An Analysis Of Grammatical Errors Found In English Native Speakers’ Conversation : Lce English Course Case
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
Berdasarkan masalah yang dibahas oleh Penulis dalam skripsi ini adalah bahwa Penulis ingin menemukan kesalahan Tenses dan Part of Speech yang palingdominan yang dilakukan oleh para penutur asli bahasa Inggris di dalam percakapan. Maka, dari hasil penelitian ditemukan bahwa kesalahan Tense yang dominant muncul adalah Present tense sedangkan kesalahan Part of Speech yang dominan yangditemukan adalah Auxiliary Verb.
1.1 Background of the Analysis
Why the writer say take and give because the non native speakers not only grasp the knowledge from the native speakers, in reverse, the native spaeakers can share the knowledge about Indonesia either the language or the culture with the nonnative speakers although they have their own teacher who will teach them Indonesia language in that course, but at least they can share to assist them when they haveduties or jobs about Indonesia Course from their teacher in LCE. 1.2 Scope of the Analysis In analyzing this case of the thesis, the writer focuses on the grammatical errors, especially the prescriptive grammar that contains about the use of Tenses inEnglish language and parts of speech in English language and the writer only concerns with the native speakers who are teaching in each of English classes thatoffered by LCE English Course.
2.1 About Grammar
Lado (1961:141) says the term grammar for the Grammarian is the analysis of his own language, or one has mastered, in order to discover its “ rules”of propriety, that is what may and may not be said in the particularlanguage. For general people, grammar has been the study of rules of correctness, that is, the rules that claimed to tell the student what he should and should not say in orderto speak the language of socially educated class.
2.1.1 Word Order
Word ordertalks about the sequences of words that are constructed to be a complete sentence based on the grammatical rules in English language. As usual, as a grammatical rules, to refer plural, noun is ended by -s /-es , but one thing that must be remembered that not all nounsthat can be added -s/-es, but in the contrary, they encounter the changes of form of that noun.
2.2 Types of Grammar
1 Prescriptive Grammar
Sometimes, Prescriptive grammar is also defined as prohibition because in prescriptive grammar, the speakers of a language must use the language correctlybased on the grammatical rules that are in that language. Prescriptive grammar make a value judgment about the correctness of an utterance and try to force that aligns with one formal norm.
2.2.2 Descriptive Grammar
The aim of descriptive grammar is to describe the grammatical system of a language, that is, what speakers of the language unconsciously know, which enablesthem to speak and understand the language. In descriptive grammar, the interest is not in what the language should be, but in what the language that people use all the time, the whole range of differentvarieties they use in their normal everyday lives, including the varieties they use in their most casual or intimate moments, as well as the varieties they use in theirformal speech and writing.
In English language, Tenses have important role because it is impossible for us to be able to use the language without knowing the tenses of English language. the level of the activity that is being done ( when it will be done, when it is being done, or when it has been just done, etc .) (translated by the writer )Concerning about the Tenses, generally in English language, there are three kinds of Tenses, they are :d.
22.214.171.124 Present Continuous Tense
Present Continuous Tense is a tense that indicates the activities that are going on or in the present time. It indicates the activities that are going to be done in the future but it has a great certainity.e.q : - Burhan is going to the theatre tonight Positive form S ( I ) + am + V ing + OS ( you, we, they ) + are + V ing + OS ( he, she , it ) + is + V ing + O Negative form S ( I ) + am + not + V ing + OS ( you, we, they ) +are + not + V ing + OS ( he, she , it ) + is + not + V ing + O Interrogative form Tobe + S + V ing + O ?
126.96.36.199 Present Perfect Tense
Present Perfect Tense is a tense of English that indicates the activities that had been done in the past time but it is still going on in the present time. The formula of Present Perfect Tense : Positive form S ( I, you, we they ) + have + V3 + OS ( he, she , it ) + has + V3 + O Negative form S ( I, you , we, they ) + have + not + V3 + OS ( he, she, it ) + has + not + V3 + O Interrogative form Have + S ( I, you, we, they ) + V3 + O ?
188.8.131.52 Present Perfect Continuous Tense
Present Perfect Continuous Tense is a tense of English that is used to indicate the activity that had been done in past time but until this time, it is still done and it isgoing on. The adverb of time that are used to show as an identity of this tense is same with present perfect tense, that is, never, since, and for.
2.3.2 Past Tense
184.108.40.206 Simple Past Tense
This tense is pointed by the use of Verb in the past form ( V2)and as usual, the adverb of time of this tense, such as : For example : - I bought this car last month Positive form S + V2 + O Negative form S + Did + not + V1 + O Interrogative form Did + S + V1 + O ? 220.127.116.11 Past Perfect Tense Past Perfect Tense is a tense of English that is used to indicate the activity that had been done until finish in the past time when another activity happened.
18.104.22.168 Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Past Perfect Continuous Tense is a tense that indicates the activities that were done in the past time but it is still going on until now when another happened. The formula of Past Perfect Continuous Tense : Positive form S + Had + been + V ing + O Negative form S + Had + not + been + V ing + O Interrogative form Had + S + been + V ing + O ?
2.3.3 Future Tense
22.214.171.124 Simple Future Tense
Simple Future Tense is a tense of English that indicates the activity that will be done in the future time. Simple Future Tense is usually pointed by the adverb oftime, such as : Positive form S + will/ shall + V1 + OS + tobe + going to + V1 + O Negative form S + will / shall + not + V1 + OS + tobe + going to + V1 + O Interrogative form Will / shall + S + V1 + O ?
126.96.36.199 Future Continuous Tense
Future Continuous Tense is a tense of English that indicates the activities that are being done in the future time. Future Continuous Tense is usually showed by theadverb of time, such as : Positive form S + will/ shall + be + V ing + O Negative form S + will / shall + not + be + Ving + O Interrogative form Will/ shall + S + be + V ing + O ?
188.8.131.52 Future Perfect Tense
Future Perfect tense is a tense of English that indicates the activity that will have been done in the future time. Future Perfect tense usually uses adverb of time,such as : Positive form S + will/ shall + have + V3 + O Negative form S + will/ shall + have + not + V3 + O Interrogative form Will/ shall + S + have + V3 + O ?
184.108.40.206 Future Perfect Continuous Tense
Future Perfect Continuous tense is a tense that indicates the activity that will have been done in the future time but that activity is still going on at that time. Future Perfect continuous tense is identical with the adverb of time, such as : In using Future Perfect Continuous Tense, it is always followed by adverb of time.
2.4 Parts of Speech
Noun is a part of Parts of Speech that indicates the name of persons, place, plants, animals, things, etc. Noun can be divived into five.
Number can be divided into four, they are : 220.127.116.11 Case The function of case is to show the relationship between noun and other words that is in a sentence. Example : - She calls him a liar Object to preposition : object that is after the preposition in a sentence.
Pronoun is known as a part of parts of speech whose function is to replace the noun in a sentence. Pronoun is divided into eight, they are :a.
18.104.22.168 Personal pronoun
Here is the reflexive pronoun in English :Subject Reflexive pronoun I myself you yourselfwe ourselves they themselveshe himself she herselfit itself Example : 22.214.171.124 Reciprocal Pronoun Pronoun that indicates the relationship between one thing and the others and vice versa in a sentence. The function of Relative pronoun is to connect noun and the sentence that modifies it that are in a sentence.
2.4.3 Adjective Adjective is words which modify nouns or as which indicate “qualities”
In adjective of quality, it is known about the degree of Comparison, that is, the positive degree, comparative degree, and superlative degree. 126.96.36.199 Proper adjective Proper adjective comes from proper noun that shows the nation or the language of that noun.
Verb is one of the parts of speech that indicates the action that is done by subject in a sentence. Example : In English Grammar, Verb is divided into five.
188.8.131.52 Finite verb
Auxiliary verb is a helping verb that is used along with verbs in a sentence whose function is to help expressing the meaning. Example : Irregular verb is verb that can be changed based on the tense but, the changes of the verbs are not regular.
Adverb is one of parts of speech that expresses how, where, when, and how many times an activity / action is done in a sentence. In English, there are 8 kinds of adverb, they are : a.
184.108.40.206 Adverb of manner
Example : Adverb of manner is adverb that expresses how an activity / action is done in a sentence. → well → late → hard → fast 220.127.116.11 Adverb of place and direction Adverb that shows the place of an activity / action is done.
18.104.22.168 Adverb of degree
Adverb that expresses the level or how far an activity / action is done. For thispart, it is distinguished become two parts, they are : 22.214.171.124 Adverb of Frequency Adverb that shows how often an activity or action is done.
126.96.36.199 Relative adverb
Adverb that is used to relate one sentence to another. Example : - I do not remember when I met her for the first time.
Preposition is a word that shows the relationship between noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence. Preposition is usually placed first before noun to account for the position or place of something that we mean.
Conjunction is a part of parts of speech that connects words to words, sentences to sentences, etc. In English language, Conjunction is divided into two : a.
188.8.131.52 Coordinating conjunction
184.108.40.206.2 Alternative conjunction Conjunction that contains the alternative meaning or the choice of two words or more. 220.127.116.11.3 Adversative Conjunction Conjunction that is used to show the opposite between one part of sentence and the others.
18.104.22.168 Subordinating Conjunction Conjunction that is used to connect dependent clause to main clause
Here is the examples of Subordinating Conjunction : a. as if Example : - My father says that this book is mine.
Interjection is a part of parts of speech that is used to express some feelings such as : expression of surprise, expression of anger, expression of happiness, etc. Asusual, in the end of the expression, it is added by interjection ( ! ).
3.1 Research Method In writing this thesis, the writer applies library research and field research
Bungin in MetodologiPenelitian Sosial (2001:29) states: “penelitian lapangan adalah penelitian yang langsung dilakukan di lapangan, semuanya dilaksanakan di lapangan.”“field research is a research that is done directly in a field, all of the things are done in a field.” ( translated by the writer ) In field research, the writer will do the research in field that is suitable with the problem of this thesis. 3.1.1 Research Location Based on the analysis of this thesis, that is, the writer wants to analyze the grammatical errors that are found in Native speakers’ conversation, the writer choosesLCE English Course that is on Jalan Mencirim No : 79 Medan as the location of the research since that course provides some English native speakers, although they arenot British English, but, there is no different Grammatical rules that used by both of them, either British or American.
22.214.171.124 Primary data
Data is everything that is found about the object of the analysis. According to Bungin in Metodologi Penelitian Sosial ( 2001: 128) states : “data primer adalah data yang diambil dari sumber data primer atau sumber data yang utama di lapangan.”“primary data is a data that is taken from primary data resource, or primary data resource in field of research.” ( translated by the writer ) For this case, primary data of this thesis is all of things that are found in native speakers’conversation in LCE English Course.
3.2.2 Data Resource
Data resource is one of the parts that is completely important in doing the research because through data resource, the researcher can collect the data that aresearcher needs to be analyzed in their analysis. Data resource is divided into two, they are : a.
126.96.36.199 Primary Data Resource
Since the writer as the researcher uses primary data ( data primer), that is why, data resource that is used is primary data resource. And based on the primary datathat is used by the researcher, so the primary data resource that is used is the native speakers who are in LCE English Course.
3.3 Data Collecting Method
In data collecting method, the writer uses observation method. Bungin inMetodologi Penelitian Sosial ( 2001 : 142) explains : “metode observasi atau pengamatan adalah metode pengumpulan data yang digunakan untuk menghimpun data penelitian, data penelitian tersebut dapatdiamati oleh peneliti dalam arti bahwa data tersebut dihimpun melalui pengamatan peneliti melalui penggunaan panca indra.
b. Pengamatan harus berkaitan dengan tujuan penelitian yang ditetapkan
Pengamatan dapat dicek dan dikontrol mengenai validitas dan reliabilitasnya.”“observation method is a data collecting method that is used to collect the data of the research, where the data can be observed by the researcher, or itmeans that the data are collected by the researcher’s observation by using the reseracher’s five senses. the observation can be checked and controlled about its validations and reliabilities.” ( translated by the writer ) There are some kinds of observation method that can be done by the researcher.
3.3.1 Population and Sample
In collecting the data, the writer as the researcher needs population and sample as object of this research. And the sample of this research is the native speakers of LCE English Course.
3.4 Data Analyzing Method
Setiap hasil penelitian seharusnya menyajikanrangkuman deskriptif untuk beberapa variable penting untuk menunjukkan pola hubungan antara variable tujuan (variable tak bebas- atau variableakibat) dengan satu atau dua variable penyebab (variable bebas), secara deskriptif.”“descriptive analysis is a kind of analysis that gives the summary of the statistics in a table / graph. Each of the results of the research should give thedescriptive summary for some important variables to show the pattern of the relationship between purpose of the variable and one or two causes of thevariable descriptively.” ( translated by the writer ) Bungin (2001:187) states, Descriptive analysis is divided into three, they are : a.
3.4.1 Data Analyzing Technic
There are some technics that can be done in analyzing the data. For this case, the writer uses content analysis.
CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF GRAMMATICAL ERRORS FOUND IN ENGLISH NATIVE SPEAKERS’ CONVERSATION : LCE ENGLISH COURSE CASE
4.1 Error and Reconstruction
AQ 6 8 I don’t know the name of that word, they’re trainedhow to fight and how to protect people, so theymust know those things but if they were verydiscipline, they may would know when to, and whennot to, like they could I don’t know the name of that word, they’re trainedhow to fight and how to protect people, so they mustknow those things but if they are very discipline, they may will know when to, and when not to, like they could control their emotion. 98 Many levels, and I think the way I judge that is whatkind of question today evening, how much time 9 PREP Ehm … I think the way I judge that how I judge that’snot for someone to be my friend because they reallywant to get to know me about that person or theydon’t want to be my friend, so they can’t ask for moneyor maybe they don’t want to be my friend because of myEnglish.
4.2 Error Classification
4.2.1 Part of Speech Error Classification
It is same with the procedure that is done by the writer in table of error and121econstruction, table of data that is in this part is also about the data that is taken from the appendix. Based on the data that is taken from Error and Reconstruction, so, the writer makes into a group each of the errors that is found in conversation that is taken fromappendix based on the problems that are discussed by the writer in her thesis.
4.2.2 Tense Error Classification
Past tense= 18 N = 119 77 Present future tense 75 Present tense 15 Past tense 10 10 15 Past future tense 10 17 Past tense 10 22 Present future tense 10 28 Present tense 10 29 Present tense 10 29 Present future tense 10 38 Present tense 39 Present future tense 10 10 39 Present tense 10 40 Present tense 10 45 Present future tense 10 49 Present tense 10 65 Present future tense 10 65 Present tense 10 71 Present future tense 6. Past future tense= 1 + After calculating the data and the writer has got the total data that is symbolized by N is 119.
Based on the analysis in the Chapter 4, the writer can conclude that : 1. The lowest percentage of Tense error that is found in Native speakers’ conversation in LCE are Present continuous tense and Past future tense ( 0,84% ).
Although most people regard that grammar is very difficult to be understoodand it is not as important as the others to use especially in the conversation, but it will be much better if grammar is paid attention in our conversation. Beside that, the writer expects her thesis can be useful for the readers especially they who are interested in Grammar very much because in this thesis, thereaders can get the knowledge about the basic grammatical rules of English language, so that they can be much better especially in grammar in the next time.