THE CORRELATION BETWEEN STUDENTS’ SCHEMATA AND THEIR READING COMPREHENSION ABILITY IN MAKING SENSE
OF NARRATIVE TEXT AT THE FIRST YEAR OF SMAN 2 KOTABUMI
Knowledge which was acquired by someone through reading would be stored in memory. A variety of knowledge or information would form a schema. This research was conducted because students have difficulties in comprehending reading material. The objectives of this research were to find out whether there is any significant correlation between students’ schemata and their reading comprehension in narrative text; and to find out what type of schemata mostly used by students in comprehending narrative text.
This research was quantitative research. The research design used a co-relational design of ex post facto design. The samples of the research were selected by using simple random sampling from the students of the first year of SMA N 2 Kotabumi, North Lampung. Class X.3 was taken as the sample class of this research which consists of 38 students. The data were collected by means of test and were analyzed by using SPSS at the significant level 0.01.
Based on the data analysis, the result showed that there was a significant correlation between students’ schemata and their reading comprehension. The result showed that rxy is 0.841 with N 36, degree of freedom (df) N-2 to the real
level = 0.01 while rtable is 0.4238. Thus, rxy > rtable; meaning the correlation is
significant. Therefore, the research hypothesis (H1) was accepted and the null
hypothesis (H0) was rejected. Another result found that content schemata is the
SENSE OF NARRATIVE TEXT AT THE FIRST YEAR STUDENT
OF SMAN 2 KOTABUMI
Meutia Rachmatia (0913042088)
1. H.M. Ujang Suparman, M.A., Ph.D 2. Dra. Editha Gloria Simanjuntak
THE FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
Meutia Rachmatia, was born on April 23th, 1992 in Kotabumi, North Lampung.
She comes from a lovely family with four children and she is the first child of a
wonderful couple, Drs. H. Fahrizal Ismail, M.H. and Dra. Hj. Masitoh, M.Pd. Her
parents are civil servants. She has three beloved sisters: Nurul Azizah, Nabilla
Zatadini and Shofi Annida.
After attending kindergarten at TK AISYAH in 1997, she continued her study at
Elementary School of SDN 3 Sindangsari Kotabumi and graduated from SDN 1
Gapura Kotabumi in 2003. She pursued her study at SMPN 1 Kotabumi and
graduated in 2006. She continued at SMAN 3 Kotabumi and graduated in 2009.
Having graduated from senior high school she continued her study at the English
Education Study Program, the Teacher Training and Education Faculty, Lampung
University. In 2009 she joined (student activity center) UKM PSM Unila, she was
recommended as member of SDM division at PSM Unila for period 2011-2012.
In 2011 she joined UKMF KSS FKIP Unila for theatre division and she followed
theatre show “Pementasan Panggung Perempuan se-Sumatera” in the same year.
She was recommended as a second secretary of UKMF KSS FKIP Unila for
period 2011-2012. She is a second Muli of Muli and Mekhanai North Lampung in
August 2012 and teaching practice program (PPL) at SMPN 1 Margatiga, East
Victory belongs to who's ready
The losers who successfully beat you are not because
they are better than you, but because you are too busy to
laugh their weaknesses
By offering my praise and gratitude to Alloh SWT for His abundant blessing to me, this script is proudly dedicated to:
The greatest inspirations in my life: my beloved Father and Mother, Drs. H. Fahrizal Ismail, M.H. and Dra. Hj. Masitoh, M.Pd.
My beloved Sisters: Nurul Azizah, Nabilla Zatadini, Shofi Annida and all my big family who cannot be mentioned directly in this script.
UKMF KSS FKIP Lampung University
UKM PSM Lampung University
2.6 The Correlation between schemata and Reading Comprehension 22
On this chapter, the following points were described: background of the problems,
identification of the problems, limitation of the problems, formulation of research
questions, objectives and uses of the research, and definition of terms.
1.1 Background of the Problems
There were four basic language skills, one of them reading. Reading was one of
the most important skills in the process of language learning. Readers would get
the information and new knowledge from reading. At the school, comparing to
other skills, reading might be considered as the most frequently used skill.
Reading is essential in learning English in order to get information from the text.
In reading activity, the reader should interpret the meaning of the text, because
comprehension was the centre of understanding. Sometimes the readers got
difficulties to interpret the contents of the text, so that sometimes they are hard to
understand a message to be transmitted by the author in reading text. Many
reading texts presented the information but reader was difficult to interpret the
Actually, the students had learnt about reading text, but at the fact there were
many students’ who were confused about what they had read; especially students
in Senior High school. The students’ ability in comprehending a reading text was
unsatisfactory. It was based on pre-survey at the first year of SMAN 2 Kotabumi,
North Lampung. The researcher found that the students got difficulties in
comprehending the text or answering the question of the reading text.
Based on the pre-survey, the student’s score did not achieve the target. The KKM
for English subject in this school was 70 but the students’ reading comprehension
still under 70. The Average of pre-survey result is 60. The researcher had
interviewed the students who got low score when the pre-survey was conducted.
comprehending or answering the question of reading text was due to the fact that
they ability in reading skills was very low. Students were lack of motivation to
read the reading text before they answered the question. So that the students got
difficulties in comprehending the text and they could not interpret the meaning of
the text well.
Having no background knowledge about the text was also a problem encountered
when the researcher interviewed the students who have low reading skills. The
students had no background knowledge about the text so they could not use their
schemata to interpret the meaning of the texts and they got difficulties to
comprehend and answer the questions from the text.
When person learns, his/her mind would try to solve the new matter into the
meaningful grains and deal with an existing cognitive structure to be one whole.
In the other words, a new matter to be understood and bound only if the stimulus
that was found in some text could be matched on an existing cognitive structure
that exists in students’ schemata.
The failure of a reader in understanding the precise readings might be caused by
several things. According to Rumelhart (1980: 47-48), failures to understand the
reading text might be due to three things as follow:
a. The readers do not have the appropriate schemata. When this happens, the
b. The Readers have appropriate schemata but a clue there might not be enough. It
also may cause the reader not to understand the recitations, except when given
an additional clue.
c. The Readers may be able to find the interpretation of the discourse consistently
but they may not find out what is desirable of a writer. In this case, the reader
will understand the text reading, but the understanding is not the same as what
the writer meant.
According to the Good and Brophy (1990:229) a failure of someone in
understanding a text called by student misconception effect. The readers would
not understand a concept if the input had been screened by schema which is too
simple a fallacy or even clearly wrong. It was usually relating to abstract concepts
scientific as opposed to simple concept that had been received by readers first
through a concrete experience. A schema was expected of students to have
relation with their reading comprehension. Thus, schemata were all the
knowledge, information and experience of someone which can be used to interpret
something new, easily on reading text comprehension.
Based on the issues above, the researcher intended to examine if there was a
significant correlation between schemata and reading comprehension ability and
also to know what type of schemata mostly used by students in first grade student
of Senior High School. In the guideline of School Based Curriculum, (Indonesian
KTSP) (Depdiknas, 2006:297), It was stated that there were several objectives of
1. The students were able to identify the main idea of the whole texts or in
each paragraph of reading texts.
2. The students were able to identify the vocabularies of reading texts
3. The students were able to identify some specific information of reading
In line with the KTSP requirement, the researcher focused in narrative text.
Narrative text was one of reading text that was mostly used in reading test. This
was a simple text but many students in the first year of senior high school still had
difficulties to find main idea and specific information of narrative text. Based on
the interview when the researcher held pre-survey on SMAN 2 Kotabumi, the
students were more interested in reading narrative text because narrative text were
a reading text form a story.
From that statement, the researcher intended to investigate whether or not there
was correlation between students’ schemata and their reading comprehension
ability in narrative text and what type of schemata mostly used by students at the
1.2 Identification of the Problems
Based on the background above, the researcher identified the problems in SMAN
2 Kotabumi as follows:
1. The students’ scores did not achieve the target of KKM.
2. Students lack of a means for supporting the process of learning reading
3. Students got difficulties to interpret the meaning of the text.
4. The students rarely read anything outside school hours.
5. The students less motivated to read when answered the question of the test.
6. The students did not have good self confidence in learning English.
1.3 Limitation of the problem
The researcher was interested to investigate whether there was any correlation between students’ schemata and their reading comprehension ability in narrative
text, and what the type of schemata mostly used by students’ in comprehending
narrative text is.
1.4 Formulation of Research Questions
Based on background of the problems, the researcher formulated the following
1. Is there any correlation between students’ schemata and their reading
2. What is the type of schemata mostly used by students’ in comprehending
1.5Objectives of the Research
1. To investigate whether there was any correlation between students’ schemata
and their reading comprehension ability in narrative text.
2. To find out what the type of schemata most used by students’ in comprehending
1.6 Uses of the Research
The findings of this research were expected to be beneficial not only theoretically
but also practically.
To support the existing theory on schemata and reading comprehension.
2.1 As a contribution to English teachers concerning on how to encourage
the students to use schemata especially in reading narrative text.
2.2 As information for teachers and students on how schemata related to
1.7 Scope of the Research
This research was conducted on the first grade student of SMAN 2 Kotabumi. It
was focused on investigate correlation between students’ schemata and their
reading comprehension ability in narrative text. The researcher chose the first
grade of SMAN 2 Kotabumi because narrative text was one of reading text that
was mostly used in reading test. Beside, students of First grade of senior high
school learn narrative text.
1.8 Definition of Terms
1. Reading comprehension is an active process which involves readers, material
of reading and the readers’ previous knowledge in order to get meaning of the
text they read (Nuttal, 1996).
2. Schemata (Cook, 1997: 86) state that schemata is a way of organizing the past
experience to be remembered and used.
3. Narrative text as a story based on the plot, with the plot consisting of events,
person, and conflict (Marahamin, 1999:96). Events tell about what happens in
the story; person tells about the character(s) that is involved in the story; and
II. FRAME OF THEORIES
This chapter concerned the review of the previous related research, review of the
related literature, theoretical assumption and the hypothesis.
2.1. Review of Previous Research
Concerning to the topic under discussion, there were several studies that had been
carried out, was discussed below:
1. Alfiah (2011) from Lampung University investigated the correlation between students’ understanding of sentence pattern, vocabulary mastery and their
reading comprehension achievement at the second year of SMAN 1 Pagelaran.
She investigated that students had difficulties in comprehending the text or
answering the question of the text, and some factor that probably played important role in building the students’ reading skill such as reading sub skills
mastery and vocabulary mastery. The researcher applied one group and two
variables; the result showed that there was positive correlation between students’ understanding of sentence pattern, vocabulary mastery and their
2. Based on the previous research made by M. Khadafi (2011) from Lampung
University that the title was increasing students’ reading comprehension
achievement of narrative text. This research was conducted in the second year
students of SMA PERSADA Bandar Lampung. The study investigated that the
use of CTL was in increasing students’ reading comprehension ability of
narrative text. The researcher applied one group pretest posttest design and the
result showed that there was significant increase on students reading
comprehension after being taught through Contextual Teaching and Learning
The researcher has seen that Khadafi could increase reading comprehension
ability of narrative text by using CTL. The researcher concluded that narrative text
was also one factor to increase reading ability student beside CTL. According to
Alfiah’s statement that students had difficulties in comprehending the text or
answering the question of the text, and some factor that probably played important role in building the students’ reading skill such as reading sub skills mastery and
The researcher interested to investigate the correlation between students’
schemata and their reading comprehension ability because the researcher was
confident that the schema also was one of important factors in building students’
reading skills. The researcher had read a theory of schemata expressed by Nunan
text; and what if interpreted with success depends on whether our schemata were
sufficiently similar to the author schemata (Nunan1989: 7).
Therefore, the researcher found that there was any correlation between students '
schemata and their reading comprehension ability in narrative text. So in this case
the researcher also wanted to know whether what type of schemata mostly used by
students’ in comprehending text. The researcher would like to prove that in the
use of schemata on the narrative text could make students better understand and
comprehend the meaning that is implied in the text. In this research, the researcher
would be focused on a narrative text. The researcher preferred to focus on a
narrative text than other texts that are used as learning materials because the
narrative text was stated in KTSP for the first grade of Senior High School.
Through narrative text, students would be told the events of the past. According to
Bartlett, a schema was a way of organizing the experience of the past to be
remembered and used (Cook, 1997: 86).
2. 2. Concept of Reading Comprehension
Reading was the process includes an interaction between the reader and the writer.
The reader tried to interpret the meaning presented by the writer. Nuttal (1985:
42) defined reading as the meaningful interpretation of printed or writing verbal
It means that the readers tried to understand and got the meaning in the written
text which was read through many aspects; symbol, letter, etc. Reading
comprehension was a complex construction process in which reading
comprehension skill was needed. Suparman (2012) stated many sub skills on
reading comprehension, e.g., analyzing visual context clues, identifying analogies,
categorizing information, identifying main idea, interpreting problems,
interpreting grids, predicting and so on.
In addition, Howart (2006) said that reading was just as communicative as any
other form of language. It means that in reading there was an interaction between
the writer and the readers through the texts. The writer tried to encode the
messages to the readers. Then the readers try to decode the messages that sent by
According to Doyle (2004), comprehension was a progressive skill in attaching
meaning beginning at the same level and proceeding to attaching meaning to an entire reading selection. All comprehension revolves around the reader’s ability in
finding and determining main idea and topic sentence from the text.
That was why comprehension was one important part in reading because the
readers cannot understand the meaning of the text without comprehension.
One of ways how the readers got a comprehension in reading was by relating their
background knowledge. As Suparman (2005) stated that who views that
meaning of the text by relating the students’ background knowledge to the
writers’ knowledge poured out in the text.
It could be concluded from all theories that reading is an active process of getting
meaning or information from printed or written language transferred by the writer
where was reading comprehension was the level of passage or text understanding
2.3 Concept of Reading Aspect
In this research, the researcher used five reading aspects in conducting the
research, they were:
1. Main Idea
The main idea was the most important piece of information the author wants you
to know about the concept of that paragraph. In line with Mc. Whother (1986: 36)
the sentence which stated this main idea was called the topic sentence. She added
that topic sentence told what the rest paragraph is about. In some paragraphs, the
main idea was not explicitly stated in any one sentence. Instead, it was left to
reader to infer, or reason out.
2. Specific Information
Supporting sentence or specific information developed the topic sentence by
giving definitions, examples, facts, an incidents, comparison, analogy, cause and
Reference was the intentional use of one thing to indicate something else in which
provided the information necessary to interpret the other. Finding reference meant
interpreting and determining one linguistic expression to another.
Inference was a good guess or conclusion drawn based on logic passage. Finding
inference meant the reader implied the sentence/ passage understand and
concluded it logically.
According to Wallace (1987: 30) vocabulary was the stock of word used by the
people or even person. Understanding vocabulary means comprehend what the
words mean. When vocabulary mastery improved, comprehension would be
deeper. Since comprehension was the ultimate goal of reading, the reader could
not overestimate the importance of vocabulary development.
The researcher was covered main idea, specific information, references,
2. 4 Schemata
Human beings had the ability to think equally as well background knowledge or
that which was also known as schemata has to be possessed of all human that
different only how they turned on or used the ability of thinking or schemata they
Barlett argues that a schema was a way of organizing your past experience to be
remembered and used (cook, 1997: 86). Referring to the statement schemata came
from the human experience in their life that could be used in the future.
Carrel and Eisterhold (1983: 572-573) argued that the schemata were abstract
structures which described concepts that are stored in the memory. That was why
schemata were one important part to build a comprehension because interactions
that occur between the concept in mind and the information from the text could
build a comprehension.
Human did not need great effort to get the schemata because the schemata had
been stored in human memory. Yule (1996: 87) stated that a schema was existing
knowledge structures in memory of human. Someone had a different memory,
therefore the schemata that owned of human is definitely different. Memory that is
Carrell and Eisterhold (1983: 560) categorized types of schemata, i.e. content
schemata and formal schemata. Content Schemata would relate to the initial
knowledge in regards to the topic of the text, such as knowledge of the Mexican
economy, Canadian history, physics, etc. Meanwhile formal schemata regarded to
the background knowledge of the organizational structure of the various types of
In this research, the researcher used 3 types of schemata to students’ schemata
test; they were content schemata, formal schemata and linguistic schemata.
According to Aebersol and Field (1997: 16-17) there were three types of
schemata, contents schemata, formal schemata, and linguistic schemata.
1. Contents schemata might give the Foundation a comparison. For example, a
person had knowledge of a wedding party been then compared with the
wedding party she ever attended and also compared with the general pattern of
a wedding party. In this case the content of schemata were formed from the
comparison of Foundation grants, so in the thought or knowledge someone had
previously pushed to compare something which he knew beforehand with the
new knowledge could be.
Example text for content schemata:
must increase our power”. The Mata Empat agreed and then they went to
increase their power.
The student ever read the story, and the example question for content schemata
was “where Serunting Sakti Lived?”. The questions taken from the content of
2. Formal schemata directly refered to the discourse. For example, the style of
writing language that was used on a scientific book was different with the style
of writing language that was used on a story book or novel. In this case the
reader would use the schemata that they had to see the difference between the
style of writing language that used on a scientific book with the style of writing
language that was used on a story book or novel they ever read.
Example question for formal schemata derived from narrative text ever read by
having structure, then in making questions about formal schemata pertaining to
structure of narrative text itself or sequence of events time that were found on
narrative text. For example, the students ever knew about the structure of
narrative text. So, the question for formal schemata was “the last paragraph of narrative text is?” or “when did Sidapaksa’s baby into river?”. The underline
word from the question could interpret the event in an example narrative text
had been given before.
3. Linguistic schemata include encoding was needed in recognizing words and
how the words were arranged correctly in a sentence. Background knowledge
that someone would make such people question what the content and purpose
newly discovered then stored the results of recent findings that someone in his
brain, it would become a new schemata which belongs to someone who would
use it at any time when necessary.
Example the question of linguistic schemata made of vocabulary or grammar
which was found in reading ever students read. For example:
“…. Two year passed and Sidapaksa returned from his journey….”
The examples question of linguistic schemata was “his grandson …… from his finding”. The question was created from vocabulary or grammar that had already
been read in narrative text students who had been given before or information that
they ever got before. Then schemata would be formed and used of something
information student get, or they might have before.
In this research, the researcher covered 3 types of schemata on schemata test.
Because the researcher thought to comprehend a text from schemata test includes
three types of schemata. According to Aebersol and field (1997: 16-17) schemata
had three types, and the researcher wanted to know what the type of schemata
2.5 Concept of Narrative text
Many texts that were used as learning materials on a first grade of Senior High
School based on KTSP, one of which was a narrative text. Narrative text was a
text that was derived from past experience. According to Marahamin (1999:96)
defines narrative as a story based on the plot, with the plot consisting of events,
person, and conflict. Events told about what happens in the story; person told
about the character(s) that was involved in the story; and conflict told about the
problem that needs to be resolved.
Semi (2003:29) stated that narrative is a conversation or writing the purpose of
telling about actions or human experience based on the development of a time. According D’ Angelo (1980:196) said narration is a pattern of thought,
comprising the act of following a sequence of actions or events in time. Based on
the explanation above in Sahjaya’s script entitled the correlation between students’ learning strategies in composing narrative text and students’ narrative
writing competence at the first grade of SMAN 5 Bandar Lampung states that the
chronological factor is the important aspect in narrative text (2011:10).
Semi in Hasani (2005:27) stated that another characteristic of narrative is aesthetics; it should have imagery to increase the reader’s interest. In short,
conflict and resolution (the way to solve the problem) are important points of
But as well as bearing those two elements, narrative also needs time sequences in
order to make the story systematic and run in chronological order.
Keraf (1991:136) defined two types of narrative: expository and suggestive.
Expository narrative usually tells the information about the event based on factual
data. It also tells about the steps of event to the reader. The object in expository
narrative is beginning the first until the end; it means that the writer tells the story
from the first until the end. Suggestive narrative can be unsuitable with factual
data because it emphasize the suggestive sense.
Hasani (2005:209) states that suggestive narrative is a narrative that tries to give a
certain purpose, telling an explicit message to readers or listeners, so they feel that
they are involved in the story. In line with the definition of narrative text, here are
the example of genres that fit the narrative structure; they are (1) folktale, i.e.,
very old traditional story from particular place that was originally passed on to
people in a spoken from, e.g., Bandung Bondowoso and Roro Jonggrang. (2)
Fairy tale, i.e., and old story about magic things happened intended for amusing
and giving lessons, meanings, and moral value, e.g., Cinderella. (3) Fables, i.e.,
traditional short story that teaches moral lesson, especially one with animal as
characters. (4) Myth, i.e., a story from ancient times, especially one that was told
explains about natural events or to describe the early history of place or people,
2. 5.1 Purpose of Narrative text
To achieve the purpose of narrative text, the students should move through a
different set of stages:
Orientation : introduce the setting and figures in the story
Complication/crisis : expand the conflict and the problems that appear
Resolution : problem solving or action that taken to respond the Problem
Reorientation : the end of the story
Evaluation : Conclusion of the story
The stages above were the generic structure/text organization of the narrative
genre. Besides generic structure, narrative text also had language features
(lexicogrammatical features). The following were the features of narrative text:
1. Focus on specific participants: a particular person or thing.
2. Use simple past tense
3. In the beginning text usually use: one day, once upon a time, in the beginning,
and so on.
4. Use action verb: walk, talk, read, and run.
5. Use adjective
Orientation : Once upon a time there lived a little girl, named Snow White. She
lived with her aunt and uncle because her parents had died.
Complication : One day she heard her aunt and uncle talking about leaving Snow
White in the castle because they wanted to go to America and they
did not have enough money to take Snow White with them.
Resolution : Snow White did not want her uncle and aunts do this. So she decided
to run away. The next morning she ran away from home when her
aunt and uncle were having breakfast, she ran away into the wood. In
the wood she felt very tired and hungry. Then she saw this cottage.
She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and felt asleep.
Reorientation : Meanwhile seven dwarfs were coming home from work. They went
inside. There, they found Snow White woke up. She saw the dwarfs said; “What is your name?” Snow White said; “My name is Snow White”. One of the dwarfs said; “If you wish, you may live here with us”. Snow White told the whole story about her. Then Snow White and the seven dwarfs lived happily ever after.
2.5 The Correlation between Schemata and Reading Comprehension
Much information obtained a person with a lot of reading; the information made
someone having the knowledge about many topics. Knowledge acquired someone
through reading would be stored in memory. A variety of knowledge or
information would form a schema. In this case was not related to how much
someone was reading, but whether or there was not the understanding and
knowledge of specific topics of reading.
Even someone read a lot but he has not read a topic specifically, then the reader
schemata enough to understand it. All the knowledge created in the unity which
also contained information on how that knowledge should be used.
The knowledge that owned by someone would already had contributed in
understanding the text readings. With the knowledge that had been owned before,
then the reader would easily understand new information obtained. The
understanding occurred because the existence of those elements that are identical
between the topics ever read with reading topic that was being read. It would be
connected indirectly through your schemata that had previously owned.
Davies (1995: 24) claimed that reading comprehension was usually measured by
means of retrieval rate from memory. It means that reading comprehension
correlate with memory of human. According to Yule (1996: 8) a schema was
existing knowledge structures in memory of human. It supposed that there was
correlation between schemata and reading comprehension.
2.6 Theoretical Assumption
According to the theories previously presented, the researcher assumed that a
schema was good input from the experiences of the past that belonged to
everyone. Someone could interpret a meaning in the well must be supported with
the schemata of the experience during the past. Someone could not interpret a text
because someone had not had prior knowledge or schemata of the text that they
would be read and the researcher assumed that the type schemata mostly used by
Based on the theoretical assumption, the hypothesis of this research was
formulated as follows:
H0 : There is no correlation between students’ schemata and their reading
comprehension ability in narrative text.
H1 : There is a correlation between students’ schemata and their reading
III. RESEARCH METHOD
This chapter discussed research design, population and sample, data collecting
technique, data analysis, scoring criteria, try out of the test, validity and reliability
the instrument and hypothesis testing.
3.1 Research Design
This research was quantitative research, it was focused on the product (result of
the test) not the process of teaching learning and the objective was to find out the
correlation between students schemata and their reading comprehension ability. In
this research there was no control group and no treatment to the subject, thus
ex-post facto design was used in this research.
Hatch and Farhady (1982: 26) state that ex-post facto design was often used when
the researcher did not have control over the selection and manipulation of the
This was why researcher looks at the type and/or degree of relationship between
There were many types of correlation like linear, curvilinear, biserial, partial or
one, linear correlations. It was because linear correlation was the simplest kind of
correlation to be found between two sets of scores or variables.
The correlation between two sets of measures of variables could be positive or
negative. It was said to be positive when the independent variable increase, the
dependent variable tended to increase too. On the opposite, it was negative when
the independent variable increase, the independent variables tended to decrease.
There was also possibility of third type of correlation i.e. zero correlation the two
sets of measures of variables if there was no relationship between them (Singh,
The sample of this research was only one group, the data taken by a schemata test
and a reading comprehension test on the sample. It could be formulate as follow:
T1 : the test of schemata
T2 : the test of reading comprehension
3.2 Population and sample
The participant of this research was the first-year students of SMAN 2 Kotabumi
of 2012/2013 school year. Nine first-year classes in this school, each of classes
consist of 36 – 38 students.
The sample of this research was taken by using simple random sampling. Simple
random sampling was used to choose which class would be taken as the
participant, the name of each class was written on a piece of paper, and then the
pieces were rolled and put in a box, the box was shaked and the piece that came
out indicated the name of the class that was taken as the sample.
The researcher used simple random sampling class because each of the first-year
students at the school has same opportunity to be a participant. From nine first
year class in this school, each class consisted of 36-38 students; the researcher
took class X.6 as tryout class and X.3 as sample class of this research.
3.3 Research Procedures
Procedures of this research carried out through several steps as follows:
In determining the problem, the researcher does pre-survey at SMAN 2 Kotabumi to investigate the students’ problem of reading skill.
2. Determining the sample of the research
The first year students’ of SMAN 2 Kotabumi consisted of nine classes, purposive
random sampling was used to determine the class that would be taken as the
participants for this research. This technique was applied because each of the
first-year students at the school had the same opportunity to be a participant.
3. Administering the try out
Before the instrument distributed, a try out was conducted to decide whether the
instruments are good design. The try out test included 45 schemata test and 45
reading test. Class X.6 was taken as try out test class. The test was done to have
a good quality if it has a good validity, reliability, level of difficulty and
4. Administering the test
The researcher held in three meeting. The first meeting was conducted to give a
schemata story to students, the second day was conducted schemata test and the
last meeting was used in reading comprehension test.
5. Analyzing the data
After getting the data of students’ schemata and reading comprehension tests, the
researcher analyzed the data by using Pearson Product Moment Correlation
Coefficient Formula (SPSS) for Window Version 16.0 to find out the correlation
3.4 Data Collecting Techniques
In this research, to data collecting techniques was used:
1. Schemata test
There was 30 items for schemata test. The test was objective test. The test
consisted of content schemata, formal schemata, and linguistic schemata.
According to Aebersol and Field (1997: 16-17) mentioned there are three types
of schemata, contents schemata, formal schemata, and linguistic schemata.
From the statement the researcher will use 3 elements schemata to schemata
The scoring criterion was determined around 0-100, so that if student was able
to answer all the items, they score was 100. In scoring students’ result of the
could be seen as follow:
S : the score of the test
r : the total of the right answer
n : the total items
There was 30 items for reading comprehension test. It was multiple choices
with four options (a, b, c, d) with one correct answer and three distracters. The
test consisted of five aspect of reading skills, they were: identifying specific
information, determining main idea, inference, reference, vocabulary. The
scoring was determined around 0-100, so that if a student was able to
answered the entire test item, they score was 100. In scoring the students’
result of the test, the researcher used Arikunto’s formula (Aruikunto, 1997).
The formula could be seen as follow:
� X 100
S : the score of the test
r : the total of the right answer
n : the total items
3.5 Try Out of the Instrument
Before administering the test to the subject class, the researcher had conducted
reading schemata and reading comprehension try out tests in X.6 which consist of
36 students. The try out test was administered on January 7th – 11th January 2013.
answers for each ( A, B, C, D ) . Based on the analysis, 14 item were not valid
(appendix 4). These items were number 2, 5, 9, 12, 13, 17, 20, 21, 30, 33, 35, 38,
43, 45 were dropped and items number 22 were dropped to fix the items test
became 30 question of schemata test. The reliability analysis of the try out test
showed a good, rk = 0.9842 (appendix 6) in other words the test has very high
level of reliability.
Meanwhile, there were 45 items of measuring students’ reading comprehension.
Based on the analysis, 17 items were not valid (appendix 10). These items were
number 3, 6, 10, 12, 13, 17, 21, 26, 31, 32, 33, 39, 40, 41, 43 was dropped and
were number 38, 45 was revised to fix the items test became 30 question of
reading comprehension test. In the reliability analysis, it showed the reliability rk
= 0.9832 (appendix 12). Based on the criteria of the test reliability, that point
belonged to very high level.
The try out test was very important since a good test should meet the criteria in
the term of level difficulty, discrimination power, reliability as well as validity, as
they would be elaborated in the following section:
3.5.1. Validity of the Test
A test could be said valid if test measures the object to be measured and suitable
with the criteria (Hatch and Farhady, 1982: 250). According to Hatch and Farhady
construct validity and empirical validity or criterion-related validity. To measure
whether the test had good validity, content and construct validity.
The two types in this research were:
a. Content validity
Content validity refered to extent to which a test measure a representative sample
the subject matter contents, the focus of the content validity was adequate of the
sample and simply on the appearance of the test (Hatch and Farhady, 1982: 251).
Content validity was intended to know whether the test items are good reflection
of what would be covered. The test items were adapted from the materials that
had been taught to the students should be constructed as to contain representative
sample of the course (Heaton, 1975: 160).
To get the content validity, the items test was determined according to the
material that has been thought students. The test items of schemata test made by
the researcher based on 3 types of schemata that content schemata, formal
schemata, and linguistic schemata. Before the researcher made schemata test the
researcher was discuss the eligibility of schemata test with her lecturers. The
items test of reading comprehension was based on KTSP curriculum of Senior
b. Construct validity
Construct validity was concerned with whether the test was actually in line with
the theory of what it meant to know the language (Shohany, 1985: 74). Regarding
the theory, meaning that the test construction has already in line with the objective
of the learning (Hatch ad Farhady, 1982: 251). It meant that construct validity
could be found by relating the instrument with the theory of what it meant to
know certain knowledge skills. In this research, the researcher measured students’
schemata and their reading comprehension.
Therefore the instrument for measure schemata would test which consist of
content schemata, formal schemata and linguistic schemata. Then, the instrument
for measure the reading comprehension would use comprehension test which
consisted of identifying the specific information, determining the main idea,
references, inferences and vocabulary were formulated in the test items.
Table 2. Specification of Try-out Schemata Test
No Types of schemata Items number Total Items
Table 3. Specification of Try-out Reading Comprehension Test
No Objectives Item Numbers Total
Reliability refered to whether the test was consist in its scoring and gave us and
indication of how accurate the test score are (Shohamy, 1985: 70). the researcher
would use split-half method to estimate the reliability of the test. Hatch and
Farhady (1982: 246) state that to use split half method, we first must split the test
into similar parts. We correlated the scores of the students on the two halves of the
test just if they were two separated test. If the items were homogenous, all odd
number items become one half and even number items become the other half.
Split half technique was used in this the research to estimate the reliability
between odd and even group, the researcher used the Person Product Moment
formula as follow:
( �) ( �)
rl: Coefficient of reliability between odd and even numbers items.
x: Odd number.
y: Even number.
x2: Total score of odd number items.
y2: Total score of even number items.
5 Reference 5, 8, 16, 34, 39, 44 6 13,3 %
xy: Total number of odd and even numbers.
(Lado, 1961 in Hughes, 1991:32).
After getting the reliability of half test, the researcher then uses Spearman Brown’s Prophecy formula (Hatch and Fahady,1982: 246) to determine the
reliability of the whole test as follow:
rk : the reliability of the whole test
rl: the reliability of half test
(Hatch and Farhady, 1982: 247)
The criteria of reliability are:
0.80 – 1.00 : high.
0.50 – 0.79 : moderate.
The researcher found that the reliability of schemata test and reading
comprehension were high 0.984 (on schemata test) and 0.983 (on reading
comprehension) (see Appendix 6 and 12).
3.5.3. Level of Difficulty
Level of difficult relates to “how easy or difficult the item is from the point of
view of the students who took the test. It is important since the test items which
are too easy (that all student get right) can tell us nothing about differences within
the test population” (Shohamy, 1985: 79). Level of difficulty was calculated by
using the following formula:
LD : level of difficulty
U : the number of upper group who answer correctly L : the number of lower group who answer correctly N : total number of student
The criteria are:
LD< 0.30 : hard
0.30<LD> 0.70 : average
LD> 0.70 : easy
The researcher had found that were 8 items (17.8%) were hard, 26 items (57.8%)
were average, and 11 items (24.4%) were easy in schemata try out test. Then in
reading comprehension try out test, the researcher has found that there were 11
items (24.4%) were hard, 26 items (57.8) were average, and 8 items (17.8%)
3.5.4. Discrimination Power
Discrimination power refered to the extent to which the item differentiates
between high and low level students on the test. A good item according to this
criterion was “one in which good students did well, and bad students failed”
(Shomany, 1985: 8). To calculate the discrimination power (DP) of the test items,
the researcher used the following formula:
DP =� − �
DP : discrimination Power
U : the proportion of upper group students
L : the proportion lower group students
N : total number of students
(Shohamy, 1985: 82)
The criteria are:
0.21 – 0.40 : Satisfactory
0.41 – 0.70 : Good
0.70 – 1.00 : Excellent
- (negative) : Bad items (should be omitted) (Heaton, 1975:182)
Based on the table and criteria on appendix 4 of schemata try out test, the
researcher conclude that were 12 items were poor, 17 items were satisfactory, 13
items were good, 1 items were excellent and 1 item were bad.
Based on the table and criteria on Appendix 10 of reading comprehension try out,
the researcher conclude that were 16 items were poor, 16 items were satisfactory,
11 items were good, and 1 items were bad.
After counting the level of difficulty and discrimination power of each item, the
researcher found that 14 items could not meet the criteria of good test and should
be dropped in schemata try out test. The items of schemata tryout test were
numbers 2, 5, 9, 12, 13, 17, 20, 21, 30, 33, 35, 38, 43, 45 was dropped and items
number 22 were dropped to fix items test became 30 questions of schemata test
Based on the analysis, the researcher found that 17 items could not meet the
criteria of good test and should be dropped in reading comprehension try out test.
dropped and were number 38, 45 was revised to fixed items test were 30 question
of reading comprehension test (Appendix 10).
3.6 Data Analysis
After conducting the test, the researcher analyzed the data. It was used to know
whether there was positive significant correlation between students’ schemata and
their reading comprehension in narrative text. The researcher used SPSS 16.0 to
analyze the data.
3.7 Hypothesis Testing
The hypotheses of this research were:
a. H0 = there is no correlation between students’ schemata and their reading
comprehension in narrative text.
b. H1 = there is a correlation between students’ schemata and their reading
comprehension in narrative text.
In order to prove the hypothesis of this research, the researcher was used the
a. Use Pearson Product Moment correlation (SPSS 16.0) in order to investigate
c. Determine the result of correlation in order to investigate the hypothesis. It is
achieved by comparing the result of
with the critical value of r in the
rtable it means that H1 is accepted and the null hypothesis (H0) is
rejected. It means, there is a correlation between students’ schemata and
their reading comprehension
rtable it means that H1is rejected and the null hypothesis (H0) is
accepted. It means, there is no correlation between students’ schemata
V. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
Based on the result of the data analysis and discussions, it could be concluded
1. There was positive significant correlation between students’ schemata and their
reading comprehension ability. The coefficient correlation between students’
schemata and their reading comprehension ability was found to be very high
with index correlation 0.814. It was higher than critical value taken from the
table (rtable = 0.4238) where degree of freedom (df) was 34 at the level
significant 0.01. They were categorized as very high correlation. It indicates
that hypothesis (H1) was accepted and null hypothesis (H0) of the hypothesis
2. The type of schemata mostly used by students was content schemata was found
by researcher when they answered the schemata test. The students were not
only good at formal schemata but also good at finding information and
finding information and identifying main idea were related to the content of the
3. Besides the researcher found that there was correlation between students’
schemata and reading comprehension, the researcher had the result of
schemata test and reading comprehension test. The researcher found that
students who had good score in schemata test also could get good score in
reading comprehension test.
Based on the conclusions previously presented, the researcher would like to give
some suggestions as follow:
1. For English teacher
- They were recommended to activate students’ schemata by giving some
information before giving them some test.
2. For Students
- The students were suggested to use their schemata to answer reading
- Besides that, the students were suggested to improve their reading ability by
schemata was obtained by many activities, one of the activities was
reading, so that it could improve a person's schemata.
3. For Further Researchers
- They were suggested to investigate correlation between schemata to other
skills, such as writing, speaking, or listening skills.
- Furthermore, they were suggested to compare schemata with other