL MEANING OF NARRATIVE TEXT THROUGH CONTEXTUAL TEACHING LEARNING AT SECOND GRADE OF SMAN 3 BANDAR LAMPUNG Student’s Name : Jesy Yunita Fadmadi Student’s Number : 0913042055 Department : Language and Arts Education Program Study : English Department Faculty : Teacher Training and Education APPROVED BY Advisory Committee Advisor Co-Advisor Prof. Dr. Patuan Raja, M. Pd. NIP. 19620804 198905 1 001 Dra. Rosita Simbolon, M. A. NIP. 19480920 197503 2 001 The Chairperson of Language and Arts Education Department Dr. Muhammad Fuad, M. Hum. NIP. 19590722 198603 1 003 ADMITTED BY 1. Examination Committee Chairperson : Prof. Dr. Patuan Raja, M. Pd. .......................................... Examiner : Dr. Muhammad Sukirlan, M. A. .......................................... Secretary : Dra. Rosita Simbolon, M. A. .......................................... 2. The Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty Dr. H. Bujang Rahman, M. Si. NIP 19600315 198503 1 003 Graduated on: April 5th, 2013 CURRICULUM VITAE The writer’s name is Jessy Yunita Fatmadi. She was born in Bengkulu, June 7 th 1991. She is the first daughter of three siblings from a harmonious couple, Mulyadi and Desma Chairoma. She has a sister named Jeny Mulya Lestari and a brother named Abi Rahmat Fadilah. She entered TK Ade Irma Suryani Bengkulu in 1996. In the following year, she entered SDN 65 Bengkulu only one year. In 1998, she continued her study at SDN 9 Bengkulu until the third grade. In 2000, she continued her study at SDN 69 Bengkulu until the fifth grade. After that, in 2002, she left for Lampung and finished her last year in elementary school at SDN 2 Kupang Kota. After that, she entered SMPN 3 Bandar Lampung and graduated in 2006. Then, she continued her study at SMAN 3 and finished her high school in 2009. In the same year, she continued her study to Lampung University in English Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty through SNMPTN. She had been an English private teacher for a year when she was on the 4th and 5th semester. She taught students from every grade, they were kindergarten, elementary school, junior high school and senior high school. On July to September 2012, she carried out Teaching Training Program (PPL) at SMP Negeri 3 Way Jepara, East Lampung. DEDICATION I dedicate this script to: My beloved parents, Mulyadi and Desma Chairoma My beloved sister, Jeny Mulya Lestari and brother, Abi Rahmat Fadilah My dearest grandmothers, Cia Syamsiah and Fatimah My dearest grandfathers, Djaim and Nurhasan My Almamater, Lampung University MOTTO Stupidity is expecting different result by doing the same thing everyday (Einstein) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The writer would like to acknowledge to the Most Gracious and the Most Merciful, Allah S.W.T. for the countless bless and the best things she gets in her life and there is no doubt about it. Shalawat and Salam she offers to the Prophet Muhammad S.A.W., and his follower. Alhamdulillah, the researcher eventually completed her research paper entitled “Improving Students’ Ability In Identifying Non-literal Meaning of Narrative Text Through Contextual Teaching Learning at Second Grade of SMAN 3 Bandar Lampung” and presented to Department of Language and Arts of Teacher Training and Education Faculty in Lampung University as the partial fulfillment of the requirement in accomplishing the S-1 Degree. First of all, I would like to express my deepest and sincerest gratitude to my first advisor, Prof. Dr. Patuan Raja, M.Pd., and my second advisor, Dra. Rosita Simbolon, M.A., who had given their advisory, comments, and evaluations patiently during the completion of this script. Their guidance help me so much and support me to present the best script. I am grateful to the examiner of this script, Dr. Muhammad Sukirlan, M.A., who had given critics, suggestions and improvement to make this script becomes perfect. I am also grateful to Dra. Hj. Rospardewi, MM.Pd., as the Principal of SMA Negeri 3 Bandar Lampung, for giving permission for me to conduct my research. I would like to thank to the English teacher of SMA Negeri 3 Bandar Lampung, Drs. Edwar Hidayat, M.Pd. My thanks also go to the students of SMA Negeri 3 Bandar Lampung, especially for class XI Science 3 and XI social 3 for their willingness to participate in this research. Afterwards, I dedicate my deepest gratitude to my beloved parents, Mulyadi and Desma Chairoma, my brother, Abi Rahmat Fadilah, my sister, Jeny Mulya Lestari, and my big family, for their biggest support and prayers for my success. Special thanks and appreciations go to my best friends namely Bassma, Titi, Puput, Yenni, Cici, Maria, Winda, Iin, Renal, Potel, Indra, Agung, Eko, and Asep, my comrades in ED ’09 namely Imeh, Yusni, Fera, Resta, Dea, Desset, Jegeg, Arini, Tri, Depe, Chai, my boyfriend Roviko, and my seniors mbak Vita and mbak Meizi who had helped and supported me in completion this script. Bandar Lampung, April 2013 Jessy Yunita Fatmadi CONTENTS Page TITLE ABSTRACT ................................................................................................... i APPROVAL ................................................................................................... ii CURRICULUM VITAE ................................................................................ iv DEDICATION ............................................................................................... v MOTTO ......................................................................................................... vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................... vii CONTENTS .................................................................................................. viii TABLES ......................................................................................................... x APPENDICES................................................................................................ xi I. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background of Problem .................................................................... 1.2. Identification of Research Problem ................................................... 1.3. Limitation of Problem ...................................................................... 1.4. Formulation of Problem ................................................................... 1.5. Objective of the Research ................................................................. 1.6. Uses of the Research ........................................................................ 1.7. Scope of the Research ...................................................................... 1.8. Definition of Terms .......................................................................... II. 1 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Reviews of the Previous Research .................................................... 2.2. Reviews of Related Literature .......................................................... 2.2.1. Reading Comprehension ................................................................ 2.2.2. Non-literal Meaning . .................................................................... 2.2.3. Narrative Text ............................................................................... 2.2.4. Contextual Teaching Learning (CTL) ............................................ 2.2.5. Teaching Reading through CTL..................................................... 6 7 7 9 13 16 20 2.2.6. Procedure of Teaching Narrative Text through CTL ...................... 2.2.7. Advantages and Disadvantages of Using CTL ............................... 2.3. Theoretical Assumption .................................................................... 2.4. Hypothesis ...................................................................................... III. 21 23 24 24 METHOD 3.1. Research Design .............................................................................. 3.2. Population and Sample ................................................................... 3.3. Data Collecting Technique .............................................................. 3.4. Procedures of Data Collecting Technique ........................................ 3.5. Scoring System ............................................................................... 3.6. Try out of the Tests .......................................................................... 3.6.1. Validity ......................................................................................... 3.6.2. Reliability...................................................................................... 3.6.3. Level of Difficulty ......................................................................... 3.6.4. Discrimination Power .................................................................... 3.7. Data Analysis ................................................................................... 3.8. Hypothesis Testing ........................................................................... 25 26 26 28 30 30 31 32 34 34 34 35 IV. RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS 4.1. Result ............................................................................................... 4.1.1. Result of Tryout Test ..................................................................... 4.1.2. Result of Observation .................................................................... 4.1.3. Result of Pretest ............................................................................ 4.1.4. Result of Posttest ........................................................................... 4.1.5. Data Analysis ................................................................................ 4.1.6. Increase of Students’ Achievement ................................................ 4.1.7. Hypothesis Testing ........................................................................ 4.2. Discussion of the Findings................................................................ V. 36 37 38 39 39 41 42 43 44 CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 5.1. Conclusions ...................................................................................... 49 5.2. Suggestions ...................................................................................... 50 REFERENCES APPENDICES ix TABLES Table Page 1. Observation sheet of implementation of CTL components during teaching learning process ............................................................................. 2. Table of Specification of Try-Out Test ......................................................... 3. Distribution of the Students’ Score of the Pretest ......................................... 4. Distribution of the Students’ Score of the Posttest ........................................ 5. Table of Specification of Pretest and Posttest ............................................... 6. Increase of Students’ Pretest to Posttest ....................................................... 7. Analysis of Hypothesis ................................................................................ 27 31 39 40 40 42 43 APPENDICES Appendix Page 1. Lesson plan 1 ............................................................................................. 55 2. Lesson Plan 2 ............................................................................................. 59 3. Lesson Plan 3 ............................................................................................. 63 4. Teaching Observation Sheet ....................................................................... 66 5. Try-Out test ............................................................................................... 67 6. Pretest ........................................................................................................ 72 7. Posttest ...................................................................................................... 76 8. Try-out tabulation ...................................................................................... 80 9. Pretest and Posttest Tabulation ................................................................... 84 10. Reliabilty of the Try-out Items ................................................................... 88 11. Computation of Reliability of Try-out Items .............................................. 89 12. Level of Difficulty and Discrimination Power of Try Out test .................... 90 13. Results of Students’ Scores of Pretest......................................................... 91 14. Results of Students’ Scores of Posttest ....................................................... 92 15. Students’ Score of Pre-test and Post-test .................................................... 93 16. Table of Distribution of the Pre-test ........................................................... 94 17. Table of Distribution of the Post-test .......................................................... 95 18. Random Test of the Pre-test and the Post-test ............................................. 96 19. Normality Test of the Pre-test and the Post-test .......................................... 97 20. Homogeneity Test of the Pre-test and Post-test........................................... 98 21. Analysis of Hypothesis .............................................................................. 99 22. T-table ....................................................................................................... 100 23. F-table ....................................................................................................... 101 Result of pre-test and post-test of some students Surat keterangan penelitian I. INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses several points, namely introduction that deals with background of the problem, identification of research problem, limitation of the problem, formulation of the problem, objective of the research, uses of the research, scope of the research, and definition of terms. Classified like the followings. 1.1 Background of Problem According to School Based Curriculum, students are expected to be able to communicate both in spoken and in written form to solve their problems in daily live. To achieve the objective of teaching English at school, the improvement of students’ language skills are required. The language skills that the students need to master are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Reading is receptive skills which is very important for students to learn. The students are expected to be good at reading through which they are able to improve their knowledge. Besides that, students’ learning activity will be easy if their reading skill is good. Reading aloud initially helps the students regarding with several aspects, i.e. sounds of symbols, chunking and phrasing. But it may be inefficient reading habits, because they may not understand the meaning. According to Willis (1996:72), reading for meaning should become a priority. In 2 general, the main objective of the teaching reading skill is to make the students able to understand the meaning of the text. Furthermore, the English material is taught based on the text. There are some types of composition that should be learnt, one of them is narrative text. Students have been introduced with several types of stories, namely fables, myths, legends, folktales etc., since Elementary School. However, most students are still confused to get the meaning of the sentences. Without understanding the differences of literal and non-literal meaning in the narrative text, students are not able to find out what it really means. For example, the sentence “He can not give his hand to the victims” may be thought to have meaning as “He can not help the victims”. During pre-observation in the second grade of SMAN 3 Bandar Lampung, it was found that the students still have difficulties in identifying the non-literal meaning in narrative text. It could be seen from their daily score in reading. The average of their reading scores was 65, while the KKM was 70. When the teacher asked them to retell the story, they could not tell it well. They were wrong in interpreting some sentences containing metaphor. It is very important for the teacher to apply the best way to build the students awareness on the importance of understanding the meaning of the text they read in daily live. The teacher needs to apply the appropriate technique that improves not only students’ reading ability but also their knowledge and understanding of what they read. The teacher should improve her/ his ability in 3 selecting the material to improve students’ participation during teaching and learning process. In this research, the researcher used CTL (Contextual Teaching and Learning) as the method for teaching reading in the class, while narrative text as the media of CTL for developing students’ reading. According to Department of National Education (2002), CTL is a concept of learning which helps teacher relates the material being taught to the students’ real word and encourage the students to relate their knowledge in their daily lives. Therefore, the researcher expected CTL could help the students to know how to use their knowledge in real situation. 1.2 Identification of Research Problems Based on the background above, the researcher identified the problems on SMAN 3 Bandar Lampung as follows: 1. The students got difficulties in finding the true meaning of the whole text. 2. The students got difficulties in identifying the meaning of sentences in non-literal forms. 3. The students got difficulties in catching the points from the text. 4. The teachers used inappropriate technique in teaching English. 1.3 Limitation of Problem In line with the identification of the problems above, the researcher focused her study only on the students’ difficulties in identifying the non-literal meaning of narrative text. 4 1.4 Formulation of Problem In reference to the background, the problems could be formulated as follow: “Is there any improvement of the Second Grade of Senior High School students’ ability in identifying the non-literal meaning of narrative text taught through contextual teaching learning (CTL)?” 1.5 Objective of the Research The objective of the research was to find out whether there is improvement of the second year of Senior High School students’ ability in identifying nonliteral meaning of narrative text taught through contextual teaching learning (CTL). 1.6 Uses of the Research The results of this research could have the following uses: 1. Practically, the results of the research are expected to: • Give contribution for the English teacher to improve their performance in teaching narrative text reading. • Develop students’ ability in understanding the non-literal meaning of narrative text. • Give contribution to the English teacher about how the uses of CTL as a method in reading narrative text at senior high school. 2. Theoretically, the results of the research are expected to: • Support the previous theories dealing with the theories of Contextual Teaching Learning (CTL) and non-literal meaning. • Be used as the reference for the next similar research. 5 1.7 Scope of the Research This research was conducted at SMAN 3 Bandar Lampung. The subject of this research was second grade students of the school. The sample was randomly chosen, since the researcher decided that second grade classes have the same appropriate materials related to the issue of this research. This research focused on students’ activity in narrative text reading and the improvement of identifying non-literal meaning in the narrative text. The researcher used reading texts as teaching media of CTL to gain effective result. The texts were taken from students’ English textbooks, short story collection books, and internet. The improvement of students’ ability in identifying the non-literal meaning of narrative text was measured by a set of pre test and posttest in form of narrative text reading. 1.8 Definition of Terms • Non-literal meaning is the meaning of words, phrases, sentences etc. in some way other than the main or usual meaning, to suggest a picture in the mind or make a comparison by using the figures of speech and more poetic sense. • Narrative text deals with a problematic story that describes a sequence of fictional or non-fictional events to amuse or entertain the readers. • Contextual Teaching and Learning is teaching that enables the students to reinforce, expand and apply their academic knowledge and skills in a variety of in-school and out-of-school settings in order to solve simulated or real-world problems. II. LITERATURE REVIEWS In this chapter, the writer discussed the terms related to the study, i.e. reviews of the previous research, review of related literature, theoretical assumption and hypothesis. 2.1 Reviews of the Previous Research In this section, the researcher presented some reviews of previous research dealing with Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL). Sabriani (2011) has conducted a research dealing with the implementation of CTL in increasing students reading comprehension by using narrative text. The result of her study confirms that CTL is applicable to improve students reading comprehension. Umran (2012) has conducted a quantitative research about the implementation of CTL in students‟ reading hortatory text. The study focused on how the teacher taught in the classroom and how he implemented all elements underlying CTL in teaching hortatory exposition. The findings of the research showed that the teacher and the students implement the whole seven elements of CTL well except in one aspect. In addition, Gustiawan (2011) has conducted a research about the implementation of Contextual Teaching and Learning approach in students‟ narrative text writing. The research was conducted at the second year of SMAN 9 7 Bandar Lampung. The result of the research showed that CTL could significantly improve students‟ narrative text writing. From the review of preview research above, the researcher concluded that CTL was applicable in this research. The seven components of CTL could be implied to improve students‟ ability in identifying non literal meaning of narrative text. 2.2 Review of Related Literature 2.2.1 Reading Comprehension Reading is one of the major language skills which are distinctive characteristic from others. This is one facet of education that helps the individual attain full development of his potentials. The value of reading cannot be underestimated. According to Harris and Sipay (1980:9), reading may be defined as the act of responding with appropriate meaning to print or written verbal symbols. In line with this idea, Callahan and Clark (1982:260) assert that reading is an active process in which people attempt to extract ideas, concepts, thoughts, or images from the pattern of words set forth on the printed pages. Reading is a receptive skill that involves active participation on the part of the reader. It is a means of language acquisition, of communication, and of sharing information and ideas. Villamin (1984: 3) defines reading as the key that unlocks the door to the world of enlightenment and enjoyment. She also notes that in our daily lives, 80 % of the things we do involve reading, such a task as filling out an order form, application form, enrolment form, etc. already calls for the use of reading skills. 8 Stuffer in Petty and Jensen (1980:207) also states: 1. Reading is a complex process. 2. Reading means to get information from printed page. 3. Reading is the ability to pronounce and comprehend the printed works. 4. Reading is interpreting sign, letters, symbols, by assigning meaning to them. 5. Reading is receiving ideas and impression from an author via the printed page. Reading has a very important place in learning English as a foreign language. By reading books in English, students can study more about the components for language such as new vocabularies, pronunciation, and sentence structure of English texts. The first point to be made about the reading process is reading comprehension (Simanjuntak, 1984:4). It is also stated by Dallman (1982) who says that reading is more than knowing what each letter of alphabet stands for; reading involves more than words recognition, and comprehension is an essential of reading that without comprehension, no reading takes place. Richard (1986) defines comprehension as the process by which the person understands the meaning of the written or spoken language. Comprehension is the process of making sense of words, sentences and connected text. Good readers are aware of how well they understand a text while reading, and also actively overcome difficulties in comprehension. According to Smith (1982), reading certainly implies comprehension – as when we ask if someone is enjoying reading a book and sometimes it does not – as when they reply that they have been reading a book for two hours and scarcely understood a word. He also states that comprehension in reading as a matter of 9 “making sense” of text, of relating written language to what we know already and to what we want to know. Comprehension can be regarded as a condition where no uncertainty exists. There are five aspects that help the students comprehend English texts well, they are main idea, specific information, reference, inference and vocabulary. 2.2.2 Non-literal Meaning According to Palmer (1976:6), linguistics is the scientific study of language. Linguistics has important role to component of language that include sound, the arrangement of word and meaning. Semantics as the technical term to refer to the study of meaning is a part of linguistics, since meaning is a part of language. Unfortunately, meaning covers a variety of aspect language, and there is no general agreement about the nature of meaning, what aspect of it may properly be included in semantics, or the way in which it should be describe (Palmer, 1976:1). Linguistic expressions are divided into two classes: literal and non-literal (figurative). Literal means based on the real or meaning of the utterance. It is thought to use the true meanings of words that denote what it really means. We can find literal meaning in the dictionary. For example, “He is a lazy student”. The meaning of the sentence is clear to understand. People write literally to make the readers get the points and will not be misunderstanding of the true meaning. On the other hand, writer or speaker does not always write or speak literally or means what the words true mean. When the writer writes non-literally or means something different from what the words 10 mean, it is called non-literal meaning. Non-literal meaning paints word pictures and allows us to „see‟ a point. Leech (1981) explained types of non-literal meaning as follow: 1. Metaphor Metaphors are kind of figurative expression by which a comparison is made between two things by identifying one with other. Metaphors are ways to describe something. Authors use them to make their writing more interesting or entertaining. For example: Life is a barren field. 2. Simile Similes are comparisons that show how two things that are not alike in most ways are similar in one important way. Similes are a way to describe something. Similes use the words “as” or “like” to make the connection between the two things that are being compared. For example: His temper was as explosive as a volcano. The sentence means his temper is being compared to a volcano in that, it can be sudden and violent. 3. Hyperbole Hyperbole is a figure of speech in which statements are exaggerated. It may be used to evoke strong feelings or to create a strong impression, but is rarely meant to be taken literally. For example: I could sleep for a year. The speaker does not mean to sleep for a year. He wants to sleep longer as he can. Again, he just wants to exaggerate his truth meaning. 11 4. Metonymy Metonymy is a figure of speech characterized by the use of the name of one thing in place of the name of something that is symbolizes. For example: They want to go to the white house. White is focus here, when the speaker says about White House, it refers to America. It does not mean I want to go to the house whose paint is white. 5. Litotes Litotes is an understatement in which an affirmation is expressed by the negative of its contrary. For example: Please come to my hut. The focus is my hut, as we know hut is very simple. Nevertheless, in this situation hut is not the hut but actually, he has a big house. He does not want to tell the hearer the truth. 6. Personification Personification is the treating of an abstract quality of thing as if it had human qualities. For example: The leaves danced when the wind blew. The sentence is not means leaves dance, but the effect of the wind when it blows make the leaves as if they danced. The speaker means the leaves sway, because the word dance only addressed to human not a thing. 7. Oxymoron Oxymoron is figure of speech in which apparently contradictory terms are combined to produce an epigrammatic effect. For example: Revenge is a kind of world justice. 12 When we hear about the word „justice‟ that means nobody is damaged or loss. Everybody is sincere in accepting the decision, but here justice is wild. Therefore, it is contradictory. The speaker means revenge is the only way to get success justice not through the law. 8. Irony Irony is the quality of an event or situation which is the opposite of what it is promised, expected, etc. and which therefore seems to mock ones expectation. For example: Your room is so tidy, I better sleep outside. From the sentence it is not mean the room so tidy but the room very dirty, even the speaker chooses to sleep outside than sleep in the room. We often find so many literary works contain non-literal meaning such as novel, prose, poem, or narrative texts. It is effective to use non-literal meaning in a literary works to beautify the language, make it sounds elegant, and give the magnificent word to attract the readers or audience. Gibbs (1984: 287) states that literal language has no priority over nonliteral language: Processing non-literal 1anguage does not necessitate processing the surface literal meaning first. Rather, non-literal meaning is processed directly, without the interference of the surface literal meaning. Understanding literal and non-literal language involves precisely the same complex comprehension processes and contextual information (Glucksberg et al., 1982). It is useful to identify the non-literary meaning in literary work, because there are a lot of people still confuse with the meaning in the sentences. People with no understanding about non-literal meaning will get difficult to discuss with 13 people who has. Therefore, the researcher hopes this research may help them to keep communication with the others especially to understand non-literal meaning. In this research, the researcher talked about the using of non-literal meaning in narrative texts. The researcher got some reasons why she was interested in the topic above. Understanding the meaning of each word, each phrase and each sentence in the texts is important to make the students get the point of the texts. In this case, it is needed by the students to understand first the non-literal meaning of narrative texts. While, most students were still get difficulties in identifying the non-literal meaning of narrative texts they had read. 2.2.3 Narrative Text A narrative text is a story that describes a sequence of fictional or non- fictional events in which one character or more face certain situation. According to Larson (1984:366), narrative text is an account of event, which is written mainly for entertainment. It means that narrative text is one that contains a series of events. Labov (1972) also assumes all narratives are stories about a specific past event, and they have common properties. Those, which not only entertain but also instruct are highly valued. The story can be fiction or non-fiction. Narrative deals with problematic events, which lead to a crisis or turning point of some kind, which in turn finds a resolution. The basic purposes of narrative text are to entertain, to hold the reader‟s interest, and deal with actual or vicarious experience in different ways. 14 Derewianka (1990) states that a “narrative” is a story or part of story. It may be spoken, written or imagined, and it will have one or more points of view representing some or all of the participants or observers. Narratives sequence people/characters in time and place but differ from recounts in that through the sequencing, the stories set up one or more problems, which must eventually find a way to be resolved. Narrative text is based on life experience and is person-oriented using dialogue and familiar language. There are some genres of narrative text: 1. Folktales, i.e., very old traditional story from a particular place that was originally passed on to people in a spoken form, e.g., Aladin. 2. Wonder tales, i.e., a story tells about something amazing, human‟s imagination, e.g., Snow White. 3. Fables, i.e., traditional short stories that teach moral lesson, especially one with animals as characters; these stories are considered as one group of animal stories, e.g., The Bear and Rabbit. 4. Legend, i.e., a story from ancient times about people and events that may or not be true, e.g., Nyi Roro Kidul. 5. Myth, i.e., a story from ancient times, especially one that was told to explain about natural events or to describe the early history of a place or people, e.g., The Legend of Toba Lake. 6. Mystery, i.e., a story about something that is difficult to understand or to explain which crimes and strange events are only explained at the end, e.g., Sherlock Holmes. 15 7. Science fiction, i.e., a story that science-oriented. It is not really happened in real life, e.g., Time Machine. 8. Fantasy, i.e., a story about a pleasant situation that people imagine but it is unlikely to happen, e.g., Percy Jackson. 9. Historical fiction, i.e., a story about people and events that is in or connected to the past, e.g., Bumi Manusia. From these nine genres of narrative text, the researcher will only use five genres; they are folktales, wonder tales, fables, legend and myth. The common structure or basic plan of narrative text is known as the Story Grammar. The typical elements are: 1) setting: when and where the story occurs. 2) Characters, the most important people or players in the story. 3) Initiating event: an action or occurrence that establishes a problem and/or goal. 4) conflict/goal: the focal point around which the whole story is organized. 5) Events: one or more attempts by the main character(s) to achieve the goal or solve the problem. 6) Resolution: the outcome of the attempts to achieve the goal or solve the problem. 7) Theme: the main idea or moral of the story. The graphic representation of these story grammar elements is called a story map. The exact form and complexity of a map depends upon the unique structure of each narrative and the personal preference of the teacher constructing the map. In narrative text, there are certain characteristics, namely: a) The generic structure of narrative text is focused on a series of actions: 1. Orientation refers to an introduction in which the characters, problem, setting and time of the story are established. 16 2. Complication denotes a crisis arises. It comprises initiating event, subsequent events and climax aspects when the main character faces the problems. 3. Resolution shows that the crises are resolved. In this part, the character does the act of solving or settling the problem for better or worse. b) Social functions/ communicative approaches of narrative text are: 1. To entertain or amuse the readers. 2. To deal with actual/ various experiences in different ways. c) Language features: 1. Use of past tense. 2. Use of temporal conjunction (time sequence/ chronological order) and temporal circumstances (time conjunction/ adverbial clause). 3. Use of the material process (action verbs). 4. Focus on specific or individual participants. 5. Use of relational and mental processes. 6. Use of behavioral and verbal processes. 7. Use of direct and indirect speech. 2.2.4 Contextual Teaching Learning (CTL) Contextual teaching and learning is a method of learning that appears because of the tendency that students will learn better if the environment can be created naturally (Department of National Education/Depdiknas 2002). It is a conception of teaching and learning that helps teachers relate subject matter 17 content to real world situations and motivate students to make connections between knowledge and its application to their lives as family members, citizens, and workers and engage in a hard work that learning requires (Bern and Erickson, 2001). Johnson (2002) defines contextual teaching learning is teaching that enables students to reinforce, expand and apply their academic knowledge and skills in a variety in-school and out-of school settings in order to solve simulated or real-world problems. This assumption clarifies that the knowledge on the material that the students got before could be reinforced in contextual teaching since the process of studying underlying the implementation of CTL gives many chances for students to construct their mind and relate the material with their own life. According to Legawa (2004), contextual teaching and learning is a learning process that involved learner-centered and learning in context. The context here means the condition that influences the students‟ lives in learning. The students‟ will learn well by studying the material that related to students‟ real world and experiences. It makes the students aware of the benefits of their learning and be interested of the material. According to Depdiknas (2002), CTL has seven components, they are: 1. Constructivism Learners build their knowledge themselves since the knowledge is not a fact or concept of rules that come accidentally. They build the knowledge continuously and the product of learning is generalized through limited context. The learners should construct it through real experience. 18 Knowledge grows with exposure and the understanding becomes deeper and stronger if learners are involved in learning process based on the previous knowledge. 2. Inquiry Inquiry is the basic part of CTL. The learners seek the truth, information or knowledge not from memorizing, but finding by themselves. The teachers plan any activities and the learners have a chance to do an observation. They get some questions and then make their own hypothesis. Based on the observation, they will make a conclusion. 3. Questioning In CTL, the questioning should not be dominated by the teacher. Students are the center and the teacher should create the situation that makes the students curious. Questioning can be implemented between learner to learner, learners to teacher, and so on. Students will ask more to their teacher or their classmates if they have curious. The situation will make the teaching-learning process alive and motivate students in learning. 4. Learning community The concept of learning community is that learning in group will give better result than learning alone. The result of teaching and learning is gained in students group-working. The product of learning is gained of sharing between friends. Students will interact with one another in sharing the information/ideas that they get from the text, or the students who do not know will ask the students who know. Cooperative is encouraged here. 19 5. Modeling In (CTL), giving example helps the students to understand the materials faster. But the teacher is not the only one who is responsible in giving the modeling. Model can be organized by involving students. 6. Reflection Self assessment (self reflection) can be introspective where the students are asked to reflect back on their foreign language experience and rate themselves against some kind of scale. Reflection is a way of thinking about what students have learnt. Teacher and students review and respond the activities and experiences they have done. They also record what they have learnt, how they feel, and appeared new ideas. 7. Authentic assessment In this process the teacher collect the data to get information about the students‟ development in learning. It is used to describe students‟ real competency to the subject matter. The aim of authentic assessment is to provide valid information about the students‟ progress and evaluate the students‟ activities in a real world context. Authentic assessment can be described as the result of students learning and motivation. It motivates students to be able to use their knowledge achievement in a real life. Assessment places the need of students at the center of teacher‟s planning. Using Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL), the researcher expected to help the students succeed in identifying the non-literal meaning of narrative text and relate the material to their real-lives situation. 20 2.2.5 Teaching Reading through CTL Teaching means giving instruction or a knowledge skill to a person or people, and teaching reading means giving instruction or a skill in reading written language. The purpose of teaching reading is to help students find out the information they want quickly besides to show the students that understanding just a few words is often sufficient to get the message. According to Salomon (1985:55), teaching reading skills can be divided into: skimming, scanning, on going prediction, reading for the main ideas and reading in detail. William (1984:45) states that there are three-phase approaches to teach reading in the classroom. They are pre-reading phase, while-reading phase and post-reading phase. A pre-reading phase is anything teachers do in class before students begin to read the selection and can affect comprehension. The writer gives the students the preparatory activity, such as brainstorming. The while-reading phase or during-reading activity draws the students on text and involves them in the thinking process. The activities here will help the learners understand the writer‟s purpose, the text structure, and the context. The activities in the post-reading phase encourage learners to make use of acquired information to express their opinion and form ideas. Ideally, post-reading work should contribute to the writing, speaking, and listening skills. Students‟ activities can be varied such as writing, drawing, interviews and discussion research. Teaching reading through Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) is the way teacher teaches the students how to read by using simulated situation and 21 environment. In this regard, Dougill and Jones (1987) agree that CTL is “mirror real life” and “reality of function in a simulated and structured environment”. CTL is not real life; it is only a type of simulating real life in a simulated environment. 2.2.6 Procedure of Teaching Narrative Text through CTL Modified from William‟s statement (1984:45), teaching narrative text through CTL is divided into three stages, they are: 1. Pre-reading Pre-reading is used to prepare students for the reading material. In this part, the teacher and students do some elements as follow: 1. Students greet the teacher to open the class. 2. Activate students‟ background knowledge of the topic. (Constructivism) 3. Do the constructivism to make it easy for students to inquire the main point of the text in the next step. (Constructivism) 4. Clarify any cultural information that may be necessary to comprehend the passage. (Inquiry) 2. While-reading 1. Teacher asks the students to read the text to check whether their prediction of schemata is correct or not. (Inquiry) 2. The students will get the information they are looking for when they are reading for the specific information. (Inquiry) 3. After the inquiry process happens, the teacher will highlight some sentences in the text and ask the students to tell about the meaning of the sentences. (Questioning) 22 4. Teacher gives some example from the text. Since the modeling is not only done by the teacher, the teacher also asks the students to find certain sentences with ambiguous meaning. (Modeling) 5. The students make a group and discuss the exercise that is given by their teacher. (Learning Community) 6. The teacher asks the students to find out the non-literal phrases/ sentences in the text, and discuss the meaning of the phrases/ sentences. (Learning Community) 7. The teacher and students reflect their understanding of the material they have learnt. (Reflection) 3. Post-reading 1. Do evaluation of the students' comprehension and difficulty during the learning process. (Reflection) 2. Make conclusion of what they have learnt. (Reflection) 3. Give homework for students to make some examples of sentences with non-literal meaning to make them more understand and interest to the material. (Authentic Assessment) 4. Close the meeting. This procedure was modified from William‟s statement (1984:45) about teaching reading in classroom. The researcher modified it by implementing the seven components of CTL in the activities. The use of this procedure was to help the teacher to manage the teaching learning process, so the activities in classroom kept on implementing all components of CTL. 23 2.2.7 Advantages and Disadvantages of Using CTL There are some advantages and disadvantages of using CTL in teaching learning process. They are: 1. The advantages of CTL a) By relating the subject matter they have learnt to their real-life situation, they can apply it to their lives and know how that knowledge will be used. b) Encourages the students to be more active and involve directly in teaching and learning activity. c) This approach provokes the students to be more curious to the learning matter. d) It builds up the students‟ cooperation to share their ideas to each other and realize the better result of learning in-group. 2. The disadvantages of CTL a) Teacher cannot monitor the students‟ self-discovery if they work in one group with weak students. b) The teaching learning process spends much time. c) The students imitate what the teacher does. If the teacher does mistakes, they will do too. Every method has advantages and disadvantages. Finally, the teacher will find CTL relatively effective to teach a language as means of communication. 24 2.3 Theoretical Assumption Reading is one of the important skill

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