A STUDY ON COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES USED BY THE ENGLISH TEACHERS FOR SEVENTH GRADERS AT SMPN 3 BATU

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A STUDY ON COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES USED BY THE ENGLISH TEACHERS FOR

SEVENTH GRADERS AT SMPN 3 BATU

THESIS

This Thesis is Submitted to One of the Requirements to Achieve Sarjana Degree in English Education

By: Kevin Al Mahdi 201210100311204

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

All praises be to The Almighty Allah SWT for all blessings and love so that I am able

to finish this thesis. Peace and greetings always be presented to our Great Prophet

“Muhammad SAW” the noble person who leads us from the fatuity of darkness into lightness

faith and knowledge. My earnest love and gratitude is the extended to my beloved mother Hj.

Mirwana Yuniarti, for her endless love, prayers, precious support, and motivations.

The most acknowledgements go to my super kind and smart advisors, Riski Lestiono,

S.Pd., M.A. and Nina Inayati, S.Pd., M.Ed. who have meticulously and patiently helped me

in improving and finishing my thesis.

Furthermore, I would like to thank Drs. H. Djihad, M.KPd, the principal of SMPN 3

Batu for giving me chance to conduct my study. I would also love to thank Yayang Rinastalia

M, S.Pd and Ulfiyah, S.Pd as the English Teachers of grade 7 for helping me much during the

research. To all teachers of SMPN 3 Batu, I would also present my gratitude for being kind

and nice during my research there.

I would also like to express my big gratitude to my besties who color my life during

my study at University of Muhammadiyah Malang, Lisna Fitriyani, Wardiman Abdullah,

Salwa Balbeid, Hanan Almirah, Gagas Arisandi, Putri Rahmawati, Ambika Putri Perdani, and

Miftahul Hamim S.Pd. Thanks for all support, help, and time for me to share all things related

to this thesis. All of my friends that cannot be mentioned here, I know you all gave support to

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Finally, from the deepest part of my heart, I would like to say thank you very much to

my brother Captain Tek Alem Safiero, S.T. and my sister Ritche Adriana Agustina S.Pd. for

the biggest help, support, love and a lot of moments that make me so blessed. I love you my

brother and sister, you teach me how to be more patient and thankful.

Malang April 26, 2016

Researcher

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MOTTO AND DEDICATION

EMBRACE YOUR DREAMS AND

WHATEVER HAPPENS, PROTECT YOUR HONOR” (FINAL FANTASY VII-CRISIS CORE)

This Thesis is dedicated to:

• My beloved mom, brother, and sister, who raised me when I am fallen.

• My advisors who encourage me to involve in the experiences of learning life.

• My friends, who support me to keep moving through hopeless condition.

• At the current position I stand for, I gratefully thanks for your existences in giving me

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

APPROVAL……… ii

LEGALIZATION……… iv

ABSTRACT………... v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ... vi

MOTTO AND DEDICATION……… viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ... ix

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study ……… 1

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 Teaching English for Junior High School………. 7

2.1.1 2013 Curriculum……… 8

2.1.2 English Teachers’ Role……….. 9

2.1.2.1 Information Gatherer……….. 9

2.1.2.2 Decision-Maker……….. 9

2.1.2.3 Motivator……… 9

2.1.2.4 Facilitator of Group Dynamics…... 10

2.1.2.5 Provider of Opportunities for Communicative and authentic language use……….. 10

2.1.2.6 Counsellor………. 11

2.1.2.7 Promoter of a multicultural Perspective……… 11

2.1.3 Materials………... 11

2.2 Strategies……… 12

2.3 Communication Strategies ………. 13

2.4 Kinds of Communication Strategies………... 14

2.4.1 Language Switch……… 15

2.4.2 Asking for Clarification………. 16

2.4.3 Comprehension Check……… 16

2.4.4 Asking for Confirmation………. 17

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Design……… 18

3.2 Research Subject ……….. 19

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3.3.1 Interview……… 20

3.3.1.1 Structured Interview……….. 20

3.3.1.2 Unstructured Interview………….. 20

3.3.1.3 Non-Directive Interview………… 21

3.3.1.4 Focus Interview………. 21

3.3.2 Observation Checklist and Field Notes…. 22 3.3.2.1 Participants Observation………… 22

3.3.2.2 Unobtrusive Observation………... 23

3.4 Procedure of Data Collection………. 24

3.5 Data Analysis………. 25

CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Research Findings……….. 26

4.1.1 Communication Strategies Applied by English Teachers in Classroom Activity……….. 26

4.1.1.1 Language Switch………. 27

4.1.1.2 Asking for Clarification………….. 27

4.1.1.3 Comprehension Check………. 28

4.1.1.4 Asking for Confirmation………….. 28

4.1.2 The Difficulty of Using Communication Strategies……….. 29

4.1.3 The Ways The Teachers Coped with the Problem in Applying Communication Strategies………... 30

4.1.3.1 Repetition……….. 30

4.1.3.2 Dictionary……….. 30

4.2 Discussion………. 31

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 5.1 Conclusions ……… 35

5.2 Suggestions ……… 36

5.2.1 Suggestions for the English Teacher ……. 36

5.2.2 Suggestions for the Further Researcher(s) ………. 36

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Brown, D. (2000). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching Fourth Edition. New York: Pearson Education.

Cervantes,et al. (2012). The Use of Communication Strategies in the Beginner EFL Classroom. Gist Education and Learning Research Journal., 6, 111-128.

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

This chapter is presented to introduce the background of study, the

statement of the problems, the purposes of the study, the significance of the study,

scope and limitation, and the definition of key terms.

1.1Background of Study

Nowadays learning English is very essential and important for all people in

the world. Currently, more and more people use English language in their daily life,

even people who come from non-English speaking backgrounds. It is common if

there are non-English speaking people who can speak English so fluently. This is

also one of the effects of globalization. Therefore, mastering English as a second

language is believed to open a lot of opportunities such as it would help in looking

for a job and getting more knowledge and experiences by mastering the language.

In Indonesia, English becomes a required subject starting from Junior High

School until college. Based on 2013 Competence Based Curriculum, the objective

of English subject is to improve the ability in listening, reading, and also

communicative competence both in speaking and writing. One of those skill aspects

which is very important in producing critical thinking, and creativity is speaking

skill. By mastering speaking skill, students will be able to express their thought

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In order to transfer the knowledge to their students, teachers must become

effective communicators. According to Richmond et al (2009, p.1) in their book:

Effective teachers are effective communicators who understand communication and learning, are interdependent, and the knowledge and attitudes students take with them from the classroom are selectively drawn from a complex assortment of verbal and nonverbal messages about the subject, the teacher, and themselves.

It can be concluded that in teaching learning process, communication

becomes one important thing to have by teachers when they want to present the

materials to the students. One of the problems that makes students cannot

understand the material that is delivered by teacher is a gap between the linguistic

knowledge of the second-language learners and the linguistic knowledge of their

interlocutor in real communication situations. This condition makes the student

confused and cannot apply the material delivered from English teachers. Teachers

should have some techniques and strategies to achieve better communication for

student’s understanding. Teachers must be responsible for choosing the appropriate

strategies to reach teaching goal. To solve the problem, teachers use communication

strategies. According to Cervantes et al (2012), communication strategies can solve

the problem between linguistic knowledge of second language learner and linguistic

knowledge of their interlocutor in daily communication circumstances.

A study conducted by Cervantes et al (2012) about communication strategy

used by English teachers in teaching English to their students in EFL classroom

found that the English teacher in EFL classroom used fourteen strategies, such as:

language switch, comprehension check, repetition, asking confirmation,

paraphrase, clarification request, meaning replacement, other reformulation (model

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restricting, generalization, approximation, and mime. The four dominant strategies

used by English teacher in EFL classroom were language switch, comprehension

check, asking confirmation, and clarification request. The purposes of the teachers

to use communication strategies in EFL were: to make the students more attractive,

to give clear information about the lesson, to make teaching learning process run

well, to make the communication between student and teacher or student and

student can run smoothly, and to get students’ response.

A study conducted by Effendi (2009) about communication strategy that

was used by English Club at PT Semen Padang showed that the participants used

eight strategies, such as: avoidance, appeal to authority, personality style, language

switch, repetition, paraphrase, self-correcting, and asking confirmation. The

purposes of the participants in using communication strategy in English Club at PT

Semen Padang are to solve their problems in communication that were caused by

limited vocabulary and the grammar which have been learned. The most dominant

strategy in this study is language switch because the motivator and participant have

the same first language (L1), so the material could be understood by the participant.

Based from Effendi’s studies, the writer learnt that by using communication

strategies it can solved the problem in communication that were caused by limited

vocabulary and the grammar.

Correlated to communication strategies directly above, the writer was

interested in conducting this study with similar discussion but in different field of

research. That is ‘A Study on Communication Strategies used by the English

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the strategies which are used by the English teachers in implementing 2013

curriculum in teaching English. 2013 curriculum is an integrated effort between

reconstruction competences of graduates, with suitability and adequacy, the breadth

and depth of the material, learning revolution and appraisal reform (Kemendikbud,

2013). This study was conducted in SMPN 3 Batu. Based on the preliminary study,

this school is one of the schools which has good criteria in the quality and quantity

at the city level, as evidenced by the achievements both academic and non-academic

achievement. Also English teachers in SMPN 3 Batu use communication strategies

in English teaching. They were used to build an effective English teaching and

learning and keep communication between learners and interlocutors open. Thus,

English teaching and learning could maximally be successful. That is why the

writer is interested in this case. The aims of this study are to gain more information

about the strategies used in English teaching and to improve the English teaching

outcome. Therefore, SMPN 3 Batu teachers can make English class more attractive

and interesting by using communication strategies because English is an important

language that should mastered by everyone in this era. Besides, it is expected that

this study would be a starting point for other researchers especially for English

Department students of UMM to conduct further researchof the same aspect of

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1.2Statement of the Problems

Based on the background of the study above, the questions that have to be

answered are:

1. How do English teachers apply the “communication strategies” for

seventh graders at SMPN 3 Batu?

2. What are the difficulties in using the communication strategies used by

English teachers for seventh graders at SMPN 3 Batu?

3. How do the teachers cope with the problems in applying communication

strategies used by English teachers for seventh graders at SMPN 3 Batu?

1.3Purpose of Study

The purposes of this study are:

1. To explain how the English teachers apply the communication strategies

for seventh graders at SMPN 3 Batu.

2. To find out the difficulties in using communication strategies used by

English teachers for seventh graders at SMPN 3 Batu.

3. To find out the ways the teachers coped with the problems in applying

communication strategies used by English teachers for seventh graders

at SMPN 3 Batu.

1.4Significance of the Study

The result of this study is expected to provide useful information for the

school especially for the teachers, the students, and also other researchers.

Practically, for the English teacher, the result of the study can provide important

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understandings by the students. If the result of the study indicates the success

of the English teaching and learning process using this strategy, it is good to

apply this strategy in order to improve the quality of students’ understanding.

Then, if the result does not make any significant effect in the teaching and

learning process, other alternative strategies can be used.

For other researchers, the finding of this study can be useful since it can be

used as recent data and valuable source to conduct further research of the same

aspect of study.

1.5Scope and Limitation

The scope of this study is communication strategy employed by the teachers in

teaching English for seventh graders at SMPN 3 Batu. Meanwhile, this study is

limited to the English teachers who are teaching in SMPN 3 Batu academic year of

2015/2016

1.6Definition of Key Terms

In order to recognize and to avoid misunderstanding on the concepts of this

study, the writer gives short description of essential terms as follows:

1. Communication is way of teachers to share or deliver the idea to their students.

2. Strategy is teachers’ idea to solve the problem in teaching and learning process.

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