TEACHING READING COMPREHENSION CONVEYED IN ANECDOTE TEXT THROUGH SELF-QUESTIONING STRATEGY AT THE SECOND GRADE OF LAMPUNG TENGAH

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ABSTRACT TEACHING READING COMPREHENSION CONVEYED IN ANECDOTE TEXT THROUGH SELF-QUESTIONING STRATEGY AT THE SECOND By Fetrisia In English Language Teaching, one of the important skills in English is reading, but most of the students still got difficulty in comprehending the text. As a matter of fact, the student reading ability in reading comprehension is still need to be improved to achieve the target goal in the curriculum. Since self-questioning strate material because it is an interesting material for the students. The objective of this research was to find out whether self-questioning strategy can be used to increase stud comprehending the anecdote . The population of the research was the student of the second grade of 4 Kalirejo Lampung Tengah in 2011/2012 academic year. The class consisted of forty students. The research design was one group pretest posttest design and data were taken by means of the test and then they were analyzed by using Repeated Measure T-Test. The result of the data shows that ent in reading comprehension of anecdote text has increased after they were taught using SelfQuestioning strategy. It has been proven by the gain (15,5) score in posttest that is higher than the mean score in pretest. The improvement of the mean is from 62.1 in the pretest up to 77.6 in the posttest. By using Repeated Measure T-Test, it was found that t-ratio is -20.756 and t-table is 2.021. Since tratio is higher than t-table, it proved that the increase is significant. Based on the result, it can be concluded that ment in reading comprehension conveyed in anecdote text increases by using Self-Questioning strategy. In other word, the hypothesis of the research is accepted. ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS in. Praise to Allah SWT, the Almighty and Merciful God, for blessing the writer with faith, health, and opportunity to finish this script. This script is Teaching Reading Comprehension Conveyed in Anecdote Text through Self-Questioning Strategy at the Second Grade of MA Ma rif 4 Kalirejo Lampung Tengah requirements in accomplishing the S-1 Degree at the Department of Language and Arts of Teacher Training and Education Faculty in the University of Lampung. The writer would like to express her gratitude to many people who have suggested and helped in writing this script. First, she delivers her gratitude and respect to Dra. Editha Gloria Simanjuntak, her first advisor, and Dra. Rosita Simbolon, M.A., her second advisor, who have given their best criticisms, suggestions, and revisions during the accomplishment of this script. Then, she wants to deliver her gratitude to her examiner, Hi. Ujang Suparman, S.Pd., M.A., Ph.D., for his input and contribution. Her thankfulness is also due to Dra. Hj. A. Umroh. M.Pd.I., the Headmaster and English teacher of Lampung Tengah, in which the writer viii did her research, and all beloved students of class XI 1 Science and XI 2 Social Programs for their participation in this research. The writer also would like to extend her appreciations to her beloved comrades of , especially for Diah Arini Kusumastuti, Fevi Meila Suwarni and Meila Sari. Thanks for all support and everything since her very first year in this department. Her grateful love is dedicated for her mother and her father, for their pray, support, patience, motivation Her thankfulness is also due to her brother Fitrah Oganda, A.Md., S.E. for his encouragement. Great appreciation is also dedicated to Briptu Novri Sukendi who always motivates, loves, cheers her up and lightens every pressure in her life. He is her everything. Bandar Lampung, Fetrisia ix February 2012 Appendix 9 Table 6. t-Table that is used to prove whether the data will be significant or not. NILAI-NILAI DALAM DISTRIBUSI t £ untuk uji dua pihak (two tail test) dk 0.50 0.20 0.10 0.05 0.02 £ untuk uji satu pihak one tail test) dk 0.25 0.10 0.05 0.025 0.01 1 1.000 3.078 6.314 12.706 31.821 2 0.816 1.876 2.920 4.303 6.965 3 0.765 1.638 2.353 3.182 4.541 4 0.741 1.533 2.132 2.776 3.747 5 0.727 1.476 2.015 2.570 3.365 6 0.718 1.440 1.943 2.447 3.143 7 0.711 1.415 1.895 2.365 2.998 8 0.706 1.397 1.860 2.306 2.896 9 0.703 1.383 1.833 2.262 2.821 10 0.700 1.372 1.812 2.228 2.764 11 0.697 1.363 1.796 2.201 2.718 12 0.695 1.356 1.782 2.179 2.681 13 0.692 1.350 1.771 2.160 2.650 14 0.691 1.345 1.761 2.145 2.624 15 0.690 1.341 7.753 2.131 2.602 16 0.689 1.337 1.746 2.120 2.583 17 0.688 1.333 1.740 2.110 2.567 18 0.688 1.330 1.734 2.101 2.552 19 0.687 1.328 1.729 2.093 2.539 20 0.687 1.325 1.725 2.086 2.528 21 0.686 1.323 1.721 2.080 2.518 22 0.686 1.321 1.717 2.074 2.508 23 0.685 1.319 1.714 2.069 2.500 24 0.685 1.318 1.711 2.064 2.492 25 0.684 1.316 1.708 2.060 2.485 26 0.684 1.315 1.706 2.056 2.479 27 0.684 1.314 1.703 2.052 2.473 28 0.683 1.313 1.701 2.048 2.467 29 0.683 1.311 1.699 2.045 2.462 30 0.683 1.310 1.697 2.042 2.457 40 0.681 1.303 1.684 2.021 2.423 60 0.679 1.296 1.671 2.000 2.390 120 0.677 1.289 1.658 1.980 2.358 0.674 1.282 1.645 1.960 2.326 Source: Statistic book 0.01 0.005 63.657 9.925 5.841 4.604 4.032 3.707 3.499 3.355 3.250 3.169 3.106 3.055 3.012 2.977 2.947 2.921 2.898 2.878 2.861 2.845 2.831 2.819 2.807 2.797 2.787 2.779 2.771 2.763 2.756 2.750 2.704 2.660 2.617 2.576 1 I. INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses certain points; introduction deals with background of the problem, identification of the problems, limitation of the problems, formulation of the problems, objectives of the research, uses of the research, scope of the research, and definition of terms. 1.1 Background of the Problems In English Language Teaching, English is a compulsory subject, which is learned from elementary school through university. Realizing that English plays a very important role in the world of communication, The Indonesian Department of National Education has declared English as the first foreign language. One of the important skills is reading. Students must improve their ability in reading comprehension, so they can get information from the text. As a matter of fact, the students’reading ability in reading comprehension is far from the goal being expected. Based on the writer’s experience when she took the teaching practice program (PPL) at SMAN 5 Bandar Lampung on February to April 2011, she found that one of the problems faced by the students was that they often found difficulty in comprehending the reading text. Some obstacles faced by the students were 2 finding the main idea, the answer to questions based on the text and making inferences from the text, but the main problem is that they still got difficulty in getting the specific information from the text. As the result, students’ reading achievement was still below the minimal mastery criterion (65) while the students’ average score of reading test was only 59. In this case, teachers should help students to find appropriate strategy in order to improve their reading skill and reading achievement. The standard and basic competence of KTSP indicates that there are many kinds of reading text, such as descriptive, narrative, recount, anecdote, report, etc. In this research, the writer focused on anecdote text of reading comprehension, because anecdote text is one of reading material which is interesting and enjoyable for the students that they will be curious to follow the subject due to the funny text. As Pratiwi (2010) concludes at her research in SMAN 5 Bandar Lampung that anecdote introduces new vocabularies, grammar patterns, message, and entertainment at the same time. She also adds that anecdote can make the students enjoy their learning process. Even though the text is not simple, some of the students do not really understand this sort of text. Most of them have difficulty in comprehending the anecdote text. Due to those facts, this research was focused on strategy applied during teaching and learning process. There are many kinds of strategies that can be implemented in the class. There are many strategies that can be applied in teaching reading, the writer suggested self-questioning strategy because it was believed that this 3 strategy gives all students opportunity to attend to the clues as they read the text, say some questions, keep prediction in mind, identify the answer, and talk about the answer. This strategy also develops students’ understanding and stimulates the students to be engaged with the text. Hartman (2002) defines Self-Questioning as a step that can also be labeled as planning, monitoring, and evaluating task. When students generate questions, it means that during the planning, monitoring and evaluating of task students are covertly asking themselves questions that they have formulated by themselves. The students should be active and ask themselves questions about what they read. Wong (1985) distinguishes and defines three theoretical perspectives of selfquestioning: active processing, metacognitive and schema theories. Active processing theory assumes that self-questioning leads to increased comprehension and longer retention of the text. Metacognitive theory highlights the need for developing an awareness of the cognitive process that allows students to monitor their comprehension. In schema theory, readers call upon their experiences to build prior knowledge during reading and influence understanding. Meanwhile, Munawaroh (2011) in her research, states that Self questioning strategy can motivate and challange the students. It can be seen from their enthusiasm and their participation in learning. According to the explanation above, the writer proposed that self-questioning strategy can overcome the difficulty in reading comprehension because it teaches students to activate relevant prior knowledge and develop their metacognition 4 during reading that may enhance and consequently, lead to better comprehension. Self-questioning strategy is useful to help the students to comprehend the anecdote text. The students of MA Ma’arif 4 Kalirejo Lampung Tengah are selected as the subjects of the research because the writer wants to improve the students’ reading ability in the school, besides no research using self-questioning strategy of anecdote text has been carried out there. Hopefully, by presenting selfquestioning strategy of anecdote text in reading class, the students’ skill in reading will increase. 1.2 Identification of Problems In reference to background of the problem, the following problems can be found: 1. Students get difficulties in comprehending the reading text. They get difficulties in getting main idea from the text, finding the details, finding the answer to the questions based on the text and making inference and especially getting the specific information from the text. 2. Students’ motivations in learning English are still low. So it is difficult to improve their English ability well. 3. Students have negative attitude in learning English. So it is difficult for them to learn English well because they regard that English is difficult to be learnt. 4. Teachers use inappropriate technique in teaching English. So it is difficult in helping students understand reading comprehension easier. 5. Teachers do not use interesting materials which encourage students to learn. They only take the materials from the English course books. 5 1.3 Limitation of the Problem The research focuses on increasing students’ ability in comprehending the reading text. As the solution to overcome student’ difficulties, the researcher was interested in investigating the increase of students’ ability in comprehending the anecdote text through Self-questioning strategy. 1.4 Formulation of the Problem Based on the background above, the writer states the problem as follows: Can self-questioning strategy be used to increase students’ reading achievement in comprehending the anecdote text? 1.5 Objective Concerning with the research problem, the objective of this research is to find out whether self-questioning strategy can be used to increase students’ reading ability in comprehending the anecdote text. 1.6 Uses 1. Theoretically, the use of this research is expected to support previous theories dealing with self-questioning strategy. 2. Practically, it may inform teacher at Senior High School that self-Questioning strategy may give some benefits as to increase the students’ achievement particularly in reading comprehension conveyed in anecdote text. 6 1.7 Scope This quantitative research was conducted at MA Ma’arif 4 Kalirejo Lampung Tengah. The variables of the research are Self-Questioning Strategy as the independent variable and the reading comprehension conveyed in anecdote text as the dependent variable. The research was focused on the activities of reading comprehension conveyed in anecdote text taught by Self-Questioning Strategy. The materials were taken from English Book and internet relevant to the school based curriculum (KTSP) of SMA and the students reading achievement was measured by a set of pre-test and post-test in form of multiple choices. 1.8 Definition of Terms There are some terms used by the writer and to make it clear, the writer will gave some definitions as follow: 1. Teaching is the activities of educating or instructing; activities that impart knowledge or skill. 2. Reading Comprehension is defined as an active cognitive process of interacting with print and monitoring comprehension to establish the meaning. (Silberstine,1987; Simanjuntak, 1998:15) 3. Self-questioning is a set of steps that students follow to generate, think about, predict, investigate, and answer the questions that satisfy curiosity from what is being read to understand the text. 4. Anecdote is s an account of an unusual or amusing incident which ends by a coda. 7 II. FRAME OF THEORIES In this chapter the researcher uses some concepts related to this research. The concepts are concept of reading comprehension, concept of teaching reading, types of reading text, concept of anecdote, concept of self-questioning strategy, advantages and its disadvantage of using self-questioning strategy, teaching procedure, theoretical assumption and hypotheses. 2.1 Concept of Reading Comprehension Nuttal (1982: 42) defines reading as the meaningful interpretation of printed or written verbal symbols. It means that reading is a result of the interaction between the perception of graphic symbols that represent a language, and the knowledge in the world. In this process the reader tries to recreate the meaning intended by the writer. While, Clark and Silberstein (1987:2) define reading as an active cognitive process of interacting with print and monitoring comprehension to establish meaning. Reading is the instantaneous recognition of various written symbol, simultaneous association of these symbol with existing knowledge, and comprehension of the information and ideas communicated. 8 Reading is an active process (Mackay in Simanjuntak, 1988:15). The reader forms a preliminary expectation about the material, then select the fewest, most productive cues necessary to confirm or reject that expectation. Reading involves an interaction between thought and language. It means that the reader brings to the task a formidable amount of information and ideas, attitudes and beliefs. These concepts basically state that reading always deals with printed materials, which stresses on the grasping meaning from the printed language. It means that reading activity is the interaction between the perception of the graphic symbols that represent the language and the readers’ language skill, cognitive skills and the knowledge of the world. In this process, the reader tries to create meaning intended by the writer. According to Doyle (2004), comprehension is a progressive skill in attaching meaning beginning at the same level and proceeding to attaching meaning to an entire reading selection. All comprehension revolves around the reader’s ability in finding and determining specific information and main idea from the text. Smith (1982: 5-6) says that reading certainly implies comprehension, and reading is something that makes sense to the reader The readers try to understand and get the meaning and information in the written texts in form of symbols, letters, graphs, etc. Thus, they grasp the writers’ messages from the texts. 9 Rubbin (1993: 194) states that reading comprehension is a complex intellectual process involving a number of abilities. The two major abilities involve word meanings and verbal reasoning. Without word meaning and verbal reasoning, there could be no reading comprehension; without reading comprehension, there would be no reading. From these concept basically, it can be understood that reading needs comprehension. Referring to the explanation above, it can be said that in comprehending the texts the students have to know their technique in reading. It means to make them easy to comprehend the anecdote text. One aspect that becomes essential in students’ reading is the reading technique. It has direct “link” in comprehension and strategy or technique. The writer assumed that reading comprehension is students’ competence in comprehending the specific information, words and surface meaning in texts is described by students’ score with an appropriate technique. 2.2 Teaching Reading Alyousef (2005: 143) says that teaching reading, contemporary reading tasks, unlike the traditional materials, involve three-phase procedures: pre-, while-, and post- reading stages. The pre-reading stage helps in activating the relevant schema. For example, teachers can ask students questions that arouse their interest while previewing text. The aim of while-reading stage (or interactive process) is to develop students’ ability in tackling texts by developing their linguistic and schematic knowledge. Post-reading includes activities, which enhance learning 10 comprehension using matching exercises, cloze exercises, cut-up sentences, and comprehension questions. The aim of teaching reading is to develop students’ skills so that they can read English texts effectively and efficiently. To be able to do so the reader should have particular purposes in their mind before they interact with the texts. Effective and efficient reading is always purposeful and tends to focus mainly on the purpose of the activity. Then the purpose of reading is implemented into the development of different reading techniques. These can be real when the students read and interact with various types of texts, i.e. functional and monologue texts. Suparman (2005: 1) states that there are two major reasons for reading: (1) reading for pleasure, (2) reading for information (in order to find out something or in order to do something with the information readers get). Harmer (1997: 70) states the principles behind the teaching reading: 1. Reading is not a passive skill. 2. Students need to be engaged with what they are reading. 3. Students should be encouraged to respond to the content of a reading text, not just to the language. 4. Prediction is a major factor in reading. 5. Match the task to the topic. 6. Good teachers exploit reading texts to the full. 11 In teaching reading, when the teacher teach reading, appropriate and possible technique should be applied based on the purpose of reading in order to get the comprehension. Students may use reading technique to make their reading effective and efficient. Self-Questioning Strategy as one of reading technique is possible to be applied by the Senior High School students in their reading, e.g. students are able to identify and look for the specific information in various types of texts (functional and monologue texts). 2.3 Types of Reading Text Types of reading texts are divided into two, they are: a) Short Functional Text and b) Monologue Text (Nainggolan, 2010). The text that will be used in this research is Monologue Text. There are nine common monologue texts that are usually used in Senior High School: 1. Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which talks about or describe on a particular person, thing, or place. 2. Report Text Report text is a text which talks about or describes a whole class of things (general). It describes and tells what the phenomena are like, in terms of parts: their functions, qualities, habits or behaviors. 3. Procedure Text Procedure text is a text which tells us how something is accomplished through a sequence of action or steps. For example: recipes, appliance manuals, etc. 12 4. Recount Text Recount text is a text which tells what happened. The function is to retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining. 5. News Item Text News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. The events are considered newsworthy or important. 6. Explanation Text Explanation text is a text which explains about the process of what happened in the activity that is connected with science world, natural phenomenon, socialculture, and etc. 7. Spoof Text Spoof is a text which tells about an event, strange or funny event based on the real activity. The function is to entertain and it is usually ended with something unexpected (twist). 8. Narrative text Narrative is a text which tells what happened. The functions are to amuse, entertain, and to deal with actual or vicarious experience in different ways. There are some genres of literary text which fit to be classified as the narrative text. Some of them are: folktale, myth, folklore, fairy tale, etc. 9. Anecdote Text Anecdote is a short and amusing or interesting story about a real incident or person, especially of an interesting or amusing nature. 13 2.3.1 Criteria for Choosing the Reading Text The writer used the authentic texts and textbook, since the textbook did not cover the types of texts that students have to read (e.g. advertisement, schedule, etc.). Besides using authentic materials are more suitable for the students to apply as what they find in real life. “Authentic texts can be motivating because they are proved that the language is used for real-life purposes by real people.” (Nuttal, 1996: 172). The students can extract real information from a real text in a new or different language. It also can be extremely motivating, therefore increasing students’ motivation for learning by exposing them to ‘real’ language (Guariento & Morley: 2001). Therefore, by using authentic materials, the students can reflect the changes in language use, (again something that does not occur in textbooks, which become very dated, very quickly) as well as giving the learner the proof that the language is real and not only studied in the classroom. The reading texts are selected based on the following reasons (Nuttal, 1996): 1. Its length is considered appropriate for the Senior High School students-long enough to contain ample testable information, and not too long as to over-task students (number of paragraph is about 3-4 paragraphs for the articles and not more than ten sentences for the functional texts). For the words contain have to be equal each of the texts. 2. The level of difficulty is suitable. The writer takes and uses authentic materials, since the textbook does not provide the various types of text that students need to know. The materials are taken from English magazines and newspaper for Indonesian readers. Therefore, the materials are quite appropriate and familiar for the students. 14 3. Suitability of content, the materials are chosen for students’ interest and the materials that have taught. 4. Readability is used to describe the combination of structural and lexical difficulty of a text, as well as referring to the amount of new vocabulary and any new grammatical forms present. It is important to assess the right level for the right students (i.e. for intermediate level, Senior High School students). Is the text too easy / difficult for the student? Is it structurally too demanding / complex? How much new vocabulary does it contain? Is it relevant? 5. Exploitability refers to how the text can be used to develop the students’ competence as readers. A text which cannot be exploited or explored for teaching learning, it cannot be used for the students’ materials in learning. Just because it is in English does not mean that it can be useful. The materials are chosen from authentic sources not only from students’ textbook, since the language used is realistic which means it is a mixture of formal and informal language used in daily life. The material is monologue text for Senior High School students. Authentic materials could raise students’ awareness and motivation in reading the texts. The material is also adapted from School Based Curriculum (KTSP) based on students’ interest and the materials that have been taught. 15 2.4 Concept of Anecdote An anecdote is a short tale narrating an interesting or amusing biographical incident. In addition, Daniels (2006) cites that anecdote is prone to the same weaknesses that gossip suffers from: lack of objectivity, exaggeration, distortion through repetition, lying, one-sidedness, etc. Anecdote is a very brief retelling of a true account which can be humorous or interesting. The value of the anecdote is that it lends credibility to you as the speaker. She also adds that students practice oral expression and reading skills and develop vocabulary in a fun, relaxed atmosphere through short reading, humorous stories and studying idioms commonly used in English. Anecdotes in simple English are used to help students boost their reading speed when while maintaining good comprehension. In writing, anecdote or joke story is known as a narration text. It narrates a series of events. It introduces a number of characters. They can be human or nonhuman characters. It introduces the relationship among the characters. The relationship is realized by their communicative interaction in the events. The punch line in the events is an unpredictable action done by a character(s) for a response to another character(s). Short story has its origin in the prose anecdote, a fast situation that comes rapidly to its point, with similarities in oral story telling tradition. Stories are the oldest form of education. Stories capture the imagination, engaging the emotions and opening the minds of the readers. The plot are in the middle of the story with open-ended or without resolution. 16 As we know, anecdote is quite similar to jokes or funny story, it derives from people’s experiences or imagination of something happened. Anecdote is a usually short narrative of an interesting, amusing, or biographical incident. In other words an anecdote is a short account of an interesting or amusing incident, often intended to illustrate or support some points. According to the experts, anecdotes stimulate the students’ interest in language work, create a relaxed learning atmosphere and help students to think positively through humor. Text organization of anecdote text:  Orientation (giving the reader the background information needed to understand the text or introducing the setting and figures in the story)  Crisis (Provides the details of the unusual)  Reaction (Action that taken to respond the problem)  Coda (Reflection of the incident, usually unpredictable statement) Language Features of anecdote text:  Use of exclamation and intensifiers (e.g. really, very, quiet, etc) to point out the significance of the events.  Use of material processes to tell what happened.  Use of temporal or time-related conjunctions. 17 Here are the examples of anecdotes: Like Father Like Son Little Johnny returns from school and tells he got an F in arithmetic. "Why ...?" asks the father, in that oh-so familiar warning tone of voice. "The teacher asked 'How much is 2x3?', and I said '6'," answers Johnny. The father frowns: "But that is right." So then she asks me, “How much is 3x2?'" The father's frown deepens: "What is the confusing difference?" "That is exactly what I said to my teacher! That is why I failed the math test." Uhm ... is there something you are not telling me? A distraught patient phoned her doctor's office. "Is it true," the woman wanted to know, "that the medication you prescribed has to be taken for the rest of my life?" "Yes, I am afraid so," the doctor told her. There was a moment of silence before the woman continued, "I am wondering, then, just how serious my condition is. This prescription is marked 'no refills'." 2.5 Concept of Self-Questioning Strategy Self-questioning is simply a process in which students ask and answer questions before, while and after reading. Strategically asking and answering questions before, while and after reading helps students with difficulties engage with text in ways that good readers do naturally, thus “improving their active processing of text and their comprehension” (National Reading Panel, 2003:51). SelfQuestioning Strategy also is to help focus their own attention on selecting 18 appropriate information and to monitor their own understanding. Good readers are actively involved in the reading process. Self-questioning strategy focuses on knowledge acquisition and concept comprehension by learner generating questions. This strategy slows down the reading process, focuses students’ attention on details in the text, and makes them aware of gaps in the story and/or breaches with their own expectation (Janssen, 2002). This strategy may promote students’ personal engagement in reading. By generating questions, students actively and purposefully engage in the reading and comprehending the text. Some general questions that can be asked as an example of how self-questioning is used are: “What do I already to know?”, this is a question that would be asked before the task begins, “Do I understand what is going on this far?”, this is effective to ensure comprehension during the task, and finally, “What new information did I learn?”, this can be asked after the task is complete. According to Bryant, et al. (1999) good readers will involve these activities in their reading:  Before reading, 1. consider what they already know about the topic, and 2. use text features (e.g., headings and illustrations) to get a sense of what they will read.  While reading, 1. monitor their reading, 19 2. use “fix-up” strategies to repair meaning when comprehension problems occur, 3. use context clues to help them figure out the meanings of unknown vocabulary and concepts, 4. identify the text, and 5. use their knowledge of text structure to help them understand what they are reading.  After reading, 1. mentally summarize what they have read, 2. reflect on content, and 3. draw inferences to help them make connections to themselves, the world and other texts. Meanwhile, according to Lenz (2005), self questioning requires a reader to look for text clues that make them wonder, think about possible meanings, ask questions about the meanings, make predictions about the answers, read to find the answers, evaluate the answers and their predictions, and reconcile differences between their questions, their predictions about answers, and the information actually provided by the author in the text. Lenz also subdivides self-questioning into three phases in teaching reading as follows: 1. Before Reading Self-Questioning. It focuses on teaching students to use the self-questioning process as a way of previewing text before reading begins and 20 creating a set of guiding questions (e.g. “Why is the title of the story Magic Mirror?” and “What will it talk about?”) to check comprehension during reading. 2. During Reading Self-questioning. It focuses on teaching the students to use a self-questioning process, by leading and giving them example how to make questions using What, Why, When, Which, Where and How as they read paragraphs and sections of text. 3. After Reading Self-Questioning. It focuses on teaching students to generate questions and answer questions after they have read the text. It seems that self-questioning as an active strategy to increase the readers’ reading ability; the active processing theory posits that since readers have to interact with the text longer and more deeply, in order to formulate questions about it, they develop deeper understanding and longer retention of the text (Singer, 1978). This strategy also helps students determine a motivation for reading by getting them to create questions about the material they will be reading, form predictions about what the answers will be, and locate their answers in the text. (Biancarosa et. al.; 2006:16) Considering the statement above, it can be inferred that self-questioning is more than just asking question. It is an active process of students learning to pay attention to textual clues that they found in the text. Then the students use their 21 background knowledge to generate questions and make predictions based on the clues. 2.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Self-Questioning Strategy as a Teaching Resource Reading through Self-Questioning Strategy has some advantages and disadvantages, they are: Advantages: 1. By this self-questioning strategy, it can motivate learners’ interest and trigger learners to become actively involved in the lesson. 2. This strategy is also used to develop learners’ critical thinking skills and inquiring attitudes. Related to critical thinking, by guiding the students’ to let them make their own question about the text, it can stimulate them to pursue knowledge of their own. 3. A student does not have to constantly rely on the teacher to gain understanding of a subject. It is a great way to take learning into students’ own hands. 4. It can be used in all academic subjects. Disadvantages: 1. For the poor readers, it will be hard for them to develop their skill in this strategy; the students do not know what questions are best to ask themselves. Teacher needs “extra-work” to give them example about the use of this strategy before the lesson is started. 22 2.7 Teaching Reading Comprehension through Self-Questioning Strategy The steps of teaching reading through self-questioning strategy are: a. Pre- Activity 1. The procedure begins with the teacher motivates the students by asking them about anecdote text e.g. “Do you know about anecdote text?”, “What do you know about anecdote text?”, “Have you ever read anecdote text?”. It functions to activate their background knowledge of anecdote text. 2. Before the teacher asks students to apply self-questioning strategy to a passage, the teacher explains to the students the purpose of learning this strategy. It is intended to introduce the students to self-questioning strategy applied in the treatment. 3. The teacher describes the strategy and makes a list of steps on the board, the teacher gives the model of how the strategy is used in the text, and meanwhile the students see and sometimes participate in following the steps. The steps can be described as follows: a) The students must understand question “what do you study this passage for?” with self-reminder that he or she reads the passage in order to answer questions about its content. b) The students locate all specific information in the passage underlines or highlight them. c) For each specific information that the students have highlighted, he or she generates a question. The students read through the passage again to answer each question that she or he has generated by using self- 23 questioning strategy. Corder (1979: 26) mentions that the students are taught to ask WHO? WHAT? WHERE? WHEN? WHY? HOW? For example, “Who is the main character in the story?” “ What did the character do in the story?” Students answer the questions by paraphrasing sentences in the first paragraph. They are taught to get the answer to these questions in the opening paragraph, it is usually easy enough to see how the questions are answered. d) The students underline events and actions they found in the text. This helps them to make questions about specific information stated in the text. e) Students review the specific information, the questions and answers. b. While- Activity 1. Teacher distributes the text to all students and instructs them to write 5 questions based on the text. 2. The teacher asks the students to go through the text in order to get an overview of the whole text. 3. Teacher teaches the students about how to make common questions that usually found in the text by giving the example how to arrange a question. 4. Next, the students underline the main idea they found in the text. They make questions, for example, “What is the main idea of the first paragraph?” 5. The students write the answers on a piece of paper. 24 6. The students underline some of the specific information they found in the text and make questions by using WHAT or WHO i.e. “Who is the main character in the story?”, “What is the character do in the text?” 7. The students underline events they found in the text and make questions based on them, for example, “But you shouldn't use this to wash your dog.” The possible question is “What was the grocer’s reason for forbidding the boy washed his dog?” and the possible answer is “The dog could be sick even kill him.” 8. The students make an inference or prediction about the meaning of the story that are not explicitly stated in the text, for example, “What does this statement mean: Darn! This one doesn't have any shoes either…” 9. The students make prediction about the answers of those questions and write the answers on their own paper. c. Post- Activity 1. The students exchange their questions with their partner and answer each other, and then they discuss their answer with their partner. 2. The teacher administers students’ questions and let the students answer. 3. The students submit their work to the teacher. 4. Students try to express their problems in comprehending the text. 5. Teacher summarizes the materials. 6. Teacher gives homework to the students. 2.8 Theoretical Assumption 25 Based on the frame of theories, it is assumed that self questioning is an effective strategy to be used to increase students’ reading ability in comprehending the anecdote text. By this self-questioning strategy, it can motivate learners’ interest and trigger learners to become actively involved in the lesson. This strategy is also used to develop learners’ critical thinking skills and inquiring attitudes. Related to critical thinking, by guiding the students’ to let them make their own question about the text, it can stimulate them to pursue knowledge of their own. This learning strategy forces students to pay closer attention to what they are doing, and incorporate existing knowledge with newly retained information. A student’s ability to combine new information with old information is also essential to their ability to transfer knowledge from one context to another. Based on the literature review and the explanation above, it can be assumed that self-questioning strategy can be used to increase students’ reading comprehension in comprehending the anecdote texts for Senior High School students. It makes the students aware of their purpose of reading and can motivate them, and also makes them enjoy the reading activity. 2.9 Hypotheses Based on the theoretical assumption above, the writer formulates the hypothesis as follow: 26 Self-questioning strategy can be used to increase students’ reading ability in comprehending the anecdote text. III. RESEARCH METHOD This chapter discusses about the methods of research used in this study, they are: research design, population and sample, data collecting technique, research procedures, scoring system, data analysis and hypothesis testing. 3.1 Research Design This research was quantitative in nature, because the major data were quantitative, that was the students’ scores of reading comprehension and was done by using one group pretest-posttest design. The research investigated whether there was an increase in students’ reading ability in comprehending the anecdote text through self-questioning strategy. This study uses one class as experimental class using simple random sampling, which is selected randomly by using lottery. This class has both pretest-posttest and three treatments. 27 The research design was represented as follow: T1 X T2 Notes: T1 is the pre-test T2 is the post-test X is the treatment (Hatch and Farhady, 1982: 20) Firstly, the writer administered a pre-test to the students to identify their achievement of reading ability in comprehending the anecdote texts before applying the technique. Then, the students were given three treatments by using self-questioning strategy. Eventually, a post-test is administered to identify students’ reading ability in comprehending anecdote texts after being taught by using self-questioning strategy. If the average score of the pre-test is higher than the average score of the post-test, it indicates that self-questioning strategy can not be used to increase students’ reading ability in comprehending the anecdote text. However, if the average score of the post-test is higher than the average score of the pre-test, it shows that self-questioning strategy can be used to increase students’ reading ability in comprehending anecdote text. 3.2 Population and Sample The population of the research was the second year students of MA Ma’arif 4 Kalirejo Lampung Tengah. There were 2 classes of the second grade in this 28 school: XI 1 Science (40 students) and XI 2 Social (40 students). The total number of the population was 80 students. Their ages range from 16-17 year old. In determining the experimental class the writer used the simple random sampling technique by using lottery, so that all second year classes got the same chance to be sample in order to avoid subjectivity and to guarantee every class has the same opportunity. The sample chosen was XI 1 Science as the experimental class and therefore XI 2 Social program became the try out class. 3.3 Data Collecting Technique In collecting the data, the writer used the following steps: 1. Administering the Pre-test The pre-test was given before the treatment, in order to find out how far the competence of the students in reading comprehension or their input before the treatment and to find out the experimental class’ reading comprehension achievement, the test was multiple choices that consist of 25 items. The materials tested, was related to the curriculum used in the school and suitable with their level. 2. Administering the Post-test Post-test was given after the treatment in order to find out whether there was any increase of students’ reading comprehension achievement. The test was multiple choices consisted of 25 items. The materials tested, were related to the curriculum used in the school and suitable with their level. The post-test was done after three meetings of the treatments. The result of the post-test of the participant class was analyzed. 29 3.4 Research Procedures The research was conducted during normal class hour. The writer followed the following procedures: 1. Determining the research problem Based on the researcher’s background of problem in the first chapter, it was assumed that self-questioning strategy could be used to improve the students’ reading comprehension achievement conveyed in anecdote text and the researcher tried to find out whether there was an improvement of learner’s achievement in reading comprehension conveyed in anecdote text skill before and after being taught using self-questioning strategy. 2. Selecting instruments materials The research used three anecdote texts for treatments. The material was based on KTSP 2006. The stories were taken from students’ handbook and also from the internet. 3. Determining Sample The sample was the students chosen, that was the second grade of XI 1 Science as the experimental class. The writer selected the sample by using random sampling with the assumption that the second year classes of MA Ma’arif 4 Kalirejo had the same characters and level of English Proficiency.. 4. Conducting try-out test The try-out test had been conducted before the pre-test was administered. This was expected to measure the validity and reliability of pretest and posttest, to ensure the data used by the researcher was valid and reliable to 30 use as a research instruments. This test was multiple choice tests and was conducted in 80 minutes. There were 40 items of multiple choices with four options and one of them was as the correct answer, the test items could be reduced or kept depends on its reliability and validity. The aim of try -out was to determine the quality of the test used as the instrument of the research, and to determine which item should be revised for the pre-test and the post-test. This research used the result of the try-out test to measure the level of difficulty and discrimination power, to find out the validity and reliability of the test. Criteria of Good Test Whenever a test or other measuring device is used as part of the data collection process, there are four criteria of a good test should be met: validity, reliability, reliability, level of difficulty, and discrimination power. 1. Validity of the Instrument A test can be said valid if the test measures the object to be measured and suitable with the criteria (Hatch and Farhady, 1982: 250). According to Hatch and Farhady (1982: 251), there are four basic types of validity: face validity, content validity, construct validity and empirical or criterionrelated validity. To measure whether the test has good validity, the researcher used content and construct validity since the other two were considered be less needed. Face validity only concerns with the layout of the test. Criterion-related validity concerns with measuring the success in 31 the future, as in replacement test (Hatch and Farhady, 1982:251). The two types used in this research were: a. Content validity Content validity refers to the extent to which a test measures a representative sample the subject matter contents, the focus of the content validity is adequate of the sample and simply on the appearance of the test (Hatch and Farhady, 1982:251). To know whether the test is good reflection of what will be taught and of the knowledge which the teacher wants the students to know, the researcher compares this test with table of specification. If the table represents the material that the researcher wants to test, then it is valid from that point of view. A table of specification is an instrument that helps the test constructor plans the test. Table 1. Table specification of try out NO Objective Number of items Percentage 1 Identifying main idea 1., 3., 7., 8., 10., 16., 18., 20., 21., 23., 29., 31., 36. 32,5% 2 Specific Information 45% 3 Inference 4., 5., 9., 12., 13., 14., 19., 22., 25., 27., 30., 33., 34., 35., 37., 38., 39., 40. 6., 15., 24., 28. 4 Vocabulary 2., 11., 17., 26., 32. 12,5% 40 100% Total 10% 32 Table 2. Table specification of pretest NO Objective Number of items Percentage 1 Identifying main idea 1., 2., 4., 5., 7., 8., 10., 11., 14., 16., 18., 20., 23., 24., 25. 60% 2 Specific Information 6., 9., 12., 17., 21. 20% 3 Inference 3., 13., 22. 12% 4 Vocabulary 15., 19. 8% 25 100% Total Table 3. Table specification of posttest NO Objective Number of items Percentage 1 Identifying main idea 1., 3., 5., 8., 9., 10., 11., 12., 14., 15., 18., 20., 22., 23., 25. 60% 2 Specific Information 2., 6., 16., 21., 24. 20% 3 Inference 7., 13., 17. 12% 4 Vocabulary 4., 19. 8% 25 100% Total b. Construct Validity Construct validity is concerned with whether the test is actually in line with the theory of what reading comprehension means. To know the test was true reflection of the theory in reading comprehension, the researcher examined whether the test questions actually reflected the means of reading comprehension or not. 2. Reliability of the Instrument 33 Reliability refers to the extent to which the text is consistent in its score, and gives us an indication of how accurate the test score are (Hatch and Farhady, 1982: 244). To test the reliability of the instruments, the writer used split-half method in which the reading tests were divided into halves (Hatch and Farhady, 1982: 246). By splitting the test into two equal parts (first half and second half); it is made as if the whole tests have been taken in twice. The first half contained passage 1, 2 and 3 and the items were number 1. until 18. The second half contained passage 4, 5 and 6 involving question number 19. until 40. Moreover, by arranging the tests into first half and second half allowed the writer to measure the test reliability by having split half method. To measure the coefficient of the reliability between the first and the second half, Pearson Product Moment was used, which was formulated as follows: Where, n r = number of students = coefficient reliability between first and second half = total number of first half = total number of second half = square of = square of = total score of first half items = total score of second half items (Hatch and Farhady, 1982: 222) 34 Then to know the coefficient correlation of the whole items, Spearman Brown’s Pharophecy Formula was used. The formula was as follows: Where: rk = the reliability of full test rl =the reliability of half test The criteria of reliability are: 0.90- 1.00 = high 0.50- 0.89 =

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