The Use of Activated Carbon from Bintaro Fruit-Shell (Cerbera manghas) as an Adsorbent to Increase Water Quality

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ISBN 978-979-95093-9-0 FACULlY OF MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCES, BOGOR AGRlOJLTURAL UNIVERSIlY IPS International Convention Center 15 - 17" November 2013 Published By ISBN: 978-979-95093-9-0 " PROCEEDINGS ISS 2013 Internatio'nal Seminar on Sciences 2013 "Perspectives on Innovative Sciences" Bogar 15-17 November 2013 IPB International Convention Center Published by Faculty of rv1athematics and Natural Sciences Bogar Agricultural University Board of Editors PROCEEDINGS INTERNATIONAL SEMI'NAR ON SCIENCES 2013 Chief Editor: Endar H. Nugrahani Managing Editor: Indahwati Nisa Rachmania Managing Team: Wisnu Ananta Kusuma Ali Kusnanto International Scientific Committee: Manabu D. Yamanaka (Kobe University, Japan) Kanaya (Nara Institute of Science and Technology, NAIST, Japan) Ken Tanaka (Toyama University, Japan) DanielOosgood (Columbia University, USA) Emmanuel Paradis (Institut de Recherche pour Ie Developpement , IRD, France) Rizaldi Boer (Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia) Antonius Suwanto (Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia) National Reviewer: Kiagus Dahlan Tania June Sri Sugiarti Miftahudin Anja Meryandini 1m as Sukaesih Sitanggang Farit Mochamad Afendl Paian Sianturi Husin Alatas Heru Sukoco Charlena Suryani iii FOREWORD The International Seminar on Sciences 2013, which had the main theme "Perspectives on Innovative th Sciences", was organized on November 15 _lih, 2013 by the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University. This event aimed at sharing knowledge and expertise, as well as building network and collaborations among scientists from various institutions at national and internationalleve!. Scientific presentations in this sem inar consisted of a keynote speech, some invited speeches, and about 120 contributions of oral and poster presentations. Among the contributions, 66 full papers have been submitted and reviewed to be published in this proceeding. These papers were clustered in four groups according to our themes: A. Sustainability and Science Based Agriculture B. Science of Cam plexity C. Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science D. Biosciences and Bioresources In this occasion, we would like to express our thanks and gratitude to our distinguished keynote and invited speakers: Minister of Science and Technology, Prof. Manabu D. Yamanaka (Kobe University, Japan), Prof. Kanaya (Nara Institute of Science and Technology, NAIST, Japan), Prof. Ken Tanaka (Toyama University, Japan), Emmanuel Paradis, PhD. (Institut de Recherche pour Ie Developpement, IRD, France), Prof. Dr. Ir. Rizaldi Boer, MS (Bogar Agricultural University), and Prof. Dr. Ir. Antonius Suwanto, M.Sc. (Bogor Agricultural University). We would like aiso to extend our thanks and appreciation to all participants and referees for the wonderful cooperation, the great coordination, and the fascinating efforts. Appreciation and special thanks are addressed to our colleagues and staffs who help in editing process. Finallv, we acknowledge and ・クーイセウ@ our thanks to all friends, colleagues, and staffs of the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences IPB for their help and support. Bogor, March 2014 The Organizing Committee International Seminar on Sciences 2013 iv Table of Content Page Board of Editors Foreword Table of Content A. Sustainability and Science Based Agriculture III IV V Development of a natural rubber dryer Based on multi energy Didin Suwa rdin, Afrizal resources (biomass, solar and wind) Yachlepi , Mili Pubaya, Sherly 3 Hanifarianty 2 3 Characterization ofHDTMABr-modified Natural Zeolite and its Budi Riza Putra, Latifah K Application in Cr(YI) Adsorption Danlsman, Eti Rohaeti Potency of Andrographis paniculata, Tinospora crispa, and Wulan Tri Wahyuni , Latifah K Combination Extract as Darusman, Rona Jutama 7 17 a-Glucosidase Inhibitor and Chromatographic Fingerprint Profile of the Extracts 4 Utilization of Frond Palm Oil as Second Generation Bioethanol Deliana Dahnum, Dyah Styarini, 21 Production using Alkaline Pretreatment and Separated Hydrolysis Sudiyarmanto, Muryanto, 5 and Fermentation Method Haznan Abimanyu Pretreatment of Grass Biomass with Biologica'l Process for Desy Kurniawati, MuiJamad Efficient Hydrolysis Natsir, Rahmi Febrialis and 27 Prima Endang Susilowati 6 Alkaloid Compounds from Oil-Free Mahogany Seed (Swietenia Sri Mursiti, Sabirin Matsjeh, macrophylla, King) and Hypoglycemia Effect of Mahogany Seed lumina, and Mustofa 31 on The Rat (Rattus novergicus) 7 Utilization OfYetiver Roots Waste Product as Strong, Low Galuh Suprobo, Tatang Density, and Eco Friendly Material Pot Gunawan, Cynthia Andriani, Rio 43 Candra Islami 8 Green Products from Wastewater of Tempe Industry Susanti Pudji Hastuti, Yoti 47 Bramantya Adi, Bary Fratama, Samuel Arunglabi, Dewi KAK Hastuti, and Santoso SastrodihalJo 9 Saccharification of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch After Alkaline Muryanlo, Eka Triwahyuni, Pretreatment Followed by Electron Beam Irradiation for Ethanol Yanni Sudiyani 55 Production 10 Isolation and Screening of Endophytic Bacteria from Bark ofRaru Wasinton Simanjuntak, Heri Plant (Tarrietia ribiginosa) and Their Potential for Bioetahnol 61 Satria, and Nurul Utami Production V II 12 Herbs Formula to The The Effect Functions Triyono, 67 v Armi Gustina and from BilHam Fruit-Shell The Use of Activated as an Adsorbent 10 Increase Water Kamella Hendra 13 77 14 81 15 Reductase Resistance of Bacterial Bombana Gold Mine Muzuni 16 17 Brake Fern Metal Accumulator: Utilization Potentials of Harvested Biomass and Metal Jf';V,f"IOnmf':!1f Ridwan, Rike 91 Hasan Lukman Proteio Content Enhancement of Limitation and NI1'rI"HH'rI lin Noel' and Asri Pen! Wastewater Medium 18 Mochamad Iri Kumala Dew! and Wulanclari immobilized enzyme of whi te-rot for decolorization ofRBBR Arum Sari and Sanro Tachibana Ardie, Nurul and Amin Nur Sintho 19 and Salt Tolerant Foxtail Millet 20 of Silver NallOitJaTtlcles Metabolites of Lactobacillus delbrueckii dゥュ。セ@ Ex tracellular 109 113 119 21 of Land Cover 121 Winda 22 Microbial Leather Wasle 23 and Water Def1cit in the Rice Water the Water Balance Production Center in North Sulawesi Model E. X, and Wiske Rotinsulu3 Prediction of Dustfall Generation in Ambient Air over an SoH Area Arief Sabdo Amaliah 24 Isolation Gusmawartati dan AI HUSllllh Idenlitication from Durian • Johanis H. ¥M 129 Johannes 135 Lia 143 25 Fitri Adilla, Lisman Carboxymethylation of Microfibrillated Cellulose to Improve Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly lactic Acid Composites Suryanegara, Suminar S. Achmadi 149 26 Esterification of Microfibrillated Cellulose with Various Properties of Anhydrides to Improve Therma'l and m・」ィ。ョゥセ@ Ajeng Mawangi, Lisman 155 Polylactic Acid Composite 27 Thermal and Mechanical Properties Improvement of Polylactic Acid-Nanocellulose Composites by Acety"lation Suryanegara, Suminar S. Achmadi Resty Dwi Andinie, Lisman Suryanegara, Suminar S. Achmadi 161 167 C. Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science 28 The comparison spatial distribution observed , estimatated using Rado Yendra, Ari Pani Desvina, Neyman-Scott Rectanguiar Pulse Method (NSRP), and simulation Abdul Aziz Jemain for mean of one-hour rain and probabil ity of 24-hour rain 169 29 Optimal V AR Injection Rased on Neural Network Current State Estinl3tor for 20kV Surabaya Electrical Distribution System Dimas Fajar Uman P, Ontoseno Penangsang, Adi Soeprijanto 175 30 Fire-Fighting Robot Navigation System Using Wall Following Algorithm aild Fuzzy Logic Karlisa Priandana, Erwin M Y Chriswantoro, Mushthofa 181 31 Analysis and Solving of Ol!tliers in Longitudinal Data Viarti Eminita, Indahwati, Anang Kumia 187 32 Implementation of Flowers and Ornamental Plants Landscape Information System using Cloud Computing Technology Meuthia Rachmaniah and Iswarawati 193 33 Cluster Information of Non-sampled Area in Small Area Estimation with Non-normally Distributed Area Random Effects and Auxiliary Variables Rahma Anisa, Anang Kumia, Indahwati 199 34 Study of Overdispersion for Poisson and Zero-Inflated Poissoil Regression on Some Characteristics of the Data Lili Puspita Rahayu, Kusman Sadik. Indahwali 203 35 The Effect of Two-Way and Three-Way Interaction of Perceived Rewards on the Relationship Quality Enny Kristiani, Ujang Sumarwan, Lilik No Yulianti & Asep Saefuddin 209 36 Implementation ofinverse Kinematics for the Coordination Control of Six Legged Robot Wulandari, Karlisa Priandana, 213 17 Detection of C Code Plagiarism by Using K-Means Ahmad Ridha, Abi Panca Gumilang 219 38 Temporal Entity Tagging for Indonesian Documents Ahmad Ridha, Agus Simamora 223 39 Multidimensional Poverty Measurement Using Counting Approuch and Duai Cutoff Method in District of Banyumas Indah Soraya, Irwan Susanto, 229 - - Agus Buono Mania Roswitha I. I. vii D. Chaerani, A. Anisah, N. Anggriani, Firdaniza 235 Yaasiinta Cariens, Karlina Nisa 241 42 The Effect of Divergent Branches on GPU-Based Parallel Program Hendra Rahmawan, Yudi Satria Performance Gondokaryono 247 43 Ensemble of Extreme Estimates Based on Modified Champemowne and Generalized Pareto Distributions Aji Hamim Wigena, Anik Djuraidah, Muhammad Hafid 253 44 Genetic Algorithms Application for Case Study of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) on the Data Contained Missing Value Septian Rahardiantoro, Bagus Sartono, Totong Martono 259 45 An Implementation of Paral·lel AES Algorithm for Data Encryption with GPU Aditya Erlangga, Endang Pumama Giri, Karlisa Priandana 265 46 Constructing Orthogonal Fractional Factorial Split-Plot Designs by Selecting a Subdesign Dependently to Another Subdesign Bagus Sarto no, Yenni Angraini, Indahwati 269 47 Spatial Clustering of Hotspots using DBSCAN and ST -DBSCAN Utsri Yustina Purwanto, Baba Barus,and Hari Agung Adrianto 275> 48 Gap between the Lower and Upper Bounds for the Iteration Complexity of Interior-Point Methods Bib Paruhum Silalahi 281 49 Black Approximation To Determine Value Of Call Option On Jacob Stevy Seleky, Endar H . 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E., Population and Seed Number Per Planting Hole Tarigan, R., Barus, S. and 391 Khaririyatun, N. ix The Use of ActiIVated Carbon from Bintaro Fruit-Shell (Cerbera manghas) as an Adsorbent to Increase Water Quality Armi Wulanawatil), Kamella Gustina2) And Djeni Hendra 3) 1).2) Chemistry Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University 3) Center for Research and Development of Forest Products Abstract Bintaro seed is utilized widely as all alternative raw material to make biodiesel and to produce Bintaro fruit shells. In Ihis research, the Billtaro fruit shell \I'as used as an alternative raw material to rnake an activated carbon. Carbon activation lvere relied on 2 (t\l'o) factors, chemical activation (H;P0 4 consentrate) and physics ({ctivation (time a/water vapor steam) . Activated carbon as quality indicator was characterized using Indonesia !\ational Standard (SNI 06-3730-1995). TIle best activated carbon is produced from the shell treated with 15 % H;P04 . water vapollr steamed in 90 minutes with 9.98% moisture contellt, 9.16% volatile matter, 12.45% ash content, 78.4% fixed carboll, absvlption on 784.498 mg/g iodine, absOlptivn of ]7.73% benzene, and ({bsOIption of 127.705 mg/g methylene blue. The mechanism used for adsOlption was Langmuir isotherm with 0.9691 linearity. The activated carbon was capable to reduce lip to 100% and 86.94% iron and manganase cOllcentrate respectively. Keywords: activated carbOIl, Cerbera manghas, isotherm absorption l. INTRODUCTION Water is very important for the survival of li\ing beings. The degradation of water quality makes it 「セゥョァ@ nonfunc tional. This problem can be resolved using an activated carbon. The quality of activated carbon is based on its ability to adsorb the iodine . The minimum value of iodine to be ad so rb by the adsorbent is regulated by [he Indone<;iall National Standard (SNI)[ I] is 750 mg/g. While the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM 04607-94) and Japan Industrial Standards (JIS) require the value to be 1000 mg/g. Acti':ated carbo n can be made from carbonized organic materials such as wood and brown coal [2] . Raw matelia'is used for commercial activated carbon in Indonesia are generally from coconut shell, while in America and Japan they are generally made from coal. Commercial activated carbon raw materials that have met the ASTM and HS are teaks. The use of teak is limited depend on the purpose of theIr utilization or categorized as an unrenewable resources. III this resean;h the activated carbon was made from bintaro fruit-shells ( Cerbera manghas ) for their availability as abundant biomass waste because bintaro trees produce fruit all year round and do not require specific treatment [ 3 ] . Shell yield from Bintaro fruit is 67.36 % of all biodiesel production process [ 4 ]. Bintaro fruit-shells contain tiber and lignocellulosic which have similarity in nature with cocor-ut shell [ 5 ] . Thus, this research aims to utilize Bintaro fruit-shells as an alternative raw material in the manufacture of activated carbon that can be used as an adsorbent of metals at water wells to improve water quality. - Proceedings ISS 2013 II. MATERIALS AND METHOD Materials The materials オセ・、@ were Bintaro fruii- s hells fro m Bogor, commercial aelJvated carbon which is made from coconut she ll, H 3 P0 4 solution, iodine, natrium thiosulphate, starch, blue methylene, be nzene, metal standard solution of manganese (Mr.), and wells' waters (Dramaga, Bogar). Instrumentation used in this research were modified drum kiln, retol1 activated carbon; oven, desiccator, fine sieve (100 mesh), porcelain cup, analytical balances, shaker, visible-ultravoilet spectrophotometer (UV-VIS) Shimadzu UV type 1700, セ」。ョゥァ@ electron microscope (SEM) EVO type ZEUS-SO, Atomic Absorption spectroscopy (AAS) 7000 Shimadzu type, pH-met.ers, and glass equipments. Method Carboni7ation Bintaro fruit-shells were inserted into the kiln drum. Then, it was ignited by buming the air hole with the aid of bait sticks . When the raw materials sterted to bum, the kiln air hole was closed and chimney was installed. The carbonization process was considered complete when the smoke out uf the chimney was thinning and bluish, then the kiln was cooled for 24 hours. A.:tivated Carbon Bintaro fruit-shells' carbon in granular fonn were soaked in di fferent concentration of H)P0 4 solulion (5%, 10%, and 15%) for 7.4 hours and thell washed, drained, and air dried. Moreover, activated carbon with and without activation of H)P04 was put into a retort with a capacity of 0.3 kg and was heated at a temperature of 750°C. After the retort 71 reached the required エ・ューイセオL@ the water vapor was flow for 0 minutes (without steam), 60 minutes, or 90 minutes, to give 12 types of activated carbon that can be seen in Table I. Table I Modification of activated carbon treatment Physics activation (time of water vapor steam, minutes) 0 60 90 Al A2 A3 BI B2 B3 Chemical activation (concentration ッヲhNjpoセL@ %) 0 5 10 CI C2 C3 15 DI D2 D3 Sample weight Ash Content Yield (SNI 1995) The formed activated carbon (sample) was weighed and compared with the carbon weight. Yield was calculated by the formula: Yield = Sample weight carbon weight x 100% (1) = (a-b) a X 100% (2) a = initial mass weight (g) b = final mass weight (g) Volatile Matter Content A total amount of ± 1.00 g sample was キ・ゥァィセ、@ in a porcelain dish with a knowll dry mass. Then it was heated in an electric furnace Ht a temperature of 950°C for 10 min, cooled in a desiccator, arid weighed. The dish is closed as tight as possible. Tbe analysis are conducted in t\\'o replications. Volatile matter content was calculated by the equation: 72 x 100% (4) a Bonded cubon content Carbon in activated carbon is a result of the composing process ! pyrolysis besides the ash (inorganic substances) and volatile matter (essential substances are still present in the carbon pores). The definition is only an approachment (ISO 1995). Bonded carbon content =: 100% - (u + z) (5) Iodine Adsorption A total amount of ± 0.25 g samples were oven dried for I hour then placed in a 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask. To this flask, 25 mL of 0.1 N iodine solutions was added, then the Erlenmeyer immediately 」ャッウセ、@ and shaked for 15 minutes. Any suspension that formed in the solutions was filtered away. Then, 10 mL of fillrate was pipetted into the Erlenmeyer and directly titrated with a solution of 0 . 1 N Na-thiosulfate until yellow color was appeared . After adding a few drops of 1% starch, titration continued until the bluc color was completely disappeared. This analysis was perfonned in two replications . eternlination 0 f the iodine adsorption was done by ·using the following equation: Q,= Volatile Matter Conten = 1I = ash content (%) z = levels of volatile matter (%) Characteristics of Activated Carbon \Vater Content A total amount of ± 1.00 g sample was weighed in a porcelain dish with a known dry mass, then it was oven-dried at 105 CC for 3 hours. After cooling in a desiccator the sample was weighed. The drying and weighing process were repeated every hour until a constant weight is obtained. The analysis was conducted in two replications. Water content was calculated by the equation: Water content Ash Content A total amount of ± 1.00 g sample was weighed in a porcelain dish with a known dry mass. Cup containing the sample was placed in an electric furnace at a temperature of 700°C for 6 hours. After that, it was cooled in a desiccator and weighed. Drying and weighing were repeated every hour until a constant weight was obtained. The analysis was conducted in two replications. Ash content was calculated by the equation: = (a-b) X 100% n (3) ( 10 bセHZスxQRNVYSU@ I a (6) Qi = iodine adsorption (mg/g) B= the volume ofNa-tiosulfat solution (mL) C = n。Mエゥッウオ セ ヲ。エ@ nonnality (N) D = iodine nonnality (N) 12.693 = a total amount of iodine equivalent I mL Na2S203 0.1 N solution Benzene Adsorption A total amount of ± 1.00 g samples arc weighed into a petri dish which has been known of their dry mass. The plate is then put into a desiccator that has saturated by a benzene vapor for 24 hours to allow accomplishment of adsorption equilibrium. Moreover, activated carbon is weighed Proceedings ISS 2013 again. But the petri dish should left in the air for 5 minutes before it is weighed to remove benzene vapor attached to the cup. This analysis are performed in two replications. Determination of benzene adsorption is using the following equation: . Benzene adsorptIOn m'" h =' (h-m) =- x 100% m (7) mass of activatt:d carbon before adsorption mass of activated carbon after adsorption A total amount of 0.25 g sample are put into a 25 mL Erlenmeyer and aiso added by 1200 ppm blue methylene, then shaked for 30 minutes and filtered. The filtrate is taken for i loL and then inserted illto 100 ml pumpkin drinks. After that, the absorbance is measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy at a wavelength of 664 nm. This analysis are performed in two replications. Determination of blue methylene adsorption is using the following equation: VX(Co-Ca) x jp (8) a J' Co Ca Ip The quality of best activated carbon was tested by cleaning and purifying well 's water against the heavy metals content contained. The water quality was tested before and after the purification by analyzing its color, pH, and the content of heavy metals. III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Methylene Blue Adsorption Blue methylene adsorption - Application Test =' the volume of methylene blue (L) = initial concentration of methyiene blue (ppm) = final concentration of methylene blue (ppm) = dilution factor Yield of Activated Carbon Carbon activation process was done by chemical modification (H 3 P0 4 ) and physical process (steam water vapor). The activation process reduced the amount of carbon i' i Gセ MZN@ . ".:;,,: -; .a ' : : : ' .. _ ;_ .. Nセ@ A • •'-. .:;; セ@ ::'( : (bl ia ) Fig.9. Isotherm adsorption (a) Langmuir and (b) Freundlich of Mn metals IV. CONCLUSION The activated carbon from Bintaro fruit shell which was activated with 15% of hSpoセ@ and a 90minute  steam  vapor  exposure  can  be  used  as  an  adsorbent  in  water quality  improvement with  metal  adsorption  capacity  of  Mn  and  Fe  respectively,  86.94%  and  100%,  and  qualified  as  SNI  technical  activated  carbon.  The  activated  carbon  quality  was  2.5  times  higher  than  the  quality  of  commercial  activated carbon  made  from  coconut shell  based  on  the  iodine  adsorption  of 784.498  mg/g. However,  its  quality  has  not  passed  the  ASTM  and  JIS  standards therefore do not meet the export quality.  ACKl'lNOWLEDGEMENT  The  authors  are  thankful  to  ChemislIy  Department,  Faculty  of  Mathematics  and  Natural  Sciences,  Bogor  Agricultural  Institute;  Center  for  Research  and  Development  of Forest  Products  for  their support.  REFERENCES  [I]  [SNI]  Standar  Nasional  Indonesia.  1995.  SNI 06-3730-1995: Arang Aktif Teknis. Jakarta:  Dewan Standardisasi  Indonesia .  [2]   Marsh  H,  Reinoso  FR.  2006.  Active Carboll. Alicante:  Elvecier  Science  & Technology  Books.  6  [3]  Pum anto  .. 2 _11 .  RA.PP  Kembangkan  Buah  Binta ro  jadl  Energi Altematif di Teluk  Meranti.  http: //\\ .k nm l. itb.ac.id/artikel.html.  [10  Jan  20 II].  [4]   U t ami  .  R.  20 II.  Kaj ian  Proses  Produksi  Biodiesel  d  ri  セャゥ ョケ。ォ@ Biji  Bintaro  (Cerbera Gael1n)  dengan  Metode  odollam Transesterifikasi  [skripsi].  Bogor:  Fakultas  Teknologi Pertanian.  Institut Pertanian Bogor.  [5]  Iman  G,  Handoko  T.  2011.  Pengolahan  Buah  Bintaro  sebagai  Sumber  Bioetanol  dan  Karbon  Aktif.  http: //repository.upnyk.ac.id/349/ 1 I Pengolahan  Buah  Bintaro  sebagai  Sumber  Bioetanol  dan  Karbon Aktif.pdf.  [10  Jan  2011].  [6]   Sudrajat  R.  L985 .  Pengall.lh  beberapa  faktor  pengolahan  terhadap  sifat  arang  aktif.  BlI! Lit fIasi! Hutan 33: 24­25.  [7]  Hartoyo,  Pari  G.  1993.  Peningkatan  rendemen  dan  daya  serap  arang  aktif dcngan  cara  kimia  dosis rendah dan  gasifikasi.  Bu! Lit Hasi! HlitaIJ 11(5): 205­208.  [8]  Bansal  RC,  Goyal  M.  2005.  Activated  Carbon  Adsorption.  New  York:  Taylor  & Francis  Group.  [91  Pari G.  1996. Pembuatan arang aktif dari  serbuk  gergaj ian  sengon  dengan  cara  kimia.  BlI! Lit Hasif fIlitan 14:308-320. [10]  Yang  RT.  2003.  Adsorbent:  Fundamental  and  Aplications. New York:  Wiley.  [II] Pari  G, Hendra  D.  2006.  Pengaruh  lama  waktu  aktivasi  dan  konscntrasi  asam  fosfat  terhadap  mutu  arang aktif kayu  Acacia mangillllJ. BlI! Lit Hasif Hutall 24(1): 33­46.  [12]  Chahyani  R.  20\2.  Sintesis  dan  Karakterisasi  Membran  Polisulfon  Didadah  Karbon  Aktif  untuk  Filtrasi  Air.  [tesis]  Bogor:  Sekolah  p。ウ」セェョN@ Institut Pertanian Bogor.  [\3]   [Menkes]  Menteri  Kesehatan.  RPaセ@ Keputusan  Menteri  Kesehatan  Nor  907IMENKES/SKlVIII2002 tentang  Syal  syarat  dan  pengawasan  Kualitas  Air  Mim  Jakarta:  Menkes RI.  [14]   Atkins  PW.  1999 .  Kimia Fisik Jilid ll. Kartohadiprodjo  II.  penerjcmah;  Rohadyan  T .  editor.  Jakarta:  Erlangga.  Terjemahan  dari:  Physical Chemist,.v. Proceedings  ISS  2013 

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