THE DESCRIPT TION OF TTHE EXTEN NDED KINS SHIP OF KKARONESE E SOCIET TY A PAPER BY DESSMA SARI BANGUN REG G. NO. 082202061 UNIVERSIT U TY OF NOR RTH SUMA ATERA FACULTYY OF CULT TURE STUDIES DIP PLOMA III ENGLISH STUDY PR ROGRAM MEDA AN JULY 20 011 Universitas Sumatera Utara It has been approved by Supervisor, Dra. Persadanta Br. Karo, M.Hum NIP. 19610204198601 2 001 Submitted to Faculty of Culture Studies, University of North Sumatera in partial fulfillment of the requirements for DIPLOMA (D‐III) in English Approved by Head of Diploma III English Study Program, Dr. Matius C.A. Sembiring, M.A NIP: 19521126198112 1 001 Approved by the Diploma III of English Study Program Faculty of Culture Studies, University of North Sumatra As a paper for the Diploma (D‐III) Examination Universitas Sumatera Utara Accepted by the Board of Examiners in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the D‐ III of Examination of the Diploma III of English Study Program, Faculty of Culture Studies, University of North Sumatera. The examination is held on .2011 Faculty of Culture Studies, University of North Sumatera Dean, Dr. Syahron Lubis, M.A NIP: 19511013197603 1 001 Board of Examiners Signature 1. Dr. Matius C.A. Sembiring, M.A. (Head of ESP) ______________ 2. Dra. Persadanta Br. Karo, M.Hum (Supervisor) ______________ 3. Drs. Siamir Marulafau, M.Hum (Reader) ______________ Universitas Sumatera Utara AUTHOR'S DECLARATION I am DESMA SARI BANGUN, declare that I am the sole author of this paper. Except where the reference is made in the text of this paper, this paper contains no material published elsewhere or extracted in whole or in part from a paper by which I have qualified for or awarded another degree. No other person’s work has been used without due acknowledgement in the main text of this paper. This paper has not been submitted for the award of another degree in any tertiary education. Signed : Date . : Universitas Sumatera Utara COPYRIGHT DECLARATION Name : DESMA SARI BANGUN Title of Paper : THE DESCRIPTION OF THE EXTENDED KINSHIP OF KARONESE SOCIETY Qualification : D-III/Ahli Madya Study Program : English I am willing that my paper should be available for reproduction at the discretion of the Librarian of the Diploma III English Department Faculty of Culture Studies USU on the understanding that users are made aware of their obligation under law of the Republic of Indonesia. Signed : . Date Universitas Sumatera Utara Abstrak Kertas karya ini membicarakan tentang hubungan kekerabatan yang berlaku di kalangan masyarakat Karo, system kekerabatan yang dimiliki oleh masyarakat Karo mempunyai suatu fenomena yang bagus dan menarik, sesuai ideologisnya bahwa setiap anggota masyarakat Karo dengan anggota lainnya pasti mempunyai hubungan yang diikat oleh suatu konvensi tentang kekerabatan walau dimana saja pun mereka berada. Masyarakat Karo mempunyai ciri khas yang tidak dimiliki oleh suku lain yang ada di dunia ini. Secara umum istilah kekerabatan yang dianut oleh masyarakat Karo ada sebanyak 24 dan hal ini dapat dibaca pada halaman 3, kemungkinan kekerabatan tersebut ada sebanyak 8 dan dapat dilihat pada halaman 12 kertas karya ini terdiri atas 30 halaman. Metode yang digunakan untuk menulisnya adalah metode deskriptif dan penelitian lapangan. Data diperoleh dari beberapa informan. Universitas Sumatera Utara Abstract This paper is talking about the extended kinship among the society of Karo. This extended kinship has a good phenomena. According to its philosophy that all the members of Karonese have their own relationship in the kinship system. Where ever they are, since they have the characteristics of Karo society, that is family names of Karonese they have relation according to the kinship generally the common kinship that the society of Karo has twenty for terms. Those twenty four terms can be seen in page 3, and the extended kinship they have eight terms. They are written in pages 12 , this paper consists of 30 pages. The method of writing applied is field research. The forces of the required data taken from some information. Universitas Sumatera Utara ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Thanks to God for His mercy and glory to the Savior, Jesus Christ, for His love, guidance in leading me during my study as well asa the completion of this paper. In this opportunity, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisor, Dra. Persadanta Br. Karo, M.Hum, for the support, encouragement, and for guiding me in finishing this paper. Her patience and welcome council have had many valuable constructive suggestion. And also I would give thanks to my reader Mr. Siamir Marulafau,M.Hum. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to the Dean of Faculty of Letters, Dr. Syahron Lubis, M.A, and the head of Diploma III English Study Program, Dr.Matuius C.A. Sembiring, M.A. who had given me great deal of knowledge from the time I entered the faculty to the presence this paper. And I also would say thanks to my lecture for the valuables guidance, precious thoughts and knowledge throughout my academic years. My hearties and deepest gratitude are due to my beloved mother, my father, and all my families for their endless love, advice, cares, prayers, materials, and supports during my study. My sincere and warm thanks are also devoted to my close friends, Ocha, Dedy, Armando, Oki, Ana, who always support and give me advices as long as my study and finishing my paper, and for my true friends, who always give me attention during my study, Universitas Sumatera Utara Finally, I realize that this paper is still far for being perfect. Therefore, advice, constructive-critics, and suggestion aimed at this paper will be warmly welcome and highly appreciated Medan, September 2011 The writer, Desma Sari Bangun Reg. No. 082202061 Universitas Sumatera Utara Table of Contents AUTHOR’S DECLARATION . i COPYRIGHT DECLARATION . ii ABSTRAK . iii ABSTRACT . iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . v TABLE OF CONTENTS . vii 1. INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Background 1 1.2 Problems 1 1.3 Scope of Writing 1 1.4 Purpose of writing 2 1.5 Reasons for Choosing the Topic 2 1.6 Method of Writing 2 2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 3 2.1 Kinship in General 3 2.1 Society 3 3. KARONESE SOCIETY’S KINSHIP 10 3.1 Common Kinship 10 3.2 Extended Kinship 12 3.2.1 Sembuyak 15 3.2.2 Sembuyak Sepemeren 15 3.2.3 Sembuyak Siparibanen 16 3.2.4 Sembuyak Sepengalon/ Sedalanen 16 3.2.5 Anak Beru 20 3.2.6 Anak Beru Menteri 24 3.2.7 Kalimbubu 25 Universitas Sumatera Utara 3.2.8 Puang Kalimbubu 25 4. CONCLUSON AND SUGGESTION 27 4.1 Conclusion 27 4.2 Suggestion 28 BIBLIOGRAPHY 30 Universitas Sumatera Utara Abstrak Kertas karya ini membicarakan tentang hubungan kekerabatan yang berlaku di kalangan masyarakat Karo, system kekerabatan yang dimiliki oleh masyarakat Karo mempunyai suatu fenomena yang bagus dan menarik, sesuai ideologisnya bahwa setiap anggota masyarakat Karo dengan anggota lainnya pasti mempunyai hubungan yang diikat oleh suatu konvensi tentang kekerabatan walau dimana saja pun mereka berada. Masyarakat Karo mempunyai ciri khas yang tidak dimiliki oleh suku lain yang ada di dunia ini. Secara umum istilah kekerabatan yang dianut oleh masyarakat Karo ada sebanyak 24 dan hal ini dapat dibaca pada halaman 3, kemungkinan kekerabatan tersebut ada sebanyak 8 dan dapat dilihat pada halaman 12 kertas karya ini terdiri atas 30 halaman. Metode yang digunakan untuk menulisnya adalah metode deskriptif dan penelitian lapangan. Data diperoleh dari beberapa informan. Universitas Sumatera Utara Abstract This paper is talking about the extended kinship among the society of Karo. This extended kinship has a good phenomena. According to its philosophy that all the members of Karonese have their own relationship in the kinship system. Where ever they are, since they have the characteristics of Karo society, that is family names of Karonese they have relation according to the kinship generally the common kinship that the society of Karo has twenty for terms. Those twenty four terms can be seen in page 3, and the extended kinship they have eight terms. They are written in pages 12 , this paper consists of 30 pages. The method of writing applied is field research. The forces of the required data taken from some information. Universitas Sumatera Utara 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background The title of this paper is ‘The description of the extended kinship of Karonese society’. This paper is talking about the extended kinship of Karonese society. The society of Karonese live mostly in one regency is in the regency of Kabupaten Karo in the Province of North Sumatera. Out of the North Sumatera Province the people of Karo can be found in some p art of Indonesia. This writing is a qualitative writing. The data taken from some informants who are treated as the representative of the Karonese society. The village of those informants is Kabanjahe. This writing is different with the writing of a language, because the linguistic aspects are different with the terms kinship. Language can be influenced by the invironment, but the terms kinship are not. Kinship terms are used to addressed someone by someone. 1.2 The Problems The problem in this writing is the extended family that practiced by the society of Karonese. The uniqueness of its extended kinship cannot be understood by the society of non-Karonese Society without studying it hard or reading this paper. 1.3 The Scope of Writing When we want to discuss about society there will be tremendous things to be talk about. So in discussing the kinship also is a complex one to be talk about. Therefore in writing this paper the writer wants to describe about the kinship that practiced by the society of Karonese. It seems that the kinship of Karonese society is a little bit complex and unique. The system of karonese kinship is different with Universitas Sumatera Utara the kinship that owned and practiced by other society. For example the kinship that owned by the European society. 1.4 The Purposes of Writing this Paper There are some reasons in order to write this paper. Firstly, the writer wish and plans to finish her study from the Diploma III of the English Study of the Faculty of Culture Study of the University of North Sumatera a nd for any student who want to get the certificate for it, she is required to write and submit a paper to the Faculty and the Department. Therefore she wants to write this kind of paper. Secondly, she wants to apply the knowledge she gets from her lecturers during her study beside wishing to let the other people who has never known the extended kinship which is practiced by the society of Karonese in their daily lives. 1.5 Reasons for Choosing the Topic According to the fact that there are a lot of topics to be discussed and to be written to be made as a paper in order to fulfill the requirement to get the certificate of Diploma III on the English study from the Faculty of Culture Study, but in remembering that the writer is one of the Karonese society’s member, she is very interested in writing and showing other people abouit the extended kinship that practiced by the Karonese society. 1.6 Method of Writing The method applied in writing this paper is mainly field research and followed by library research. Library research is used as a guide line for the field research. So it means that all the data need for discussing taken from some informants. The informants are treated as the data resources. They are the native speakers of Karonese Language and they spend their life time in the villages Universitas Sumatera Utara 2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 Kinship in General Kinship is a term used by the society who use as the linguistic aspect to address someone in their daily lives. Generally, it can be understood that any society in the world has its own system in using the kinship. For example, the English society uses the kinship terms as follows. The terms of Karonese kinship are Husband, Wife, Father, Mother, Son, Daughter, Brother, Sister, Uncle, Aunt, Father in Law, Mother in Law, Brother in Law, Sister in Law, Grand Father, Grand Mother, Grand Son, Grand Daughter, Nephew, Cousin, Great Grand Father, Great Grand Mother, Great Grand Son, and Great Grand Daughter. Kinship systems have long held a central place in the attention of anthropologists and of all those concerned with the common and distinctive features of our human social life. It is easy to see why this should be so. Human beings, everywhere and always, with only minor exceptions, have lived in families. We have developed our wider social institutions in conformity with, and sometimes in direct articulation with, our patterns of family living. In particular, some of the most complex intellectual achiements of human communities are the various symbolic systems which they have evolved for describing relations between kinsfolk and for specifying what the content of these relations should be. The development and perpetuation of these intricate schemes has scarcely been correclated with the attainment of technical mastery over the natural environment, for some of the societies most advanced technically manage with quite unimpressive system of kinship. Universitas Sumatera Utara 2.2 Society Languages, no doubt, are powerful and meaningful although they cannot be concretely be seen obviously when it is used as oval language, when we compare them to other tools of mechanics. They, the languages, however are used to differentiate human beings from animals. We can imagine how great and important a language is to the world in general and to its society in particular. We really cannot guess what would happen to the world without languages. We know that a language is a dynamic kind of phenomenon, or on the other hand we can say that a language is always developing or it never remains entirely static. Languages are always changing and the Karonese language is just as much subject to linguistic change as any other language. Nichols (1984:23) says, "Every society and every living language is stratified in many different ways. People divide themselves and each other into groups along line of class, status, and power. In the study of language stratification, analysts find such as things as ‘high’ and 'low' varieties." According to the statements in the above quote, the Karonese ethnic group and its language are stratified in their own ways. Thus they have groups along lines of class, status, and power such as things as 'high' and 'low' varieties. The classification of the stratification that the Karo ethnic group possesses are "Kalimbubu" [klimbubu] which means high, the orderer, and to be served; "Sembuyak" [sembuyk] means equal; and "Anakberu" [nk beru] means giving services. Universitas Sumatera Utara Labov (1972 : XVI) says, ". that most important fact about language is its social function: the fact that it serves to establish and maintain socially prescribed patterns of behavior." Again Patricia C. Nichols (1984:24) said "Language is one of the forms through which our social relationships are manifest, and is one of the primary vehicles through which our relative social status is shown." It can be seen clearly that the relationships between a language and its society are meaningful because by applying the language's role to its society the relative social status of its society's members can be shown and understood. The same things will happen to the Karonese ethnic group. For example Edwards (1985:19) said, ".that there will be no 'non-ethnic tomorrow”. The Karonese ethnic group has a unique system which supports the idea of John Edwards. The system that the Karonese people use is that the Karonese people are a united group which consists of three different status groups and will be structured based on the five surnames elements (1 = 3 = 5). (See diagram 1). It is hard for the outsiders to believe and understand how the Karonese ethnic group functions as one is three and so is five. Now a question might be asked by the non-Karonese people.How does the Karonese people use the Karonese language as a means of interaction to validate our proposition that one is three or three is one or one is five or five is one? Edwards (1985:3) says, "It is clear, however, that the link between language and identity is a reasonable one to study and, as we shall see, many have considered Universitas Sumatera Utara that the possession of a given language is well-nigh essential to the maintenance of group identity." Karonese people call themselves one in term of Karonese ethnic group which means that all of them are linked to one another as strongly as chains no matter where they are. This linking is concerned with the power and meaning of the Karonese language. On the other hand a person may belong to those three different status groups according to his/her context of situation. For instance he/she may belong to "Kalimbubu" at this time, and may belong to "Sembuyak" at that time, and also may belong to "Anak Beru" at another time. So his/her membership may change according to the context of situation. When Karonese people say that they consist of three groups, they mean that all Karonese 63.290 42.555 29.411 8.311 18.032 21.991 19 24 22 16 8 17 17 14 9 13 9 22 7 19 19 160,38 218,56 125,64 195,70 47,24 86,76 93,48 87,82 44,17 44,65 186,84 186,84 32,25 125,51 128,04 124 60 156 54 229 152 203 144 299 1.417 1.395 912 44 144 172 174.391 176.088 350.479 262 2127,25 165 Sumber/Source: SENSUS PENDUDUK 2010, BADAN PUSAT STATISTIK KABUPATEN KARO Based on the spread out nature and topography situation, Karo area is devided into three morphology,they are : 1) Lowland morphology in Lau Baleng area. It is located in west of Kuta Buluh area, where its high is 48-147 from above sea level and consists of small rivers and hill. 2) Highland morphology in Kabanjahe. Its area cover up Tiga Panah and Simpang Empat. 3) Mountain morphology in Sinabung and Sibayak mountain. Looking at the map of North Sumatera in eastern part of Bukit Barisan, we will see the location in Karo area, such as : Universitas Sumatera Utara 1) The Northern part of Karo land borders on Langkat and Deli Serdang regency. 2) The Southern part of Karo land borders on Dairi and North Tapanuli regency. 3) The Western part of Karo land borders on Southeast Aceh regency (Aceh Province). 4) The Eastern part of Karo land borders on Deli Serdang and Simalungun regency. Karo district has many interesting place such as hot water bathing in DebukDebuk, Lau Kawar Lake in Lau Kawar village (Simpang Empat subdistrict), the famous cities are Berastagi and Kabanjahe. Berastagi is one of tourist town in North Sumatera that very famous for their agricultural products, such as fruits, vegetables, and beverage products that is Marquisa Juice which known until the entire archipelago. In Karo upland we can find some of famous mountains is the pride of Karonese. Some of them are located in the north, they are Barus mountain, Pinto mountain, Sibayak mountain, Simole and Sinabung mountain, in tha south there is Sibuaten mountain. In this district we also can enjoy the beauty of Sibayak volcano that is still active. This mountain is located on 2.127 m above the sea level. The meaning of Sibayak is a king, it means that Sibayak mountain is the king mountain according to Karonese ancestor. 2.2 The Religion and System of Belief Before Christian,Islam, Hindu, and Chatolic spread to Karo land, Karonese society believed in animism. Beside that there are still many gods and spirits that are related to their forefather spirits. Whenever they need them, the sprits can be called. Universitas Sumatera Utara The calling of the forefather spirit is holding ritual ceremony, where the spirit come through an intermediaryor shaman. Perbegu religion is one of the system of belief of karonese,they believe that every people has soul (tendi), when somebody pass away their soul will change to be Begu. In 1946, Perbegu religion in Karo land had changed become Pemena by GuruGuru Mbelin. The change of this name because there are so many pressure from Belanda Colonial. They express that Perbegu is a idolatry religion (Putra 1979:32). At present time , Karonese have followed Protestant, Chatolic, Islam and Hindu religion In the past time, when the modern religion spread in Karo batak, the people rejected it. Nowdays,most of them believe in Christianity. They believe in Jesus Christ as Human savior. To get the eternal life, people must believe in Him. However, it is difficult for them to forget the old belief and to practice the teaching. Karo Batak Society adopts the Patrilineal system. Each members of the society follows his or her hereditary family name. All sons and daughters use their father’s clan. After getting married, a daughter has no right anymore to use her father’s clan, but sons have to use their father’clan forever, although they are married or not. 2.3 The Livelihood Karo regency is most interested in agriculture. Karonese society was born as agricultural society, since years ago Karo society had been able to cultivate their farmland. They will go to the farmland with some people or with their family to plant the rice, corn, vegetables, and fruits, they go home on the afternoon, maybe at 05.00 Universitas Sumatera Utara pm. Karonese society has many similarities with Chinese in habit to economize and their desire to collect the money (Anderson, 18243). Karonese is very expert in gold trade, we can find it in Kabanjahe, central market of Medan, Peringgan market, Kampung Lalang market, Pancur Batu market and the other places. Karonese is also expert with agricultural produce trade of Karo land, especially vegetables and fruits, it called Perengge-rengge (trader), relaier and distributor of agricultural produce to go out of Karo regency. The economy of Karonese society in nowdays not only in that aspects but also in a lot of economy sector. Beside that, Karo has mineral industry that can become livelihood source, such as Marble in Muara Sipongi subdistrict used as building materials; Dolomit in Kuta Buluh is used as dung, to arrange Soil ph, and to make paint, plastic, paper, and cement; Phospat in Lau Baleng village is used as dung; Tross in Tiga Panah, Simpang Empat, Kabanjahe, Payung and Munthe subdistrict is used to make cement,as whitening materials and killing paint, glass, plastic, and lining paper. Transportation is the other livelihood of Karonese. They, especially men has already managed some public transportation company in Medan, Kabanjahe, Jakarta, they can also become a driver in transportation. 2.4 The Education For Karonese society, education is very important in their life, because it can increase the knowledge and the level of everyone. They want their children to go to the collage and get the successful in their life so that they can make a proud for their Universitas Sumatera Utara parents and their family also and they can develop Karo land in many aspects, such as tourism objects, potential places, and the culture too. By getting the best education in the collage and they got their academic title, it will very helpful them to apply for the job, and to develop their prosperity in the future. They will go to work in young age and after they getting the retirement they can enjoy their life with all that they have. 2.5 The Kindship System of Karo Batak Society The very important thing in Karo Batak society is Merga Silima, Tutur Siwaluh and Rakut Sitelu. Karonese has clan, called “merga” is used for man and “beru” for woman. Merga or beru is used at the end of someone’s name and also will inherit with “bere-bere”, beru from their’s own mother. The clan (merga) in karo society consists of five groups, they are Ginting, Karo-karo, Perangin-angin, Sembiring and Tarigan, the fifth of this clan known as Merga Silima. Each clan has subclan (sub-merga) and every karonese has one of that clans (merga, beru and bere-bere). Merga is the important thing in Karonese society life. It is very useful to express one’s identify and also its relation to find the kindship system (ertutur). In ertutur there are some lining to find our position when we introduce each other. The lining process of ertutur are : 1) Merga or beru, is a family name that is inherited to someone from his father’s family name or from generation to generation, and woman can not inherit to her children. 2) Bere-bere, is a family name that is inherited from beru of their mother. Universitas Sumatera Utara 3) Kempu (perkempun), is a family name that is inherited to someone from mother’s bere-bere. 4) Kampah, is a family name from beru of great-grandparent (father’s grandmother). 5) Binuang, is a family name that is inherited from father’s bere-bere. 6) Soler, is a family name which is inherited from beru of grandmother (mother’s grandmother). According to the lining, someone will know his/her position and level, such as father (bapa), mother (nande), uncle (mama), aunt of uncle’s wife (mami/bibi), bengkila (the designation of wife to father in law), bibi (the designation of wife to mother in law), senina or sembuyak (a person that has same level), turang (a man to his sister or those who have the same merga or beru), impal (the man hwo has berebere same with beru of one woman), silih (brother in law), bere-bere, son/daughter, grandchild (kempu), great-grandchild (ente), great grandparents (entah), turangku (the relation that is regarded taboo, for example, one’s husband his my brother’s wife), younger brother and sister (agi), brother and sister (kaka), permen (the designation of father in law to daughter in law), grandfather (nini bulang), grandmother (nini tudung/nondong), empung (father’s and mother’s grandfather), beru (father’s and mother’s grandmother). The position of ertutur will be different to each people according to the people that is invited to introduce. Tutur Siwaluh is the kindship system concept of Karonese society which is related to introduction process (ertutur) and it consists of eight groups, they are Puang Kalimbubu, Kalimbubu, Senina, Sembuyak, Senina Sipemeren, Senina Universitas of one mode of speech, for example, results in a development of the physiological speech mechanism that makes impossible the formation of certain other sounds. The same is true in regard to further acquisition of ideas; the learning of one thing may make impossible the subsequent learning of others. But the area of diffusion is determined by contacts which, in turn, are determined in large measure by routes of travel. In consequence, the culture area tends to coincide with the geographic area. Certain traits of Eskimo culture, for example, with the center of dispersion about Hudson Bay, extend over a relatively narrow area east to Greenland and west through Alaska to Siberia, illustrating 22 extreme distortion of the ideal pattern. Some facts of culture diffuse widely and rapidly. This is particularly the case of elements that have an obvious superiority over items in current use, and of elements that supplement rather than displace items at present in use. The use of tobacco is a familiar illustration of quick and general diffusion. In the modern world, scientific discoveries spread so rapidly that the place of origin is a matter of indifference. The Pace of Culture Change. So long as a culture remains a living thing, it is in a state of growth and change. The pace of change is sometimes slow, as in a small and isolated primitive group, and sometimes rapid, as in the modern machine civilization. It is only the dead culture, as that of ancient Egypt or classical Greece, that remains as it was. The Order of Change. Change is usually most marked and rapid in the material and objective aspects of culture. It proceeds less rapidly and with increasing resistance through language, social customs, institutional forms, and thought systems, to modifications of the social organization and the moral order. The unequal pace of social change is readily understood in simple terms. The deliberate adoption of a new element depends upon its simplicity, the degree to which its superiority to elements in current use is obvious, and the sentimental or other resistance its adoption encounters. A new and simple material fact, as a new tool, weapon, word, or other utilitarian object adapted to the needs of the folk, is readily accepted and 23 incorporated into the existing complex. It can be accepted as a single item supplementing or displacing other similar objects in current use. It involves, therefore, a minimum of habit resistance. The comparative efficiency of the new fact is obvious or readily demonstrable. Ordinarily, there is no sentiment surrounding utilitarian objects, hence no emotional resistance to change. Apart from material elements, the superiority of the new to the old is seldom immediately obvious. In this case the new makes its way slowly even though its superiority may be easily demonstrated. Modern medicine, based on the germ theory of disease, displaces folk practices, based on alternative theories, very slowly as compared with the prompt folk acceptance and use of the automobile. This comparison shows how new inventions having an obvious use are accepted at a speedier rate than vitally important contributions not so easily recognized as superior. Where a degree of logical thought is necessary to understand or demonstrate the superiority of one value over another, as in economic and social discovery, there is generally no displacement of the old by the new. In many cases the new invention or discovery meets emotional resistance because its adoption would disturb the old relations or institutions about which there exists more or less of sentiment. The opposition to rational changes in family arrangements, supernatural practices, economic organization, and governmental procedures arises in part from the fact that these institutions are grounded in sentiment and tradition. It arises, also, in part, from the fact that the 24 existing order and its parts function to the welfare of the functionaries; the selfinterest of the classes supports the conservatism of sentiment. Finally, change is slow in all those aspects of culture that may not be atomized and adopted piecemeal. The Direction of Social Change. The direction of change is determined, in the absence of catastrophe or major invention, by the inertia of the existing complex. There is ready acceptance of new items that supplement the present arrangements and further development along established lines; there is indifference to or active rejection of inventions that involve disturbance of habitual modes of thought and action or in anyway way run counter to the traditions and sentiments of the moral order. The undesigned Nature of Culture Change. A culture is an integrated system of objects and practices expressing the sentiments, attitudes, and philosophies of man. As a consequence, the invention or introduction of any new item effects, sooner or later, some modification and reorganization throughout the system. Such changes are generally neither designed nor anticipated. On the level of mechanical invention the results are often direct and obvious. In a simple group the invention of the bow and arrow, or the adoption of firearms introduced from without, may result in an immediate economic prosperity and an increase in military power that change not only the mode of life of the group but also that of the surrounding peoples. The invention, or more properly the development, of the automobile brought changes not only in the 25 transportation system but also in all aspects of the culture, including the mental and moral habits of the people. Changes consequent upon material inventions are so easily seen as to give rise to a common idea that all culture change is initiated by mechanical discoveries. But discoveries in other realms of reality may be equally significant for culture and social change; not all the major inventions are in the mechanical realm. The germ theory of disease, with the resulting revolution in the whole dependent structure of medicine, and the theory of evolution have wrought changes in the whole mode of life of the people. 26 4. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 4.1 Conclusion No human group lives in a state of nature. Each group has a more or less elaborate and integrated social heritage, received from the ancestors and transmitted to the descendants. This heritage maintains the spatial and temporal solidarity of the group. Each new generation lives in and by the cultural remains of the earlier generations. The social heritage accounts for human nature and for its relatively unchanging character. Culture, which is coextensive with human life, is both a cause and an effect of the qualities that make life human. The ugroups of human beings are called the society and they build habits by using language. Therefore it can be concluded that human beings, society, culture, and language cannot be separated to one another. 4.2 Suggestion The writer of this paper realizes that this kind of writing is still far from perfect, but as the purposes of writing it is supposed to be right, but at this and in the future he will be very happy if some readers want to send him some valuable critics, encouragements, corrections, and ideas for the perfections of this writing. It is ver4y interesting to write or talk about society and culture, therefore on this occasion he wants to invite and encourages the junior students to continue in writing about the human beings. No matter it is dealing with environment, language, or any creation of human beings. 27 BIBLIOGRAPHY Abrams, M.H.1981. A Glossary of Literary Term. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. Ahmad, Subaruddin. 1974. Sendi Pramasastra Indonesia. Medan: Saiful. Bate, D. 1989. Essay Method and English Expression. Sydney: Cambridge Press. 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