AN ANLYSIS THE STUDENTS MASTERY OF DEGREES OF COMPARISON
AN ANA LYSIS ON THE STUDENTS’ MASTERY OF
AN ANA LYSIS ON THE STUDENTS’ MASTERY OF (A Case Study at Second Grade Students (VIII.10) of SMPN 3 Tangerang Selatan)A “Skripsi” Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Trainingin Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of S. Pd.
DEGREES OF COMPARISON
(A Case Study at Second Grade Students (VIII.10) of SMPN 3 Tangerang Selatan)A “Skripsi” Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Trainingin Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of S. Pd.
OF DEGREES OF COMPARISON
(A Case Study at Second Grade Students (VIII.10) of SMPN 3 Tangerang Selatan)A “Skripsi” Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Trainingin Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of S. (S.1) in English Language Education By Methania Aris Shusantie 106014000401 Approved byAdvisor, Dr.
According to the test result, it is obtained thatthere are 16.66 % students who had mastery in the items of comparative form,33.77 % students who had mastery in the items of the superlative form and 42.105% students who had mastery in the items of distinguishing usage of both comparative and superlative degree. This skripsi is presented to the English Education Department of Tarbiya and Teachers Training Faculty of State Islamic University of Syarif Hidayatullah,Jakarta as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for strata 1 (S.1).
7. Her friends in Department of English Education academic year 2006 especially B class
Table 4.2 Gene 24 ral Frequency of Students’ Mastery in Comparative Form Table 4.3 Specific Frequency of Students’ Mastery in Comparative Form 25 Table 4.4 26 General Frequency of Students’ Mastery in Superlative Form Table 4.5 27 Specific Frequency of Students’ Mastery in Superlative Form Table 4.6 General Frequency of Students’ Mastery in the Usage of Degrees of Comparison (Comparative and Superlative) ................... 28 Table 4.7Specific Frequency of Students’ Mastery in the Usage of both Comparative and Superlative Degree ...................................
SURAT PERNYATAAN KARYA SENDIRI
Saya yang bertanda tangan dibawah ini,Nama : Methania Aris ShusantieTempat/Tanggal lahir : Jakarta, 15 Januari 1989NIM : 106014000401Program Studi : Pendidikan Bahasa InggrisJudul Skripsi : An Analysis on Students’ Mastery of Degreesof Comparison (A Case Study at Second Grade Students (VIII.10) of SMPN 3 Tangerang Selatan) Dosen Pembimbing : Dr. Atiq Susilo, MA menyatakan bahwa skripsi ini benar-benar hasil karya saya sendiri dan sayabertanggung jawab secara akademis atas apa yang saya tulis.
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. The Background of The Study The government of Indonesia has considered English language as the first
Grammar consists of form and rules, as Dianne Larsen- Freeman states that: “Grammar is about form and one way to teach form is to give students rules; however, grammar is about much more than form, and its teaching is ill served if 4 students are simply given rules.”It can be inferred from the statements above that without mastering grammar, the students can not write, read, speak, and listen well. According to the result of the observation at SMP N 3Tangerang Selatan (class VIII.10), it shows that they still find difficulties in understanding or making comparative and superlative forms and alsodistinguishing the form and the usage of each function.
4. Use of regular pattern where an irregular form is required * His handwriting is badder than mine
(a) Jim runs more faster than Paul(b) This car is more better than that oneBased on the facts above, the writer would like to analyze why it happened and what are the causes that students find the difficulties in mastering degrees ofcomparison. Therefore, the writer is interested in discussing and analyzing what are the difficulties faced by students in mastering degrees of comparison and whythe difficulty of degrees of comparison mastery is considered as one of the problems for the students.
B. The Limitation and Formulation of the Problem
It is necessary to make the limitation and formulation of the problem to avoid misunderstanding and to clarify the problem. The Limitation of the Problem The writer limits this study only on the analysis of what are the reasons that cause VIII grade students (class VIII.10 at SMPN 3 Tangerang Selatan) finddifficulties in mastering degrees of comparison focused on comparison of adjective.
5 Marriane Celce-Murcia & Dianne Larsen-Freeman, The Grammar Book: An ESL / EFL Teacher’s Course, (USA: Heinle & Heinle Publishers, 1999), second edition, p. 719
The Objective of the Study The objective of the study is that the writer would like to get a clear information about the level of students’ mastery of degrees of comparison ofadjective. Theoretical significance of this study is for theimprovement of the learners and teachers in learning and teaching English based on the analysis of the students’ mastery of degrees of comparison.
CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK This chapter presents and discusses the theoretical framework about
A. The Degrees of Comparison of Adjective
degrees of comparison of adjective, which includes adjective and degrees of comparison that consist of definition, kinds and the usage of degrees ofcomparison, and the form of adjective comparison. Therefore, in this part, the writer will explain about the adjective and the degrees of comparison.
Adjective is a part of grammar, it includes in the part of speech which functioned to know the condition of a language. 91.4 Jeremy Harmer, How to Teach English: An Introduction to the Practice of English Based on the statements above, it can be concluded that an adjective is a word which has function to modify a noun or pronoun.
2. Degrees of Comparison
Before discussing about the kinds and forms of degrees of comparison, firstly it is better to know about the definition of degrees of comparison. Andthere are some definitions about degrees of comparison according to some experts of English language.
a. Definition of Degrees of Comparison
To get the general understanding about degrees of comparison, it is better to describe what comparison is. One of the most basic and powerful of humancognitive process is the ability to comprehend and express the fact that two things are similar or different.
7 Therefore, comparison is the most important English
construction which is used to express similarities or differences of degree or extent. “Degrees of Comparison of an adjective or adverb describes the relational value of one thing with something in another clause of a sentence.
8 According to Martin Parrot in Grammar for English Language Teachers
(e.g. bigger, richer, faster) and superlatives are adjectives adverbs that end in “The degrees of comparison are known as the positive, the comparative, and the superlative. (Actually, only the comparative and superlative showdegrees.) We use the comparative for comparing two things and the superlative for comparing three or more things.” a process of comparing people, things, or places through the level of quality, quantity, or relation.
b. Kinds and the Usage of Degrees of Comparison
There are three kinds of adjective comparison; they are positive, comparative and superlative.1) PositivePositive degree is the most basic form of the adjective, positive because it does not relate to any superior or inferior qualities of other things. On the other hand, we can use as + adjective + as for comparing two persons orthings that have the similarity of quality or quantity.
Van Ek, A Handbook of English Grammar, (London:th 3)Superlative Superlative degree is used to stress the highest degree of quality for more than two objects compared. For example: Bob is the tallest boy in the club. These bags are the most expensive of all.
c. The Form of Adjective Comparison
Moreover, to form the degrees of comparison ofadjective, we need to know the inflection or addition ways of adjective. As the writer stated before, that the comparison is used in this form is about adjective comparison.
17 Mark Foley & Diane Halla, Advanced
Learners’ Grammar. Self –Study Reference and 18 Less is the antonym of more and least is the antonym of most.
b) There are irregular adjectives for comparative and superlative degreeThe lists of the irregular adjective for comparative and superlative degree showed in the table 2.7 below: Table 2.7 19 Irregular Forms of ComparisonPositive form Comparative form Superlative form good better best well (adjective)bad worse worst badlymany more most muchlittle less least old elder (preferably used in family) eldest (for person)old older oldest (for things or person) far farther farthest (of distance only)18 further furthest (used more widely)19 http: //www. Esldesk.com/grammar/adjectives
A. J. Thomson and V. Martinet, A Practical English Grammar, (New York: Oxford
With a few two-syllable adjectives, both kinds of comparative and superlative are possible. From the statement above, table 2.8 shows the list of the adjectives with two syllables both comparative and superlative that formed by adding prefix more/ most and suffix –er/-est.
20 Michael Swan, Practical English Usage, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980), p144.
CHAPTER II I RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the research methodology used in this study. It
The Purpose of the Study This study is aimed at analyzing the students’ mastery of degrees ofcomparison at the eighth grade students of SMPN 3 Tangerang Selatan and also describing what are the causes that students (VIII.10) of SMPN 3 TangerangSelatan find difficulties in mastering degrees of comparison. And the rest of 6 items are the usage of comparative and superlative degrees which consist of 3 items for the usage of comparative and 3 items for usage ofsuperlative degree, those items are filling the blanks test.
F. The Technique of Data Analysis
The technique of data analysis that is used by the writer in this research is descriptive analysis technique (percentage), which is described in the table ofpercentage. After getting the freque ncy and percentage of students’ mastery ofcomparison of degree, the writer used formula: F P = -------- X 100 % N x n Note: P = Percentage.
1 Anas Sudjiono, Pengantar Statistic Pendidikan, (Jakarta: PT Grafindo Persada, 2005), p. 43
CHAPTER IV DATA DESCRIPTION, DATA ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION This chapter presents and discusses the finding of the research based on
A. Data Description
As the writer has stated that the purpose of this “Skripsi” is to find out what are the causes or the factors that students (Class VIII. 10) of SMP N 3Tangerang Selatan find the difficulties in mastering degrees of comparison. And the rest of 6 items are the usage of comparative and superlative degrees which consist of 3 Table 4.1 The Students’ Score of Test Result 1 4 6 5 16.
B. Data Analysis
78 % 5 The data analysis of the difficulty frequency of form and usage of degrees of comparison are listed in the table below:a. The form of comparative degree 3 3 7.89 % 3 2 8 21.05 % 2 1 8 21.05 % 1 No Item Number Frequency of Mastery Percentage To find out the whole average used the following formula: Table 4.2 General Frequency of Students’ Mastery in Comparative Form 4 3800 P =228 P = 16, 666 %The table shows that 16, 66 % students who got the mastery in the form of comparative degree.
77 P = x 100 %
In the superlative type of adding article the there are nine (23.68%) students who had the mastery for the item number 8, seven (18.42 %) students who had the mastery for the item number 9, twenty one (55.26 %) students whohad the mastery for the item number 10 and eighteen (47.36 %) students who had the mastery for the item number 12. 6 General Frequency of Studen ts’ Mastery in the Usage of Degrees of Comparison (Comparative and Superlative) 4 Superlative 15 19 50 % 3 Superlative 14 23 60.52 % 2 Superlative 13 2 5.26 % 1 Comparative No Degrees of Comparison Item Number Frequency of Mastery Percentage To find out of the whole average used the following formula: P =228 Table 4.
1. Bagaimana pendapatmu tentang degrees of comparison? 2
Apa penyebabnya kamu sulit memahami dan menguasai degrees of comparison? Saya kurang mengerti materi tentang degrees of comparison.
The result of analysis shows that42.105 % of students had the mastery to differentiate the usage of both comparative and superlative degree, 16.66 % of students had the mastery in theitems of comparative form, and 33.77 % of students had the mastery in the items of the superlative form. Based on the result of interview, the most common of students’ reasons of the low mastery in degrees of comparison is that they confused which word thatmust be added by the prefix more or most and also the suffix -er or -st/-est.
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. Conclusion Based on the result/finding and interpretation, it can be concluded that:
Moreover, based on the data analysis shows there are 16.66 % students who had the mastery in the items of comparative form, 33.77 % students who hadthe mastery in the items of the superlative form and 42.105 % students who had the mastery in the items of the usage of both comparative and superlative degree. Therefore, it can be concluded that the second grade students of SMPN 3 Tangerang Selatan had low mastery of degrees of comparison.
The teacher should be more creative and innovative in making it clear about the form and the usage of degrees of comparison to the students. The teacher issupposed to give the students fun assignments related to degrees of comparison in order to make the students more interesting in degrees ofcomparison.
2. The students need more practices and exercises about degrees of comparison whether its form or the usage of each degree of comparison
and Wallen, Norman E., How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education, 5th ed., New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003. Harmer, Jeremy, How to Teach English: An Introduction to the Practice Of English Language Teaching, Cambridge: Longman, 1998.