AN ANALYSIS OF DEIXIS USED BY HELEN AS THE MAIN CHARACTER IN GEORGE SULLIVAN’S NOVEL “HELEN KELLER”

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AN ANALYSIS OF DEIXIS USED BY HELEN AS THE MAIN CHARACTER

  

IN GEORGE SULLIVAN’S NOVEL “HELEN KELLER”

THESIS

By

Dyah Ayu Kartika

  

09360254

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

  

2014 This thesis written by Dyah Ayu Kartika was approved on March 31, 2014.

  By: This thesis was defended in front of the examiners of Faculty of Teacher Training and Education of University of Muhammadiyah Malang and accepted as one of requirements to achieve

  Sarjana Degree in English Education.

  On October 31, 2013 Approved by:

  Faculty of Teacher Training and Education University of Muhammadiyah Malang

MOTTO AND DEDICATION MOTTO

  " Think first that what you want to do before doing it

  Believe that God always listens and helps you"

  DEDICATION: I dedicated this thesis to Allah SWT, lecturers, my beloved husband and, my son, and my parents

  

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  All praises be to Allah SWT, the Lord who has bestowed the blessing upon me in completing this thesis. Peace and upon our prophet Muhammad SAW, His families, His companion and His followers.

  My appreciation goes to my first advisor Drs. Soeparto, M. Pd. who had given me his time, his meaningful guidance in completing my thesis and supporting me to improve my English. My deep gratitude also is presented for my second advisor Drs.Imam Mahfudz for valuable help, guidance, correction and suggestion for completing my thesis.

  The great regard and gratitude are given to my beloved husband Gagug Setyo Wahyudi S.T, my son Keannu Al-Ghifachry Z, my mother Marsinah, my father Toepan (alm), my parent-in-law Suprianto and Minatun who always give me support, pray, finance, they are my role model in the world, special thanks to all my family and friends.

AN ANALYSIS OF DEIXIS USED BY HELEN AS THE MAIN CHARACTER

  

IN GEORGE SULLIVAN’S NOVEL “HELEN KELLER”

ABSTRACT

  Misunderstanding and misinterpretation do not only occur in oral expressions, but also in wri tten expressions such as the interpretation of an authors’ expression expressed in short stories or novels. In reading English novels, sometimes readers get difficulties in understanding the sentences to interpret the message. Therefore, understanding written expressions also needs the context, in this case, who, where and when the expressions are made, which is included in deixis theory. This study is focused on deixis in the novel entitled Helen Keller written by George Sullivan.

  The purpose of this study was to classify the deixises and their types used by Helen as the main character in George Sullivan’s novel. This study used qualitative research design because it investigates the utterances of the deixis used by Helen as the main character in George Sul livan’s novel “Helen Keller” by using human as the instrument. In collecting the data, In collecting the data, the writer read to understandd the novel, selected the data dealing with the problems which become the focus of the study, namely deixis, rewrote all of the data which have been selected based on the original quotation in the novel “Helen

  Keller

  ”. Then, the writer analyzed by identifying the data which were categorized as deixis, analyzing the data based on person, spatial, and temporal deixis, and describing and developing the results of analysis into good sentences by presenting the proofs. chara cter in George Sullivan’s novel consisted a person, temporal and spatial deixis. In this study, a person deixis used by Helen were I, my, me, she, her, they, their, them,

  

you, your, he, this, that, it, we, our, and us. A temporal deixis are at times, that day,

and the markers of present, past or future form verbs. While spatial deixis found here

  were here, and that other room.

  It can be concluded that Helen ’s utterances in George Sullivan’s novel Helen

  

Keller contain person, temporal and spatial deixis. Among these three kinds of deixis,

person deixis was found more in Helen’s utterances than temporal and spatial deixis.

  Key Words: Person, Temporal, and Spatial Deixis.

  

TABLE OF CONTENTS

APPROVAL ........................................................................................................ i

LEGALIZATION ............................................................................................... ii

MOTTO & DEDICATION ............................................................................... iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................ iv

ABSTRACT ......................................................................................................... v

TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................... vi

  2.3 Deixis ................................................................................................ 7

  2.5.2.The Elemen of Novel .................................................................. 13

  2.5.1Kinds of Novel ............................................................................. 12

  2.5 Novel ................................................................................................ 12

  2.3.3 Spatial Deixis ............................................................................. 10 2. 4 Deictic Center................................................................................... 11

  2.3.2 Temporal Deixis ......................................................................... 10

  2.3.1 Person Deixis ............................................................................... 9

  2.2 Context .............................................................................................. 6

  CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study ...................................................................

  5

  4 2.1 Pragmatics ........................................................................................

  1.5 Scope and Limitation ....................................................................... 4 1.6 Definition of the Key Terms ............................................................

  3

  3 1.4 Significance of the Study ..................................................................

  3 1.3 Purposes of the Study ........................................................................

  1 1.2 Statement of the Problems ...............................................................

  2.6 Helen Keller Novel ............................................................................. 16

  CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Design ................................................................................

  18 3.2 Research Object ................................................................................

  19 3.3 Research Instrument ..........................................................................

  19 3.4 Data Collection..................................................................................

  20 3.5 Data Analysis ....................................................................................

  20 CHAPTER IV: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS

  4.1 Research Findings ............................................................................. 21

  4.1.1 The Deixis and their types used by Helen as the Main Character in George Sullivan’s Novel ............................................................... 21

  4.1.1.1 Person Deixis ............................................................................ 22

  4.1.1.2 Temporal Deixis ........................................................................ 43 4.1.1.3 Spatial Deixis ............................................................................

  46 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 5.1 Conclusions .......................................................................................

  50 5.2 Suggestions .......................................................................................

  51 REFERENCES

  APPENDIX

  

REFERENCES

Arp, Thomas, R. & Johnson, Greg. 2006.

  Perine’s Literature: Structure, Sound, and Sense. Boston. Thomson Wardsworth.

  Ary, D., Jacobs, and Razavieh, A. 2002. Introduction to Research in Education Sixth Edition. US: Thomson Wadsworth Inc.

  Dylgjeri, A. & Kazazi, L. 2013. Deixis in Modern Linguistics and Outside. Academic Journal and Interdisciplinary Studies. sapienza University of Rome. May, 2013. Vol 2 no 4.

  Grundy, Peter. 2000. Doing Pragmatics. Second edition. London. Arnold, a member of the Hodder Group.

  Kusnosoebroto, S.B. 1988. The Anatomy of Prose Fiction. Jakarta. Depdikbud. Dirjen Pendidikan Tinggi.

  Macmillan. 1984. Understanding Literature. California: Macmillan Publishing a division of Macmillan Inc.

  Meyer, Michael. 1990. The Bedford Introduction to Literature. Boston: Bedford books of St Martin's Press.

  Sullivan, G. 2000. Children Nonfiction. Young Adult Nonfiction. National Council Teachers of English. Scholastic Inc. Retrieved fro

  ______. ND.

  The Story of my Life Study Guide “Helen Keller”. Retrieved from

  Yule, George. 2006. The Study of Language. Third Edition. New York. Cambridge University Press.

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter presents background of the study, statement of the problems,

  purposes of the study, significance of the study, scope and limitation, and definition of the key terms.

1.1 Background of the Study

  Language is a means of communication in daily life. However, communication does not always work smoothly because sometimes the speaker’s message can not be conveyed well. So, misunderstanding may occur when a hearer interprets the utterance because of the different situation related to who, where, and when the utterances are uttered. Some sentences are impossible to understand when the hearer does not know who, when and where the sentences are conveyed. It needs to know the context of the utterances in order that misunderstanding and misinterpretation can be avoided.

  Spoken and written language sometimes can be ambiguous to a hearer or addressee. Misunderstanding and misinterpretation do not only occur in oral expressions, but also in written expressions such as the interpretation of an authors’ expression expressed in short stories or novels. In reading English novels, sometimes readers get difficulties in understanding the sentences to interpret the message.

  2 Therefore, understanding written expressions also needs the context, in this case, who, where and when the expressions are made. That is included in deixis theory.

  The theory which deals with pointing to something is called deixis. It is derived from Greek language which means “to point a thing”. According to Yule (2010: 130), deixis which is used to point to things and people are called person deixis, words and phrases used to point to a location are called spatial deixis, and those used to point to a time are called temporal deixis. The theory of deixis is chosen because deixis is used to point to a thing in order to make clear what the speaker means. The writer chooses the novel to be analyzed because the writer has assumed that novel has many kinds of deixis that can be analyzed.

  This study is focused on deixis in the novel entitled Helen Keller written by George Sullivan. Deixis studied here is focused on the types of deixis which includes the deixis which points to a person or thing, location, and time. Helen Keller novel was based on the true story of Helen Keller, a blind and deaf girl who succeeded becoming a writer, speaker, and traveler. This novel contains a very good one which may inspire the people who read it because it is full of good emotions which take the main character to be successful in her life although she lives with limitedness. The writer of this study supposed that this novel is necessary to be read by many people to encourage them to face life enthusiastically because the main character of this novel was described as an enthusiastic person to realize her dreams.

  Considering that Hellen Keller novel is good to read, the writer thinks that this novel also needs to be analyzed in terms of the deixis, namely person, spatial, and

  3 temporal deixis because by knowing the deixis, the readers of the novel can know the context at least in terms of person, place, and time which are referred to in order to be clear in catching what the author meant. So, the readers of the novel will not misunderstand nor misinterpret the contents.

  1.2 Statement of the Problems

  Based on the background of the study above, the problems can be formulated as follows: “What are the deixises and their types of deixis used by Helen as the main character in George Sullivan’s novel?”

  1.3 The purposes of the Study

  Related to the statement of problems above, the purposes of the study can be explained as follows: “To classify the deixises and their types used by Helen as the main character in George Sullivan’s novel.”

  1.4 Significance of the Study This study is expected to have both theoretical and practical significance.

  Theoretically, this study is expected to encourage the students that deixis theory is important to understand to avoid misunderstanding utterances. Practically, this study

  4 gives more proofs of deixis usage, so, the readers of this study can understand the theory of deixis more easily.

  1.5 Scope and Limitation

  The scope of this study is focused on deixis in the George Sullivan’s novel

  

Helen Keller. This deixis here is limited only the types of deixis used by Helen as the

  main character in the George Sullivan’s novel Helen Keller.

  1.6 Definition of Key Terms

  Deixis is using words such as this, that, now, here, there, as a way of pointing with language (Yule, 2010).

  Main Character is the most important character in a story (Koesnosoebroto, 1988). The main character of this novel is a girl names Helen.

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