ANALYSIS OF CONVERSATIONAL IMPLICATURE SPOKEN BY HOST AND GUESTS ON “SARAH SECHAN” TALK SHOW

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ANALYSIS OF CONVERSATIONAL IMPLICATURE SPOKEN

BY HOST AND GUESTS ON “SARAH SECHAN” TALK SHOW

THESIS

  

By:

RIRIN RUSMALINA

09360013

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

  

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

2014

  

ANALYSIS OF CONVERSATIONAL IMPLICATURE SPOKEN

BY HOST AND GUESTS ON “SARAH SECHAN” TALK SHOW

THESIS

This Thesis is submitted to meet one of the requirements to

  

Achieve Sarjana Degree in English Education

By:

RIRIN RUSMALINA

  

NIM. 09360013

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

2014

  

This thesis written by Ririn Rusmalina was approved on April 30, 2014. This Thesis was defended in front of the examiners of Faculty of Teacher Training and Education of University of Muhammadiyah Malang and accepted as one of the requirements to achieve

  Sarjana Degree in English Education on April 30, 2014

MOTTO AND DEDICATION

  

“lebih baik kamu mengubah hidupmu, sebelum

hidupmu mengubah kamu ”

(rhein)

  

“Be a strong wall in the hard times, and

be a smiling sun in the good times”

“ Bukan dimana atau siapa Anda saat ini, tetapi

ingin dimana atau menjadi siapa Anda nanti”

  

(Dr. David J. Ichwarty) In the name of Allah, most gracious, most merciful This thesis is dedicated to:

  

My beloved parent,

My mom (Iis Romah) and dad (Humaidi), they are my everything. They are the

light of my life that have guided and treated me to be the way I am now. Their

love always support me to face my life. How lucky I am have both of them.

  

Nothing can replace what they had gave and done for me.

  

My Best sister and Best friends,

Ria Rifatul. J, Dian Anggraeni, and Rosdiana who always be my motivation to face

my life. All of you give spirit in my life.

  

My friends,

Inof (noph2), Febri (pebronk), Lingga (limbok), Irma (Ema’), Prima (mbon), Tika

(cha moetz) and all of class A1 kawok English Dept 2009

  

Thanks for love, spirit, laughter, encouragement, cares and happiness that we

share. Thanks for beautify my steps. All of you guys are amazing.

  

Lilas’ family,

Rosdiana (kakak Ros), Lely (Muniroh), Unike ( Bungo’), Elsy (Gajah kecilku), Novia

(Nop nop), Neni (Sunen) Thanks for beautify my days. Thanks for give me

happiness and meaningful days in my life. Our story will always in my mind, hope

our silahturahmi will be kept forever.

  Someone who always in my dream and hope Hendra Wijaya “Wijayanto”

  

Who always support me to finish my thesis. Who is always beside me in a sweet

and bitter life. Who is always treat me patiently and loves me.

  

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  Alhamdulillahirrabbilalamin, all praises be to Allah SWT for the mercy and . love. Because of His guidance, blessing and affection, the writer can finish this thesis Also may sholawat and salam always be given to the last messenger Muhammad SAW.

  The researcher would like to express her deepest gratitude to Mr. Drs. Munash Fauzie, M.M, and Mrs. Rahmawati khadijah Maro, S.Pd ,M.PEd for their kindness in giving suggestion, guidance and advice during the consultation period.

  Finally, special thank goes to beloved father and mother, who always pray for her, give love, advice, support, and much expense to study.

  TABLE OF CONTENTS

APPROVAL........................................................................................................... i

  LEGALIZATION .............................................................................................. ii MOTTO AND DEDICATION ........................................................................ iii ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................... v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................ vi TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................ vii

  CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION

  1.1 Background of Study .................................................................................... 1

  1.2 Statement of Problem ................................................................................... 5

  1.3 Purpose of Study ......................................................................................... 5

  1.4 The Scope and Limitation ............................................................................ 6

  1.5 Significance of the Study ............................................................................ 6

  1.6 Definition of Key Terms .............................................................................. 7

  CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  2.1 Linguistic ...................................................................................................... 9

  2.2 Pragmatic .................................................................................................... 10

  2.3 Implicature.................................................................................................. 10

  2.4 Conversational Implicature ........................................................................ 11

  2.4.1 The theory of Conversational Implicature .......................................... 11

  2.4.2 Cooperative Principle of Conversational Implicature ........................ 12

  A. Definition of Cooperative Principle ................................................ 12

  B. The Maxim of Cooperative Principle .............................................. 13

  a. Maxim of Quantity ..................................................................... 13

  b. Maxim of Quality ....................................................................... 14

  c. Maxim of Relevance ................................................................... 15

  d. Maxim of Manner ....................................................................... 15

  C. Maxim Violation of Cooperative Principle ..................................... 16

  a. Violation of Maxim Quantity ..................................................... 16

  b. Violation of Maxim Quality ....................................................... 17

  c. Violation of Maxim Relevance ................................................... 18

  d. Violation of Maxim Manner....................................................... 18

  2.4.3 Kinds of Conversational Implicature ................................................. 19

  2.4.3.1 Generalized Conversational Implicature ................................ 19

  2.4.3.2 Particularized Conversational Impllicature ............................ 21

  2.4.4 The Characteristics of the Conversational Implicature ..................... 22

  1. Cancellability................................................................................. 22

  2. Non-detachability .......................................................................... 23

  3. Calculability .................................................................................. 23

  4. Non-conventionality ...................................................................... 24

  5. Indeterminacy ................................................................................ 24

  2.5 Translation .................................................................................................. 25

  2.5.1 Types of Translation ................................................................................ 25

  2.5.1.1 Intralingual Translation ................................................................... 26

  2.5.1.2 Interlingual Translation ................................................................... 26

  2.5.1.3 Intersemiotic Translation ................................................................. 26

  2.6 Meaning ..................................................................................................... 26

  2.7 Types of Meaning ....................................................................................... 27

  2.7.1 Lexical and Grammatical Meaning ..................................................... 27

  2.7.2 Contextual Meaning ............................................................................ 28

  2.7.3 Referential Meaning ............................................................................ 28

  2.7.4 Denotative and Connotative Meaning ................................................. 29

  2.7.5 Conceptual and Associative Meaning ................................................. 29

  2.7.6 Figurative Meaning ............................................................................. 30

  2.7.7 Thematic Meaning .............................................................................. 31

  2.7.8 Collocative Meaning ........................................................................... 31

  CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  3.1 Research Design ......................................................................................... 32

  3.2 Research Object .......................................................................................... 33

  3.3 Research Instrument ................................................................................... 34

  3.3.1 Observation ........................................................................................ 34

  3.3.2 Documentation ................................................................................... 35

  3.4 Data Collection ........................................................................................... 36

  3.5 Data Analysis ............................................................................................. 36

  CHAPTER IV: RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

  4.1 Research Findings ...................................................................................... 38

  4.1.1 Implicature Found in the Conversation of First Episode .................. 38

  4.1.2 Implicature Found in the Conversation of Second Episode ............. 44

  4.1.3 Implicature Found in the Conversation of Third Episode ............... 51

  4.1.4 Implicature Found in the Conversation of Fourth Episode .............. 58

  4.1.5 Implicature Found in Conversational of Fifth Episode ..................... 63

  4.2 Discussion .................................................................................................. 69

  CHAPTER V: CONCLUSSION AND SUGGESTION

  5.1 Conclussion .................................................................................................... 74

  5.2 Suggestion ....................................................................................................... 76

  

BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................... 78

APPENDIX 1 ....................................................................................................... 82

APPENDIX 2 ..................................................................................................... 122

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  Carston, Robyn. 2002. Thoughts and Utterances: The Pragmatics of Explicit Communication. UK: Blackwell. Carston, Robyn. 2004. Truth-Conditional Content and Conversational Implicature.

  Batty, Clare. 2008. The Referential Theory of Meaning. Philosophy 565. Blackwell, Sarah E. 2002. Implicature in Discourse: The Case of Spanish NP anaphora. University Of Georgia: John Benjamins.

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  Is Theory of Translation Needed to Build Students’ Translation Competence?. FBS Negeri Padang University Press.

  Bandung: Padjajaran University Prees. Ardi, Havid. 2012.

  Speech act and Implicit meaning (Grice’s theory of conversational implicature and Sperber and Wilson’s relevance theory).

  • Claudia Bianchi (ed). CSLI
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Crystal, David. 2008. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. 6

  th ed. UK: Blackwell.

  Djadjasudarma, Fatimah. 2009. Semantik 2 pemahaman ilmu Makna. Bandung: Refika Aditama. Gay, L.R and Airasian Peter. 2003. Educational Research. Pearson Education, Ict.US of America. Giora, Rachel and Fein, Ofer. 1999. On Understanding Familiar and Less-Familiar Figurative Language. N-H Elsevier. Hasen, Mosegaard Maj-Britt. 2008. Particles at the Semantics/Pragmatics interface:

Syncronic and Diachronic Issues. UK: Manchester University Press.

Hatim, Basil and Munday, J. 2004. Translation: An advanced resource book. London and New York: Routledge. Hybels, S and Weaver II, R. L. 2003. Communicating Effectively. -7

  th ed. US: McGraw-Hill.

  Khosravizadeh, Parvaneh and Sadehvandi, Nikan. 2011. Some Instances of Violation

  and Flouting of the Maxim of Quantity by the Main Characters (Barry & Tim) in Dinner for Schmucks. Singapore: IACSIT Press.

  Levinson, Stephen C. 2000. Presumption Meanings: The Theory of Generalized Conversational Implicature Language,Speech, and Communication.

  Cambridge: MIT Press. Machali, Rochayah. 2009. Pedoman bagi Penerjemah. Bandung: Mizan Pustaka. Mey, L. Jacob. 2001. Pragmatics: An Introduction. -2

  nd ed. UK: Blackwell.

  Meyer, F. Charles. 2009. Introducing: English Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Nida, Eugene A. 2001. Contexts in Translation. John Benjamins Publishing Company. Nugraheni, Yunita. 2010. Analysis of Implicature in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire Movie scrip. Semarang: UNIMUS Press.

  Oxford Dictionar. -4 th

ed. 2011. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  Pateda, Mansoer. 2001. Semantik Leksikal. -2

  nd ed. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.

  Polkinghorn, Donald E. 2005. Language and Meaning: Data Collection in Qualitative Research. California: University of Southern California.

  Potts, Christopher. 2005. The Logic of Conversational Implicatures. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pott, Chris. 2013. Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics: Conversational Implicatures. Stanford. Prosad, Litton.2009. An MA project: Seven types of meaning in semantics.

  Litton’s Universe of Language Teaching. Pynn, Geoff. 2011.

  Handout7: Grice’s Theory of Implicature. Northern Illinois University Press.

  Rachmanto. 2010. Conversationa

  l Implicature in the Humor Discourse “Gemericik Ala Gus Mus”. Surakarta: USM Press.

  Rahmawati, Fadhilah. 2009. Pragmatics Approach: Implicature in Doraemon Comic.

  Surakarta: USM Press. Recanati, Francois. 2003. Embedded Implicatures. Institut Jean-Nicod. Risdianto, Faizal. 2011.

  A conversational implicature: Analysis in Oscar Wilde’s Short Story “Happy Prince”. Salatiga: State Islamic Studies Institute Press.

  Sarah, Julia. 2011. Pragmatics Observation: Pematuhan dan Pelanggaran Prinsip

Kerja Sama dan Prinsip Kesatuan dalam Facebook. Depok: UI Press.

Sbisa, Marina. 2003. The Rationally of Conversational Implicature. Trieste University Press. Sukyadi, Sudrsono and Parayil Nanda Sheila. 2011. Conversational Implicature of The Presenters in Take Me Out Indonesia. Bandung: UPI Press. Susanti, Abonotika and Rahayu. 2012.

  Analysis of Humor in the “Kariage-Kun Vol 35” Comic. Riau: Riau Univerity Press. nd Trask, R.L. 2007. Language and Linguistics. -2 ed. USA and Canada: Rutledge.

  Tubbs, Stewart .L & Moss, Sylvia. 2003. Human communication: Principles and

  th Contexts. -9 ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

  Under, Kuwat. 2009. Prinsip Percakapan. Wijaya, Awin. 2013. Types of Meaning. Wang, Haiyan. 2011. Conversational Implicature in English Listening Comprehension. China: Qingdao University of Science and Technology Press.

  th Wardaugh, Ronald. 2006. An Introduction to sociolinguistics.-5 ed.USA: Blackwell.

  th Wiley, John. Copyright, 2010. ed. Webster’s New World: College Dictionary. -4 Ohio: Wiley. th

  Yule, George. 2010. The Study of Language. -4 ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter will discuss the background of the study, the statement of the

  problems, the purpose of the study, the significance of the study, the scope and the limitation, and the definition of the key terms.

1.1 Background of the Study

  Human as a social community need the communication as the way to interact with other human in this world. Communication also used as the way to exchange information between two people or more, the process of communication can run well by using the exact communication method. Communication has been broadly defined as “the sharing of experience,” and to some extent all living organism can be said to share experience, it is also the process of creating a meaning between two or more people (Tubbs and Moss, 2003).

  According to Hybels and Weaver II (2004) communication is any process in which people shared information, ideas, and feeling. It involves not only the spoken and written word but also body language, personal mannerism, and styles anything that adds meaning to a message. So it can be concluded communication is the process of sharing an experience, an idea, information, and feeling. It also process of creating a meaning.

  When we do the communication we need media as the way to make interaction run well, and that was conversation. Wardaugh (2006) definition of conversation as a cooperative activity also in the sense that is involves two parties,

  

1 each of whom must allowed the opportunity to participate. It can be concluded that the conversation happens between two or more than two persons. All participants in conversation must respect or concern to the topics and what is the meaning that is imply in the conversation.

  In a conversation or speech, sometimes manifested intention or meaning having an explicit and implicit meaning. The speaker in making substitutions should fulfill the rules of the conversation, in order to the meaning can easily understood by the hearer or listener. However, intentionally or unintentionally sometimes they break the rules. This is resulted the emergence of something that is implicated or something implicit in the use of language (Mey 1993, in Nugraheni 2010).

  Risdianto (2011) says in a case of conversational implicature the hearer importantly makes the assumption that the speaker is not violation one of the conversational maxims, relevance, informativeness, or clarity, but in fact, it has a contradiction in real daily conversation. It makes possible for the use of implicature to give more elaboration on the lingual phenomenon. Grice (1975 in Sukyadi 2011) also says, conversational implicature for the case in which what speaker means or implies is different from what is said but it still the part of what is said.

  Conversational implicature is very interesting to be known for several reasons; first, it is one of the language phenomena that exist in our social life because this study focused on the meaning of language that cannot explain in semantic study. Then, unconsciously it is common used by people in their daily conversation and found in other talk media, but still many of them did not know what the meaning of conversational implicature in their conversation. Therefore, in order to avoid

  

2 misunderstanding in interpreting the communication and to avoid the touchiness between two people or more on the conversation, it is very important for researcher as an English learner to understand about conversational implicature.

  In fact, conversational implicature can be easily found on a conversation in our surrounding, such as in magazine, movie scripts, television advertisement and movie. The researcher assumes that is also important to find and analyze the conversational implicature in other part of language that was talk show television program.

  Talking about talk show, now on there are many talk show in Indonesia such as Hitam Putih, Show imah, Bukan Empat Mata, Kick Andi, Just Alvin, To Night

  

Show, Sarah Sechan, etc. Those talk shows usually give the audience important

  informations which wraps in an interesting theme. Those talk shows TV program, usually present the famous or guests who can give inspiration for the audience. One of the popular Indonesian talk show TV program is “Sarah Sechan” which is broadcasted by NET.

  Before going to talk further about “Sarah Sechan” talk show, it is also important to know what NET is. Based on Azalia (2013) in her article at disukai.com, NET is new TV channel which launching premiered on 26 May 2013. Previously, the station was named Space Toon TV that is specifically designed for children.

  However, after the former director of Trans Corp Wishnutama join into PT. Indika Multimadia, INDIKA GROUP the station’s name changed become NET. Having renamed into NET then featured programs is present, and one of those programs is a talk show entitled “Sarah Sechan”.

  

3

  Sarah Sechan program is an interesting talk show. The name of the program

  is taken from the name of the presenter who guides this event. Just like other talk show this program also will invite the guests but they will discuss or talk things that may not have been known by many people. Not only that, Sarah Sechan will also present other interesting things that will engage the audience in the studio and at home. “Sarah Sechan” in NET TV is packed in a relaxed, charming and full of humor but still informative. In the program, there are many conversational implicature used by the host and the guests found by researcher when they talk in the conversation. So that, the researcher chooses “Sarah Sechan” talk show TV program to be analyzed especially about conversational implicature.

  There are two previous studies, which are related with the topic of the study that were conducted by Risdianto (2011), Wang (2011).

  Risdianto (2011) who was studied about Conversational Implicature on

  

Oscar Wilde’s Happy Prince found that conversational implicature make him easy to

  understand the dialog or conversation in the short story. Because, in the short story there are some variation’s meanings of conversational implicature used in Oscar Wilde’s Happy Prince, as follows: conversational implicature connected with cooperative principle, politeness principle, and ironical principle. The purpose of this study found, that conversational implicature aimed to minimize the misunderstanding among the reader and literary critics.

  Wang (2011) on her research about Conversational Implicature in English

  Listening Comprehension

  found that Grice’s conversational implicature theory influence listening comprehension deeply, especially in understanding conversations.

  

4 She emphasizes on using the Grice’s conversational implicature theory to guide the English listening comprehension. According to her both the necessary linguistic theories and pragmatic theory can help learners better understand implicated meaning in English listening.

  Because there is no research abo ut study on “conversational implicature” used in talk show, the researcher chooses this title of her thesis

  “Analysis of Conversational Implicature spoken by the Host and Guests on “Sarah Sechan” Talk show”.

1.2 Statement of problem

  Concerning with the title above, the problem of this study can be formulated as follows:

1. What are kinds of conversational implicature spoken by host and guests on

  “Sarah Sechan” talk show? 2. What are the meanings of conversational implicature spoken by host and guests on “Sarah Sechan” talk show?

1.3 Purpose of the study

  Based on the problems above, there are two purposes of the study. They are: 1. To know kinds of conversational implicature spoken by host and guests on “Sarah Sechan” talk show.

2. To know the meanings of conversational implicature spoken by host and guests on “Sarah Sechan” talk show.

  

5

  1.4 The scope and Limitation

  There are many examples of the use of conversational implicature can be analyzed and discussed such in the movie, reality show, talk show, even in our social life. Therefore, it is impossible for the researcher to study all of them. In this study the researcher limited her study only on conversational implicature spoken by the hos t and guests on “Sarah Sechan” talk show of five episodes broadcasted on 8, 9, 16, 25, 27 January 2014.

  1.5 Significance of the Study

  Theoretically, this research is expected to give contribution to the linguistic, especially in the terms of communication in conversational imlpicature. This study also will give additional information to the readers, they will know about conversational implicature in “Sarah Sechan” talk show spoken by host and guests.

  As a result, the English department student of linguistic studies will know about the definition of conversational implicature, various kinds of it, and also the meaning.

  Practically, researcher really expects this study will be a useful reference for those who are want to study further about conversational implicature, and for those who are want to study and understand about all the forms, contents and the meaning of the conversational implicature concerning to conversational implicature spoken by host and guests on “Sarah Sechan” talk show. Then, the researcher hopes this thesis will enrich the references of knowledge and also will be useful for all the readers.

  

6

1.6 Definition of Key Terms

  To avoid misunderstanding in interpreting the terms of the title, the researcher considers that it is better for readers to understand them, before studying the discussions are follows: 1.

   Conversational Implicature: is a special case of situations in which the

  perceived meaning extends beyond the literal meaning. Conversational implicature is, therefore, something which is implied in conversation, that is, something which is left implicit in actual language use (James 1967, in Wang 2011).

  2. Host: is person who introduces guests on radio or television program (Oxford

  Dictionary, 2011). In this study, host is a person who guides the event on talk show television program.

  3. Guest: is famous person who takes part in television show (Oxford

  Dictionary, 2011). In this study, guest is a famous or inspire person who invite by host to discuss or share their wonderful experience as an inspiration for audience.

  4. NET: is Indonesian TV station which launches on 26 May 2013 and involve

  many interesting program such as: design program, fashion, news, infotainment, talk show, sport, and music shown in interesting way (Azalia, 2013).

  5. Sarah Sechan: is Indonesian talk show program on NET TV is taken from

  the name of the presenter who will guide this event, Sarah Sechan. She will

  

7 invite a guest to talk and discuss things that may not have been known by many people (NET TV, 2013).

6. Talk show: is the radio or television program featuring informal

  conversation, often on a particular topic or range of topics between a host and, variously, guest celebrities and expert, members of a studio audience, or listeners or viewers telephoning from their homes (Wiley, 2010). In this study, talk show is the television programming guided by host and there are the famous or inspiring people as guests who did the interaction through the conversation that watched by audiences.

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