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Lainnya : Mechanical engineering design process Introduction Measuring the Design Process with Product The History of the Design Process The Life of a Product The Many Solutions for Design The Basic Actions of Problem Solving Summary Mechanical Design Languages Different Types of Mechanical Constraints, Goals, and Product Decomposition Summary Introduction The Individual Designer: A Model of Human Mental Processes That Occur Characteristics of Creators The Structure of Design Teams Building Design Team Performance Overview of the Design Process Designing Quality into Products Product Discovery Choosing a Project Summary Sources Exercises On the Web Product, Project, and Decision Risk In engineering design, the designer uses three types of knowledge: knowl- A design process that results in a quality product can be learned, provided Improved material on project planning. Establish On the Web Plan On the Web Evaluate Decide On the Web Insist on rights of humanity and nature to coexist Recognize interdependence. On the Web Accept responsibility for the consequences of design Create safe objects of long-term value. Eliminate the concept of waste. Rely on natural energy flows. Understand the limitations of design. Seek constant improvement by the sharing of knowledge. Respect relationships between spirit and matter. Engineering Changes Patent Applications Design for End of Life Sources Placing a piece in a puzzle Find examples of products that are very different yet solve exactly the same design How well do the products in Exercise 1.3 meet the Hannover Principles? To experience the limitations of the over-the-wall design method try this. With a group Decompose a simple system such as a home appliance, bicycle, or toy into its assemblies, For the device decomposed, list all the important features of one component. Select a fastener from a catalog that meets these requirements: Sketch at least five ways to configure two passengers in a new four-wheeled commuter You are a designer of diving boards. A simple model of your product is a cantilever beam. Find five examples of mature designs. Also, find one mature design that has been recently Teams develop decisions by consensus rather than by authority. This leads to Beneficial team behaviors. Well-defined decision process. Balanced participation. Describe your chair in each of the four languages at the three levels of abstraction, as was Established ground rules. Describe your chair in each of the four languages at the three levels of abstraction, as was Awareness of team process. Use of sound generationevaluation approach. Talk about first job. Standardizes, organizes, and controls operations. Provides for consistent dissemination of information. Encourages improvement. Team nam Clarify the issue Team nam Generate alternatives Team nam Develop criteria Team nam Identify criteria importance Team nam Based on the evaluation results, decide what to do next. This decision will “What I want for myself out of this.” Refine criteria. Refine evaluation—work to gain consensus and reduce uncertainty. Choose an alternative—you’ve made a decision, document it and address Develop a list of original design problems that you would like to do at least 3. Choose Make a list of features you don’t like about products you use. One way to develop this Do a SWOT analysis on Archive the geometric form of the design. Communicate ideas between designers and between designers and manufac- Executive summary: Team Members: Gantt chart: All diagrams, figures, and tables should be accurately and clearly labeled References: Appendices: All diagrams, figures, and tables should be accurately and clearly labeled For the features of the redesign problem Exercise 4.2 develop a plan as in Exercise 5.1. Develop a plan for making a breakfast consisting of toast, coffee, a fried egg, and juice. Be Developing the specifications or goals for the product Finding out how the specifications measure the customers’ desires Determining how well the competition meets the goals Developing numerical targets to work toward The QFD method can be applied to the entire problem and any subprob- It is important to first worry about what needs to be designed and, only after This method takes time to complete. In some design projects, about one-third Passenger movement Develop a plan to design an orange ripeness tester. In a market, people test the freshness Both competitors have good lifting position when transferring the passenger Both products have poor stability. Clearly, this is a market opportunity. The Colub is easy to move and Delton is not, need to determine why and do For most of adjustment requirements, neither of the competitors score above 3, Each specification should measure at least one customers’ requirement at Each specification should be measurable. Every specification should be writ- The first specification “seat width relative to frame width” is not clear. What Two points about specifications that are in terms of “number of steps”: For a design problem Exercise 4.1, develop a house of quality and supporting informa- The interface to the jam plate. Energy flows between the trigger and the jam Articulate the conflicting positions or functions. Identify the needs forcing the two positions. Articulate the conflicting positions Identify the issue, the objective of the needs Articulate injections that can relieve the conflict while meeting the objective. Many of the problems that engineers face contain elements that have already There are predictable patterns of technological change that can be applied to For the features of the redesign problem Exercise 4.2 to be changed, develop a QFD Make an object sectional Increase degree of an object’s segmentation Arrange objects so they can go into action without time loss Stating the overall function. Decomposing the overall function into subfunctions. If assumptions are needed to Identifying all the objects nouns used and defending their inclusion in the functional For the redesign problem Exercise 4.2, apply items a–c from Exercise 7.1 and also study Which subfunctions must remain unchanged during redesign? Which subfunctions if any must be changed to meet new requirements? Which subfunctions may cease to exist? For the functional decomposition developed in Exercise 7.1, A perpetual motion machine. In recent times the patent office has refused to consider Use brainstorming to develop at least 25 ideas for A way to fasten together loose sheets of paper. A device to keep water off a mountain-bike rider. A way to convert human energy to power a boat. A method to teach the design process. Use brainwriting to develop at least 25 ideas for A device to leap tall buildings in a single bound. Are the critical parameters identified? Are the safe operating latitude and sensitivity of the parameters known? Have the failure modes been identified? Does hardware exist that demonstrates positive answers to the preceding four Is the technology controllable throughout the product’s life cycle? The source of the component. Label the flow lines for the major type of stress occurring at the location: Remember that force is transmitted at interfaces primarily by compression. Wheel and chain must clear frame for all deflections. Wheel should move straight up and down. Your body while holding a 5-kg weight straight out in front of you with your Maximum acceleration on a standard street Maximum acceleration on a 5-cm standard pothole Identify the critical parameters and interfaces for evaluation. Develop a P-diagram for each. Choose whether to build physical models for testing or run an analytical experiment Perform the experiments or analysis and develop the most robust product. For the redesign problem Exercise 4.2, repeat the steps in Exercise 10.1. You have just designed a tennis-ball serving machine. You take it out to the court, turn it Does your machine have an accuracy or a variation problem? Itemize some of the potential causes of each type of error. Consider the types of A new, spring-powered can opener A diving board for your new swimming pool An art nouveau shelf bracket From what material is the component to be machined? What tolerance and surface finishes are required? What is the labor rate for machinists? The material is 1020 low-carbon steel. The major manufacturing machine is a lathe. Two additional machines need The overall dimensions are 9.46 cm 3.72 in. by 4.52 cm 77 in. in the The wall thickness is 3.2 mm 0.125 in.. The number of components to be manufactured is 1 million. The labor hourly rate is 35. Find the Theoretical Minimum Number of Components. Examine each Find the Improvement Potential. To rate any product, we can calculate its Rate the Product on the Worksheet Fig. 11.10. hr R Mechanical engineering design process For the product developed in response to the design problem begun in Exercise 4.1, For the redesign problem begun in Exercise 4.2, estimate the changes in selling price Estimate the manufacturing cost for a plastic injection-molded component: Compare the costs for manufacturing volumes of 100, 1000, 10,000, and 100,000. Compare the cost for a change in tolerance. Why does changing the material have virtually no effect on cost at low plastic Perform a design-for-assembly evaluation for one of these devices. Based on the results A simple toy fewer than 10 parts Read as many similar instruction manuals as you can. Many companies post Organize instructions into sections to make it easy to find answers. Do not Recruit members of the user community not familiar with the product to test Know your goals and your vendor’s goals. Building a strong vendor relation- Involve vendors early. When dealing with vendors, you cannot afford delays Establish relationships. It is important to have vendor partners who under- Communicate. Put everything in writing—responsibilities, expected sales Stay professional. Things go wrong in life. When they go wrong in a relation- Separation and processing: Landfill disposal of ASR:

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