A STUDY ON COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES USED BY THE ENGLISH TEACHERS FOR
SEVENTH GRADERS AT SMPN 3 BATU
This Thesis is Submitted to One of the Requirements to Achieve Sarjana Degree in English Education
By: Kevin Al Mahdi 201210100311204
FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG
All praises be to The Almighty Allah SWT for all blessings and love so that I am able
to finish this thesis. Peace and greetings always be presented to our Great Prophet
“Muhammad SAW” the noble person who leads us from the fatuity of darkness into lightness
faith and knowledge. My earnest love and gratitude is the extended to my beloved mother Hj.
Mirwana Yuniarti, for her endless love, prayers, precious support, and motivations.
The most acknowledgements go to my super kind and smart advisors, Riski Lestiono,
S.Pd., M.A. and Nina Inayati, S.Pd., M.Ed. who have meticulously and patiently helped me
in improving and finishing my thesis.
Furthermore, I would like to thank Drs. H. Djihad, M.KPd, the principal of SMPN 3
Batu for giving me chance to conduct my study. I would also love to thank Yayang Rinastalia
M, S.Pd and Ulfiyah, S.Pd as the English Teachers of grade 7 for helping me much during the
research. To all teachers of SMPN 3 Batu, I would also present my gratitude for being kind
and nice during my research there.
I would also like to express my big gratitude to my besties who color my life during
my study at University of Muhammadiyah Malang, Lisna Fitriyani, Wardiman Abdullah,
Salwa Balbeid, Hanan Almirah, Gagas Arisandi, Putri Rahmawati, Ambika Putri Perdani, and
Miftahul Hamim S.Pd. Thanks for all support, help, and time for me to share all things related
to this thesis. All of my friends that cannot be mentioned here, I know you all gave support to
Finally, from the deepest part of my heart, I would like to say thank you very much to
my brother Captain Tek Alem Safiero, S.T. and my sister Ritche Adriana Agustina S.Pd. for
the biggest help, support, love and a lot of moments that make me so blessed. I love you my
brother and sister, you teach me how to be more patient and thankful.
Malang April 26, 2016
MOTTO AND DEDICATION
“EMBRACE YOUR DREAMS AND
WHATEVER HAPPENS, PROTECT YOUR HONOR” (FINAL FANTASY VII-CRISIS CORE)
This Thesis is dedicated to:
• My beloved mom, brother, and sister, who raised me when I am fallen.
• My advisors who encourage me to involve in the experiences of learning life.
• My friends, who support me to keep moving through hopeless condition.
• At the current position I stand for, I gratefully thanks for your existences in giving me
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ... vi
MOTTO AND DEDICATION……… viii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ... ix
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study ……… 1
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 Teaching English for Junior High School………. 7
2.1.1 2013 Curriculum……… 8
2.1.2 English Teachers’ Role……….. 9
188.8.131.52 Information Gatherer……….. 9
184.108.40.206 Decision-Maker……….. 9
220.127.116.11 Motivator……… 9
18.104.22.168 Facilitator of Group Dynamics…... 10
22.214.171.124 Provider of Opportunities for Communicative and authentic language use……….. 10
126.96.36.199 Counsellor………. 11
188.8.131.52 Promoter of a multicultural Perspective……… 11
2.1.3 Materials………... 11
2.2 Strategies……… 12
2.3 Communication Strategies ………. 13
2.4 Kinds of Communication Strategies………... 14
2.4.1 Language Switch……… 15
2.4.2 Asking for Clarification………. 16
2.4.3 Comprehension Check……… 16
2.4.4 Asking for Confirmation………. 17
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Design……… 18
3.2 Research Subject ……….. 19
3.3.1 Interview……… 20
184.108.40.206 Structured Interview……….. 20
220.127.116.11 Unstructured Interview………….. 20
18.104.22.168 Non-Directive Interview………… 21
22.214.171.124 Focus Interview………. 21
3.3.2 Observation Checklist and Field Notes…. 22 126.96.36.199 Participants Observation………… 22
188.8.131.52 Unobtrusive Observation………... 23
3.4 Procedure of Data Collection………. 24
3.5 Data Analysis………. 25
CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Research Findings……….. 26
4.1.1 Communication Strategies Applied by English Teachers in Classroom Activity……….. 26
184.108.40.206 Language Switch………. 27
220.127.116.11 Asking for Clarification………….. 27
18.104.22.168 Comprehension Check………. 28
22.214.171.124 Asking for Confirmation………….. 28
4.1.2 The Difficulty of Using Communication Strategies……….. 29
4.1.3 The Ways The Teachers Coped with the Problem in Applying Communication Strategies………... 30
126.96.36.199 Repetition……….. 30
188.8.131.52 Dictionary……….. 30
4.2 Discussion………. 31
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 5.1 Conclusions ……… 35
5.2 Suggestions ……… 36
5.2.1 Suggestions for the English Teacher ……. 36
5.2.2 Suggestions for the Further Researcher(s) ………. 36
Annum, G. (2015). Research Instrument for Data Collection. Portland: Educadium.
Ary, D. (2010). Introduction to Research in Education. Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Brown, D. (2000). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching Fourth Edition. New York: Pearson Education.
Cervantes,et al. (2012). The Use of Communication Strategies in the Beginner EFL Classroom. Gist Education and Learning Research Journal., 6, 111-128.
Cohen, A. D. (2004). Relevence Theory, Action Theory and Second Language Communication Strategies. Second Language Research, 20(3), 289-302.
Creswell, J. (2012). Educational Research Planning,Conduction, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. Boston: Pearson Education.
Centers for Disease and Control. (2008). Data Collection Methods for Program Evaluation: Obseravtion. Georgia: ETA Evaluations.
Dornyei, Z. (1997). Communication Strategies in a Second Language: Definitions and Taxonomies. Language Learning, 47(1), 173-210.
Driscoll, D. L. (2011). Introduction to Primary Research: Observations, Surveys, and Interviews. Primary Research: Definitions and Overview, 2, 152-174.
Effendi, J. (2009). English Communication Strategies Used by English Club Participants at PT Semen Padang. Padang: Andalas University.
Gullberg, M. (2001). Gesture as Communication Strategy in Second Language Discourse. Malmö: Lund University Press.
Herrel, A. (2012). 50 Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners. Boston: Pearson.
Kemendikbud. (2013). Kerangka Dasar dan Struktur Kurikulum 2013. Jakarta: Kementrian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.
Kemendikbud. (2014). When English Rings a Bell. Jakarta: Kementrian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.
Kojima, H. (2005). Teacher Roles in Learner-Centered Communicative EFL Instruction. 弘前大学教育学部紀要(94), 59-72.
Loehr, D. (2004). Gesture and Intonation. Washington DC: George Town.
MacMillan, J. (1996). Educational Research Fundamentals for the Consumer Second Edition. New York: HarperCollins CollegePublishers.
Murphy, G. (2011). Communication Strategy a Best Practice Guide to Developing Communications Campaigns. London: ISBA.
Nickols, F. (2012). Strategy Definitions and Meanings. Ohio: Distance Consulting LLC.
Oppong, A. (2014). COMMUNICATION IN THE WORKPLACE: GUIDELINES FOR IMPROVING EFFECTIVENESS. Global Journal of Commerce and Management Perspective, 3(5), 208-213.
Oyarzo, A. S. (2008). Realia and Vocabulary Learning among Young Learners. Chili: Universidad Magallanes Chile.
Rajasekar, S. (2006). RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. Los Alamos: Arvix org.
Richmond, et al. (2009). Communication, Affect, and Learning in Classroom. San Fransisco: Burgess Publishing.
Rodriguez, C. (2012). The Use of Communication Strategies in the Beginner EFL Classroom. Gist Education and Learning Research Journal.(6), 111-128.
Sivasubramaniyan, P. (2012). Research Methodology. Madalavarigudem: Limat Organization.
Utah State University. (2008). USU Inductive and Deductive Reasoning. Retrieved 12 25, 2015, from USU eduCommons: http://ocw.usu.edu/English/introduction-to-writing-academic-prose/inductive-and-deductive-reasoning.html
Wei, L. (2011). Communicative Strategies in Second Language Acquisition. Kristianstad: English Didactics.
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
This chapter is presented to introduce the background of study, the
statement of the problems, the purposes of the study, the significance of the study,
scope and limitation, and the definition of key terms.
1.1Background of Study
Nowadays learning English is very essential and important for all people in
the world. Currently, more and more people use English language in their daily life,
even people who come from non-English speaking backgrounds. It is common if
there are non-English speaking people who can speak English so fluently. This is
also one of the effects of globalization. Therefore, mastering English as a second
language is believed to open a lot of opportunities such as it would help in looking
for a job and getting more knowledge and experiences by mastering the language.
In Indonesia, English becomes a required subject starting from Junior High
School until college. Based on 2013 Competence Based Curriculum, the objective
of English subject is to improve the ability in listening, reading, and also
communicative competence both in speaking and writing. One of those skill aspects
which is very important in producing critical thinking, and creativity is speaking
skill. By mastering speaking skill, students will be able to express their thought
In order to transfer the knowledge to their students, teachers must become
effective communicators. According to Richmond et al (2009, p.1) in their book:
Effective teachers are effective communicators who understand communication and learning, are interdependent, and the knowledge and attitudes students take with them from the classroom are selectively drawn from a complex assortment of verbal and nonverbal messages about the subject, the teacher, and themselves.
It can be concluded that in teaching learning process, communication
becomes one important thing to have by teachers when they want to present the
materials to the students. One of the problems that makes students cannot
understand the material that is delivered by teacher is a gap between the linguistic
knowledge of the second-language learners and the linguistic knowledge of their
interlocutor in real communication situations. This condition makes the student
confused and cannot apply the material delivered from English teachers. Teachers
should have some techniques and strategies to achieve better communication for
student’s understanding. Teachers must be responsible for choosing the appropriate
strategies to reach teaching goal. To solve the problem, teachers use communication
strategies. According to Cervantes et al (2012), communication strategies can solve
the problem between linguistic knowledge of second language learner and linguistic
knowledge of their interlocutor in daily communication circumstances.
A study conducted by Cervantes et al (2012) about communication strategy
used by English teachers in teaching English to their students in EFL classroom
found that the English teacher in EFL classroom used fourteen strategies, such as:
language switch, comprehension check, repetition, asking confirmation,
paraphrase, clarification request, meaning replacement, other reformulation (model
restricting, generalization, approximation, and mime. The four dominant strategies
used by English teacher in EFL classroom were language switch, comprehension
check, asking confirmation, and clarification request. The purposes of the teachers
to use communication strategies in EFL were: to make the students more attractive,
to give clear information about the lesson, to make teaching learning process run
well, to make the communication between student and teacher or student and
student can run smoothly, and to get students’ response.
A study conducted by Effendi (2009) about communication strategy that
was used by English Club at PT Semen Padang showed that the participants used
eight strategies, such as: avoidance, appeal to authority, personality style, language
switch, repetition, paraphrase, self-correcting, and asking confirmation. The
purposes of the participants in using communication strategy in English Club at PT
Semen Padang are to solve their problems in communication that were caused by
limited vocabulary and the grammar which have been learned. The most dominant
strategy in this study is language switch because the motivator and participant have
the same first language (L1), so the material could be understood by the participant.
Based from Effendi’s studies, the writer learnt that by using communication
strategies it can solved the problem in communication that were caused by limited
vocabulary and the grammar.
Correlated to communication strategies directly above, the writer was
interested in conducting this study with similar discussion but in different field of
research. That is ‘A Study on Communication Strategies used by the English
the strategies which are used by the English teachers in implementing 2013
curriculum in teaching English. 2013 curriculum is an integrated effort between
reconstruction competences of graduates, with suitability and adequacy, the breadth
and depth of the material, learning revolution and appraisal reform (Kemendikbud,
2013). This study was conducted in SMPN 3 Batu. Based on the preliminary study,
this school is one of the schools which has good criteria in the quality and quantity
at the city level, as evidenced by the achievements both academic and non-academic
achievement. Also English teachers in SMPN 3 Batu use communication strategies
in English teaching. They were used to build an effective English teaching and
learning and keep communication between learners and interlocutors open. Thus,
English teaching and learning could maximally be successful. That is why the
writer is interested in this case. The aims of this study are to gain more information
about the strategies used in English teaching and to improve the English teaching
outcome. Therefore, SMPN 3 Batu teachers can make English class more attractive
and interesting by using communication strategies because English is an important
language that should mastered by everyone in this era. Besides, it is expected that
this study would be a starting point for other researchers especially for English
Department students of UMM to conduct further researchof the same aspect of
1.2Statement of the Problems
Based on the background of the study above, the questions that have to be
1. How do English teachers apply the “communication strategies” for
seventh graders at SMPN 3 Batu?
2. What are the difficulties in using the communication strategies used by
English teachers for seventh graders at SMPN 3 Batu?
3. How do the teachers cope with the problems in applying communication
strategies used by English teachers for seventh graders at SMPN 3 Batu?
1.3Purpose of Study
The purposes of this study are:
1. To explain how the English teachers apply the communication strategies
for seventh graders at SMPN 3 Batu.
2. To find out the difficulties in using communication strategies used by
English teachers for seventh graders at SMPN 3 Batu.
3. To find out the ways the teachers coped with the problems in applying
communication strategies used by English teachers for seventh graders
at SMPN 3 Batu.
1.4Significance of the Study
The result of this study is expected to provide useful information for the
school especially for the teachers, the students, and also other researchers.
Practically, for the English teacher, the result of the study can provide important
understandings by the students. If the result of the study indicates the success
of the English teaching and learning process using this strategy, it is good to
apply this strategy in order to improve the quality of students’ understanding.
Then, if the result does not make any significant effect in the teaching and
learning process, other alternative strategies can be used.
For other researchers, the finding of this study can be useful since it can be
used as recent data and valuable source to conduct further research of the same
aspect of study.
1.5Scope and Limitation
The scope of this study is communication strategy employed by the teachers in
teaching English for seventh graders at SMPN 3 Batu. Meanwhile, this study is
limited to the English teachers who are teaching in SMPN 3 Batu academic year of
1.6Definition of Key Terms
In order to recognize and to avoid misunderstanding on the concepts of this
study, the writer gives short description of essential terms as follows:
1. Communication is way of teachers to share or deliver the idea to their students.
2. Strategy is teachers’ idea to solve the problem in teaching and learning process.