Grammatical Errors found In Student Of English department’s Essay
GRAMMATICAL ERRORSFOUND IN STUDENT OF ENGLISHDEPARTMENT’S ESSAY
ATHESIS BY SELVIEAGUSTINA PUTRIREG. NO.100705085 DEPARTMENTOFENGLISH FACULTYOFCULTURALSTUDIES UNIVERSITY OFSUMATERA UTARA MEDAN2015
GRAMMATICAL ERRORSFOUND IN STUDENT OF ENGLISHDEPARTMENT’S ESSAY GRAMMATICALERRORSFOUNDINSTUDENTOFENGLISH DEPARTMENT’SESSAY ATHESIS BY SELVIE AGUSTINAPUTRI REGNO100705085 SUPERVISOR CO– SUPERVISOR Dr. 19560705 198903 1 002 NIP.
DEPARTMENT OFENGLISH FACULTYOFCULTURAL STUDIES UNIVERSITYOFSUMATERAUTARA MEDAN2015
19750209 200812 1 002 Accepted bytheBoardofExaminers inpartialfulfillmentofrequirements for the degree of Sarjana Sastra from the Department of English, Faculty ofCulturalStudies Universityof Sumatera Utara The examination is held in the Faculty of Cultural Studies University of Sumatera Utara onSaturday, July4, 2015 TheDeanof Facultyof CulturalStudies Universityof Sumatera Utara Dr. The findings showed that there were nine (9) types of grammatical error found in Students’Essay,theywere:subjectverbagreement30items(28.84%),preposition 23 items (22.11%), passive voice 14 items (13.46%), singular plural 10 items(9.61%), to infinitive9 items (8.65%), forms of adjective5 items (4.80%), redundancy5items(4.80%),misplacedword5items(4.80%),andparallelstructure 3 items (2.88%).
1.1. Backgroundof theStudy
Pronunciationconcernstoarticulation,intonationwhilecomposition is anarrangment of words used to deliver meaningful statement, these are subfields of linguistics talking about. To find out the mostdominant typeofgrammatical error found in Students of English Department’sEssay.
1.4. Scopeof theStudy
Togettheaimofcommunicating,therearemany rulesthatmust beconcerned, and this rule is called grammar. Each timeanalyzing about grammar,itwilltakea long time,so thewriterhasdecided to limit the analysis.
1.5. Significanceof theStudy
Itcanbesurethatthisisnot something newforstudents,especially,thestudentsofEnglishDepartmentofSumateraUtaraUniversity. Thewriter isinterested in analyzing thistopicbecause many ofstudentswholearnoruseEnglishastheirsecondlanguagestillmakethesamemistakes.
CHAPTER II REVIEW OFLITERATURE
2.1. Definitionof Linguistics
Tohaveagoodunderstandingaboutinguistics,therearesomedefinitionsofitandthewriter wouldliketoquote it.deSaussure(1986:9)defines that:“Linguistics is thescientificstudyof language.”Meanwhile,theotherstatesthat: “Linguisticsisthestudyofthese knowledge systems in all their aspects: how is such a knowledge system structured, how itisacquired, how it isused in theproduction and comprehension ofmessages,how itchanges over time.”(http://linguistics.ucsc.edu). All thosephasesare summarized in linguisticsand the writer will explainitbyinsertingthe main stepsof languageformation.
2.2. Subfieldsof Linguistics
The writer would like to put iton thispoint inorder to guide thisanalysisinto therightdestination. Fromtheelaboration above,it can bedrawna conclusion that syntaxisclosely relatedtothisanalysisbecausethissubfieldconcentratesoncombination of wordsto produceameaningfulsentence and structure.
Spokenlanguagehappenswhentwoormorepeoplewould like toshareanythingtheywanttoshareinwhichtheydoitfacetofacemeanwhilewritten languageis amethodused to communicateorgivean information toothers wheremediumisneeded,whichistext. Themostimportantthing incommunicating is messagedeliveredcorrectlyandtogainthislevel,languageusermustattentively principles, and processes that govern the structure ofsentencesin a given language”(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syntax ).
Janet (2001:2)“Grammaris the set ofstructuralrules governing the composition ofclauses, phrases, and wordsin any given natural language”. Toaffirmthedefinition,thewriteralsohasquotedfromtheother source:“Grammaristhesetoflanguagerulesthatyouuse,mostofthetime unconsciously, to create phrases and sentences that convey meaning” ( http://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/grammar ).
2.4.1. Subject Verb Agreement
For examples: -WhatI want to know is whyIcan't trythetest again. For examples: Singular Plural penny pennies spy spiesbaby babies city citiesdaisy daisies There aresomeirregular noun plurals.theseare the examples: Singular Plural woman women man menchild children tooth teethfoot feet Somenounshavethesameforminthesingularandtheplural.
This thepattern must be followed to make passive sentence:“Subject+finite formofto be+Past Participle”. In English, there are three forms of adjective, namely: Positive/Negative Degree, Comparative Degree, and Superlative Degree.
2.5. TheImpact ofGrammaticalErrorinEssay
Theexistenceofgrammarincommunicatingactivity,tohelppeopleso thatthesharingactivity canrunfluently andasaresult,everygoalwouldliketoachievecanaccomplish. Unfortunately,eventhoughlanguageiscommonthing forpeople,communicationismissedsincetheydonotusetherightstructure.
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Qualitativeresearchmethod is aresearchmethod thatbasedonposypositivism philoshopy,used toobservinnaturalobject condition where theresearcheristhe key instrument, the techniqueofsamplingthroughpurposiveandsnowball,tocollectthedaausing triangulation, thedata analysisisinductively/ qualitatively, and meaningistheessentialofqualitativeresearch.” BodganandBiklen(1982)proposefivecharacteristicsofqualitativeresearch asfromSugiyono quoted (2009:21), theyare:a. Based on the fivecharacteristicsofqualitativeresearch asproposed byBodganandBilken,thisresearch willshowthenatureofthesituation asitexistsat thetimeofthe collectingdataand willbe collectedin wordsform.
3.2. Populationand Sample
The population in this thesis is 20 students of English Department, because thewriter willdo aqualitativeresearch, so thewriter will choosesomesamples,bypurposivesamplingtechnique. Descriptive observation; in this step, the writer do a general and completeexploration, describeall thewriter see, listen, and feel.
3.5. Data Analyzing Method
CalculatingthedatatofindthepercentagefoundinthesourceofdatabyBungin’sformula(2005:171-172): �= ������� � Where,N:totalfrequencyof interference in percentFx:total typesfrequencyof thesub-categoryN:total typesof all categories 6. And the laststep ismakingconclusionsand suggestions.
CHAPTER IV ANALYSISANDFINDINGS
Intheprocessof determining grammaticalerror sentences, “Understanding And Using English Grammar” book written byBettySchramferAzar asa secondarydata to conduct this analysisindeliberatingthemistake inessays. Afterwards,categorizingwhat types of grammaticalerror ismade and triesto correctitbased on the English Standard .
4.2.1. Subject-Verb Agreement
And there is at least 5000 species which belongs to the biggest orangutan conservation in Indonesia. Grammatically,theappropriateverbforthesentenceaboveis“want”because it has used “doesn’t”, it means, verb-infinitive is the correct, and the correct sentence is“True lovedoesn’twantanything in return, because there isnothing it needs.” 3 10.
4.2.3. ToInfinitive Aninfinitivephrasewillbegin with an infinitive(to +simpleformof the verb)
The verb-ing “knowing”shouldbereplaced by “toknow”in order to beconcord tobe an infinitivesentence. AlsoI do nothave togodeep into the jungle to learningabout the tiger.
I was choose to play the role of Jack in the play, 'Jack and theBeanstalk',andI becameacelebrity overnightreceiving lotsof complimentsfor myperformance. Theformofpassivevoiceis“Subject+finiteform of to be +Past Participle (3rd column of irregular verbs)”.
4.2.5. Formsof Adjective Many Englishadjectivesexhibitthreeforms,forexampletheword“long”
Itmustbeaddedwithsuffix–er,becauseitisacomparativeadjectiveand itwillbe “happier” and do not need by adding “more”. Theword“more” isused ifadjectivehasmore thantwo syllables, for example the adjective “beautiful” becomes “more 5 sweltering temperature.” 4.
Obesityputs you more at risk for diabetes, heart attack, also high cholesterol, and high blood pressuretoo. Therefore,thecorrectsentence is “ Obesityputs youmoreatriskfordiabetes,heartattack,high cholesterol,and high blood pressure.” 6 3.
Itisalwaysfollowedby nounsorpronounsandisconnectivewordthatshows relationship between the nouns following it and one of the basicsentenceelements:subject,objectorcomplement. Commonexamples are: atthedoor,atthestation,at the table, at a concert, at the party, at the cinema, at school, atwork.
Aftercolectingand analyzingthe data (essay text) made by EnglishLiterature’sstudents,thenumber of datafound: GrammaticalErrors TypesofGrammaticalError Amount 1 Subject-Verb Agreement 30 2 Singular Plural 10 3 To Infinitive 9 4 PassiveVoice 14 5 FormsofAdjective 5 6 Redudancy 5 7 Preposition 23 8 ParallelStructure 3 9 Misplaced Words 5104 Total EssaysoftheStudentsofLiteratureDepartment has the analysisobject. Afterdoing the anaysis,thewriter hastabulated thegrammatical errorsand the totalnumber is106datas.
4.4. TheImpactsof GrammaticalError
Thefollowingistheimpacts if rulesin makingsentencenotbecome themain point in communication: 1. Grammatical error will change the meaning.
In this thesis, there are nine types of Grammatical Errors namelySubject-VerbAgreement, Singular Plural, ToInfinitive, PassiveVoice,FormsofAdjective,Redudancy,Preposition,ParallelStructure and Mispaced Wordsmadeinthedatas. Prepositionhas 23 items or 22.11%, Passive Voice has 14 items or13.46%,SingularPluralhas10itemsor9.61%,ToInfinitivehas9items or8.65%,FormsofAdjectivehas5itemsor4.80%,Redundancyhas5 itemsor4.80%,MissplacedWordhas5 items or4.80%, and thelast, ParallelismStructurehas3 datasor 2.88%.
It isimportant to master English because itwillhelp brighten thefutureof readers. Style inLanguage and Communication.